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User Manual contains: IGG T M v4.9 IGG ™ Interactive Grid Generator NUMERICAL MECHANICS APPLICATIONS
User Manual contains: IGG T M v4.9 IGG ™ Interactive Grid Generator NUMERICAL MECHANICS APPLICATIONS

User Manual

contains:

IGG TM v4.9

IGG

Interactive Grid Generator

IGG

User Manual Version 4.9-c (April 2005)

NUMECA International 5, Avenue Franklin Roosevelt 1050 Brussels Belgium

Tel: +32 2 647.83.11 Fax: +32 2 647.93.98 Web: http://www.numeca.com

Contents

CHAPTER 1:

Getting Started

1-1

1-1 What is IGG™ ?

1-1

1-2 Structure of the Manual

1-2

1-3 Installation and Settings

1-2

Basic Installation

1-2

Platform Compatibility

1-3

Expert Display Options

1-3

Graphics Driver

1-3

Background Color

1-3

1-4 How to Start IGG™ Interface

1-4

1-5 Terms and Concepts

1-5

Block Shape Control

1-5

Grid Control

1-7

Internal Grid Lines

1-8

Internal Faces

1-9

Block, Face, Edge, Segment Numbering and Active Entities

1-9

Grid Generation

1-11

Boundary Conditions

1-12

1-6 Visualization

1-13

Geometry

1-13

Grid

1-13

CHAPTER 2:

IGG™ Graphical User Interface

2-1

2-1 Overview

2-1

2-2 GUI description

2-2

Menu bar

2-2

Toolbar

2-3

Quick Access Pad

2-4

Control area

2-5

Message area

2-6

Keyboard input area

2-6

Mouse coordinates

2-6

Information area

2-6

Grid parameters area

2-7

Viewing buttons

2-7

X, Y, and Z projection buttons

2-8

Coordinate axis

2-8

Scrolling

2-8

3D viewing button

2-8

Rotate about x, y or z axis

2-9

Zoom in/out

2-9

Region zoom

2-9

Fit button

2-9

Original button

2-9

Cutting Plane

2-9

Graphics area and views

2-10

Contents

2-3 GUI interaction

2-11

Keyboard short cuts

2-11

Default mouse bindings

2-14

CHAPTER 3: Meshing fundamentals

3-1

3-1 Introduction

3-1

3-2 Basic Block Creation

3-3

Creating a block defined by two opposite vertices

3-3

Creating a block by its eight vertices

3-3

Creating a block by extrusion from an existing block

3-4

Creating blocks by duplication of existing block(s)

3-5

Block extension

3-6

3-3 Block Shape mapping

3-8

Moving a vertex

3-8

Adding and deleting vertices

3-9

Vertex Snapping

3-10

Vertex locking

3-11

Edge Mapping

3-11

Edge mapping onto disjointed curves

3-12

Edge mapping on surface

3-13

Faster vertex movement

3-13

3-4 Edge grid control

3-14

Fixed Point Control

3-15

Segment Control

3-16

3-5 Face generation

3-19

Face generation by bilinear interpolation

3-19

Face projection

3-20

Mapping onto a surface

3-21

Finer control on the face generation

3-21

Face generation history and face regeneration

3-22

History visualization

3-22

Face regeneration

3-23

3-6 Block generation

3-24

3-7 Internal edges

3-25

3-8 Internal faces

3-27

3-9 Defining patches and boundary conditions

3-28

3-10 Connections

3-30

Patch connections

3-30

Matching and non matching connections

3-30

Full non matching connections

3-33

Topological connections (vertex, edge, segment)

3-35

Vertex connection

3-35

Orphan vertex connection

3-36

Topological edge connection

3-37

Segment connection

3-37

Connection tools

3-37

Contents

 

Connecting face grids

3-38

Full non matching connections

3-39

Disconnecting entities

3-40

Visualizing connections

3-40

3-11 Blocks grouping

3-42

Block groups usage

3-42

Managing groups

3-42

CHAPTER 4:

Basic Tutorials

4-1

4-1 Overview

4-1

4-2 Geometry Tutorial

4-2

Curves creation

4-2

Curve selection

4-3

Curve visualization

4-3

Curve Saving

4-5

Surface Creation

4-5

Creation of a lofted surface

4-5

Creation of a Coons patch

4-6

Creation of a surface of revolution

4-7

Surface visualization

4-7

Surface selection

4-8

Adding curves to the surface

4-8

4-3 Grid generation tutorial

4-10

Case description

4-10

Project configuration

4-12

Importing and creating the boundary curves

4-12

Importing the pressure and suction sides

4-13

Creating boundary curves

4-13

Creating and placing the block

4-13

Grid points clustering

4-17

Clustering the boundary layer area

4-18

Clustering in the wake area

4-19

clustering in the leading and trailing edges areas

4-20

Grid Generation

4-20

Boundary condition settings

4-22

CHAPTER 5:

Butterfly mesh

5-1

5-1 Introduction

5-1

5-2 IGG™ butterfly implementation

5-3

Terminology

5-3

Generation method

5-3

Butterfly shape control

5-4

5-3 Butterfly dialog box

5-8

"General variables" frame

5-9

Preferential direction

5-9

Buffer blocks

5-9

Contents

Creation from uniform clustering

5-10

"Section control" frame

5-11

Section number ID

5-11

Preferential direction buffer depth

5-11

Radial depth

5-11

Control points parameters

5-13

Section interactive control

5-13

"Clustering" frame

5-14

Number of radial points

5-14

Radial clustering

5-14

Clustering reciprocity

5-15

Butterfly command buttons

5-16

5-4 Butterfly management

5-17

Creation specificities

5-17

Blocks naming and numbering

5-18

Interaction with the butterfly topology

5-18

Forbidden operations

5-20

Visualization of butterfly blocks inner mesh

5-21

Cells volume calculation

5-22

Grid quality checking

5-22

Butterfly regeneration when using template

5-22

Block transformation

5-23

Block duplication

5-23

Imposition of an initial solution in FINE™

5-23

Current limitations

5-24

CHAPTER 6: Templates and Scripts

6-1

6-1 Introduction

6-1

6-2 Templates

6-2

Introduction

6-2

Fundamental assumptions

6-2

Using the template option

6-3

Analyzing the input geometry

6-3

Creating the template project

6-3

Geometry options

6-3

Grid options

6-4

Vertex positioning

6-4

Replaying the template on the modified geometry

6-4

Troubleshooting

6-5

Input file format

6-5

6-3 Scripts

6-6

Introduction

6-6

Python Language Overview

6-6

Adding Commented Lines

6-6

Support for Mathematical Operations

6-6

String Handling

6-7

Lists Handling

6-7

Contents

 

Control Flow

6-8

Function Definition

6-8

File Handling

6-9

Error Handling

6-9

Creating and Using Modules (library of functions)

6-9

Running a Script File

6-10

IGG™ Script Commands

6-11

Project Commands

6-11

Geometry Commands

6-12

Global Functions

6-12

Point and Vector Classes

6-13

Range Class

6-14

Curve Class

6-14

Surface Class

6-16

Topology and Grid Classes Commands

6-17

Block Class

6-18

Face Class

6-22

Patch Class

6-23

Edge Class

6-24

Segment Class

6-24

BlockGroup Class

6-25

Vertex Class

6-25

Topology Placement

6-26

Connection Commands

6-26

Quality Checking Commands

6-27

MultiStage Module

6-28

Examples

6-31

6-4 Templates versus scripts

6-33

CHAPTER 7:

Quick Access Pad

7-1

7-1 Overview

7-1

7-2 Geometry subpad description

7-3

Point page

7-3

Cartesian Point

7-3

Curve-Curve Inters

7-3

Curve-Plane Inters

7-3

Curve page

7-3

Polyline

7-3

CSpline

7-3

Arc

7-3

Trim

7-4

Group

7-4

UnGroup

7-4

Surf-Surf Inters

7-4

Surf-Plane Inters

7-4

Set Name

7-4

Surface page

7-4

Contents

Lofted

7-4

Revolution

7-4

Coons

7-4

Linear Sweep

7-4

Offset

7-5

From Face Grid

7-5

Set Name

7-5

Edit page

7-5

Copy

7-5

Mirror

7-5

Translate

7-5

Rotate

7-5

Scale

7-5

7-3 Grid subpad description

7-6

Create page

7-6

Insert New Block

7-6

Insert New Block by picking vertices

7-7

Insert New Face

7-8

Extrude Range

7-9

Duplicate Block

7-11

Block by Sweeping

7-13

Block by Face translation

7-13

Block by Face Expansion

7-14

Block by Face Rotation

7-14

Create Butterfly

7-14

Delete Block(s)

7-14

Insert/Edit page

7-15

Insert Vertex

7-15

Insert Fixed Point

7-15

Insert Internal Grid Line

7-15

Internal Point

7-15

Internal Face

7-16

Cluster Points

7-16

Transform Blocks

7-16

Extend Block

7-17

Split Block

7-18

Split Block at internal faces

7-18

Merge Blocks

7-18

Connect page

7-18

Edge - Edge

7-19

Face - Face

7-20

Whole grid

7-20

Show Vertex Connections

7-21

Show Edge Connections

7-21

Show Segment Connections

7-21

Show Face Connections

7-21

Generate page

7-22

2 Bnd Interpolation

7-22

Contents

4 Bnd Interpolation Face Generation Tool Project Face Block 6 Bnd Regenerate Faces Show History

7-22

7-22

7-22

7-24

7-24

7-25

7-4 View subpad description Geometry Groups page Block Groups page Grid page

7-26

7-26

7-27

7-29

CHAPTER 8: File Menu

8-1

8-1 Overview

8-1

8-2 File menu description Open

8-1

8-1

New Scripts --> Edit Scripts --> Save All Scripts --> Execute Scripts --> Re-execute Last Save --> Save Save --> Save As Save --> Save As Fine 6 Import -> IGG Project Prefix Importation operations Import -> IGG Data Import -> External Grid Import -> Face Grid Import -> Topology Import -> IGES Data Import -> PLOT3D Import -> CGNS Import -> GridPro Export -> IGES Export -> Geometry Selection Export -> Geometry Control Points Export -> Block Coor Export -> Face Coor Export -> Patch Coor Export -> Segment Discretization Export -> PLOT3D Replay Template -> Import IGG Data Convert Data Convert Data -> Rotate Data Convert Data -> Scale Data Convert Data -> Translate Data

8-2

8-2

8-2

8-2

8-3

8-3

8-3

8-3

8-3

8-3

8-4

8-4

8-5

8-5

8-6

8-6

8-7

8-8

8-8

8-9

8-9

8-9

8-9

8-10

8-10

8-10

8-10

8-11

8-11

8-11

8-12

8-12

Contents

Convert Data -> Mirror Data

8-12

Convert Data -> Swap Data

8-13

Convert Data -> Reverse Sequence

8-13

Convert Data -> Cartesian_Cylindrical

8-13

Convert Data -> Extract 2D from 3D

8-13

Convert Data -> Extract Curve

8-13

Convert Data -> Grid : IJK_KJI

8-14

Convert Data -> Grid : 2D_3D

8-14

Convert Data -> Data : Expand Surface

8-14

Print -> As PostScript

8-14

Print -> As Bitmap PostScript

8-14

Print -> As PNG

8-15

Preferences

8-15

Tolerances page

8-15

Geom Tol (abs)

8-15

Geom Tol (rel)

8-15

Topo Tol (rel)

8-16

Pick Aperture

8-16

Saving page

8-17

Graphics page

8-17

Layout page

8-18

Project Configuration

8-18

Quit

8-20

CHAPTER 9: Geometry Menu

9-1

9-1 Overview

9-1

Basic Geometry Entities

9-1

Curve Orientation

9-2

Geometry tolerance

9-2

Absolute tolerance

9-2

Relative tolerance

9-2

Attraction

9-2

9-2 Geometry menu description

9-3

Draw CSpline->Free

9-3

Draw CSpline->On Surfaces

9-3

Draw CSpline->On Surface + Projection

9-4

Draw BSpline->Free

9-4

Draw B-Spline->On Surfaces

9-5

Draw B-Spline->On Surface + Projection

9-5

Draw Polyline->Free

9-5

Draw Polyline->On Surfaces

9-6

Draw Polyline->On Surface + Projection

9-6

Circular Arc->Normal-Center-Point-Point

9-7

Circular Arc->Normal-Point-Point-Radius

9-8

Circular Arc->Point-Point-Point

9-10

Create Points->Cartesian Point

9-11

Create Points->Curve-Curve Intersection

9-11

Contents

Create Points->Curve-Plane Intersection

9-11

Create Curve->Surf-Surf intersection

9-11

Create Curve->Surf-Plane inters->Point-Normal

9-12

Create Curve->Surf-Plane inters->Normal to Curve

9-12

Create Curve->Surf-Plane inters->Point-Point-Point

9-13

Create Curve->Extend Curve

9-14

Create Curve->Offset Curve (Cst)

9-14

Create Curve->Offset Curve (Linear)

9-14

Create Curve->Group

9-15

Create Curve->UnGroup

9-15

Create Curve->Trim

9-16

Create Surface->Lofted

9-16

Create Surface->Revolution

9-17

Create Surface->Coons Patch

9-17

Create Surface->Linear Sweep

9-18

Create Surface->Offset

9-18

Create Surface->From Face

9-18

Edit->Copy

9-18

Edit->Translate

9-19

Edit->Rotate

9-19

Edit->Scale

9-19

Edit->Mirror

9-20

Edit->Convert to CSpline

9-20

Modify Curve->Add Control Point

9-20

Modify Curve->Remove Control Point

9-21

Modify Curve->Project

9-21

Modify Curve->Modify Point

9-21

Modify Curve->Modify Point On Surface

9-22

Modify Curve->Discretization

9-22

Modify Curve->Divide

9-22

Modify Curve->Reverse

9-22

Modify Curve -> Set Name

9-23

Modify Surface->Discretization

9-23

Modify Surface->Representation

9-23

Modify Surface->Add uv Curves

9-23

Modify Surface->Divide

9-24

Modify Surface-> Set Name

9-24

Select->Cartesian Points

9-24

Select->Control Points

9-25

Select->Curves

9-25

Select->Surfaces

9-25

View->Curves

9-26

View->Surfaces

9-27

View->Hide Selected Cartesian Points

9-28

View->Hide Selected Curves

9-28

View->Hide Selected Surfaces

9-28

View->Control Points

9-28

View->Curve Orientation

9-28

View->Lofting curves

9-28

Contents

View->Prepare View

9-28

View->Clear View

9-29

View->View Wireframe

9-30

View->View Solid

9-30

Delete Cartesian Points

9-30

Delete->Curves

9-30

Delete->Surfaces

9-30

Distance

9-30

CHAPTER 10:Grid Menu

10-1

10-1 Overview

10-1

Boundary Conditions setting

10-1

Coarse Grid Levels

10-2

10-2 Grid menu description

10-4

Periodicity

10-4

Grid Settings

10-5

Resizing of one block

10-8

Limitations

10-9

Boundary Conditions

10-9

Patch browser

10-10

Filters

10-10

Patch type specification

10-10

Patch definition and editing

10-11

Automatic connectivity search

10-12

Mirror boundary conditions

10-13

Connections

10-13

Automatic search

10-13

Tips and tricks

10-14

Manual Connectivity Settings

10-15

Full non matching connections

10-16

Grid Quality

10-19

Quality criterion definitions (Block page)

10-21

Criterion class

10-21

Criteria definition

10-21

Quality criterion definitions (Boundaries page)

10-23

2D project particularities

10-24

Negative cells

10-24

Internal Grid line/Create from grid

10-26

Internal Grid line/Delete

10-26

Internal Grid line/Index

10-26

Internal Face/Create

10-27

Internal Face/Delete

10-28

Internal Face/Index

10-28

Create Edge/Copy Edge

10-28

Create Face/Linear 2Bnd

10-28

Create Face/Linear 4Bnd

10-29

Create Face/Generation Tool

10-29

Contents

Grid Page

10-29

Internal Grid Lines Page

10-33

Create Face/Project onto Surfaces (N)

10-34

Create Face/Project onto Surfaces (T)

10-34

Create Face/Rotate Edge

10-35

Create Face/Copy Face

10-35

Create Face/Copy Face Range

10-35

Create Block/Linear 2Bnd

10-37

Create Block/Linear 4Bnd

10-37

Create Block/Linear 6Bnd

10-38

Create Block/Smoothing

10-38

Create Block/Elliptic/Multigrid

10-38

Create Block/Elliptic/Multigrid Parameters

10-39

Create Block/Elliptic/SLOR

10-40

Create Block/Butterfly

10-40

Create Block/Change axis

10-40

Create Block/Split

10-41

Limitations

10-41

Create Block/Split at internal faces

10-43

Create Block/Merge

10-43

Limitations

10-43

Create Block/Sweeping

10-44

Create Block/Extrude Normally

10-45

Create Block/Translation

10-46

Create Block/Rotation

10-47

Grid Density/Clustering

10-47

Clustering types

10-49

Clustering groups

10-50

Clustering convergence

10-51

Segment optimum settings

10-52

Grid Density/Copy

10-53

Grid Density/Move Pt

10-54

CHAPTER 11:View Menu

11-1

11-1 Overview

11-1

Views

11-1

View repetitions

11-1

11-2 View menu description

11-2

Patch Viewer

11-2

Sweep Surfaces

11-3

Sweep Cells

11-4

Show Unmapped vertices

11-5

Coarse Grid

11-5

Repetition

11-6

View Position

11-6

Face Displacement

11-7

View Depth

11-7

Contents

Perspective

11-7

Hidden lines

11-7

Insert Text

11-8

Delete->Delete Text

11-8

CHAPTER 12:Input and Output Files

12-1

12-1 Overview

12-1

12-2 Input Data Files

12-1

Curve data files

12-1

Surface data files

12-3

Wireframe surfaces

12-3

Multiple wireframe surfaces

12-4

Lofted surfaces

12-4

Combined curve and surface data files

12-5

Block data files

12-5

12-3 Grid file format

12-7

CGNS file

12-7

Boundary Conditions file format

12-7

Format description

12-8

12-4 PLOT3D file format

12-12

Single-block file

12-13

Multi-block file

12-13

CHAPTER 13:Tutorials

13-1

13-1 Mesh Generation in pipes

13-1

Introduction

13-1

Geometry Definition

13-2

Meshing the larger cylinder

13-4

Meshing the small cylinder

13-6

Generating the block grids

13-9

Butterfly topology creation

13-9

Connecting the blocks

13-10

INDEX

CHAPTER 1: Getting Started

1-1

What is IGG™ ?

IGGis a powerful structured grid generator software designed to facilitate the generation of multi-blocks structured grids around complex 2D and 3D geometries. It is a fully interactive system combining interactive 3D graphics capabilities with advanced GUI capabilities.

An optional module, AutoGrid, allows to perform fully automatic grid generation for turbomachin- ery problems. Complex grids can be generated by using AutoGrid, including splitters, seal leakage and more in a few minutes.

IGGprovides a geometry module dedicated to the importation and manipulation of external CAD geometries. Additionally it provides tools for the creation of simple and more advanced NURBS curves and surfaces. This module can be used to close an incomplete geometry model or to create a geometry model from scratch.

Starting from this geometry, IGGprovides powerful tools to perform the meshing process. Initial blocks can be created very rapidly and interactively deformed onto the geometry. The mapping of the block boundaries is done instantaneously so that the real shape of the blocks is obtained at any time. When more control is needed over the boundary shape, control vertices can be easily added or removed and moved interactively. A powerful snapping feature automatically attracts the vertices to the closest point, curve or surface.

Through its concept of tolerant vertex, blocking can be performed on geometries presenting gaps without going through a CAD repair stage. IGGautomatically closes the gaps to a given level of tolerance.

The Grid module provides tools to generate face and block grids in a flexible way. Algebraic and elliptic smoothers can be used to generate surface and volume meshes. Projection or mapping on CAD surfaces insure the generation of body fitted meshes. Additionally IGGprovides unique features for controlling the quality of the grid through the concept of internal edge and internal faces.

To facilitate the grid generation process IGGprovides connection tools which enable to perform connections at different levels of the grid generation process: topological connections, block bound- aries connections and face grid connections.

Finally IGGprovides full support to the CGNS standard. Using this file format, grids generated with IGGcan be readily understood by more and more solvers.

Getting Started

Structure of the Manual

This chapter provides a discussion over the following topics:

Structure of the manual,

System requirements,

How to run IGG,

Terms and concepts.

1-2

Structure of the Manual

The structure of the IGGmanual consists of several dedicated chapters which can be summarized as follows:

Chapter 1 describes the basic terms needed to understand IGGfunctionalities.

Chapter 2 describes the GUI and the different interaction modes with the system.

Chapter 3 describes the fundamentals of meshing and the most commonly used options.

Chapter 4 provides a basic hands-on tutorial for geometry modelling, topology decomposition and structured grid generation. It is highly recommended to follow this chapter before going any further with IGG.

Chapter 5 to Chapter 11 provide a detailed description of each functionality available in the dif- ferent modules. Each chapter is a description of a menu contained in the IGGinterface.

Chapter 12 describes IGGfile formats for importing and exporting data.

Chapter 13 provides more advanced tutorials showing the grid generation for more complex configurations.

The first four chapters provide a complete overview of IGG™ and are recommended for first time use. Following chapters provide more detail to serve as reference during the use of IGG™.

1-3

1-3.1

Installation and Settings

Basic Installation

When using IGG™ for the first time it is important to verify that IGG™ is properly installed according to the installation note. The installation note provided with the software should be read carefully and the following points are specifically important:

Hardware and operating system requirements should be verified to see whether the chosen machine is supported.

Installation of IGG™ according to the described procedure in a directory chosen by the user and referenced in the installation note as ‘NUMECA_INSTALLATION_DIRECTORY’.

A license should be requested which allows for the use of IGG™.

The license should be installed according to the described procedure in the installation note.

Installation and Settings

Getting Started

Each user willing to use IGG™ or any other NUMECA software must perform a user configu- ration as described in the installation note. When these points are checked the software can be started as described in the installation note or section 1-4 of this users guide.

1-3.2

Platform Compatibility

IGG™ projects are 100% compatible across heterogeneous platforms. For example, an IGG™ project can be started on an NT platform, continued on a SGI machine and reloaded on a DEC, without any modification.

1-3.3

Expert Display Options

a) Graphics Driver

The Graphics area of IGG™ interface uses by default an OPENGL driver that takes advantage of the available graphics card. When the activation of OPENGL is causing problems, IGG™ uses an X11 driver (on UNIX) or MSW driver (for Windows) instead.

It is possible to explicitly change the driver used by IGG™ in the following ways:

On UNIX:

in csh, tcsh or bash shell:

setenv NI_DRIVER X11 in korn shell:

NI_DRIVER=X11

export NI_DRIVER

The selection will take effect at the next session.

On Windows:

Log in as Administrator.

Launch regedit from the Start/Run menu.

Go to the HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE/SOFTWARE/NUMECA International/Fine# register.

Modify the DRIVER entry to either OPENGL or MSW.

The selection will take effect at the next session.

b) Background Color

The background color of IGG™ can be changed by setting the environment variable NI_IGG_REVERSEVIDEO on UNIX/LINUX platforms or IGG_REVERSEVIDEO on Windows platforms. Set the variable to ’ON’ to have a black background and set it to ’OFF’ to have a white background. The variable can be manually specified through the following commands:

On UNIX:

in csh, tcsh or bash shell:

setenv NI_IGG_REVERSEVIDEO ON

in korn shell:

NI_IGG_REVERSEVIDEO=ON export NI_IGG_REVERSEVIDEO

The selection will take effect at the next session.

Getting Started

How to Start IGG™ Interface

On Windows:

Log in as Administrator.

Launch System Properties from the Start/Settings/Control Panel/System menu.

Go in the Environment Variables.

Modify or add the IGG_REVERSEVIDEO entry to either ON or OFF.

The selection will take effect at the next session.

1-4

How to Start IGG™ Interface

In order to run IGG™, the following command should be executed:

On UNIX and LINUX platforms type: igg <Enter>

When multiple versions of IGG™ are installed the installation note should be consulted for advice on how to start IGG™ in a multi-version environment.

On Windows click on the IGG™ icon in Start/Programs/NUMECA software/fine#. Alternatively IGG™ can be launched from a dos shell by typing:

<NUMECA_INSTALLATION_DIRECTORY>\fine#\bin\igg.exe <Enter>

where NUMECA_INSTALLATION_DIRECTORY is the directory indicated in section 1-3.1 and # is the number corresponding to the version to be used.

Terms and Concepts

Getting Started

1-5

Terms and Concepts

This section describes the terms and concepts used in this manual. For more details on a specific topic consult the index to see where it is described in the manual.

IGGis a structured multi-block grid generator. The grid generation process can be decomposed into two major steps: the blocking step, also called topological decomposition, and the meshing step.

Blocks are used to decompose complex 3D domains into simpler meshable sub-regions. To create a mesh, blocks are created, initially simple cubes, and adapted to the geometry by deforming their boundaries (edges) so that they lie onto geometry curves or surfaces. Blocks can be created as needed and they are connected together to insure non overlapping filling of the domain. The crea- tion, geometry capturing and connection operations all together define the topology of the mesh.

Due to the structured approach, blocks are constrained to be bound by exactly six faces, each face having four edges. Furthermore each edge is shared by exactly two faces. There are consequently 12 edges for a block.

Blocks can be thought of as cubes whose edges are deformed to lie onto the CAD geometry. The following picture shows two blocks deformed to lie on the geometry.

Block 1 Block 2
Block 1
Block 2

FIGURE 1.5.0-1 Edges deformed and positioned on a geometry.

1-5.1

Block Shape Control

The shape of a block is directly defined by the shape of its grid edges (edge belonging to a block face). These grid edges are supported and handled by topological edge(s). These topological edges are used to capture the geometry and must not be confused with a grid edge (more commonly called edge). A topological edge is defined and controlled by two vertices, defining its geometrical limits. By default each grid edge contains one topological edge, thus two vertices. Furthermore vertices are shared at block corners, yielding a strong topological consistency between the edges of a block. There are consequently by default eight vertices for each block, as shown in the following figure.

Getting Started

Terms and Concepts

geometry curve
geometry curve
geometry curve

geometry curve

FIGURE 1.5.1-1 Edge vertices and edge mapping onto a curve.

The shape of an edge is directly controlled by the position of its vertices and of its topological edges onto the geometry entities (points, curves or surfaces).

The positioning of a vertex on a geometry entity is called "vertex snapping".

The positioning of a topological edge on a geometry entity is called "edge mapping". It means that the topological edge is deformed to lie on the geometry entity.

IGGautomatically detects when the two vertices of a topological edge lie on a same geometry entity and performs automatic mapping of the topological edge onto that geometry entity. IGGperforms an automatic mapping when:

two vertices lie on a same curve,

two vertices lie on different curves but can be considered as lying on the same curve at the vertex tolerance,

two vertices lie on a same surface,

two vertices lie on a surface and a curve belonging to that surface (i.e. trimming curve).

When one of the vertices of a topological edge does not lie on any geometry entity, IGGdraws a straight line for the topological edge.

Very often the input geometry is defined by a set of curves that all together define a closed region. These curves are however most of the time not connected in the sense that no topological informa- tion exists to go from one curve to another.

To cope with this frequent case, IGGprovides a method to easily insert additional vertices (

in the definition of an edge. The following figure shows an example of two curves lying next to each other. Using only one topological edge with two vertices, the edge would be a straight line. The insertion of an additional vertex allows to capture the junction of the curves and therefore the mapping of the edge onto the two curves.

)
)
curve 1 curve 2
curve 1
curve 2

Vertex required to map the edge on both curves

FIGURE 1.5.1-2 Internal vertex insertion in an edge.

Terms and Concepts

Getting Started

When inserting the internal vertex into the edge, the initial topological edge is replaced by two new topological edges (a topological edge is delimited by two consecutive vertices). Therefore the first topological edge can be mapped on curve 1 and the second one on curve 2. In fact, at each internal vertex insertion, the number of topological edges of the grid edge is increased by one. Therefore an edge defined by N vertices has exactly N-1 topological edges.

The following figure shows an example of an edge being defined by several topological edges.

start vertex

topological edges
topological edges

internal vertices

end vertex

FIGURE 1.5.1-3 Grid edge defined by 4 vertices (3 topological edges)

IGGprovides a tolerance mechanism to deal with input geometries presenting small gaps. A tol- erance is attached to each vertex participating in the definition of an edge. When a vertex is placed at the junction of two curves, as in the following figure, IGGattempts to fill the possible gap (if existing).

Curve 1

Curve 1 Gap Curve 2 S m a l l t o l e r a

Gap

Curve 1 Gap Curve 2 S m a l l t o l e r a

Curve 2

Small tolerance

Greater tolerance

Start vertex Intermediate vertex Edge
Start vertex
Intermediate
vertex
Edge
Curve 2 S m a l l t o l e r a n c e

End vertex

FIGURE 1.5.1-4 Use of the vertex tolerance for edge mapping

As shown, there is a gap between curve 1 and curve 2. To map an edge on these two curves, the "start" and "end" vertices have to be positioned firstly, then an intermediate vertex must be inserted on the edge and moved to the curve 1 end point. If the tolerance of this intermediate vertex is too small, the edge cannot map the curve 2. If it is sufficient, the edge also maps the curve 2, filling in the gap with a straight line.

When gaps are big, the tolerance can be controlled for each vertex separately.

1-5.2

Grid Control

Once block edges are well positioned to capture the geometry, grid points can be positioned on edges.

Getting Started

Terms and Concepts

Due to the structured approach, the edges varying along a same direction (I, J or K) are constrained to have the same number of points. The number of grid points can be controlled independently for the I, J or K directions.

However the grid point distribution along an edge can be controlled independently for each edge. This distribution is controlled by segments. A segment is an entity controlling a range of grid points on an edge. Using these segments, the clustering (distribution) can be locally controlled along the edge. By default, each edge has one segment. Moreover, for each new created segment, grid points are distributed at equal intervals (uniform spacing).

The creation of segments in an edge is done by insertion of fixed points (
The creation of segments in an edge is done by insertion of fixed points (
lowing figure:
), as shown in the fol-
segment 1
Start vertex
segment 2
End vertex
segment 3
Fixed point shared by
segments 1 and 2

Fixed point shared by segments 2 and 3

FIGURE 1.5.2-1

Edge division in segments using fixed points.

Fixed points define the limits of the segments. They also control the range of grid points controlled by the segments. Changing the index of a fixed point changes the number of points in the surround- ing segments.

Fixed points are by default constrained to move along their edge. When more flexibility is needed, fixed points can be attached to vertices. Such fixed point is no more constrained to move along its edge.

1-5.3

Internal Grid Lines

Edge 3

Edge 2 Edge 6 Edge 5
Edge 2
Edge 6
Edge 5

Edge 1

Edge 4

FIGURE 1.5.3-1 Two internal edges added to the face

Terms and Concepts

Getting Started

Internal edges (

tion. They enable to decompose a face grid into smaller, more manageable areas and can be manip- ulated in the same way as boundary edges. These edges can be mapped onto geometry curves, divided into one or more segments, on which the distribution can be specified. Figure 1.5.3-1 shows a face with two internal grid lines, which decompose the face into 4 sub-regions.

) are used to obtain a better control of the grid quality during face grid genera-

better control of the grid quality during face grid genera- During the creation of internal grid

During the creation of internal grid lines, IGGautomatically intersects the boundary edges as well as the other existing internal edges. At each intersection IGGcreates a fixed point attached to a vertex. This vertex-fixed point is shared by the edges and insure topology and grid consistency at any time (indeed internal grid lines cannot be separated at their intersection with other edges).

1-5.4

Internal Faces

) are used to obtain a better control of the grid quality during block grid genera-

tion by inserting controllable faces within the blocks. They decompose a block into smaller regions which can be independently generated and manipulated.

Internal faces are bound by four edges. These edges have the same general orientation as the bound- ary edges of the block and are manipulated in the same way.

When creating new internal faces, IGGidentifies all crossing faces and creates a new internal edge at each intersection. These edges are shared by the crossing faces to insure a consistency dur- ing block generation.

Internal faces can be manipulated much in the same way as boundary faces:

Internal faces (

much in the same way as boundary faces: Internal faces ( • Their boundary edges can

Their boundary edges can be mapped onto the geometry,

Internal grid lines can be added,

They can be projected on geometry surfaces,

The internal faces are taken into account during block generation when using a six boundary inter- polation.

1-5.5

Block, Face, Edge, Segment Numbering and Active Entities

Each entity defining the grid topology (block, face, edge, segment) is identified by an index in IGG.

Each block is defined by a local IJK coordinate system giving a natural naming convention for the faces. Faces, edges and segments are further numbered and identified by indices as indicated in the Figure 1.5.5-1.

According to these conventions, entities are referenced as follows:

A block is identified by one index, describing its position in the grid. For example, block "1" identifies the first block of the grid.

A face is identified by its block and face indices. For example, face "2 4" refers to the face 4 of block 2.

An edge is identified by its block, face and edge indices. For example, edge "1 5 2" refers to the edge 2 of the face 5 of the first block.

A segment is identified by its block, face, edge and segment indices. The segment index is simply the segment position in the edge, according to the edge orientation. For example, segment "1 5 2 3" refers to the third segment of the edge "1 5 2".

Getting Started

Terms and Concepts

Since an edge is shared by two faces it can be accessed by two identifiers. For example, the edge "1 2 4" (block 1, face 2, edge 4) is the same as the edge "1 6 2" (block 1, face 6, edge 2). Further- more each edge has a natural orientation given by the positive direction of the I, J and K axis, as shown in the previous figure. On the other hand, segments have the same orientation as their under- lying edge.

FACES K = Kmax EDGES 2 J = Jmax 3 2 4 4 2 2
FACES
K = Kmax
EDGES
2
J = Jmax
3
2
4
4
2
2
3
5
1
4
I = 1
3
BLOCK
1
2
1
2
K
4
3
4
3
J
2
6
1
3
1
4
3
I = Imax
I
J = 1
1
4
1
K = 1
SEGMENTS
Edge 2
Edge 3
Edge 4
Axis 2
Seg 1
Seg 2
Seg 3
Edge 1
Axis 1

FIGURE 1.5.5-1 : Standard notation for the block, faces and orientation of edges

Active block, face, edge and segment

Some operations like face grid generation, visualization

IGG, these operations are performed on the active entities. There is always one active segment, edge, face and block in a session. They are highlighted in the graphics area and can easily be recog- nized from non active entities.

Activation of an edge, face or block is done by simple left mouse click on the desired entity in the graphics area. When several entities lie at the same position, the left-click operation may need to be repeated until the proper entity is highlighted. Alternatively, an entity can be activated by entering its identifier through the keyboard. For example, to activate the block 2, face 4, edge 1, type ’2 4 1’ in the keyboard input area and press <Enter>. The entity will be activated.

This activation mode can be used at any time in IGG, as long as another menu option is not used (i.e. curve creation).

must be operated on specific entities. In

Terms and Concepts

Getting Started

1-5.6

Grid Generation

After the grid points along the block boundaries (edges) have been correctly positioned, the faces grid must be generated. Then the block grid generation can be performed by using these faces grid previously generated. The grid boundaries can have slope and/or line continuity or be totally dis- continuous at the block interfaces.

Faces can be generated by using the following options:

Algebraic grid generation: two- or four-boundary interpolation (linear or cubic) from the

face edges (

interpolation (linear or cubic) from the face edges ( ). • Mapping a face on a

).

Mapping a face on a geometry surface. Mapping is performed by linear interpolation from

the face edges in the geometry surface space (

from the face edges in the geometry surface space ( ). Blocks can be generated by

).

Blocks can be generated by using the following options:

Algebraic grid generation by two-, four- or six-boundary interpolation (linear or cubic)

from the block edges (

interpolation (linear or cubic) from the block edges ( ). • Translation of a face grid,

).

Translation of a face grid, combined with rotation and scaling (

Expansion of a face grid along face normals according to a user-specified distance (

Rotation of a face grid around a coordinate axis (

Sweeping of a face grid along an arbitrary curve, combined with rotation and scaling (

an arbitrary curve, combined with rotation and scaling ( ). ). ). ). Moreover the following

).

an arbitrary curve, combined with rotation and scaling ( ). ). ). ). Moreover the following

).

arbitrary curve, combined with rotation and scaling ( ). ). ). ). Moreover the following options
arbitrary curve, combined with rotation and scaling ( ). ). ). ). Moreover the following options

).

).

Moreover the following options can be applied on a grid initially created:

Projecting a face grid onto a set of geometry surfaces (

Overall or local smoothing (in a user-specified region of a face or block grid) by the ellip-

user-specified region of a face or block grid) by the ellip- ). tic method ( ).

).

tic method (

of a face or block grid) by the ellip- ). tic method ( ). Algebraic methods

).

Algebraic methods based on transfinite interpolation are the most attractive options, due to fast real time generation for face and block grids. The smoothness of such algebraic grids can be improved by using the elliptic smoother.

The algebraic grid generation is based on the transfinite interpolation methods with linear (Lagrange) interpolants. The grid generation options can be explained as follows:

Linear six-boundary transfinite interpolation This type of algebraic generation is based on the determination of internal grid points of a block by linear (Lagrange) interpolation from the surface grids generated on six boundary faces (not applicable to face grids). Thus the grid conforms to the point distributions defined over the six boundary faces. The surface grid normal lengths have no effect on the grid, since the orthogo- nality is not considered for linear interpolation.

Linear four-boundary transfinite interpolation With this option, the internal grid points in a face or block are generated by linear (Lagrange) interpolation from four boundaries. In the case of face grids, the user-specified grid point distri- butions on four boundary edges are used for interpolation. Such a grid can also be considered as a bilinearly blended Coons patch. The block grids are obtained from the grid created on four boundary faces, on which a variable coordinate index is common (faces 1, 2, 3 and 4 for common I index, faces 1, 2, 5 and 6 for common J index and faces 3, 4, 5 and 6 for common K index). The grid normal length distribu- tions defined on the boundary curves or the surface normal lengths specified for the boundary faces have no effect on the grid, since the orthogonality is not considered for this case.

Getting Started

Terms and Concepts

Linear two-boundary interpolation + user-specified stretching This technique has been introduced as a two step generation process using the opposite bounda- ries of each block. The face grids are generated by linear interpolation from the two opposite boundary edges (e.g. edges 1 and 2). The grid points along constant index lines between these two edges are then redistributed according to the user-defined grid point distributions on the

other opposite boundaries (e.g. edges 3 and 4). Thus the grid conforms to distributions defined

on all four boundaries, as in the four-boundary case.

The block grids are created by interpolation from the grid on two opposite block faces (e.g. faces 1 and 2). Then, the interior grid points are redistributed according to the user-defined point distributions on one of the other two opposite faces (e.g. edges 3 and 4 of face 3 or 4). Again, there is no consideration of boundary orthogonality.

If grid overlapping occurs when using one of the algebraic grid generation methods, please do not panic. Due to very tight grid point spacing or high degree of orthogonality constraints, the grid points may overlap initially. Simply try to smooth the grid locally or as a whole in several iterations, until overlapping disappears.

Overall or local smoothing:

The smoothness of algebraic grids can be improved by a few iterations with the elliptic solver.

A local region of smoothing can be specified within the face or block grid by mouse or key-

board. The default smoothing area covers the overall grid.

Sweeping a face grid:

This method is similar to the translation of a block face for the generation of a block grid. How-

ever, the base grid (e.g. face 1) is swept along a specified sweep edge. The grid points along the sweeping edge are created according to the user-specified point distribution. Sweeping can also

be combined with rotation and scaling.

Rotating a face grid:

This option is especially suitable for the generation of grids around turbomachinery compo- nents. A face grid can be rotated around any coordinate axis at a user-specified angle to form the block grid. For blade passages, the pressure side can be rotated around the axis of rotation at an angle of blade pitch and the resulting block grid can be intersected by a geometry surface repre- senting the suction side stored in the geometry repository.

1-5.7

Boundary Conditions

Each block face can be divided in a certain number of patches on which will be applied the bound- ary conditions. It allows, for a same face, to have several different boundary conditions.

Boundary conditions setting consists of imposing to each patch of the grid a type describing the physics of the flow. The boundary conditions setup is normally performed when the grid has been generated.

The following standard notation is used to identify the type of the boundary condition applied on a patch:

UND : undefined type.

INL : inlet.

OUT : outlet.

EXT : external. Used to impose farfield conditions.

SOL : solid. Used for walls.

SNG : singular. Used for patch degenerated into a line.

MIR : mirror. Used to impose a symmetry plane.

Visualization

Getting Started

ROT : rotating. Used for rotor-stator interaction.

CON : matching connection.

NMB : non matching connection.

PER : periodic matching connection.

PERNM : periodic non matching connection.

1-6

1-6.1

Visualization

Geometry

Understanding the input geometry model is essential to perform fast and efficient meshing. Geome- try models tend to be more and more complex and composed of lot of curves and surfaces. To facil- itate the manipulation and visualization of these entities a grouping option is provided. Grouping allows to:

create and delete new groups,

add curves and surfaces to a group,

selectively visualize or hide one or more groups.

This organization in groups allows to display very fast only few geometry entities, and can greatly help during the interactive placement of blocks on the geometry. Interactive snapping of vertices can then be performed on a restrained number of entities avoiding the risk of interference with other unnecessary entities.

1-6.2

Grid

The visualization of the grid is possible for different types of entities involved in the grid generation

process. Selective visualization (

in the grid generation process. Selective visualization ( ) can be applied to: • vertices, •

) can be applied to:

vertices,

fixed points,

boundary grid points,

face grids (wireframe or shaded representation).

The visualization of each type of entities can be easily controlled using the scope of visualization. The visualization scope can be used to visualize an entity for the active segment, edge, face, block or grid.

Getting Started

Visualization

CHAPTER 2: IGG™ Graphical User Interface

2-1

Overview

This section describes the appearance and use of the IGGGraphical User Interface (GUI).

The IGGGUI is divided into several main components as shown in the figure of the following page and which are listed here below:

Menu bar

Toolbar

Quick Access Pad

Control area

Graphics area

The following sections describe these components as well as two important features of the GUI:

keyboard short cuts and default mouse bindings.

IGG™ Graphical User Interface

GUI description

2-2

GUI description

Current project name

Toolbar Menu bar Quick Access Pad Graphics area Control area Keyboard input area Viewing buttons
Toolbar
Menu bar
Quick Access Pad
Graphics area
Control
area
Keyboard input area
Viewing buttons
Message area
Grid parameters area
Mouse coordinates
Information area

FIGURE 2.2.0-1 IGGGraphical User Interface.

2-2.1

Menu bar

The menu bar contains a part of available options of IGG. Menu items can be activated using click and drag or click and release modes.

The pull-down menu Modules is a dedicated menu which allows to switch between the different modules of IGG™: IGG, AutoGrid, FINE/Turbo.

All menus are described in detail in the dedicated chapters.

IGGprovides a way to keep pull-down menus permanently on the screen using the "tearoff" fea- ture. When tearoff menus are enabled, a dotted line appears as the very first item of each pull-down menu. Selecting this line will isolate the menu in a permanent window on the screen.

GUI description

IGG™ Graphical User Interface

Tearoff menus can be enabled by editing the file ’~/.numeca/igg.resources’ and modifying the line

"set app(tearoff)

0" to "set app(tearoff) 1" or adding the line "set app(tearoff) 1".

2-2.2

Toolbar

The toolbar contains five icons providing fast input/output options and three icons for often used operations. These are also available through the menu bar (See in the related chapters the complete description of the icon functions).

TABLE 1.

Icon

Description

Opens an existing project previously created by IGG ™ . See the File/Open menu item

Opens an existing project previously created by IGG. See the File/Open menu item description on page 8-1.

Saves the current work in the files of the current project. See the File/Save/Save menu

Saves the current work in the files of the current project. See the File/Save/Save menu item description on page 8-3.

Closes the current project and opens a new empty one. See the File/New menu item

Closes the current project and opens a new empty one. See the File/New menu item description on page 8-2.

Used to import CAD data stored in the standard IGES format. See the File/Import/IGES Data

Used to import CAD data stored in the standard IGES format. See the File/Import/IGES Data menu item description on page 8-6.

Used to import external curves and su rfaces stored in an ASCII IGG™ format. See

Used to import external curves and surfaces stored in an ASCII IGG™ format. See the File/Import/IGG Data menu item description on page 8-4.

Used to check the grid quality. See the Grid/Grid Quality menu item description on page

Used to check the grid quality. See the Grid/Grid Quality menu item description on page 10-19.

Used to check the negative cells. See the Grid/Negative cells menu item description on page

Used to check the negative cells. See the Grid/Negative cells menu item description on page 10-24.

Used to measure distance between geometry or grid entities. See the Geometry/Distance menu item description

Used to measure distance between geometry or grid entities. See the Geometry/Distance menu item description on page 9-30.

Moreover, it contains a set of buttons allowing to control the vertex attraction.

a set of buttons a llowing to control the vertex attraction. FIGURE 2.2.2-1 Toolbar vertex attraction

FIGURE 2.2.2-1 Toolbar vertex attraction control

This set of four buttons provides an easy visualization and control of the vertex attraction. This ver- tex attraction is controlled by vertex. Each button can be toggled individually and it enables or dis- ables the corresponding attraction mode. The entities on which a vertex can be attracted, corresponding to the four attraction modes (respectively from left to right), are the following:

Cartesian and curve end points

Curves

Curves intersection

IGG™ Graphical User Interface

GUI description

Surfaces

To control the attraction mode of a vertex, buttons are used as follows:

1. Move the mouse over a vertex.

2. Select it by a left-click. The current attraction mode of the vertex is instantly shown through the buttons.

3. Move the mouse to the attraction control zone and select the appropriate mode(s).

2-2.3

Quick Access Pad

The Quick Access Pad is located in the left part of the GUI. It contains icons and more evolved options providing a fast access to the more used functions of IGG. Some of these functions are only accessible through the Quick Access Pad whereas others are also accessible through the menu bar, so that their description will be referenced to these menus.

The Pad is divided into three subpads, each of which can be toggled by a simple mouse left-click:

Geometry subpad

Grid subpad

View subpad

All the commands and options accessible with these subpads are described in detail in chapter 7 “Quick Access Pad”.

The three subpads are composed of pages containing icons or more evolved options. The icons per- form specific function related to the subpad and the page. Each page can also be toggled by a sim- ple mouse left-click.

The Geometry subpad commands and tools allow the creation and the modification of geometry entities like points, curves and surfaces. It consists of four pages; three for geometry entities crea- tion (respectively point, curve and surface creation) and one for curves and surfaces editing.

surface creat ion) and one for curves and surfaces editing. FIGURE 2.2.3-1 Geometry subpad The Grid

FIGURE 2.2.3-1 Geometry subpad

The Grid subpad commands and tools allow the creation and the manipulation of blocks and related entities like vertices, fixed points, internal faces, internal grid lines,

GUI description

IGG™ Graphical User Interface

GUI description IGG™ Graphical User Interface FIGURE 2.2.3-2 Grid subpad The View subpad allows viewing operations

FIGURE 2.2.3-2 Grid subpad

The View subpad allows viewing operations on the geometry and the grid. In particular, the two first pages provide options permitting the creation and the visualization of geometry and block groups.

2-2.4

Control area

of geometry and block groups. 2-2.4 Control area FIGURE 2.2.3-3 View subpad The control area is

FIGURE 2.2.3-3 View subpad

The control area is composed of six major areas:

Message area

IGG™ Graphical User Interface

GUI description

Keyboard input area

Mouse coordinates

Information area

Grid parameters area

Viewing buttons

Each one is described in the following sections.

2-2.4.1

Message area

This area has several display functions:

Display of warning messages notifying the user

Display of request messages asking the user for inputs from Keyboard input area or Graphics area

Display of general information messages (current function options, )

2-2.4.2

Keyboard input area

Most of the options in IGGrequire numerical inputs from the user. For example, rotating a curve around a given line requires to specify the direction of the line, its origin and the rotation angle.

The keyboard input area is provided to allow such inputs. When an option requires numerical inputs, a message is indicated in the Message area. Without leaving the graphics area, the user can then type the required data. The keystrokes are automatically echoed in the keyboard input area and the user has the possibility to modify the inputs. The input is acknowledged after pressing <Enter>.

Entering scalar values: a scalar value is specified by a floating number followed by <Enter>. Valid values are 5 1.32323 -0.1234 1.4E-5.

Entering vectors: a vector is specified by typing its three components separated by a blank and fol- lowed by <Enter>.

The Keyboard input area can also be used to select the active block, face, edge or segment. Sim- ply enter the related indices separated by blanks and press <Enter> to make the corresponding entity active. This obviously causes the update of the Grid parameters area.

2-2.4.3

Mouse coordinates

This area displays the mouse cursor coordinates in the Graphics area. If the cursor is out of it, it indicates the last cursor position in it.

2-2.4.4

Information area

This area gives general informations (about edges, curves,

and attracting it to a curve, the name of that curve is displayed in this area.

).

For example, when moving a vertex

GUI description

IGG™ Graphical User Interface

2-2.4.5

Grid parameters area

Active block, face, edge and segment indices Number of blocks, faces, edges and segments for the active topology

Active block, face, edge and segment indices Number of blocks, faces, edges and segments for the
Active block, face, edge and segment indices Number of blocks, faces, edges and segments for the

This area shows very useful informations about the grid:

Active Block, Face, Edge and Segment indices

Number of grid blocks, active block faces, active face edges, active edge segments

Block:

Number of active block points

Number of grid points

Name of the block

Number of points in each block direction

Face: constant direction and the corresponding index

Edge: constant direction according to the active face and the corresponding index

Segment: number of points on the segment

The maximum multigrid level available in the I, J and K direction

If the name of the active block is "invalid", it means that any block has been created yet or all the blocks have been deleted.

2-2.5

Viewing buttons

The Viewing buttons are used to perform viewing manipulations on the active view, such as scroll- ing, zooming and rotating. The manipulations use the left, middle and right buttons of the mouse in different ways. The sub-sections below describe the function associated with each mouse button for each viewing button.

For systems that only accept a mouse with two buttons, the middle mouse button can be emulated for viewing options by holding the <Ctrl> key with the left mouse button.

During viewing operations, IGGautomatically removes from the active view all ‘heavy’ graphics representations such as solid model or color shading. This is done to keep a reasonable speed during rotation, translation or zoom operations. The complete picture is restored after a viewing operation is finished. A ‘full visibility’ can be explic- itly requested during viewing operations by calling the File/Preferences dialog box and setting the visibility flag to Full in the Graphics page.

Viewing manipulations can be done while another action is already undertaken (for example, a vertex displacement). That action is temporarily stopped until the viewing operation is finished; then, the action can be performed just like before the viewing. This

IGG™ Graphical User Interface

GUI description

is useful when operations have to be executed in very distant areas of the model. Moreo- ver, to avoid the displacement of the mouse cursor over the correct viewing button, sev- eral viewing commands and tools are accessible with keyboard short cuts listed in the dedicated section of this chapter (see section 2-3.1 on page 2-11).

section of this chapter (see section 2-3.1 on page 2-11). 2-2.5.1 X, Y, and Z projection

2-2.5.1

X, Y, and Z projection buttons

These buttons allow to view the graphics objects on X, Y or Z projection plane.

Left : press this mouse button to project the view on an X, Y or Z constant plane. If the same button is pressed more than one time, the horizontal axis sense changes at each press.

2-2.5.2

Coordinate axis

The coordinate axis button acts as a toggle to display different types of coordinate axis on the active view using the following mouse buttons:axis sense changes at each press. 2-2.5.2 Coordinate axis • Left : press to turn on/off

Left : press to turn on/off the display of symbolic coordinate axis at the lower right corner of the view.

Middle : press to turn on/off the display of scaled coordinate axis for the active view. The axis surrounds all objects in the view and may not be visible when the view is zoomed in.

Right : press to turn on/off the display of IJK axis at the origin of the active block (in Block Viewing Scope) or of all the blocks (in Grid Viewing Scope). (For more informations about the viewing scope, see the View/Grid page of the Quick Access Pad).

2-2.5.3

Scrolling

This button is used to translate the contents of active view within the plane of graphics window in the direction specified by the user. Following functions can be performed with the mouse buttons: the direction specified by the user. Following functions can be performed with the mouse buttons:

Left: press and drag the left mouse button to indicate the translation direction. The translation is proportional to the mouse displacement. Release the button when finished. The translation magnitude is automatically calculated by measuring the distance between the initial clicked point and the current position of the cursor.

Middle : press and drag the middle mouse button to indicate the translation direction. The trans- lation is continuous in the indicated direction. Release the button when finished. The translation speed is automatically calculated by measuring the distance between the initial clicked point and the current position of the cursor.

2-2.5.4

3D viewing button

This button allows to perform viewing operations directly in the graphics area. Allowed operations are 3D rotation, scrolling and zooming. directly in the graphics area. Allowed operations are 3D rotation, scrolling and zooming.

After having selected the option, move the mouse to the active view, then:

Press and drag the left mouse button to perform a 3D rotation

Press and drag the middle mouse button to perform a translation

Press and drag the middle mouse button, while holding the <Shift> key, to perform a zoom

To select the centre of rotation, hold the <Shift> key and press the left mouse button on a geom- etry curve, a vertex or a surface (even if this one is visualized with a wireframe model). The centre of rotation is always located in the center of the screen. So, when changing it, the model is moved according to its new value.

This 3D viewing tool is also accessible with the <F1> key.

GUI description

IGG™ Graphical User Interface

GUI description IGG™ Graphical User Interface 2-2.5.5 Rotate about x, y or z axis The rotation

2-2.5.5

Rotate about x, y or z axis

The rotation buttons are used to rotate graphical objects on the active view around the X, Y or Z axis. The rotations are always performed around the centre of the active view. Following functions can be performed with the mouse buttons:

Left : press and drag the left mouse button to the left or to the right. A clockwise or counter- clockwise rotation will be performed, proportional to the mouse displacement. Release the but- ton when finished.

Middle : press and drag the middle mouse button to the left or to the right. A continuous rota- tion will be performed, clockwise or counterclockwise. Release the button when finished.

2-2.5.6

Zoom in/out

This button is used for zooming operations on the active view. Zooming is always performed around the centre of the view. Following functions can be performed with the mouse buttons:Release the button when finished. 2-2.5.6 Zoom in/out • Left : press and drag the left

Left : press and drag the left mouse button to the left or to the right. A zoom in - zoom out will be performed, proportional to the mouse displacement. Release the button when finished.

Middle : press and drag the middle mouse button to the left or to the right. A continuous zoom in - zoom out will be performed. Release the button when finished.

2-2.5.7

Region zoom

This button allows to specify a rectangular area of the active view that will be fitted to the view dimensions. After having selected the button, dimensions. After having selected the button,

Move the mouse to the active view

Press and drag the left mouse button to select the rectangular region

Release the button to perform the zoom operation These operations can be repeated several times to perform more zooming.

Press <q> or the right mouse button to quit the option.

2-2.5.8

This tool is also accessible with the <F2> key.

Fit button

The fit button is used to fit the content of the view to the view limits without changing the current orientation of the camera (which can be interpreted as the user’s eyes). orientation of the camera (which can be interpreted as the user’s eyes).

2-2.5.9

Original button

The original button is used to fit the content of the view and to give a default orientation to the cam- era. era.

2-2.5.10 Cutting Plane

This option displays a movable plane that cuts the geometry and the blocks of the mesh. The plane is symbolically represented by four e geometry and the blocks of the mesh. The plane is symbolically represented by four boundaries and its normal, and is by default semi-transparent. After having selected the button,

Press and drag the left mouse button to rotate the plane

Press and drag the middle mouse button to translate the plane

IGG™ Graphical User Interface

GUI description

Press <x>, <y> or <z> to align the plane normal along the X, Y or Z axis

Press <n> to revert the plane normal

Press <t> to toggle the transparency of the plane (to make it semi-transparent or fully transpar- ent). It is highly advised to deactivate the plane transparency when using X11 driver to increase the execution speed.

2-2.6

Graphics area and views

The graphics area is the region of the screen dedicated to the display of all graphical objects created by the system. These graphical objects may be distributed in different windows called ’views’ in the IGGterminology. Up to four views can be displayed simultaneously in the graphics area.

The position of the views and the camera orientation for each view can be specified with the View/ View Position menu.

Although several views can be visible at a time, only one can be active. This view is identified by a red border and is called the ’active view’. The active view can be changed with the left mouse but- ton.

GUI interaction

IGG™ Graphical User Interface

2-3

2-3.1

GUI interaction

Keyboard short cuts

IGGprovides short cuts for the most commonly used options which allow to activate options without accessing the menus. A short cut consists of a single key or a 2 keys combination and is indicated at the right of each menu item, when available. To use a short cut:

Move the mouse to the graphics area

Press the key corresponding to the short cut. The menu option is activated automatically.

For example, the selection of curves can be activated using the Geometry/Select/Curves menu or simply by pressing <s> in the graphics area.

A list of the available short cuts is given in the following table.

TABLE 2.

Short cuts

Function

Alt-e

Sets the viewing scope to Edge mode.

See the Quick Access Pad View/Grid page description on page 7-29.

Alt-f

Sets the viewing scope to Face mode.

See the Quick Access Pad View/Grid page description on page 7-29.

Alt-b

Sets the viewing scope to Block mode.

See the Quick Access Pad View/Grid page description on page 7-29.

Alt-g

Sets the viewing scope to Grid mode.

See the Quick Access Pad View/Grid page description on page 7-29.

Alt-s

Toggles solid representation of selected surfaces.

See the Geometry/View/View solid menu item description on page 9-30.

Alt-w

Toggles wireframe representation of selected surfaces.

See the Geometry/View/View wireframe menu item description on page 9-

30.