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************************************************************************
* Simple High Voltage Generator *
* Low Voltage DC In, up to 30 KV Out *
* *
*
* Comments or suggestions to: sam@stdavids.marconimed.com *
* *
************************************************************************

Introduction:
------------

The basic circuit described in this document is capable of generating up to


30 kilovolts or more from a low voltage DC source using the flyback (LOPT)
transformer salvaged from a B/W or color TV or computer monitor. Typical
output with a 12 VDC 2 A power supply or battery will be 12,000 V. Maximum
output current at full voltage is typically around 1 to 2 mA. Higher currents
are available but the output voltage will drop. At 2 KV, more than 10 mA may
be possible depending on your particular flyback transformer input voltage
and current.

As you can see from the schematic below, it doesn't get much simpler than this!

+Vcc Q1 +----------------+ |:|


o | )|:|
| B |/ C )|:|
| +------| 2N3055 )|:|
| | |\ E 5 T )|:| +------|>|----------o +HV
| | | )|:|( HV Diode, usually
| | -_- )|:|( built in.
| | )|:|(
+--|-------------------------+ |:|(
| | Q2 _-_ )|:|(
| | | )|:|( Secondary (HV) winding,
| | B |/ E 5 T )|:|( intact.
| | ----| 2N3055 )|:|(
| | | |\ C )|:|(
| | | | )|:|(
| | | +----------------+ |:|(
| | | |:|(
| | -----------------------+ |:| +------------------o -HV
| | 2 T )|:|
| | +---------+ |:|
| | | 2 T )|:| T1 - Flyback transformer from B/W or
| +-------------------------+ |:| color TV or computer monitor.
| |
| R1 | R2
+----------/\/\/\--+--/\/\/\--+
110 27 _|_
5 W 5 W -
This design is derived from a circuit found in: "Build your own working
Fiberoptic, Infrared, and Laser Space-Age Projects", Robert E. Iannini,
TAB books, 1987, ISBN 0-8306-2724-3.

Construction:
------------

CAUTION: See the document: "Safety Guidelines for High Voltage and/or Line
Powered Equipment" before firing up this circuit!

Read the following in its entirety!

1. Obtain flyback transformer with known good HV secondary winding. primary


may be left intact if it is known to be in good condition - non shorted.
A flyback removed due to failure may be used if it was the primary that
failed and the primary turns can be removed without damaging the HV
secondary or losing the secondary return connection! Flybacks fail
in both ways (primary and secondary).

2. Locate the return for the high voltage winding. This may be a different
color wire than the low voltage winding or may exit from the potted part
of the flyback in a different place. It is not possible to use an
ohmmeter to locate the return for the high voltage winding if your
flyback has a built-in HV rectifier or multiplier as the forward voltage
drop of the rectifier diodes is much greater than the battery voltage
used in your multimeter. However, a winding connection that has
infinite resistance to every other terminal is likely to be the HV
return. On flybacks with no HV rectifier or multiplier, the return
is easily located by measuring resistance between the HV output and all
other terminals. The HV winding will have a resistance of 100s-1000s
of ohms compared to single digit readings or less for all the other
windings.

3. Wind 10 turn center tapped drive winding and 4 turn centertapped feedback
winding using #16 to 20 gauge insulated wire. Make sure both halves of each
coil are wound in same direction. Connect centertap in each case at the
winding - do not bring out a loop. Insulate well with electrical tape.

4. Vcc should typically be in the range 12 to 24 volts at a couple of amps.


Circuit should start oscillating at around a Vcc of 5 V or so. If you do
not get any HV out, interchange the connections to the transistor bases.
Heat sinks are advised for the transistors. Be aware of the capability of
your flyback (B/W monitors up to 15 KV, color up to 30 KV). You risk
destroying the secondary windings and/or HV rectifier if you get carried
away. Running this on 24 volts will probably cause an internal arc-over
in a small flyback, at which point you start over with more caution and a
new flyback.

5. Actual output will depend on turns ratio of the flyback you have.

* For a typical small B/W TV, monochrome computer monitor, or video display
terminal, you should be able to get around 12,000 volts with 12 VDC input.

I built one from a dead Mac-Plus flyback from which I removed the (dead)
primary windings.

* With a large color TV or color monitor flyback, 30,000 V or more will be


possible using a 24 VDC power supply.

6. The frequency of operation will be in the KHz to 10s of KHz range depending
on Vcc, load, and specific flyback characteristics.

7. You can experiment with the number of turns, resistor values, etc. to
optimize operation and power output for your needs.

8. CAUTION: contact with output will be painful, though probably not


particularly dangerous due to low (a few mA) current availability.

HOWEVER, if you add a high voltage capacitor to store the charge,


don't even think about going near the HV!

Inverter parts list (excluding low voltage power supply):


--------------------------------------------------------

None of the component values are critical. It is quite likely that everything
needed is already patiently waiting in your junkbox. If not, except for the
flyback, most if not all of the parts should be available from Radio Shack.
See the section: "Low voltage power supply" for a simple design to use with
this inverter.

Some experimenting with different value resistors and even the number of turns
on each winding may improve performance for your particular flyback.

Q1, Q2 - 2N3055 or similar NPN power transistors (reverse polarity of Vcc if


using PNP transistors.) Maximum stress on transistors are about 2
to 3 times VCC. Heat sinks will be needed for continuous operation.

R1 - 110 ohms, 2 W resistor (5 W for Vcc of 24 V). This provides base


current to get circuit started.

R2 - 27 ohms, 5W resistor. This provides return path for base feedback


during operation.

T1 - Flyback transformer from/for B/W TV, video display terminal, color


TV, computer monitor, etc., modified according to text above.

Most modern flybacks include built-in HV rectifier diode(s) and/or


voltage multiplier (tripler) so output without additional components
will be high voltage positive or somewhat smoothed HV DC.

Note: this kind of flyback transformer drives the CRT directly and
uses its glass envelope as the main high voltage filter capacitor.
(A foot square piece of 1/8 inch Plexiglas with Aluminum foil plates
makes a filter capacitor.)

Wire - a couple of feet of #16-#20 hookup wire, magnet wire, or any other
insulated wire for home made primaries. Use electrical tape to
fix windings to core. Wind feedback winding on top of drive winding.

Low voltage power supply:


------------------------

The power supply (12 to 24 V) doesn't need to be anything fancy. Regulation


is not needed so a simple power transformer-bridge rectifier-filter capacitor
design will be fine. The circuit described below will provide about 15 VDC at
up to 3 A. Unless you are going for maximum output, this should be adequate.

During initial testing at least, a Variac on the input (or variable voltage
power supply) is highly desirable to avoid blowing anything should your wiring
or parts not be quite right and to gain a feel for the capabilities of your
circuit before it is too late! If neither of these is available, use a 10 ohm
25 W power resistor or 100 W light bulb in series with the load (inverter) to
limit current to a safe value - one that won't fry too many things too quickly.

A typical circuit is shown below:

_ T1
H o-----o/ o---- _------+ 5 A diodes
S1 Power F1 Fuse )|| or bridge
1 A )|| +---------+----|>|-------+-------+-----o +Vcc
)||( ~| D1 |+ |
)||( +----|<|----+ | +_|_ C1
115 VAC )||( 12 VAC D2 | | ___ 20,000 uF
)||( +----|>|----|--+ - | 25 V
)||( | D3 | |
)|| +---------+----|<|----+----------+--+--o Gnd
)|| ~ D4 - _|_
N o---------------------+ -

Low voltage power supply parts list:


-----------------------------------

All of these are readily available.

T1 - 12 V, 3 A power transformer.
S1 - SPST toggle switch.
F1 - Fuse, 1 A.
D1-4 - Silicon rectifier diodes, 5 A minimum. Or, 5 A bridge rectifier.
C1 - Electrolytic filter capacitor, 20,000 uF or more, 25 V minimum.

Typical flyback schematic:


-------------------------

This diagram shows a typical flyback that might be found in a direct


view color television or computer monitor. Resistances are included for
illustrative purposes only and may be quite different on your flyback!

The high voltage section on the right may actually be constructed as a


voltage multiplier rather than a single winding with multiple HV diodes.
The rectifiers or multiplier, and/or focus/screen divider may be external
to the flyback transformer in some models.

Flyback transformers used in black-and-white TVs and monochrome computer


monitors do not have a focus and screen divider network.

The ferrite core of a flyback transformer is constructed with a precision


gap usually formed by some plastic spacers or pieces of tape. Don't lose
them if you need to disassemble the core. The ferrite core is also
relatively fragile, so take care.
The focus and screen divider network uses potentiometers and resistors
(not shown) with values in the 10s to 100s of M ohms so they may not
register at all on your multimeter. The high voltage rectifiers (CR1
to CR3 on this diagram) are composed of many silicon diodes in series
and will read open on a typical VOM or DMM.

Note that there is no standardization to the color code. However, the fat
wire to the CRT is most often red but could also be black. Of course, you
cannot miss it with the suction cup-like insulator at the CRT anode end.

|:| +--|>|-----------o HV to CRT


_ 1 |:|( CR1 (25 to 30 KV,
| B+ o-------------+ |:|( suction cup on
Drive | )|:|( fat red wire)
winding < )|:| +-------+
| 1.32 )|:| |
| 2 )|:| +--|>|--+
|_ HOT o-------------+ |:|( CR2
_ 3 |:|(
| 50 o-------------+ |:|(
| )|:| +-------+
| .11 4 )|:| |
| 35 o-------------+ |:| +--|>|--+
Various | )|:|( CR3 |
auxiliary < .28 )|:|( /
windings | 5 )|:|( \<-------o Focus
| 16 o-------------+ |:|( / (3 to 10 KV,
| )|:|( \ orange wire)
| .12 6 )|:|( |
|_ 0 o----------+--+ |:|( 9 |
_ | 7 |:| +--+ /
| H1 o----------)--+ |:| | \<-------o Screen
CRT Heater < .08 | 8 )|:| | / (200 to 800 V,
|_ H2 o----------+--+ |:| | \ brown wire)
| |:| | |
| |:| +----|--------o To CRT DAG
| | ground
+----------------+

-- end V1.20 --

Understanding Flyback Transformer Pinout The Easy Way



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˜ersion 1.58 (19-Nov-06)


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Reproduction of this document in whole or in part is permitted if both of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. This notice is included in its entirety at the beginning.


2. There is no charge except to cover the costs of copying.

Table of Contents
a @reface
o uthor and Copyright
o i CL R
a ntroduction
o cope of This iocument
a afe Troubleshooting of Flyback Transformers
a Flyback (LO@T) Transformers
o ãhat ioes the Flyback (LO@T) Transformer io?
o ¢ow is a Flyback Transformer iifferent than a Regular Transformer?
o The Origin of the Term, 'Flyback'
o  Little ¢istory
o ãhy is the ieflection and ¢igh Voltage Combined?
o Flyback Construction
o ãhy You ion't ãant to Fabricate Your Own Flyback or Rebuild a Bad One
a Flyback Failure and Testing
o ãhy io Flyback Transformers Fail?
o ¢ow io Flyback Transformers Fail?
a Basic Testing
o nitial Tests Using Your enses and @erhaps a ultimeter
o The @rocess of limination
a dvanced Testing
o ãhen the Basic Tests ion't Reveal nything
o ethod 1
o ethod 2
] dentifying the ¢igh Voltage Return on a Flyback
] ethod 2 Testing @rocedure
o Other Flyback Testing @rocedures and Comments
a dditional Flyback Testing and ervice nformation
o Flyback Testing uipment
o Öuickie n-Circuit Flyback Tests
o Testing for Bad ¢igh Voltage iiodes
o ãhy io ll Flyback Transformers eem to be Uniue?
o Typical Flyback chematic
o Replacement Flyback Transformers
o Cheap flybacks - Beware

a Back to Flyback Testing Table of Contents.

Preface
*$ ( 
uthor: amuel . Goldwasser

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ãe will not be responsible for damage to euipment, your ego, blown parts, county wide power outages, spontaneously
generated mini (or larger) black holes, planetary disruptions, or personal injury that may result from the use of this
material.

a Back to Flyback Testing Table of Contents.

Äntroduction
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ãhen problems develop in the horizontal deflection/high voltage subsystems of TVs or monitors (or even modern
oscilloscopes and other CRT displays), the flyback transformer (or line output transformer for those on the other side of
the Lake) is often a suspected cause. This is due in part to the fact that it is usually the most expensive and hard to find
replacement part in the unit and because flybacks are often less well understood than other more common
components.

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a Back to Flyback Testing Table of Contents.

ðafe Troubleshooting of Flyback Transformers


ãRN NG: Read, understand, and follow the recommendations in the document: afety Guidelines for ¢igh Voltage
and/or Line @owered uipment before attempting any TV or monitor repairs.

+  
 
   


 
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a Unplug the euipment!!!


a easure the voltage on B+ feed to the flyback and discharge the main filter capacitors if necessary.
a f going near the ¢V output, focus, or screen connections, discharge the CRT capacitance as well.

For specific information on safety for your euipment, see the documents: Notes on the Troubleshooting and Repair of
Computer and Video onitors or Notes on the Troubleshooting and Repair of Television ets as appropriate.

a Back to Flyback Testing Table of Contents.

Flyback (LOPT) Transformers


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The typical flyback or Line Out@ut Transformer (LO@T) consists of two parts (you may also encount the term ¢VT -
ntegrated ¢igh Voltage Transformer):

1.  special transformer which in conjunction with the horizontal output transistor/deflection circuits boosts the
B+ (120 V typical for a TV) of the low voltage power supply to the 20 to 30 kV for the CRT as well as provides
various secondary lower voltages for other circuits.

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2.  voltage divider that provides the focus and screen supplies. The pots are in this divider network - and these
things fail resulting in poor focus, uncontrolled brightness, or fluctuating focus and/or brightness.  total short
could also result in failure of other components like the horizontal output transistor. The focus and screen are
generally the top and bottom knobs, respectively. n some TVs, the focus and screen divider and/or controls are
external to the flyback and susceptible to dust and problems particularly on damp days.
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ãhile the following is not always strictly true for TV and monitor flyback transformers, it is a nice overview:

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1. The main difference between a flyback transformer and a regular transformer is that a flyback transformer is
designed to store energy in its magnetic circuit, i.e., it functions like a pure inductor, whereas a regular
transformer is designed to transfer energy from its primary to secondary and to minimize stored energy.
2.  flyback transformer in its simplest form has current flowing either in its primary, or in its secondary (but not
both at the same time). (This is more complicated in practice because of finite turn-off times for transistors and
diodes, need for snubber circuits, etc).
3. The reluctance of the magnetic circuit of a flyback transformer is usually much higher than that of a regular
transformer. This is because of a carefully calculated air-gap for storing energy (it's an inductor).
4. The voltages applied to a flyback transformer on the primary side are almost always rectangular (pulsed)
whereas regular transformers usually have sinusoidal voltages applied to them.
5. The currents flowing through either side of a flyback transformer are either increasing or decreasing linear
sawtooths, whereas a regular transformer usually has sinusoidal currents.
6. Finally, due to the properties of core materials, flyback transformers are most conveniently operated in the
range from 10^3 to 10^6 ¢z, whereas regular transformers have a much wider range, from a few ¢z to 10^12
¢z.

may have succeeded in confusing you beyond redemption, so the best recourse for you would be to read any
introductory textbook on switching power supplies for a more comprehensive picture.

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n the U.. (possibly all of North merica), the transformer that generates the high voltage in a TV, monitor, or other CRT
based euipment, is called the 'flyback' or 'flyback transformer'. ost everywhere else in the world, it is either LO@T
(Line Out@ut Transformer) or simply LOT, or as noted ¢VT - ntegrated ¢igh Voltage Transformer (which is actually the
most accurate term for modern units).

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o, how far back does the use of a flyback based high voltage go?

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One of the main reasons that TVs and many monitors are designed with horizontal deflection driven flybacks is simply
economics - it provides a cheap way to get the high voltage and many or most of the other voltages for the set with
minimal hardware. (¢igh uality computer monitors sometimes use a separate high voltage supply so that the horizontal
deflection is then used just for deflection to reduce interactions between changing scan rates and the ¢V.)  side benefit
is that if the horizontal deflection dies, the ¢V power supply voltage goe with it and prevents the CRT phosphors from
burning do to undeflected high intensity beam.

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ãhile details can vary somewhat, all flybacks consist of a set of windings on a gapped ferrite core. ¢igh voltage diodes
and resistive dividers (often with adjustment pots) for focus and screen (G2) may also be present.

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a irive winding - for a line powered TV, there will be perhaps a hundred turns of medium gauge (e.g., ãG #26)
wire. For low voltage powered, it may only be a dozen turns of thicker wire. This is what is connected in series
with the B+ to the horizontal output transistor in a TV or monitor.
a ¢igh voltage winding - several thousand turns. This winding may be split into several series sections with a high
voltage rectifier for each or could be a single winding. n alternative is provide a lower voltage winding and use
a voltage multiplier (diode-capacitor ladder) to boost this to that reuired by the CRT. Very fine wire (e.g., ãG
#40) will be used for the high voltage winding. The high voltage lead to the CRT is fed from the highest voltage
output of the rectifier or multiplier.
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a Resistive divider network for focus and screen (G2). This will probably be fed from only one of the series
connected windings (if used). Often, there are adjustments for focus and screen right on the flyback. The
outputs from this divider may be connected to pins in the base of the flyback or have their own separate leads
which connect to the CRT socket/board.
a uxiliary windings - anywhere from a couple of turns (for the CRT filament) to several hundred turns (for a boost
source). These supply various voltages for the typical TV or monitor - CRT filament, logic power, analog power,
boost source (where the flyback does not include its own screen supply), etc. The gauge of these windings will
depend on the current reuirements of each output. They are connected to solder pins at the base of the
flyback.
a Ferrite core - consisting of two C shaped pieces clamped together with either a spring arrangement or studs and
nuts. There will be a gap of a fraction of a mm provided by a set of spacers between the two C sections.

ost modern flybacks have all the windings on the same leg of the core. The drive winding and auxiliary windings will be
wound and separately insulated under the high voltage winding. The high voltage winding will consist of many layers
which have insulating material (i.e., mylar) between them.

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_ _
\/ _/\_
B+ ------+ +----|>|-----+---o +V1 B+ ------+ +----|>|-----+---o +HV
o )::( o Scan | o )::( Flyback |
)::( Rectifier _|_ )::( Rectifier _|_
)::( --- )::( ---
)::( | )::( |
_/\_ )::( | _/\_ )::( o |
HOT ------+ +------------+ HOT ------+ +------------+
_|_ _|_
- -

¢ere, V1 is just a typical example of an auxiliary supply derived from a scan rectifier and ¢V is the best known example
of the use of a flyback rectifier.

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ttempt to disassemble a flyback and you will understand why don't recommend this unless the entire future of the
explored *and* unexplored universe depends on the effort! You need specialized euipment to just wind the high
voltage coil.

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a Back to Flyback Testing Table of Contents.

Flyback Failure and Testing


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ãhile flyback transformers can on occasion be blown due to a failure elsewhere in the TV or monitor's power supply or
deflection circuits, in most cases, they simply expire on their own. ãhy?

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Flybacks fail in several ways:
1. Overheating leading to cracks in the plastic and external arcing. f there is no major damage to the windings,
repair may be possible. ¢owever, arcing from the windings punctures their very thin insulation so that shorted
windings may already have developed. ven if the windings are currently in good condition, long term reliability
of any such repairs is uestionable.

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2. Cracked or otherwise damaged core will effect the flyback characteristics to the point where it may not work
correctly or even blow the horizontal output transistor and other expensive parts like the low voltage regulator
or switchmode power supply. f the core can be reconstructed so that no gaps (other than the reuired ones
where the two halves join) are present and clamped and/or glued in place, it should be possible to perform
testing without undue risk of circuit damage but consider a replacement flyback as a long term solution.
3. nternal shorts in the FOCU/CRN divider network, if present. One sign of this may be arcover of the FOCU
or CRN spark gaps on the @CB on the neck of the CRT.
4. nternal short circuits in the windings.
5. Open windings.

ore than one of these may apply in any given case. s noted, temporary repair, at least, is sometimes possible for
failures (1) and (2). For failures (3) to (5) replacement is usually the only alternative.

a Back to Flyback Testing Table of Contents.

vasic Testing

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First, perform a careful visual inspection with power off. Look for cracks, bulging or melted plastic, and discoloration.
Look for bad solder connections at the pins of the flyback as well. f the TV or monitor can be powered safely, check for
arcing or corona around the flyback and in its vicinity, or at the sparkgaps or gas tube protectors on the CRT neck board.

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Before attempting the more advanced tests suggested below, there may be ways of being more certain that your flyback
is the problem component. The following assumes that running the TV or monitor with the suspect flyback results in an
excessive load on the low voltage (B+) power supply blowing a fuse (or attempting to blow a fuse - excessively bright
series light bulb). The B+ likely drops from its normal 65 ViC to 140 ViC or more (depending on the actual TV or
monitor and mode) to some low value like 25 ViC when measured on the low voltage power supply side of the flyback
drive winding. (easuring at the ¢OT can result in all sorts of weird readings due to the pulse nature of the waveform
and is not recommended - especially when everything is working properly - 1,500 V pulses!).

a iisconnect all the secondary loads from the suspect flyback including the CRT. Connect only the drive (B+ and
¢OT).

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a Remove the suspect flyback and connect just the ¢OT and B+ to the drive winding of a known good flyback for a
similar size TV or similar type of monitor (as appropriate). t may be close enough to keep the drive circuitry
happy.

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dvanced Testing
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lso see the section: Flyback Testing uipment.

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The following techniue, called a 'ring test', works for flybacks, chopper transformers, motors, mains transformers,
deflection yoke windings, VCR video and other magnetic heads, and other transformers, coils, or inductors.

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1. Connect a high uality capacitor across one winding of the suspect device. ¢ope for a resonant freuency of a
few k¢z. You may need to select the capacitor value for best results. have found that a capacitor in the .001 uF
to 1 uF (non-polarized) will usually be satisfactory.

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2. pply a pulse waveform to the parallel resonant circuit. n 1960, most scopes had a 'sync out' on the timebase
that provided a few 10s of volts at enough current for this.  circuit in "Television" magazine a couple of years
ago used a BU508, a 12 V power supply, and a small oscillator built from a 4011 chip.  function generator or a
555 timer based circuit will also make a satisfactory stimulous. lso see the section: Flyback Testing uipment.
3. Look at the waveform across the resonant circuit with a 'scope.  good unit will give a nicely decaying oscillation,
of at least a few cycles, possibly 10's of cycles. f there is a shorted turn *anywhere* in the device, the
oscillations will be seriously damped, and you'd be lucky to see 2 complete cycles. xperience and/or
comparison with a known good device will tell you what to expect.
4. Scope
5. _ o
6. Pulse or _| |_ | Device under Test
7. function o---------------------+-----------+ +---
8. Generator | )::(
9. High Quality _|_ )::( All other
10. Non-polarized --- ):: +--- windings
11. Capacitor | ):: +--- left open
12. | )::(
13. Ground o---------------------+-----------+ +---
14.
(From: James lliott (jelliott@stlnet.com).)

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+12 Q1 +----------------+
o | )::
| B |/ C ):: <-- Flyback Under Test -->
| +------| 2N3055 )::
| | |\ E 5T ):: +------|>|----------o +HV
| | | ):: ::( HV Diode(s),
| | -_- ):: ::( usually built in.
| | ):: +-----+ ::(
+--|-------------------------+ ::( )::(
| | Q2 _-_ )::( 10T )::(
| | | )::( each )::(
| | B |/ E 5T )::( _ )::(
| | +---| 2N3055 )::( _|_ )::(
| | | |\ C ):: +-- --+ ::(
| | | | ):: Switch ::(
| | | +----------------+ :: ::(
| | | :: ::(
| | -----------------------+ :: +------------------o -HV
| | 2T )::
| | +-----------+ :: (Numerous other windings not shown.)
| | | 2T )::
| +-------------------------+ Note: :: denotes ferrite core.
| |
| R1 | R2
+--------/\/\/\--+--/\/\/\---+
110 27 _|_
2W 5W -

Note: if the circuit does not start oscillating at about 5 volts or less, interchange the two feedback connections to the
transistor bases.

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t is essential that this be correctly connected or else the high voltage *will* find a suitable path to ground - and it may
not do the other circuitry any good!

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a @rocess of elimination - the ¢V return will often be an isolated pin on the flyback not connected to anything
else. Therefore, if you test between all combinations of pins on the flyback (removed from the circuit board) and
find a pin that appears open to all other pins but is connected to a pad on the circuit board, it is uite likely the
¢V return.
a Check all connections on the circuit board and identify those that go to ground. One of these flyback pins will be
the ¢V return. t will do no harm to connect them all to ground during testing.
a Use a 100 ViC or greater power supply and high value resistor, say 100K. Connect the power supply negative
output through this resistor to the ¢V lead on the flyback (suction cup connector):
a
a 100K
a PS- o--------/\/\--------+--------o CRT (suction cup) connector on flyback
a |
a o
a -
a 100 VDC Measure voltage here
a +
a o
a |
a PS+ o---------------------+--------o Probe to pins on base of flyback
a

Check each pin on the base of the flyback with the probe. Touching the return pin will result in the voltage
reading dropping to perhaps 50 or 60 volts. This is the forward voltage drop across the high voltage rectifier
stack inside the flyback. ll other pins will result in it remaining at the supply voltage (except for the ground
connection to the F/G2 divider if it is separate - then it may drop a fraction of a volt). Note that if you cannot
locate the ¢V return, your flyback may indeed be defective; it may have an internal bad connection, open ¢V
rectifier, or burnt out ¢V winding. Or, if other pins drop the voltage, you may have already found shorts in the
flyback!

'   


Once everything is wired and double checked, turn on the juice.

a f the flyback is good, then with the coils connected there will be several kV at its output - enough to create a
small arc (1/8" typical, up to 1/2" for color flybacks).
a The load imposed on the oscillator will be modest (the freuency increases in response to load).

f there are any shorted windings, then there will be no significant ¢V output and the load on the oscillator will increase
dramatically.

a f you get arcing or corona from *under* the flyback - at the pins - either did not locate the correct ¢V return or
there is a short inside resulting in ¢V arcing internally to the low voltage windings.

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¢ere is a ãeb site with some notes on flyback testing procesures:

a Noahtech Testing Flyback Transformers - ¢ow To Test nd ãhen To Replace it

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1. Ring the transformer at the ¢OT primary winding. You don't need fancy signal generators to inject a signal. ven
the 60 ¢z C secondary from a 6 volt filament transformer will work, although you date yourself if you have one
in your shop. (Note: expect that the 6 VC transformer works in this case because the core of the flyback
saturates pretty uickly at this low freuency resulting in sharp edges to produce the ring pulse - would rather
use a 555 timer or pulse generator --- am.)
2. cope any flyback secondary for the little ringing pulse. Observe the number of cycles in the damped pulse.
3. Run a small piece of wire around one post of the ferrite core and short the two ends of the wire together (loop).
4. f the number of damped cycles doesn't reduce dramatically then the transformer already has a *single turn
short* or *worse*. t's bad. There is little change because Ö is already greatly reduced by the existing short in
the failed flyback, even one turn. f it does reduce dramatically, then you've just strongly affected Ö by
introducing your own single turn short, so the flyback is OK. ãhat is "dramatically"? Try out a few known good
and bad ones and find out for yourself. :)

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a Back to Flyback Testing Table of Contents.

dditional Flyback Testing and ðervice Änformation



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encore and others sell test euipment that includes the 'ring test' or similar capabilities built in. For the professional,
these are well worth the expense.

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1. The supply voltage is 12 V as mentioned in the text, not 2 V as shown on the schematic.
2. The peak amplitude given in fig. 3 of 8 V should be after the divider network, not at the transformer itself.
3. There is a capacitor shown from pin 13 (decoupling) which almost certainly should be a bypass to ground, not to
the collector of the drive transistor.

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Note: Larry has 'beta tested' Bob @arker's (of R meter fame) flyback tester described at:
http://www.ozemail.com.au/~bobpar/fbt.htm.

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 single diode failure would be tough to find if it is in series with other diodes (as is typical on larger flybacks) as it would
only be a problem when run near full output. ¢owever, this sort of failure is unlikely.

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(ost of these comments also apply to @ high freuency transformers.)

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This diagram shows a typical flyback that might be found in a direct view color television or computer monitor.
Resistances are included for illustrative purposes only and may be uite different on your flyback!

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+--|>|-----------o HV to CRT
_ 1 ::( CR1 (25 to 30 kV,
| B+ o-------------+ ::( suction cup on
Drive | )::( fat red wire)
winding < ):: +-------+
| 1.32 ):: |
| 2 ):: +--|>|--+
|_ HOT o-------------+ ::( CR2
_ 3 ::(
| 50 o-------------+ ::(
| ):: +-------+
| 4 .11 ):: |
| 35 o-------------+ :: +--|>|--+
Various | )::( CR3 |
auxiliary < .28 )::( /
windings | 5 )::( \<-------o Focus
| 16 o-------------+ ::( / (3 to 10 kV,
| )::( \ orange wire)
| 6 .12 )::( |
|_ 0 o----------+--+ ::( |
_ 7 | :: +--+ /
| H1 o----------|--+ :: | \<-------o Screen
CRT Heater < 8 .08 | ):: | / (200 to 800 V,
|_ H2 o----------+--+ | \ brown wire)
| | | 9
| +----|--------o To CRT DAG
| | ground
+---------------+

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Unfortunately, you cannot walk into Radio hack and expect to locate a flyback for your TV or monitor. t is unlikely the
carrots at the counter will even know what a flyback is or recognize one if it hit them over the head (wherever that
would be on a carrot). They will probably attempt to sell you a 6.3 V power transformer :-). Fortunately, there are other
options:

a Original manufacturer - most reliable source but most expensive. Older models may not be available. This may
be the only option for many TVs and monitors - particularly expensive or less popular models.
a lectronics distributors - a number of places including C lectronics, ialbani, @remium @arts, and Computer
Component ource, sell replacement flybacks. ee the document: Notes on the Troubleshooting and Repair of
Computer and Video onitors for contact info. any of these are actually original parts and are designated as
such. ¢owever, there may be no way of knowing and you may end up with something that isn't uite compatible
(see below). Thus, unless the catalog listing says 'original part', these may be no better than the sources below.

¢   ?


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o Component Technologies, 1-888-FLYBCK or 1-800-878-0540. email: fbtxformer@aol.com.


  
"

o CRC Components, 1-800-822-1272.

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o iata iisplay Ltd, Canadian sub of CC, 1-800-561-9903.


o i (lectro iynamics, nc.) NY, 1-800-426-6423.

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o Linear lectronics, ãalthan, . @hone: 1-617-894-7300, Fax: 1-617-894-8890. (They also have vacuum
tubes.)
a Generic replacements - these are sometimes available. CG, NT, T , ¢R iiemen, for example, offer a line of
replacement flybacks. ome of these sites include a cross reference to their replacement based on TV or
monitor model and/or the part or house number on the flyback:
o NT (NT lectronics, nc)
o CG (@hilips) (now same as NT)
o ¢R (¢R iiemen)
o T (T agnetics)
o Flybacktransformer

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o The number of turns on one or more windings may not uite match your original meaning there will be
lower or higher voltages from certain outputs and/or drive conditions (current, resonance) may be
affected.
o There may even be extra or missing connections - pins on the bottom or flying leads. t is essential to
determine what must be done to make the flyback work in your euipment *before* applying power.
xtra connections may need to be grounded or connected to some other points in the circuit. f this is
not done, operation may not be correct or other parts may blow as current from these unconnected
pins finds its own way to ground.
o The flyback may simply be defective due to bad uality control, part number confusion, or mismarking.
nternal circuitry such as the focus and screen(G2) divider could be improperly wired, configured for a
different model, or omitted entirely. uch defects can be very tough to identify.

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There have been reports of inexpensive replacement flybacks resulting in a variety of strange symptoms. do not know
how likely it is to have problems with these. n most cases, would expect the replacement to drop right in and perform
perfectly. ¢owever, have heard of occasionally difficulties. do not know which, if any, of the companies listed above
sell such incompatible devices. ¢owever, it would be worth checking before buying if possible.

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a Back to Flyback Testing Table of Contents.

 -6
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4   
@rint @iF Favorite Facebook Twitter -mail Flag

by Jimmy @roton

The main problem, in most cases, is that you don't know the pinout diagram of a flyback transformer. o, shall try to
give you a simple method to find the primary coil input pins and also the 0 V output pin of the ¢V secondary coil.
tep 1¢ow to find the 0 V pin connection of the secundary coil?

ãith a common digital ohmeter it is impossible to find the secondary coil pinout because its resistance is much too high.
The main ¢V output is simple to find : this is the big red cable with the suction cup, but you need to find the 0 V pin of
the secondary coil on the flyback transformer. o, give you a simple method to find this 0v pin :

a) You need a 24 V iC power supply and a digital voltmeter set in 20 V range. Connect the + input of your voltmeter to
the T¢T ouput plug ( in the suction cup ) and the (-) to the 0V of your power supply. Then, with the +24V output from
your power supply, test each pin of your flyback transformer. ãhen you measure a voltage between 5 and 10 V you
have found the 0 V pin of your secondary coil. This is very simple... Look at the diagram and the photo below :
« Next
To iownload the @iF or View ll teps,
@revious tep
v    

tep »

Feb 1, 2011. 1:25 RJOON says:

don't forget guys. ac from wall socket will not work. freuency is too low.

iec 28, 2010. 2:27 @trekman says:

The fly back transformer have came from a 19͟ TV. followed the instructions and found the 0 V pin and tested for the
2 primary pins. got very low reading using a 9 volt battery. happened to have a 9 volt /C adaptor but the output was
9 volt /C so used that to find the primary coil pins. The thing is found 2 sets of 2 pins that give me 35.5 and 34.7 volts
output. @ines 9 and 10 also pins 10 and 1 give almost the same output. ãhich 2 should use? This reading is on the /C
scale on my VO. Using a 9 volt battery was only able to get 3 to 4 volt reading.

Thanks for any help.

ðtep 2How to find the pins location of the primary coil?




ãith a simple ohmeter this is very simple, you will find easily the primary inputs because the coil resistance is about 1
ohm

ðtep 3How to find the polarity of the primary coil?

The purpose is to find the polarity of your primary coil. You need a simple 9 V battery. Connect a digital voltmeter set in
100 V range between the main T¢T output and the 0 V pin of the secondary that you have indentified in test #1. ãith
the 9 V battery send a short pulse on the primary input, measure the spike of the voltage, then reverse the polarity of
your 9 V battery. ãhen you get the max voltage ( about a 30 V spike ) you have found the correct polarity of your
primary coil. The (+) is the pin number 2 and the (-) is the pin number 1 in the main diagram.

%*7.*¢ '¢2c*'.#53 8% 5c.#


@rint @iF Favorite Facebook Twitter -mail


n this nstructable you will learn how to make a ¢igh Voltage ¢igh Freuency power supply in 5 minutes and for less
than $20.

ll you need is a compact fluorescent light (CFL) and a flyback transformer.

Flyback transformers are found in TVs and CRT monitors. They make the high voltage, high freuency current necessary
to trace the electron beam across the screen. They are small and compact, and you can take them out from an old
computer monitor or TV.

CFLs are very popular high efficiency fluorescent lights. They are similar to their ancestor the fluorescent light tubes but
use electronic ballasts instead of the big and heavy ballasts in the old technology.

The electronic ballast works by generating high freuency currents that are fed to a tiny high freuency transformer that
boost the voltage and run the fluorescent tube. t is the high freuency that makes the assembly compact.

The electronic ballast generates less than 1000 volts. But by replacing the fluorescent bulb of the CFL with a flyback
transformer, spectacular voltages can be achieved.

Check out my newest instructable:


¢and Cranked Flashlight od plus Joule Thief

ðtep 1ðome Änfo on CFLs

CFLs can come in a variety of shapes and sizes. Generally the bigger the wattage the larger the voltage output. For this
nstructable got a 65 ãatts light bulb.

ost CFLs have a similar circuit topology. ll of them have 4 wires coming out of them. The wires are in pairs, and each
pair connects to a filament inside the light bulb.

The CFLs came across have the high voltage on the outer wires. You only need to connect the outer wires to the
primary coil of the flyback transformer.

You will find a comprehensive description of CFL circuits on this page


%*7.*¢ '¢2c*'.#53 8% 5c.#
@rint @iF Favorite Facebook Twitter -mail Flag

by Biotele

ðtep 2ðome Änfo about Flyback Transformers

Flyback transformers come in all different shapes and sizes. @ick a big one.

The challenge with the flyback transformer is to find 3 pins out of 10 to 20 pins. One pin will be the high voltage ground
the other two pins will be that of the primary coil that will connect to the CFL's electronic board.

f you can get the schematic of the flyback transformer that will save you time. ¢owever you can figure out the pins by
following the instructions here .

i             


        !

%*7.*¢ '¢2c*'.#53 8% 5c.#


by Biotele
ðtep 3The Finished ðetup

This is how the finished high voltage supply looks like.

Remember, this is a iC supply. The output from the thick wire is positive. n TVs and CRTs this high voltage output drives
the negative electrons from the filament to the screen.

f you need C high voltage, you have to remove the built-in diode or find an old flyback transformer that does not have
a built-in diode.

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ðtep 4Troubleshooting


The first time build the circuit, it worked immediately. used a 26 watt CFL.

Then decided to get a bigger CFL and build it exactly like the first circuit. t didn't work. was disappointed. thought
that the CFL electronics were shot.

But when reconnected the fluorescent tube to the four wires, the CFL worked again. realized that this type of CFL
circuit needed to "sense" the filaments in order to operate. Remember, was only using the outer wires and leaving the
two inner wires alone.

o put a resistor across the outer wire and the inner wire. The circuit worked! But within seconds the resistor was in
flames.

o decided to use a capacitor in place of resistor. The capacitor allows C currents but blocks iC while a resistor allow
both C and iC currents to flow through it. lso a capacitor does not heat up because it provides a low resistance path
for C currents.
The capacitor worked great! The arcs produced were very big and thick.

o in summary there two things that can go wrong:

1. You wired it wrong, either on the CFL side or the flyback side.
2. The CFL electronics needs to sense the filament and you can use a capacitor as a substitute.

Use a high voltage rated capacitor. ine was 400V and got it from another CFL circuit.

ãhile troubleshooting, be very careful, you are dealing with very high voltages and high currents.

ãhen soldering, disconnect the circuit from the power outlet.


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ðtep 5Disclaimer

The circuits in this nstructable use very high voltages and currents.

These currents and voltages are deadly! You can easily hurt yourself, as well. Build this circuit at your own risk.

This type of high freuency high voltage current is used in surgical cauterizers. o if you get shocked you will burn
yourself and cut your flesh. There is also a considerable fire hazard from the circuit.

Use the Nikolai Tesla's safety techniues when working with high voltages:

1. Only use one hand (put your other hand on your lap or pocket)
2. ãear insulating shoes
3. Use a dead man stick or insulated pliers when touching or manipulating the circuit.
4. Use a power bar with a thermal fuse rather than sticking the circuit directly in the socket. This will limit the current
that will go through your body.
5. ãhen soldering, disconnect the circuit from the power outlet.

Generally, in electricity it is the the current that kills. if the currents are low there is little danger even if the voltages are
very high (think of Tesla holding the his Tesla coil).

This circuit has high currents which makes it considerably dangerous.

a 65ã CFL can deliver 65m easily (65ã/1000v).

nd if you look at the picture below, at greater than 50m the little guy is dead.

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     .i

 N TL CO L
On my last instructable about my mini Tesla Coil did not do so well because did not know much about them but since
then have learned much more and have batter plans.

¢ow it works: First off the mains goes through a high voltage transformer and charges the capacitor bank. ãhen the
caps are done charging they will let the high voltage from the transformer "pass" through them. iuring that split second
(much to fast for a human to detect) the arc will jump through the spark gap, which is automated with RGTC's, the caps
will discharge into the primary coil. This is where resonance comes in, the fast action of the caps and spark gap rapidly
induces an electromagnetic field around the primary, what many dont know is it starts off as a low voltage that adds up
each time the spark gap fires until it creates extra high voltage

-=This project deals with high voltage that could potentially be lethal, do not touch the streamers unless you know what
your doing=-

-=never operate high voltage euipment before turning it off=-

-= will be some information from my other instructable=-

ðtep 1You will need




1' tall 1/2" diameter @VC pipe or other non conductive cylinder
about 5' of speaker wire, didn't have enough of the thicker gauge wire
8" tall 1" diameter @VC pipe, you can use something a little wider but couldn't find anything
10kV 23m ignition transformer, you can get them on eBay for about $20-$40
15 1kV 0.01uF film capacitors
about 300ft of 32 awg mag wire
some 18 awg solid copper wire to connect everything
2 round headed bolts or "i" screws, try to keep them as smooth as possible
a 10"x4" piece of wood
copper connectors or some 1" bolts with nuts
a drill with various sized bits
a hot glue gun
a soldering iron, with solder

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ay 7, 2011. 7:43 @.Unknown. says:

io you still need RF chokes like the last tesla coil you did?
(http://www.instructables.com/id/ N -TL-CO L/step7/RF-chokes/)

ay 7, 2011. 7:57 @ Jimmy @roton (author) says:

No, you don't even need them in the other one, its better without them.

pr 29, 2011. 4:20 bamin1 says:

¢i. thank you for this instructable. if you want to know the euation you talked about in step 3, then download this
program from this link

http://www.richardsplace.net/files/tccad20.zip

this program is called "Tesla Coil Ci" and its uses to designing tesla coils.
¢ope you like it.
nd have a uestion. did you make it from the first time. mean did it work from the first attempt??

pr 30, 2011. 8:21 @ Jimmy @roton (author) says:

That program did not give an euation, just a calculator.

pr 29, 2011. 4:30 @ Jimmy @roton (author) says:

Thanks, and yes it worked the first time powered it up.

pr 29, 2011. 1:07 @ ncandescence says:

Good job, this is one of the best instructables about Tesla coil have seen.

understand how the primary part work, but i don't get it for the secondary, an end of the coil has to be wired with the
earth (something like a radiator?)?o the circuit is open, why is there a current and how can it produce an arc?

'd like to build one but i'm a little concern about safety, was really surprised when i saw you "touching" the arc, why
doesn't that hurt you? thought ¢V was dangerous.

orry if my english is not correct but it's not my mother tongue.


pr 29, 2011. 4:44 @ Jimmy @roton (author) says:

Thanks!
Grounding is usually only used for larger Tesla Coils like the one 'm working on now but this thing is so small it doesn't
really matter.
ãhen the spark gap fires all the capacitor energy is released into the primary which makes a magnetic field that is
picked up by the secondary. The primary induces more and more voltage each time it fires, it starts out low and builds
up very high each time and if you know much about high voltage it tends to make sparks.
There is very little output current so it wont hurt to touch it like that and you cant hardly feel it (you can a little bit) and
if your not touching anything connected to ground or something else on the Tesla Coil then you'll be fine because it
never leaves your body and even if you were it still probably wouldn't hurt you.

ðtep 2ðpark gap

This is one of the most important part of the whole resonating thing, you could compare it to the heart in the brain, the
brain cant control the hear without blood and the heart can't supply blood without the brain. with the heart being the
spark gap and the brain being the capacitors: the capacitors charge up via the transformer, when they are charged the
spark gap fires and releases its energy into the primary. without the spark gap you would have continuous input into the
primary and without the capacitors all the power would just go straight through the spark gap. o lets make a spark gap.

f your using bolts:


Take two 2"x2" pieces of wood and drill a hole in the middle that can fit the bolts and put a nut on them to secure them
or if the wood can hold them in place then dont worry about the nut. now glue these on the board in front of the inputs,
the capacitors come after, then the primary, then the secondary.

f your using "i" screws:


First drill 2 holes at an angle where ever your going to position your gap, now screw them into the hole and adjust them
until the are at an appropriate length apart .
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ðtep 3Capacitor bank

The amount of capacitance is determined by the input current, 'm not entirely sure how to calculate this but would
be grateful for anyone who could post a comment on what the euation is. Now it just so happens that the amount of
capacitance we need is exactly the capacitance of the capacitors so we dont need to worry about soldering them in
parallel, we just need to do something about the voltage so we only have to solder them in series. ts best to have the
overall voltage of the capacitor bank about 2 or 3 times the about of voltage going in, so-we are using a 10kV 23m
transformer to power it, our capacitors are 1kV 10nF. older all the capacitors in series to increase the voltage to 15kV
and were not going to solder any in parallel because like said, the capacitance is perfect. You may want to put a 10
ohm resistor across the leads to discharge the capacitors after use, you will also need to hot glue the capacitor lead to
keep them from sparking over if you built yours like mine.

-= did not get any pictures on how made this because built it for version 3 which did not make an instructable on=-
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ðtep 4The secondary and primary

secondary:
This will take a lot of time do do but is pretty easy. ll you have to do is wrap the 32 awg wire around the @VC pipe until
there is about an inch of space left on each side and hold in place with tape or do what most people do and cover it in
gloss. The way did mine: put 3 nails into my desk, on one put the role of wire, the other two used to keep tension
on the wire so could use both hands to hold the pipe, it took me about 1/2 an hour to finish.

primary:
fter you have cut your 1" diameter @VC to length grab your speaker wire and wrap it around he pipe. trip the
insulation off one end of the wire, and glue that to the bottom of the pipe. @ut the other end in a vice and pull the wire
tight (not to tight or the glue will come off), turn the pipe until you are all out of wire, the wire spacing should be about
1/2" apart. when you get to the end leave a bit of wire sticking out of the end and glue the insulated part to the pipe,
now glue every turn to the pipe all the way down so it never comes loose.

Glue the secondary onto the end board, drilled a 1" hole before i glued it on for support. now slide the primary over
and glue it to the board after you have centered it.

n that last picture, the shine is the exposed wire but it looks like reflection on the insulation.
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ðtep 5Wire it all up

Connect the ¢V transformer to the C mains, connect the spark gap in parallel with the ¢V output, after that connect
the capacitor bank series and close it off with the primary coil. @ut the secondary coil inside the primary and hook the
bottom wire to ground ( did nothing with it) and add a topload/toroid/torus to increase the voltage and effects of the
sparks.
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