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Gas Gathering

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Gas Gathering

 

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© 2003 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.

EA1031.31.05

06 Gas Gathering.pdf

  • 2 Gas Gathering

Workshop

In this example, a gas gathering system located on varied terrain is simulated using the steady state capabilities of HYSYS. The following figure shows the physical configuration of this system superimposed on a topographic map. The system consists of four wells distributed over an area of approximately 2.0 square km, connected to a gas plant via a network of pipelines.

Figure 1
Figure 1

The gas in this case is varied, both sour and sweet gas are being combined in the pipeline, as well as a gas condensate mixture. A Mixer combines all of the incoming gas streams from the outlying wells into one common header. Flowlines extending from this central site to each of the individual wells are modelled in HYSYS using the Pipe Segment operation. Since the plant is located in an area with mixed terrain, the elevation changes, must be accounted for in the Pipe Segments.

Additional Mixer operations are used to model mixing points where flows from remote wells are combined in common lines.

Gas Gathering

Learning Objectives

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Once you have completed this module, you will be able to use the Pipe Segment in HYSYS to model pipelines.

Prerequisites

Before beginning this module you need to know how to add streams and unit operations.

Process Overview

Pipe Diameters for each of the branches are:

Pipe Branch

Diameter

Branch 1

76.2

mm (3")

Branch 2

101.6

mm (4")

Branch 3

76.2

mm (3")

Branch 4

101.6

mm (4")

Branch 5

76.2

mm (3")

Branch 6

  • 152 mm (6")

Branch 7

  • 152 mm (6")

Schedule 40 steel pipe is used throughout and all branches are buried at a depth of 1 m (3 ft). All pipes are uninsulated.

  • 4 Gas Gathering

Elevation data for each of the branches are provided in the following table. Branches that traverse undulating terrain have been subdivided into a number of segments with elevation points assigned at locations where there is a significant slope change. Such locations in the network are labeled on the schematic diagram with the elevation value in italics.

       

Elevation

Branch

Segment

Length

Elevation

Change

meters (feet)

meters (feet)

meters (feet)

Branch 1

GasWell 1

 
  • 639 (2095)

 

1

  • 150 (2110)

(500)

  • 645 6 (15)

 

2

(410)

  • 125 -6.5 (-21)

636.5 (2089)

 

3

  • 100 (2090)

(325)

  • 637 0.5 (1)

 

Branch 2

GasWell 2

   

614

(2015)

1

  • 200 (2090)

(665)

  • 637 23 (75)

 

Branch 3

GasWell 3

   

635.5

(2085)

1

  • 160 (2125)

(525)

  • 648 12.5 (40)

 

2

  • 100 (2080)

(325)

  • 634 -14 (-45)

 

3

  • 205 (2077)

(670)

  • 633 -1 (-3)

 

Branch 4

Branch 1 & 2

   

637

(2090)

1

  • 355 (2077)

(1165)

  • 633 -4 (-13)

 

Branch 5

GasWell 4

   

632.5

(2075)

1

  • 180 (2050)

(590)

  • 625 -7.5 (-25)

 

2

  • 165 (2025)

(540)

  • 617 -8 (-25)

 

Branch 6

Branch 3 & 4

   

633

(2077)

1

  • 300 (2025)

(985)

  • 617 -16 (-52)

 

Branch 7

Branch 5 & 6

   

617

(2025)

1

  • 340 (1980)

(1115)

  • 604 -13 (-45)

 
Process Overview
Process Overview
  • 6 Gas Gathering

Building the Simulation

The gas field will be modelled using the Peng Robinson property package. The fluid package needs to contain the components from the Getting Started module as well as the oil components from the Gas Chromatograph module.

Rather than adding the components and the oil again, open the case from the Oil Characterization module (containing the four Gas Well streams).

6 Gas Gathering Building the Simulation The gas field will be modelled using the Peng Robinson

If you are using Field units, the oil components will have different names, corresponding to the different NBP.

The following components should appear in the fluid package, N 2 , H 2 S, CO 2 , C 1 , C 2 , C 3 , i-C 4 , n-C 4 , i-C 5 , n-C 5 , C 6 , C 7 +*, H 2 0, NBP[0]92*, NBP[0]171*, NBP[0]243*, NBP[0]322*, NBP[0]432*.

The four streams should have the following values:

 

GasWell 1

GasWell 2

GasWell 3

GasWell 4

Temperature °C (°F)

40 (105)

45 (115)

45 (115)

35 (95)

Pressure kPa (psia)

4135 (600)

3450 (500)

<empty>

<empty>

Flow kgmole/h (lbmole/hr)

425 (935)

375 (825)

575 (1270)

545 (1200)

Adding the Pipe Segments

The pipe segment is used to simulate a wide variety of piping situations ranging from single/multiphase plant piping with rigorous heat transfer estimation, to large capacity looped pipeline problems. It offers the common pressure drop correlations developed by Gregory, Aziz, and Mandhane, and Beggs and Brill. A third option, OLGAS, is also available as a gradient method. In addition there are a large number of specialty pressure drop correlations available. Consult the on-line help and the manual for more information on these methods. Four levels of complexity in heat transfer estimation allow you to find a solution as rigorously as required while allowing for quick generalized solutions to well-known problems.

Gas Gathering

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The pipe segment offers three calculation modes: Pressure Drop, Flow, and Length; the appropriate mode will automatically be selected depending on the information supplied. In order to solve the pipe, you must supply enough information to completely define both the material balance and energy balance.

In this simulation, we will be using seven individual pipe segment operations in the gathering system. In addition, each Pipe Operation may contain multiple segments to represent the various elevation rises and drops.

Gas Gathering 7 The pipe segment offers three calculation modes: Pressure Drop, Flow, and Length; the

Pipe Segment icon

Adding the first Pipe Segment

  • 1. Double-click on the Pipe Segment icon.

Connections page

On the Connections page, the Feed, Product and Energy stream connections are made.

  • 2. Complete the Connections page as shown below:

Gas Gathering 7 The pipe segment offers three calculation modes: Pressure Drop, Flow, and Length; the
Figure 2
Figure 2
  • 8 Gas Gathering

Parameters page

On this page, you can select the gradient method which will be used for two-phase (VL) flow calculations. The options are:

8 Gas Gathering Parameters page On this page, you can select the gradient method which will

For single phase streams, the Darcy equation is used for pressure drop predictions.

Aziz, Govier & Fogarasi

Baxendell & Thomas

Beggs & Brill

Duns & Ros

Gregory, Aziz, Mandhane

Hagedorn & Brown

HTFS, Liquid Slip

HTFS, Homogeneous Flow

OLGAS2000_2P

OLGAS2000_3P

Orkiszewski

Poettman & Carpenter

Tacite Hydrodynamic Module

Tulsa99

For all of the pipes in this example, use the Beggs and Brill correlation for two-phase flow.

The pressure drop for the pipe can be supplied on the Parameters page. In this example, it will be left empty and calculated.

Rating tab

Sizing page

On the Sizing page, you construct the length-elevation profile for the Pipe Segment. Each pipe section and fitting is labeled as a segment. To fully define the pipe sections segments, you must also specify pipe schedule, diameters, pipe material and a number of increments.

The first pipe, Branch 1 is broken into three segments.

Gas Gathering

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Add the first segment to the pipe unit operation by clicking the Append Segment button. Specify the following information for the
segment.

3.

Horizontal pipe sections have an Elevation of 0. Positive elevation indicates that the outlet is higher than the inlet.

In this cell ...

Enter ...

Fitting/Pipe

Pipe

Length

150 m (500 ft)

Elevation Change

6 m (15 ft)

  • To specify the diameter, click the View Segment button.

4.

5.

Select Schedule 40 as the Pipe Schedule.

HYSYS contains a database for three pipe schedules, 40, 80 and 160.

6.

From the Available Nominal Diameters group, select 76.20 mm (3 inch) diameter pipe and click the Specify button. The Outer and Inner Diameter will be calculated by HYSYS.

7.

Use the default Pipe Material, Mild Steel and the default Roughness, 4.572e-5 m (0.0018 inch).

8.

Two more segments are needed to complete the branch.

In this cell ...

Enter ...

Enter ...

Segment

2

3

Fitting/Pipe

Pipe

Pipe

Length

125 m (410 ft)

100 m (325 ft)

Elevation

-6.5 m (-21 ft)

0.5 m (1 ft)

Schedule

40

40

Nominal Diameter

76.2 mm (3 inch)

76.2 mm (3 inch)

  • 10 Gas Gathering

When all three segments have been added and defined, the view should look like this:

Figure 3
Figure 3

The Pipe Segment is not yet able to solve because we have not specified any information about the heat transfer properties of the pipe.

Heat Transfer page

On this page, you select the method that HYSYS will use for the heat transfer calculations.

You have the option of specifying the heat transfer information By Segment or Overall.

By Segment. You specify the Ambient Temperature and HTC (Heat Transfer Coefficient) for each segment that was created on the Dimensions page.

Overall. One of four heat transfer methods will be applied to the whole pipe segment.

Duty Method. If the Overall heat duty of the segment is known, the energy balance can be calculated immediately. Each increment is assumed to have the same heat loss.

Stream Temperatures. If both inlet and outlet and ambient temperatures are specified, a linear profile is assumed and the overall heat duty can be calculated.

Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient Specified. If the overall HTC and Ambient Temperature are known, then rigorous heat transfer calculations are performed on each increment of the pipe.

Gas Gathering

11

Heat Transfer Coefficient Estimation. The overall HTC can be found from its component parts.

Inside Film Convection

Outside Conduction/Convection

Conduction through Insulation

For all pipes in this simulation, use the Estimate HTC method.

  • 9. Switch to the Overall HTC radio button, and enter an Ambient Temperature of 5°C (40°F)

    • 10. Switch to the Estimate HTC page, and complete it as follows:

Gas Gathering 11 • Heat Transfer Coefficient Estimation . The overall HTC can be found from
Figure 4
Figure 4

What is the outlet pressure of Branch 1? _______________________________

  • 12 Gas Gathering

Completing the Simulation

Now add the remaining unit operations to your case.

  • 1. Add two Pipe Segments with the following values:

12 Gas Gathering Completing the Simulation Now add the remaining unit operations to your case. 1.

Remember for all pipes in this example, use Schedule 40, an Ambient Temperature of 5°C and do not estimate the HTC for Insulation.

12 Gas Gathering Completing the Simulation Now add the remaining unit operations to your case. 1.

In this cell ...

Enter ...

Connections

Name

 

Branch 2

Inlet

 

GasWell 2

Outlet

B2 Out

Energy

B2-Q

Dimensions

Segment 1

Length

200

m (655 ft)

Elevation

23 m (75 ft)

Nominal Diameter

101.6 mm (4 in) Schedule 40

Heat Transfer

 

Estimate the Inner, Outer and Pipe Wall HTC

5° Ambient temperature

 

In this cell ...

Enter ...

Connections

Name

 

Branch 3

Inlet

 

GasWell 3

Outlet

B3 Out

Energy

B3-Q

Dimensions

Segment 1

Length

160

m (525 ft)

Elevation

12.5

m (40 ft)

Nominal Diameter

76.2

mm (3 in)

Segment 2

Length

100

m (325 ft)

Elevation

-14 m (-45 ft)

Nominal Diameter

76.2

mm (3 in)

Segment 3

Gas Gathering 13 In this cell ... Enter ... Length 205 m (670 ft) Elevation -1
Gas Gathering 13 In this cell ... Enter ... Length 205 m (670 ft) Elevation -1
Gas Gathering 13 In this cell ... Enter ... Length 205 m (670 ft) Elevation -1
Gas Gathering 13 In this cell ... Enter ... Length 205 m (670 ft) Elevation -1
 

Gas Gathering

13

In this cell ...

Enter ...

Length

205

m (670 ft)

Elevation

 

-1 m (-3 ft)

Nominal Diameter

76.2 mm (3 in)

Heat Transfer

 

Estimate the Inner, Outer and Pipe Wall HTC

2.

Add a Mixer with the following information:

In this cell ...

Enter ...

Connections

Name

 

Junction 1

Inlets

B1 Out, B2 Out

Outlet

J1 Out

Parameters

Pressure Assignment

Set Outlet to Lowest Inlet

3.

Add two Pipe Segments to your case with the values provided in the following tables.

In this cell ...

Enter ...

 

Connections

Name

 

Branch 4

Inlet

J1 Out

Outlet

B4 Out

Energy

B4-Q

Dimensions

Segment 1

Length

355

m (1165 ft)

Elevation

-4 m (-13 ft)

Nominal Diameter

101.6 mm (4 in)

Heat Transfer

 

Estimate the Inner, Outer and Pipe Wall HTC

 

In this cell ...

Enter ...

 

Connections

Name

 

Branch 5

Inlet

 

GasWell 4

14

Gas Gathering

In this cell ...

Enter ...

Outlet

B5 Out

Energy

B5-Q

Dimensions

Segment 1

Length

180

m (590 ft)

Elevation

-7.5 m (-25 ft)

Nominal Diameter

76.2

mm (3 in)

Segment 2

Length

165

m (540 ft)

Elevation

-8 m (-25 ft)

Nominal Diameter

76.2

mm (3 in)

Heat Transfer

 

Estimate the Inner, Outer and Pipe Wall HTC

14 Gas Gathering In this cell ... Enter ... Outlet B5 Out Energy B5-Q Dimensions Segment
14 Gas Gathering In this cell ... Enter ... Outlet B5 Out Energy B5-Q Dimensions Segment

4.

Add a second Mixer to your case.

In this cell ...

Enter ...

 

Connections

 
 

Name

Junction 2

 

Inlets

B3 Out, B4 Out

 

Outlet

J2 Out

Parameters

 

Pressure Assignment

Equalize All

 

What is the pressure of GasWell 3? _____________________________________ How was this calculated? _____________________________________________

5.

Add a Pipe Segment to your case.

In this cell ...

Enter ...

Connections

Name

 

Branch 6

Inlet

J2 Out

Outlet

B6 Out

Energy

B6-Q

Dimensions

Segment 1

Length

300

m (985 ft)

Gas Gathering 15 In this cell ... Enter ... Elevation -16 m (-52 ft) Nominal Diameter
Gas Gathering
15
In this cell
...
Enter
...
Elevation
-16 m (-52 ft)
Nominal Diameter
152.4 mm (6 in)
Heat Transfer
Estimate the Inner, Outer and Pipe
Wall HTC
6.
Add a Mixer to the simulation.
In this cell
...
Enter
...
Connections
Name
Inlets
Outlet
Junction 3
B5 Out, B6 Out
J3 Out
Parameters
Pressure Assignment
Equalize All
What is the pressure of GasWell 4? _____________________________________
How was this calculated? _____________________________________________
7.
Add another Pipe Segment to the simulation with the following
values:
In this cell
...
Enter
...
Connections
Name
Branch 7
Inlet
J3 Out
Outlet
B7 Out
Energy
B7-Q
Dimensions
Segment 1
Length
Elevation
340 m (1115 ft)
-13 m (-45 ft)
Nominal Diameter
152.4 mm (6 in)
Heat Transfer
Estimate the Inner, Outer and Pipe
Wall HTC
Save your case!
  • 16 Gas Gathering

Optional

 

Convert your case to a template and save!

Analyzing the Results

If you saved your case as a template, close the template and open the saved case.

The Profiles page on the Performance tab provides a summary table for the segments which make up the Pipe Segment. The distance, elevation and number of increments are displayed for each segment.

By clicking the View Profile button, you access the Pipe Profile view, which consists of a Table tab and a Plot tab. The Table tab shows the following information for each increment along the Pipe Segment.

Length

Elevation

Pressure

Temperature

Heat Transferred

Flow Regime

Liquid Holdup

Friction Gradient

Static Gradient

Accel Gradient

Bulk Liquid and Vapour Reynolds Number

Bulk Liquid and Vapour Velocity

The Plot tab graphically displays the profile data that is listed on the Table tab.

Gas Gathering

17

Open the property view for Branch 1 and examine the Table and Plots on the Profiles page of the Performance tab.

Figure 5
Figure 5
Figure 6
Figure 6
  • 18 Gas Gathering

Exploring the Simulation

Exercise 1: Pipe Flow

The flow of gas being produced by GasWell 2 increases to about 1000 kgmole/h (2200 lbmole/hr). Can the existing pipeline handle this increased flow? If not, what pipe is limiting the flow in the system? What size will be required for this branch? Do any other parts of the pipeline need to be changed?

Challenge

You instruct your summer student, Peter Reynolds to go out to the field and measure the temperature and pressure of the gas that is being delivered to the Gas Plant. He reports that the temperature is 38°C (100°F) and the pressure is 7457 kPa (1080 psia). Using your HYSYS simulator, what do you find the pressure of each of the Gas Wells to be?

Hint: you will have to make some changes to the simulation in order for it to solve completely.