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Articles Promise Plan Refuse Want

Need Decide hope

- Use ‘a’ and ‘an’ with not a specific object.
- Use ‘the’ with a specific object.
- The first time you speak of something use ‘a’ or ‘an’, the next Present Simple
time you repeat that object use ‘the’.
Use the present simple to talk about activities or routines which take
- DO NOT use an article with countries, states, counties or
place on a regular basis.
provinces, lakes and mountains except when the country is a
collection of states such as "The United States". Positive: Subject + present conjugation of verb + objects.
- Use an article with bodies of water, oceans and seas.
- DO NOT use an article when you are speaking about things in Negative: Subject + do not + base form of verb + objects.
Question: WH? + do + subject + base form of verb ?
- DO NOT use an article when you are speaking about meals,
places, and transport.
Expression time: everyday, on …, at the moment, now, always, usually,
Past Tense Irregular Verbs sometimes. Days of the weeks followed by 's'.

Present Past Present Past Adverbs of Frequency

Be Was/Were Become Became
Begin Began Break Broke Adverbs of frequency include: always, usually, often, sometimes,
Bring Brought Build Built occasionally, seldom, rarely and never.
Buy Bought Come Came
Cost Cost Cut Cut * If the sentence has one verb put the adverb in the middle of the
Do Did Drink Drank sentence after the subject and before the verb.
Eat Ate Find Found
Fly Flew Get Got * If the sentence has more than one verb (e.g. auxiliary verb), put the
Give Gave Go Went adverb of frequency before the main verb.
Have Had Keep Kept
Know Knew Leave Left * When using adverbs of frequency in the question or negative form, put
Make Made Meet Met the adverb of frequency before the main verb.
Pay Paid Put Put
Read Read Say Said Modal Form
See Saw Sell Sold
Positive: Subject + Modal + Base Form of Verb + Objects.
Send Sent Speak Spoke
Spend Spent Take Took
Negative: Subject + Modal + Not + Base Form of Verb + Objects.
Teach Taught Tell Told
Think Thought
Question: Modal + Subject + Base Form of Verb + Objects?

Pronouns * The most common modals are: Can, Should and Must.

Subject Object Possessive Possessive adjectives Future

I Me Mine My
You You Yours Your Future with 'Will'
He Him His His Positive: Subject + will + base form of verb + object(s).
She Her Hers Her
It It Its Its Negative: Subject + will + not + base form of verb + object(s).
We Us Ours Our
They Them Thiers Their Question: Question Word + will + subject + base form of verb?

Demonstrative Pronouns * `Will` used for quick decisions, predictions, scheduled public events and
Pronoun Singular Plural promises.
Near This These
Future with 'Going to'
Far That Those
Positive: Subject + to be + going to + base form of verb + object(s).

Verbs Followed by the Gerund or the Infinitive Negative: Subject + to be + not + going to + base form of verb +
Common Verbs + Gerund e.g. verb + verb + ing
Question: Question Word + to be + subject + going to + base form of
Go Enjoy Quit Discuss
Mind Can't stand Suggest verb?

Expression time: next …, tomorrow, by … and in … time.

Common Verbs + Infinitive e.g. verb + to + verb
* ‘Going to’ used for planned decisions, predicting an action that you see The past simple is used to express a finished past action which occurs at
is about to happen and future intentions. a specific moment in the past.

Countable and Uncountable Positive: Subject + past form of verb + object(s) + time.
Negative: Subject + did + not + base form of verb + object(s) + time.
* Uncountable name like water and countable name like minute. Question: WH? + did + subject + base form of verb + object(s) + time?
* Use “most, much, lots of, a lot of, some, a little and little” with
uncountable nouns. Expression time: when, last …, yesterday, ago.
* Use “many, lots of, a lot of, several, some, not many, only a few and
few” with countable nouns. Present Continuous
* Use a/an only with countable nouns preceded by an adjective(s).
Use the present continuous to speak about what is happening at the
List of some of the most common confused uncountable present moment in time, around the present moment, or for a future
scheduled event.
Accommodation Advice Baggage Bread
Equipment Furniture Garbage Information Positive: Subject + to be + verb + ing + objects.
Knowledge Luggage Money News Negative: Subject + are not + verb + ing + objects.
Pasta Progress Research Travel Question: WH? + do + subject + verb + ing + objects ?
Stative Verbs
Comparative Forms
Stative verbs are verbs which express a state. It can’t be used in the
* Use 'than' to compare between two objects. continuous forms. Action verbs are verbs which express something a
* Add '-er' to end of one or ending in '-y' syllable adjectives. person does.
* Place 'more' before two, three or more syllable adjectives.
Believe Understand Think Want
Hope Smell Taste Feel
Sound Look Seem Appear
Adjective Comparative Adjective Comparative
Good Better Bad Worse
Any or Some
Superlative Forms
- Use “any” or “some” in positive sentences.
* Place 'the' before one syllable adjective and add '-est' to end of it.
* Place 'the most' before two, three or more syllable adjectives. - Use “any” in negative sentences.
* Place 'the' before two syllable adjectives ending in '-y' and remove the - Use “any” or “some” in questions.
'y' from it and add 'iest'. - Use “some” words - somebody, someone, somewhere
EXCEPTIONS: and something - in positive sentences.
Adjective Superlative Adjective Superlative - Use “any” words - anybody, anyone, anywhere and
Good The best Bad The worst anything - in negative sentences or questions.

Imperative Form In, On, To and At for Places

Positive: Base Form of Verb + Objects. - Use ‘in’ with spaces, bodies of water and lines.
Negative: Do + Not + Base Form of Verb + Objects.
- Use ‘at’ with places.
Adverb and Adjective - Use ‘on’ with surfaces, directions and small islands.
- Use ‘to’ with movement from one place to another.
* Adjectives are placed directly before a noun. Also it used in simple
sentences with the verb 'to be' to describe the subject. - But don’t use 'to' with 'home'.

* Adverbs ends in '-ly' (with a few exceptions!). It are often used at the In, At and On for Time
end of a sentence to modify the verb.
- Use 'in' with months, years and periods of time.
Present Perfect Tense - Use 'at' with precise time.
- Use 'on' with days of the week or specific calendar days.
Positive: Subject + have + past participle + object(s).
Negative: Subject + have + not + past participle + object(s). - Use 'in' with “morning”, “afternoon” or” evening”.
Question: WH? + have + subject + past participle? - Use 'at' with “night”.

Expression time: Like

- Use 'for' to indicate a duration or period of time.
- Use 'since' to indicate a specific point in time. - [Preposition] What's he like?
- Use 'How long' to ask about duration. - [Verb] What does he like?
- Others: yet, already and just. - [Preposition] What does she look like?
- [Verb] What would you like to drink?
Past Simple