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C4 SERIES Answers - Worksheet A

( −1)( −2) ( −1)( −2)( −3)


1 a = 1 + (−1)x + 2
x2 + 3× 2
x3 + …
= 1 − x + x2 − x + … 3

( 12 )( − 12 ) 2 ( 1 )( − 1 )( − 3 )
b = 1 + ( 12 )x + 2
x + 2 3×2 2 2 x3 + …
1 2
=1+ 1
2
x− 8
x + 161 x3 + …
( −3)( −4) ( −3)( −4)( −5)
c = 2[1 + (−3)x + 2
x2 + 3× 2
x3 + …]
2 3
= 2 − 6x + 12x − 20x + …
( 23 )( − 13 ) 2 ( 2 )( − 1 )( − 4 )
d = 1 + ( 23 )x + 2
x + 3 3×3 2 3 x3 + …
1 2
=1+ 2
3
x− 9
x + 814 x3 + …
1 ( 13 )( − 23 ) ( 13 )( − 23 )( − 53 )
e = (1 − x) 3 = 1 + ( 13 )(−x) + 2
(−x)2 + 3× 2
(−x)3 + …
=1− 1
3
x− 1
9
x2 − 5
81
x3 + …
( −2)( −3) ( −2)( −3)( −4)
f = (1 + x)−2 = 1 + (−2)x + 2
x2 + 3×2
x3 + …
= 1 − 2x + 3x2 − 4x3 + …
( −4)( −5) ( −4)( −5)( −6)
g = 1
4
(1 − x)−4 = 1
4
[1 + (−4)(−x) + 2
(−x)2 + 3× 2
(−x)3 + …]
= 1
4
+x+ 5
2
x2 + 5x3 + …
− 12 ( − 12 )( − 32 ) ( − 12 )( − 32 )( − 52 )
h = 3(1 − x) = 3[1 + ( − 12 )(−x) + 2
(−x)2 + 3× 2
(−x)3 + …]
=3+ 3
2
x+ 9
8
x2 + 15
16
x3 + …

( 12 )( − 12 ) 2 ( 12 )( − 12 )( − 32 )
2 a = 1 + ( 12 )(2x) + 2
(2x) + 3×2
(2x)3 + …
=1+x− 1
2
x2 + 1 3
2
x + …, | 2x | < 1 ∴ valid for | x | < 1
2

( −1)( −2) ( −1)( −2)( −3)


b = 1 + (−1)(−3x) + 2
(−3x)2 + 3× 2
(−3x)3 + …
= 1 + 3x + 9x2 + 27x + …, | −3x | < 1 3
∴ valid for | x | < 1
3

( − 12 )( − 32 ) ( − 12 )( − 32 )( − 52 )
c = 1 + ( − 12 )(−4x) + 2
(−4x)2 + 3× 2
(−4x)3 + …
= 1 + 2x + 6x2 + 20x + …, | −4x | < 1 3
∴ valid for | x | < 1
4

( −3)( −4) ( −3)( −4)( −5)


d = 1 + (−3)( 12 x) + 2
( 12 x)2 + 3× 2
( 12 x)3 + …
=1− 3
2
x+ 3
2
x2 − 5 3
4
x + …, | 12 x | < 1 ∴ valid for | x | < 2
( 13 )( − 23 ) ( 13 )( − 23 )( − 53 )
e = 1 + ( 13 )(−6x) + 2
(−6x)2 + 3× 2
(−6x)3 + …
= 1 − 2x − 4x2 − 40 3
3
x + …, | −6x | < 1 ∴ valid for | x | < 1
6

( −4)( −5) 1 ( −4)( −5)( −6)


f = 1 + (−4)( 14 x) + 2
(4 x)2 + 3× 2
( 14 x)3 + …
=1−x+ 5
8
x2 − 5 3
16
x + …, | 14 x | < 1 ∴ valid for | x | < 4
( 32 )( 12 ) ( 3 )( 1 )( − 1 )
g = 1 + ( 32 )(2x) + 2
(2x)2 + 2 32×2 2 (2x)3 + …
3 2
= 1 + 3x + 2
x − 12 x3 + …, | 2x | < 1 ∴ valid for | x | < 1
2

( − 43 )( − 73 ) ( − 4 )( − 7 )( − 10 )
h = 1 + ( − 43 )(−3x) + 2
(−3x)2 + 3 3×32 3 (−3x)3 + …
= 1 + 4x + 14x2 + 140 3
3
x + …, | −3x | < 1 ∴ valid for | x | < 13

 Solomon Press
C4 SERIES Answers - Worksheet A page 2

( 12 )( − 12 ) ( 12 )( − 12 )( − 32 )
3 a = 1 + ( 12 )(−2x) + 2
(−2x)2 + 3×2
(−2x)3 + …
=1−x− 1
2
x2 − 1 3
2
x +…
1
b 0.98 = (1 − 2 x) 2 when x = 0.01
∴ 0.98 ≈ 1 − (0.01) − 1
2
(0.01)2 − 1
2
(0.01)3
= 1 − 0.01 − 0.000 05 − 0.000 000 5
= 0.989 949 5
98 49 × 2 7
c 0.98 = 100
= 100
= 10
2
∴ 2 ≈ 10
7
× 0.989 949 5 = 1.414 213 6 (8sf)

4 a = 2−1(1 + 1
2
x)−1 = 1
2
x)−1 1
2
(1 +
= 1
2
[1 + (−1)( 12 x) + ( −1)(2 −2) ( 12 x)2 + ( −1)(3−×2)(
2
−3) 1
( 2 x)3 + …]
= 1
2
− 1
4
x + 18 x2 − 161 x3 + …, | 12 x | < 1 ∴ valid for | x | < 2
1 1 1
b = 4 2 (1 + 14 x) 2 = 2(1 + 1
4
x) 2
( 12 )( − 12 ) 1 ( 12 )( − 12 )( − 32 )
= 2[1 + ( 12 )( 14 x) + 2
( 4 x)2 + 3×2
( 14 x)3 + …]
=2+ 1
4
x− 1
64
x2 + 1
512
x3 + …, | 14 x | < 1 ∴ valid for | x | < 4

c = 3−3(1 − 1
3
x)−3 = 1
3
x)−3
1
27
(1 −
= 1
27
[1 + (−3)(− 13 x) + ( −3)(2 −4) (− 13 x)2 + ( −3)( −4)( −5)
3× 2
(− 13 x)3 + …]
= 1
27
+ 1
27
x + 812 x2 + 729
10 3
x + …, | − 13 x | < 1 ∴ valid for | x | < 3
1 1 1
d = 9 2 (1 + 1
3
x) 2 = 3(1 + 1
3
x) 2
( 12 )( − 12 ) 1 ( 12 )( − 12 )( − 32 )
= 3[1 + ( 12 )( 13 x) + 2
( 3 x)2 + 3×2
( 13 x)3 + …]
=3+ 1
2
x− 1
24
x2 + 1
144
x3 + …, | 13 x | < 1 ∴ valid for | x | < 3
1 1 1
e = 8 3 (1 − 3 x) 3 = 2(1 − 3x) 3
( 13 )( − 32 ) ( 13 )( − 23 )( − 53 )
= 2[1 + ( 13 )(−3x) + 2
(−3x)2 + 3× 2
(−3x)3 + …]
= 2 − 2x − 2x2 − 10
3
3
x + …, | −3x | < 1 ∴ valid for | x | < 1
3

f = 4−1(1 − 3
4
x)−1 = 3
4
x)−1 1
4
(1 −
= 1
4
[1 + (−1)(− 34 x) + ( −1)(2 −2) (− 34 x)2 + ( −1)( −2)( −3)
3× 2
(− 34 x)3 + …]
= 1
4
+ 3
16
x + 649 x2 + 256
27 3
x + …, | − 34 x | < 1 ∴ valid for | x | < 4
3

−1 − 12 − 12
g = 4 2 (1 + 3
2
x) = 1
2
(1 + 3
2
x)
( − 12 )( − 32 ) 3 ( − 12 )( − 32 )( − 52 )
= 1
2
[1 + ( − 12 )( 32 x) + 2
(2 x)2 + 3× 2
( 32 x)3 + …]
= 1
2
− 3
8
x+ 27
64
x2 − 135
256
3
x + …, | 32 x | < 1 ∴ valid for | x | < 2
3

h = 3−2(1 + 2
3
x)−2 = 1
9
(1 + 2
3
x)−2
( −2)( −3) 2
= 1
9
[1 + (−2)( 23 x) + 2
( 3 x)2 + ( −2)(3−×3)(
2
−4) 2
( 3 x)3 + …]
= 1
9
− 4
27
x+ 4
27
x2 − 32 3
243
x + …, | 23 x | < 1 ∴ valid for | x | < 3
2

 Solomon Press
C4 SERIES Answers - Worksheet A page 3

( −1)( −2) ( −1)( −2)( −3)


5 a = 1 + (−1)(2x) + 2
(2x)2 + 3× 2
(2x)3 + …
= 1 − 2x + 4x2 − 8x + … 3

b = (1 − x)(1 + 2x)−1 = (1 − x)( 1 − 2x + 4x2 − 8x3 + …)


= 1 − 2x + 4x2 − 8x3 − x + 2x2 − 4x3 + …
= 1 − 3x + 6x2 − 12x3 + …

6 a = (1 + 3x)(1 − x)−1 = (1 + 3x)[1 + (−1)(−x) + ( −1)(2 −2) (−x)2 + ( −1)( −2)( −3)
3× 2
(−x)3 + …]
= (1 + 3x)(1 + x + x2 + x3 + …)
= 1 + x + x2 + x3 + 3x + 3x2 + 3x3 + …
= 1 + 4x + 4x2 + 4x3 + …, | −x | < 1 ∴ valid for | x | < 1
( −2)( −3) ( −2)( −3)( −4)
b = (2x − 1)(1 + 4x)−2 = (2x − 1)[1 + (−2)(4x) + 2
(4x)2 + 3×2
(4x)3 + …]
= (2x − 1)(1 − 8x + 48x2 − 256x + …) 3

= 2x − 16x2 + 96x3 − 1 + 8x − 48x2 + 256x3 + …


= −1 + 10x − 64x2 + 352x3 + …, | 4x | < 1 ∴ valid for | x | < 1
4

c = (3 + x)(2 − x)−1 = (3 + x) × 2−1(1 − 1


2
x)−1
( −1)( −2) ( −1)( −2)( −3)
= (3 + x) × 1
2
[1 + (−1)(− 12 x) + 2
(− 12 x)2 + 3× 2
(− 12 x)3 + …]
= (3 + x)( 12 + 1
4
x + 18 x2 + 161 x3 + …)
3 2
= 3
2
+ 3
4
x+ 8
x + 163 x3 + 12 x + 14 x2 + 18 x3 +…
5 2
= 3
2
+ 5
4
x+ 8
x + 165 x3 + …, | − 12 x | < 1 ∴ valid for | x | < 2
− 12 ( − 12 )( − 32 ) ( − 1 )( − 3 )( − 5 )
d = (1 − x)(1 + 2 x) = (1 − x)[1 + ( − 12 )(2x) + 2
(2x)2 + 2 3×22 2 (2x)3 + …]
= (1 − x)(1 − x + 32 x2 − 52 x3 + …)
= 1 − x + 32 x2 − 52 x3 − x + x2 − 32 x3 + …
= 1 − 2x + 52 x2 − 4x3 + …, | 2x | < 1 ∴ valid for |x| < 1
2

x−2 A B
7 a ≡ +
(1 − x)(1 − 2 x) 1− x 1 − 2x
x − 2 ≡ A(1 − 2x) + B(1 − x)
x=1 ⇒ −1 = −A ⇒ A=1
x= 21
⇒ −2 = 2B ⇒
3 1
B = −3
x−2 1 3
∴ ≡ −
(1 − x)(1 − 2 x) 1− x 1 − 2x

1 ( −1)( −2) ( −1)( −2)( −3)


b = (1 − x)−1 = 1 + (−1)(−x) + 2
(−x)2 + 3× 2
(−x)3 + …
1− x
= 1 + x + x2 + x3 + …, | −x | < 1 ∴ | x | < 1
3 ( −1)( −2) ( −1)( −2)( −3)
= 3(1 − 2x)−1 = 3[1 + (−1)(−2x) + 2
(−2x)2 + 3× 2
(−2x)3 + …]
1 − 2x
= 3 + 6x + 12x2 + 24x3 + …, | −2x | < 1 ∴ | x | < 1
2
x−2
∴ = (1 + x + x2 + x3 + …) − (3 + 6x + 12x2 + 24x3 + …)
(1 − x)(1 − 2 x)
= −2 − 5x − 11x2 − 23x3 + …, valid for | x | < 1
2

 Solomon Press
C4 SERIES Answers - Worksheet A page 4

4 A B
8 a ≡ +
(1 + x)(1 − 3 x) 1+ x 1 − 3x
4 ≡ A(1 − 3x) + B(1 + x)
x = −1 ⇒ 4 = 4A ⇒ A=1
x = 13 ⇒ 4 = 43 B ⇒ B=3
1 3
∴ f(x) ≡ +
1+ x 1 − 3x
1 ( −1)( −2) ( −1)( −2)( −3)
= (1 + x)−1 = 1 + (−1)x + 2
x2 + 3× 2
x3 + …
1+ x
= 1 − x + x2 − x3 + …, | x | < 1
3 ( −1)( −2) ( −1)( −2)( −3)
= 3(1 − 3x)−1 = 3[1 + (−1)(−3x) + 2
(−3x)2 + 3× 2
(−3x)3 + …]
1 − 3x
= 3 + 9x + 27x2 + 81x3 + …, | −3x | < 1 ∴ | x | < 1
3
∴ f(x) ≡ (1 − x + x2 − x3 + …) + (3 + 9x + 27x2 + 81x3 + …)
f(x) ≡ 4 + 8x + 28x2 + 80x3 + …, valid for | x | < 13

1 − 6x 1 − 6x A B
b ≡ ≡ +
1 + 3x − 4 x 2 (1 − x)(1 + 4 x) 1− x 1 + 4x
1 − 6x ≡ A(1 + 4x) + B(1 − x)
x=1 ⇒ −5 = 5A ⇒ A = −1
x= −4 ⇒
1 5
2
5
= 4B ⇒ B=2
2 1
∴ f(x) ≡ −
1 + 4x 1− x
2 ( −1)( −2) ( −1)( −2)( −3)
= 2(1 + 4x)−1 = 2[1 + (−1)(4x) + 2
(4x)2 + 3× 2
(4x)3 + …]
1 + 4x
= 2 − 8x + 32x2 − 128x3 + …, | 4x | < 1 ∴ | x | < 1
4
1 ( −1)( −2) ( −1)( −2)( −3)
= (1 − x)−1 = 1 + (−1)(−x) + 2
(−x)2 + 3× 2
(−x)3 + …
1− x
= 1 + x + x2 + x3 + …, | −x | < 1 ∴ | x | < 1
∴ f(x) ≡ (2 − 8x + 32x2 − 128x3 + …) − (1 + x + x2 + x3 + …)
f(x) ≡ 1 − 9x + 31x2 − 129x3 + …, valid for | x | < 14

5 5 A B
c ≡ = +
2 − 3x − 2 x 2 (1 − 2 x )(2 + x) 1 − 2x 2+ x
5 ≡ A(2 + x) + B(1 − 2x)
x = 12 ⇒ 5 = 52 A ⇒ A=2
x = −2 ⇒ 5 = 5B ⇒ B=1
2 1
∴ f(x) ≡ +
1 − 2x 2+ x
2 ( −1)( −2) ( −1)( −2)( −3)
= 2(1 − 2x)−1 = 2[1 + (−1)(−2x) + 2
(−2x)2 + 3× 2
(−2x)3 + …]
1 − 2x
= 2 + 4x + 8x2 + 16x3 + …, | −2x | < 1 ∴ | x | < 1
2
1 ( −1)( −2) ( −1)( −2)( −3)
= (2 + x)−1 = 2−1(1 + 1
2
x)−1 = 1
2
[1 + (−1)( 12 x) + 2
( 12 x)2 + 3× 2
( 12 x)3 + …]
2+ x
= 1
2
− 1
4
x+ 1
8
x2 − 1
16
x3 + …, | 12 x | < 1 ∴ | x | < 2
∴ f(x) ≡ (2 + 4x + 8x2 + 16x3 + …) + ( 1
2
− 1
4
x+ 1
8
x2 − 1
16
x3 + …)
f(x) ≡ 5
2
+ 15
4
x+ 65
8
x2 + 255
16
x3 + …, valid for | x | < 1
2

 Solomon Press
C4 SERIES Answers - Worksheet A page 5

7x − 3 7x − 3 A B
d ≡ ≡ +
x2 − 4x + 3 ( x − 1)( x − 3) x −1 x−3
7x − 3 ≡ A(x − 3) + B(x − 1)
x=1 ⇒ 4 = −2A ⇒ A = −2
x=3 ⇒ 18 = 2B ⇒ B=9
9 2 2 9
∴ f(x) ≡ − ≡ −
x−3 x −1 1− x 3− x
2 ( −1)( −2) ( −1)( −2)( −3)
= 2(1 − x)−1 = 2[1 + (−1)(−x) + 2
(−x)2 + 3× 2
(−x)3 + …]
1− x
= 2 + 2x + 2x2 + 2x3 + …, | −x | < 1 ∴ | x | < 1
9
= 9(3 − x)−1 = 9 × 3−1(1 − 1
3
x)−1
3− x
( −1)( −2) ( −1)( −2)( −3)
= 3[1 + (−1)(− 13 x) + 2
(− 13 x)2 + 3× 2
(− 13 x)3 + …]
=3+x+ 1
3
x2 + 1
9
x3 + …, | − 13 x | < 1 ∴ | x | < 3
∴ f(x) ≡ (2 + 2x + 2x2 + 2x + …) − (3 + x + 3 1
3
x2 + 1
9
x3 + …)
f(x) ≡ −1 + x + 5
3
x2 + 17
9
x3 + …, valid for | x | < 1

3 + 5x A B C
e ≡ + +
(1 + 3 x)(1 + x)2 1 + 3x 1+ x (1 + x)2
3 + 5x ≡ A(1 + x)2 + B(1 + 3x)(1 + x) + C(1 + 3x)
x = − 13 ⇒ 4
3
= 94 A ⇒ A=3
x = −1 ⇒ −2 = −2C ⇒ C=1
2
coeffs of x ⇒ 0 = A + 3B ⇒ B = −1
3 1 1
∴ f(x) ≡ − +
1 + 3x 1+ x (1 + x)2
3 ( −1)( −2) ( −1)( −2)( −3)
= 3(1 + 3x)−1 = 3[1 + (−1)(3x) + 2
(3x)2 + 3× 2
(3x)3 + …]
1 + 3x
= 3 − 9x + 27x2 − 81x3 + …, | 3x | < 1 ∴ | x | < 1
3
1 ( −1)( −2) ( −1)( −2)( −3)
= (1 + x)−1 = 1 + (−1)x + 2
x2 + 3× 2
x3 + …
1+ x
= 1 − x + x2 − x3 + …, | x | < 1
1 ( −2)( −3) ( −2)( −3)( −4)
= (1 + x)−2 = 1 + (−2)x + 2
x2 + 3×2
x3 + …
(1 + x)2
= 1 − 2x + 3x2 − 4x3 + …, | x | < 1
∴ f(x) ≡ (3 − 9x + 27x2 − 81x3 + …) − (1 − x + x2 − x3 + …) + (1 − 2x + 3x2 − 4x3 + …)
f(x) ≡ 3 − 10x + 29x2 − 84x3 + …, valid for | x | < 13

 Solomon Press
C4 SERIES Answers - Worksheet A page 6

f
1
2x2 + x − 1 2x2 + 0x + 4
2x2 + x − 1
− x + 5

2x2 + 4 5− x
∴ ≡1+ 2
2 x2 + x − 1 2x + x − 1
5− x 5− x A B
2
≡ ≡ +
2x + x − 1 (2 x − 1)( x + 1) 2x − 1 x +1
5 − x ≡ A(x + 1) + B(2x − 1)
x = 12 ⇒ 9
2
= 32 A ⇒ A=3
x = −1 ⇒ 6 = −3B ⇒ B = −2
3 2 3 2
∴ f(x) ≡ 1 + − ≡1− −
2x − 1 x +1 1 − 2x 1+ x
3 ( −1)( −2) ( −1)( −2)( −3)
= 3(1 − 2x)−1 = 3[1 + (−1)(−2x) + 2
(−2x)2 + 3× 2
(−2x)3 + …]
1 − 2x
= 3 + 6x + 12x2 + 24x3 + …, | −2x | < 1 ∴ | x | < 1
2
2 ( −1)( −2) ( −1)( −2)( −3)
= 2(1 + x)−1 = 2[1 + (−1)x + 2
x2 + 3× 2
x3 + …]
1+ x
= 2 − 2x + 2x2 − 2x3 + …, | x | < 1
∴ f(x) ≡ 1 − (3 + 6x + 12x2 + 24x3 + …) − (2 − 2x + 2x2 − 2x3 + …)
f(x) ≡ −4 − 4x − 14x2 − 22x3 + …, valid for | x | < 12

 Solomon Press
C4 SERIES Answers - Worksheet B

( 12 )( − 12 ) ( 1 )( − 1 )( − 3 )
1 a = 1 + ( 12 )(−x) + 2
(−x)2 + 2 3×2 2 2 (−x)3 + …
1 2
=1− 1
2
x− 8
x − 161 x3 + …
1
b when x = 0.01, (1 − x) 2 ≈ 1 − 1
2
(0.01) − 1
8
(0.01)2 − 1
16
(0.01)3
= 1 − 0.005 − 0.000 012 5 − 0.000 000 062 5 = 0.994 987 437 5
1
9 ×11
(1 − 0.01) = 2
0.99 = 100
= 3
10
11
∴ 11 = 10
3
× 0.994 987 437 5 = 3.316 624 79 (9sf)

( 12 )( − 12 ) ( 12 )( − 12 )( − 32 )
2 a a= 2
(8)2 = −8, b = 3×2
(8)3 = 32
1
b when x = 0.01, (1 + 8 x) 2 ≈ 1 + 4(0.01) − 8(0.01)2 + 32(0.01)3
= 1 + 0.04 − 0.000 8 + 0.000 032 = 1.039 232
1
36 × 3 3
(1 + 0.08) 2 = 1.08 = 100
= 5
3
∴ 3 = 5
3
× 1.039 232 = 1.732 05 (5dp)

1 1 1
3 a = 9 2 (1 − 2
3
x) 2 = 3(1 − 2
3
x) 2
( 12 )( − 12 ) ( 12 )( − 12 )( − 32 )
= 3[1 + ( 12 )(− 23 x) + 2
(− 23 x)2 + 3×2
(− 23 x)3 + …]
= 3 − x − 16 x2 − 181 x3 + …
b let x = 0.05
8.7 ≈ 3 − 0.05 − 16 (0.05)2 − 1
18
(0.05)3
= 2.949 576 (7sf)

( 13 )( − 32 ) ( 13 )( − 23 )( − 35 )
4 a = 1 + ( 13 )(6x) + 2
(6x)2 + 3× 2
(6x)3 + …
= 1 + 2x − 4x2 + 40 3
3
x +…
1
b when x = 0.004, (1 + 6 x) 3 ≈ 1 + 2(0.004) − 4(0.004)2 + 40
3
(0.004)3
= 1.007 936 853
1
(1 + 0.024) 3 = 3 1.024 = 3 512 × 2 = 4 3
2
1000 5
3
∴ 2 = 5
4
× 1.007 936 853 = 1.259 921 (7sf)

( −3)( −4) ( −3)( −4)( −5)


5 a = 1 + (−3)(2x) + 2
(2x)2 + 3× 2
(2x)3 + …
= 1 − 6x + 24x2 − 80x + …, | 2x | < 1 ∴ valid for | x | <
3 1
2
b = (1 + 3x)(1 + 2x)−3 = (1 + 3x)(1 − 6x + 24x2 − 80x3 + …)
= 1 − 6x + 24x2 − 80x3 + 3x − 18x2 + 72x3 + …
= 1 − 3x + 6x2 − 8x3 + …

2+ x − 12 −1 − 12
6 = (2 + x)(4 − 2 x) = (2 + x) × 4 2 (1 − 1
2
x)
4 − 2x
( − 12 )( − 23 )
= (2 + x) × 1
2
[1 + ( − 12 )( − 12 x) + 2
( − 12 x)2 + …]
= (2 + x)( 12 + 1
8
x+ 3
64
x2 + …)
∴ coeff of x2 = (2 × 3
64
) + (1 × 1
8
)= 7
32

 Solomon Press
C4 SERIES Answers - Worksheet B page 2

2 − 11x A B
7 a ≡ +
1 − 5x + 4x2 1− x 1 − 4x
2 − 11x ≡ A(1 − 4x) + B(1 − x)
x=1 ⇒ −9 = −3A ⇒ A=3
x= 41
⇒ − 34 = 34 B ⇒ B = −1
2 − 11x 3 1
b ≡ −
1 − 5x + 4x2 1− x 1 − 4x
3 ( −1)( −2) ( −1)( −2)( −3)
= 3(1 − x)−1 = 3[1 + (−1)(−x) + 2
(−x)2 + 3× 2
(−x)3 + …]
1− x
= 3 + 3x + 3x2 + 3x3 + …, | −x | < 1 ∴ | x | < 1
1 ( −1)( −2) ( −1)( −2)( −3)
= (1 − 4x)−1 = 1 + (−1)(−4x) + 2
(−4x)2 + 3× 2
(−4x)3 + …
1 − 4x
= 1 + 4x + 16x2 + 64x3 + …, | −4x | < 1 ∴ | x | < 1
4
2 − 11x
∴ = (3 + 3x + 3x2 + 3x3 + …) − (1 + 4x + 16x2 + 64x3 + …)
1 − 5x + 4x2
= 2 − x − 13x2 − 61x3 + …, valid for | x | < 1
4

4 − 17 x A B C
8 a ≡ + +
(1 + 2 x)(1 − 3 x)2 1 + 2x 1 − 3x (1 − 3 x)2
4 − 17x ≡ A(1 − 3x)2 + B(1 + 2x)(1 − 3x) + C(1 + 2x)
x = − 12 ⇒ 25
2
= 254 A ⇒ A=2
x= 1
3
⇒ − 53 = 5
3
C ⇒ C = −1
2
coeffs of x ⇒ 0 = 9A − 6B ⇒ B=3
2 3 1
∴ f(x) ≡ + −
1 + 2x 1 − 3x (1 − 3 x)2
2 ( −1)( −2) ( −1)( −2)( −3)
b = 2(1 + 2x)−1 = 2[1 + (−1)(2x) + 2
(2x)2 + 3× 2
(2x)3 + …]
1 + 2x
= 2 − 4x + 8x2 − 16x3 + …
3 ( −1)( −2) ( −1)( −2)( −3)
= 3(1 − 3x)−1 = 3[1 + (−1)(−3x) + 2
(−3x)2 + 3× 2
(−3x)3 + …]
1 − 3x
= 3 + 9x + 27x2 + 81x3 + …
1 ( −2)( −3) ( −2)( −3)( −4)
= (1 − 3x)−2 = 1 + (−2)(−3x) + 2
(−3x)2 + 3×2
(−3x)3 + …
(1 − 3 x)2
= 1 + 6x + 27x2 + 108x3 + …
f(x) = (2 − 4x + 8x − 16x3 + …) + (3 + 9x + 27x2 + 81x3 + …) − (1 + 6x + 27x2 + 108x3 + …)
2

= 4 − x + 8x2 − 43x3 + …

b ( b −1)
9 a (1 + ax)b = 1 + b(ax) + 2
(ax)2 + …
∴ ab = −6 (1)
1 2
and 2
a b(b − 1) = 24 (2)
6
(1) ⇒ a=−
b
18
sub. (2) ⇒ (b − 1) = 24
b
18b − 18 = 24b
b = −3
a=2
( −3)( −4)( −5) 3
b = 3× 2
(2) = −80

 Solomon Press
C4 SERIES Answers - Worksheet C

( 12 )( − 12 ) ( 12 )( − 12 )( − 32 )
1 a = 1 + ( 12 )(−4x) + 2
(−4x)2 + 3×2
(−4x)3 + …
= 1 − 2x − 2x2 − 4x + …, | −4x | < 1 ∴ valid for | x | <
3 1
4
1
b when x = 0.01, (1 − 4 x) 2 ≈ 1 − 2(0.01) − 2(0.01)2 − 4(0.01)3
= 1 − 0.02 − 0.0002 − 0.000 004
= 0.979 796
1
16 × 6
(1 − 0.04) 2 = 0.96 = 100
= 2
5
6
∴ 6 ≈ 5
2
× 0.979 796 = 2.44949 (6sf)

4 4 A B
2 a ≡ ≡ +
1 + 2 x − 3x 2 (1 + 3 x)(1 − x) 1 + 3x 1− x
4 ≡ A(1 − x) + B(1 + 3x)
x = − 13 ⇒ 4 = 43 A ⇒ A=3
x=1 ⇒ 4 = 4B ⇒ B=1
3 1
∴ f(x) = +
1 + 3x 1− x
3 ( −1)( −2) ( −1)( −2)( −3)
b = 3(1 + 3x)−1 = 3[1 + (−1)(3x) + 2
(3x)2 + 3× 2
(3x)3 + …]
1 + 3x
= 3 − 9x + 27x2 − 81x3 + …, | 3x | < 1 ∴ valid for | x | < 1
3
1 ( −1)( −2) ( −1)( −2)( −3)
= (1 − x)−1 = 1 + (−1)(−x) + 2
(−x)2 + 3× 2
(−x)3 + …
1− x
= 1 + x + x2 + x3 + …, | −x | < 1 ∴ valid for | x | < 1
∴ f(x) = (3 − 9x + 27x2 − 81x3 + …) + (1 + x + x2 + x3 + …)
= 4 − 8x + 28x2 − 80x3 + …, valid for | x | < 13

3 a = 2−2(1 − 1
2
x)−2 = 1
4
(1 − 1
2
x)−2
= 1
4
[1 + (−2)(− 12 x) + ( −2)(2 −3) (− 12 x)2 + ( −2)( −3)( −4)
3×2
(− 12 x)3 + …]
= 1
4
+ 1
4
x+ 3
16
x2 + 1 3
8
x +…
3− x
b = (3 − x)(2 − x)−2 = (3 − x)( 1
4
+ 1
4
x+ 3
16
x2 + 1
8
x3 + …)
(2 − x)2
∴ coefficient of x3 = (3 × 1
8
) + (−1 × 3
16
)= 3
16

4 4 4 15
4 a f( 101 ) = = = 4
=4× 4
= 15
1 + 151 16
15 15

− 12 ( − 12 )( − 32 )
b = 4(1 + 2
3
x) = 4[1 + ( − 12 )( 23 x) + 2
( 23 x)2 + …]
=4− 4
3
x+ 2
3
x2 + …
c 15 = f( 101 ) ≈ 4 − 4
3
× 101 + 2
3
×( 101 )2 + …
=4− 2
15
+ 1
150
131
= 3 150
d 15 = 3.872 98…
131
3 150 = 3.873 33…
3 55
63
= 3.873 01…
∴ 15 < 3 55
63
131
< 3 150 , so 3 55
63
is a more accurate approximation

 Solomon Press
C4 SERIES Answers - Worksheet C page 2

( 13 )( − 23 )
5 a = 1 + ( 13 )(−x) + 2
(−x)2 + …
=1− 1
3
x− 1
9
x2 + …
1
b when x = 10−3, (1 − x) 3 ≈ 1 − 13 (10−3) − 19 (10−3)2
= 0.999 666 555 6
1
(1 − 10−3 ) 3 = 3
0.999 = 3 27 × 37 = 3 3
37
1000 10
3
∴ 37 ≈ 10
3
× 0.999 666 555 6 = 3.332 221 85 (9sf)

( 35 )( − 25 )
6 a p= 2
(5)2 = −3
( 3 )( − 2 )( − 7 )
q = 5 3×5 2 5 (5)3 = 7
b let x = 0.02
3
(1.1) 5 ≈ 1 + 3(0.02) − 3(0.02)2 + 7(0.02)3
= 1 + 0.06 − 0.0012 + 0.000 056
= 1.058 856
3
c (1.1) 5 = 1.058 852 853…
1.058856 −1.058852853
% error = 1.058852853
× 100% = 0.000 297 % (3sf)

7 a 8 − 6x2 ≡ A(2 + x)2 + B(1 + x)(2 + x) + C(1 + x)


x = −1 ⇒ A=2
x = −2 ⇒ −16 = −C ⇒ C = 16
coeffs of x2 ⇒ −6 = A + B ⇒ B = −8
8 − 6x2 2 8 16
b ≡ − +
(1 + x)(2 + x) 2 1+ x 2+ x (2 + x)2
2 ( −1)( −2) ( −1)( −2)( −3)
= 2(1 + x)−1 = 2[1 + (−1)x + 2
x2 + 3× 2
x3 + …]
1+ x
= 2 − 2x + 2x2 − 2x3 + …
8
= 8(2 + x)−1 = 8 × 2−1(1 + 1
2
x)−1 = 4(1 + 1
2
x)−1
2+ x
( −1)( −2) ( −1)( −2)( −3)
= 4[1 + (−1)( 12 x) + 2
( 12 x)2 + 3× 2
( 12 x)3 + …]
= 4 − 2x + x2 − 1
2
x3 + …
16
= 16(2 + x)−2 = 16 × 2−2(1 + 1
2
x)−2 = 4(1 + 1
2
x)−2
(2 + x)2
( −2)( −3) ( −2)( −3)( −4)
= 4[1 + (−2)( 12 x) + 2
( 12 x)2 + 3×2
( 12 x)3 + …]
= 4 − 4x + 3x2 − 2x3 + …
8 − 6x2
∴ = (2 − 2x + 2x2 − 2x3 + …) − (4 − 2x + x2 − 1
2
x3 + …) + (4 − 4x + 3x2 − 2x3 + …)
(1 + x)(2 + x) 2
= 2 − 4x + 4x2 − 7
2
x3 + …

 Solomon Press
C4 SERIES Answers - Worksheet C page 3

( 12 )( − 12 )
8 a = 1 + ( 12 )(−2x) + 2
(−2x)2 + …
=1−x− 1
2
x2 + …
1
b when x = 0.0008, (1 − 2 x) 2 ≈ 1 − 0.0008 − 1
2
(0.0008)2
= 1 − 0.0008 − 0.000 000 32
= 0.999 199 68
1
256 × 39
(1 − 0.0016) 2 = 0.9984 = 10000
= 4
25
39
∴ 39 ≈ 25
4
× 0.999 199 68 = 6.244 998 (7sf)

( 13 )( − 32 )
9 a = 1 + ( 13 )(8x) + 2
(8x)2 + …
=1+ 8
3
x− 64
9
x2 + …
5 3 500 3 125 5
b k= 3
1.08
= 108
= 27
= 3

c let x = 0.01, 1.08 = 1 + 83 (0.01) − 649 (0.01)2


3

= 1.025 955 556


3
∴ 5 = 5
3
× 1.025 955 556 = 1.710 (4sf)

6x A B
10 a f(x) ≡ ≡ +
( x − 1)( x − 3) x −1 x−3
6x ≡ A(x − 3) + B(x − 1)
x=1 ⇒ 6 = −2A ⇒ A = −3
x=3 ⇒ 18 = 2B ⇒ B=9
9 3
f(x) ≡ −
x−3 x −1
3 9
b f(x) = −
1− x 3− x
3 ( −1)( −2) ( −1)( −2)( −3)
= 3(1 − x)−1 = 3[1 + (−1)(−x) + 2
(−x)2 + 3× 2
(−x)3 + …]
1− x
= 3 + 3x + 3x2 + 3x3 + …
9
= 9(3 − x)−1 = 9 × 3−1(1 − 1
3
x)−1 = 3(1 − 1
3
x)−1
3− x
( −1)( −2) ( −1)( −2)( −3)
= 3[1 + (−1)(− 13 x) + 2
(− 13 x)2 + 3× 2
(− 13 x)3 + …]
=3+x+ 1
3
x2 + 1
9
x3 + …
∴ f(x) = (3 + 3x + 3x2 + 3x + …) − (3 + x + 3 1
3
x2 + 1
9
x3 + …)
= 2x + 8
3
x2 + 26
9
x3 + …
∴ for small x, f(x) ≈ 2x + 8
3
x2 + 26
9
x3

 Solomon Press
C4 SERIES Answers - Worksheet C page 4

1 1 1 ( 12 )( − 12 ) 1
11 a = 4 2 (1 + 1
4
x) 2 = 2(1 + 1
4
x) 2 = 2[1 + ( 12 )( 14 x) + 2
( 4 x)2 + …]
2
=2+ 1
4
x− 1
64
x + …, | 14 x | < 1 ∴ valid for | x | < 4
1
b when x = 1
20
, (4 + x) ≈ 2 + 14 ( 201 ) − 641 ( 201 )2
2

= 2.012 460 938


1
1 2 81 81× 5 9
(4 + 20
) = 20
= 100
= 10
5
∴ 5 ≈ 10
9
× 2.012 460 938 = 2.236 067 71 (9sf)
c 5 = 2.236 067 977…
∴ estimate is accurate to 7 significant figures

( − 12 )( − 32 ) ( − 12 )( − 32 )( − 52 )
12 a = 1 + ( − 12 )(2x) + 2
(2x)2 + 3× 2
(2x)3 + …
=1−x+ 3
2
x2 − 5 3
2
x +…
2 − 5x − 12
b = (2 − 5x)(1 + 2 x) = (2 − 5x)( 1 − x + 3
2
x2 − 5
2
x3 + …)
1 + 2x
= 2 − 2x + 3x2 − 5x3 − 5x + 5x2 − 15
2
x3 + …
= 2 − 7x + 8x2 − 25
2
x3 + …
2 − 5x
∴ for small x, = 2 − 7x + 8x2 − 25
2
x3
1 + 2x
c 2 − 5x = 3 × 1 + 2 x = 3 + 6x
(2 − 5x)2 = 3 + 6x
4 − 20x + 25x2 = 3 + 6x
25x2 − 26x + 1 = 0
(25x − 1)(x − 1) = 0
x = 251 , 1
1
d let x = 25

3 ≈ 2 − 7( 251 ) + 8( 251 )2 − 25
2
( 251 )3
= 1.732

( −1)( −2) ( −1)( −2)( −3)


13 a = 1 + (−1)x + 2
x2 + 3× 2
x3 + …
= 1 − x + x2 − x + … 3

b = 1 − bx + b2x2 − b3x3 + …
1 + ax
c = (1 + ax)(1 + bx)−1 = (1 + ax)(1 − bx + b2x2 − b3x3 + …)
1 + bx
= 1 − bx + b2x2 − b3x3 + ax − abx2 + ab2x3 + …
= 1 + (a − b)x + (b2 − ab)x2 + (ab2 − b3)x3 + …
∴ a − b = −4 (1)
and b2 − ab = 12 (2)
(1) ⇒ a=b−4
sub. (2) b2 − b(b − 4) = 12
4b = 12
b = 3, a = −1
d = ab2 − b3 = −9 − 27 = −36

 Solomon Press
C4 PARTIAL FRACTIONS Answers - Worksheet A

1 a x = −4 ⇒ −12 = −6A ⇒ A = 2 b x = −2 ⇒ −5 = −5A ⇒ A = 1


x=2 ⇒ −6 = 6B ⇒ B = −1 x = 12 ⇒ 10 = 52 B ⇒ B = 4

2 a 2 ≡ A(x + 3) + B(x + 1) b x − 3 ≡ A(x − 1) + Bx


x = −1 ⇒ 2 = 2A ⇒ A=1 x=0 ⇒ −3 = −A ⇒ A=3
x = −3 ⇒ 2 = −2B ⇒ B = −1 x=1 ⇒ B = −2

c x + 1 ≡ A(x − 5) + B(x − 3) d x + 10 ≡ A(2 − x) + B(1 + x)


x=3 ⇒ 4 = −2A ⇒ A = −2 x = −1 ⇒ 9 = 3A ⇒ A=3
x=5 ⇒ 6 = 2B ⇒ B=3 x=2 ⇒ 12 = 3B ⇒ B = 4
4x − 1 A B x−9 A B
e ≡ + f ≡ +
( x + 2)( x − 1) x+2 x −1 ( x − 1)( x − 3) x −1 x−3
4x − 1 ≡ A(x − 1) + B(x + 2) x − 9 ≡ A(x − 3) + B(x − 1)
x = −2 ⇒ −9 = −3A ⇒ A = 3 x=1 ⇒ −8 = −2A ⇒ A = 4
x=1 ⇒ 3 = 3B ⇒ B=1 x=3 ⇒ −6 = 2B ⇒ B = −3

8 A B x −1 A B
3 a ≡ + b ≡ +
( x − 1)( x + 3) x −1 x+3 ( x + 2)( x + 3) x+2 x+3
8 ≡ A(x + 3) + B(x − 1) x − 1 ≡ A(x + 3) + B(x + 2)
x=1 ⇒ 8 = 4A ⇒ A=2 x = −2 ⇒ A = −3
x = −3 ⇒ 8 = −4B ⇒ B = −2 x = −3 ⇒ −4 = −B ⇒ B = 4
8 2 2 x −1 4 3
∴ ≡ − ∴ ≡ −
( x − 1)( x + 3) x −1 x+3 ( x + 2)( x + 3) x+3 x+2

10 x A B 5x + 7 A B
c ≡ + d ≡ +
( x + 4)( x − 1) x+4 x −1 x( x + 1) x x +1
10x ≡ A(x − 1) + B(x + 4) 5x + 7 ≡ A(x + 1) + Bx
x = −4 ⇒ −40 = −5A ⇒ A = 8 x=0 ⇒ A=7
x=1 ⇒ 10 = 5B ⇒ B = 2 x = −1 ⇒ 2 = −B ⇒ B = −2
10 x 8 2 5x + 7 7 2
∴ ≡ + ∴ ≡ −
( x + 4)( x − 1) x+4 x −1 x2 + x x x +1

x+2 A B 4x + 6 A B
e ≡ + f ≡ +
( x − 1)( x − 4) x −1 x−4 ( x + 3)( x − 3) x+3 x−3
x + 2 ≡ A(x − 4) + B(x − 1) 4x + 6 ≡ A(x − 3) + B(x + 3)
x=1 ⇒ 3 = −3A ⇒ A = −1 x = −3 ⇒ −6 = −6A ⇒ A = 1
x=4 ⇒ 6 = 3B ⇒ B=2 x=3 ⇒ 18 = 6B ⇒ B = 3
x+2 2 1 4x + 6 1 3
∴ 2
≡ − ∴ ≡ +
x − 5x + 4 x−4 x −1 x2 − 9 x+3 x−3

3x + 2 A B 38 − x A B
g ≡ + h ≡ +
( x − 6)( x + 4) x−6 x+4 (4 + x)(3 − x) 4+ x 3− x
3x + 2 ≡ A(x + 4) + B(x − 6) 38 − x ≡ A(3 − x) + B(4 + x)
x=6 ⇒ 20 = 10A ⇒ A=2 x = −4 ⇒ 42 = 7A ⇒ A = 6
x = −4 ⇒ −10 = −10B ⇒ B = 1 x=3 ⇒ 35 = 7B ⇒ B = 5
3x + 2 2 1 38 − x 6 5
∴ ≡ + ∴ ≡ +
x 2 − 2 x − 24 x−6 x+4 12 − x − x 2 4+ x 3− x

 Solomon Press
C4 PARTIAL FRACTIONS Answers - Worksheet A page 2

4x − 5 A B 1 − 3x A B
i ≡ + j ≡ +
(2 x + 1)( x − 3) 2x + 1 x−3 (3 x + 4)(2 x + 1) 3x + 4 2x + 1
4x − 5 ≡ A(x − 3) + B(2x + 1) 1 − 3x ≡ A(2x + 1) + B(3x + 4)
x = − 12 ⇒ −7 = − 72 A ⇒ A = 2 x = − 43 ⇒ 5 = − 53 A ⇒ A = −3
x=3 ⇒ 7 = 7B ⇒ B=1 x = − 12 ⇒ 5
2
= 5
2
B ⇒ B=1
4x − 5 2 1 1 − 3x 1 3
∴ ≡ + ∴ ≡ −
(2 x + 1)( x − 3) 2x + 1 x−3 (3 x + 4)(2 x + 1) 2x + 1 3x + 4

x +1 A B 5 A B
k ≡ + l ≡ +
x(1 − 3 x) x 1 − 3x (2 x − 1)( x + 2) 2x − 1 x+2
x + 1 ≡ A(1 − 3x) + Bx 5 ≡ A(x + 2) + B(2x − 1)
x=0 ⇒ A=1 x = 12 ⇒ 5 = 52 A ⇒ A=2
x= 1
3
⇒ 4
3
= 1
3
B ⇒ B=4 x = −2 ⇒ 5 = −5B ⇒ B = −1
x +1 1 4 5 2 1
∴ ≡ + ∴ ≡ −
x − 3x2 x 1 − 3x 2
2 x + 3x − 2 2x − 1 x+2

2 x + 10 A B 3x − 7 A B
m ≡ + n ≡ +
(4 x − 1)(2 x + 3) 4x − 1 2x + 3 ( x + 1)( x − 3) x +1 x−3
2x + 10 ≡ A(2x + 3) + B(4x − 1) 3x − 7 ≡ A(x − 3) + B(x + 1)
x = 14 ⇒ 21 2
= 72 A ⇒ A = 3 x = −1 ⇒ −10 = −4A ⇒ A = 5
2

x = − 32 ⇒ 7 = −7B ⇒ B = −1 x=3 ⇒ 2 = 4B ⇒ B= 1
2
2( x + 5) 3 1 3x − 7 5 1
∴ ≡ − ∴ ≡ +
8 x 2 + 10 x − 3 4x − 1 2x + 3 x2 − 2x − 3 2( x + 1) 2( x − 3)

1 − 3x A B
o ≡ +
(1 + x)(1 − 2 x) 1+ x 1 − 2x
1 − 3x ≡ A(1 − 2x) + B(1 + x)
x = −1 ⇒ 4 = 3A ⇒ A= 4
3

x= 1
2
⇒ − 12 = 3
2
B ⇒ B = − 13
1 − 3x 4 1
∴ ≡ −
1 − x − 2x2 3(1 + x) 3(1 − 2 x )

4 a x=4 ⇒ 84 = 21A ⇒ A=4


x = −3 ⇒ −56 = 28B ⇒ B = −2
x=1 ⇒ −12 = −12C ⇒ C=1

b x= 1
3
⇒ 20
3
= − 209 A ⇒ A = −3
x=2 ⇒ 30 = 15B ⇒ B=2
x = −1 ⇒ −12 = 12C ⇒ C = −1

c x = −5 ⇒ 32 = 16A ⇒ A=2
x = −1 ⇒ 12 = 4C ⇒ C=3
coeffs of x2 ⇒ 1=A+B ⇒ B = −1

d x=3 ⇒ 196 = 49A ⇒ A=4


x = − 12 ⇒ 21 = − 72 C ⇒ C = −6
coeffs of x2 ⇒ 20 = 4A + 2B ⇒ B=2

 Solomon Press
C4 PARTIAL FRACTIONS Answers - Worksheet A page 3

5 a 8x + 14 ≡ A(x + 1)(x + 3) + B(x − 2)(x + 3) + C(x − 2)(x + 1)


x=2 ⇒ 30 = 15A ⇒ A=2
x = −1 ⇒ 6 = −6B ⇒ B = −1
x = −3 ⇒ −10 = 10C ⇒ C = −1

b 2x2 − 6x + 20 ≡ A(x + 2)(x − 6) + B(x + 1)(x − 6) + C(x + 1)(x + 2)


x = −1 ⇒ 28 = −7A ⇒ A = −4
x = −2 ⇒ 40 = 8B ⇒ B=5
x=6 ⇒ 56 = 56C ⇒ C=1

c 9x − 14 ≡ A(x − 1)2 + B(x + 4)(x − 1) + C(x + 4)


x = −4 ⇒ −50 = 25A ⇒ A = −2
x=1 ⇒ −5 = 5C ⇒ C = −1
coeffs of x2 ⇒ 0=A+B ⇒ B=2

d 3x2 − 7x − 4 ≡ A(x − 2)2 + B(x − 3)(x − 2) + C(x − 3)


x=3 ⇒ A=2
x=2 ⇒ −6 = −C ⇒ C=6
coeffs of x2 ⇒ 3=A+B ⇒ B=1

2x2 + 4 A B C
6 a ≡ + +
x( x − 1)( x − 4) x x −1 x−4
2x2 + 4 ≡ A(x − 1)(x − 4) + Bx(x − 4) + Cx(x − 1)
x=0 ⇒ 4 = 4A ⇒ A=1
x=1 ⇒ 6 = −3B ⇒ B = −2
2x2 + 4 1 2 3
x=4 ⇒ 36 = 12C ⇒ C=3 ∴ ≡ − +
x( x − 1)( x − 4) x x −1 x−4

9 A B C
b ≡ + +
( x − 2)( x + 1)2 x−2 x +1 ( x + 1)2
9 ≡ A(x + 1)2 + B(x − 2)(x + 1) + C(x − 2)
x=2 ⇒ 9 = 9A ⇒ A=1
x = −1 ⇒ 9 = −3C ⇒ C = −3
9 1 1 3
coeffs of x2 ⇒ 0=A+B ⇒ B = −1 ∴ ≡ − −
( x − 2)( x + 1)2 x−2 x +1 ( x + 1)2

x 2 + 11x − 21 A B C
c ≡ + +
(2 x + 1)( x − 2)( x − 3) 2x + 1 x−2 x−3
x2 + 11x − 21 ≡ A(x − 2)(x − 3) + B(2x + 1)(x − 3) + C(2x + 1)(x − 2)
x = − 12 ⇒ − 105
4
= 354 A ⇒ A = −3
x=2 ⇒ 5 = −5B ⇒ B = −1
x 2 + 11x − 21 3 3 1
x=3 ⇒ 21 = 7C ⇒ C=3 ∴ ≡ − −
(2 x + 1)( x − 2)( x − 3) x−3 2x + 1 x−2

10 x + 9 A B C
d ≡ + +
( x − 4)( x + 3) 2 x−4 x+3 ( x + 3) 2
10x + 9 ≡ A(x + 3)2 + B(x − 4)(x + 3) + C(x − 4)
x=4 ⇒ 49 = 49A ⇒ A=1
x = −3 ⇒ −21 = −7C ⇒ C=3
10 x + 9 1 1 3
coeffs of x2 ⇒ 0=A+B ⇒ B = −1 ∴ ≡ − +
( x − 4)( x + 3) 2 x−4 x+3 ( x + 3) 2

 Solomon Press
C4 PARTIAL FRACTIONS Answers - Worksheet A page 4
x2 + 4 x + 5 A B C
e ≡ + +
( x + 1)( x + 2) 2 x +1 x+2 ( x + 2)2
x2 + 4x + 5 ≡ A(x + 2)2 + B(x + 1)(x + 2) + C(x + 1)
x = −1 ⇒ A=2
x = −2 ⇒ 1 = −C ⇒ C = −1
x2 + 4 x + 5 2 1 1
coeffs of x2 ⇒ 1=A+B ⇒ B = −1 ∴ ≡ − −
( x + 1)( x + 2) 2 x +1 x+2 ( x + 2)2
16 − 2 x A B C
f ≡ + +
( x − 3)( x + 2)( x − 2) x−3 x+2 x−2
16 − 2x ≡ A(x + 2)(x − 2) + B(x − 3)(x − 2) + C(x − 3)(x + 2)
x=3 ⇒ 10 = 5A ⇒ A=2
x = −2 ⇒ 20 = 20B ⇒ B=1
16 − 2 x 2 1 3
x=2 ⇒ 12 = −4C ⇒ C = −3 ∴ ≡ + −
( x − 3)( x 2 − 4) x−3 x+2 x−2
2 − 9x A B C
g ≡ + +
( x − 3)(2 x − 1)2 x−3 2x − 1 (2 x − 1)2
2 − 9x ≡ A(2x − 1)2 + B(x − 3)(2x − 1) + C(x − 3)
x=3 ⇒ −25 = 25A ⇒ A = −1
x= 21
⇒ −2 = −2 C
5 5
⇒ C=1
2 − 9x 2 1 1
coeffs of x2 ⇒ 0 = 4A + 2B ⇒ B=2 ∴ ≡ + −
( x − 3)(2 x − 1)2 2x − 1 (2 x − 1)2 x−3

3 + 24 x − 4 x 2 A B C
h ≡ + +
( x + 1)( x − 4)2 x +1 x−4 ( x − 4)2
3 + 24x − 4x2 ≡ A(x − 4)2 + B(x + 1)(x − 4) + C(x + 1)
x = −1 ⇒ −25 = 25A ⇒ A = −1
x=4 ⇒ 35 = 5C ⇒ C=7
3 + 24 x − 4 x 2 7 3 1
coeffs of x2 ⇒ −4 = A + B ⇒ B = −3 ∴ ≡ − −
( x + 1)( x − 4)2 ( x − 4)2 x−4 x +1
9 x 2 − 2 x − 12 A B C
i ≡ + +
x( x + 3)( x − 2) x x+3 x−2
9x2 − 2x − 12 ≡ A(x + 3)(x − 2) + Bx(x − 2) + Cx(x + 3)
x=0 ⇒ −12 = −6A ⇒ A=2
x = −3 ⇒ 75 = 15B ⇒ B=5
9 x 2 − 2 x − 12 2 5 2
x=2 ⇒ 20 = 10C ⇒ C=2 ∴ ≡ + +
x3 + x 2 − 6 x x x+3 x−2
5 x 2 + 3 x − 20 A B C
j ≡ + +
x 2 ( x + 4) x x2 x+4
5x2 + 3x − 20 ≡ Ax(x + 4) + B(x + 4) + Cx2
x=0 ⇒ −20 = 4B ⇒ B = −5
x = −4 ⇒ 48 = 16C ⇒ C=3
5 x 2 + 3 x − 20 2 5 3
coeffs of x2 ⇒ 5=A+C ⇒ A=2 ∴ ≡ − +
x3 + 4 x 2 x x2 x+4
13 − 3 x 2 A B C
k ≡ + +
(2 x + 3)( x − 1)2 2x + 3 x −1 ( x − 1) 2
13 − 3x2 ≡ A(x − 1)2 + B(2x + 3)(x − 1) + C(2x + 3)
x = − 32 ⇒ 25
4
= 254 A ⇒ A=1
x=1 ⇒ 10 = 5C ⇒ C=2
13 − 3 x 2 1 2 2
coeffs of x2 ⇒ −3 = A + 2B ⇒ B = −2 ∴ ≡ − +
(2 x + 3)( x − 1)2 2x + 3 x −1 ( x − 1) 2

 Solomon Press
C4 PARTIAL FRACTIONS Answers - Worksheet A page 5

26 − x − x 2 A B C
l ≡ + +
( x − 1)( x + 3)( x + 5) x −1 x+3 x+5
26 − x − x2 ≡ A(x + 3)(x + 5) + B(x − 1)(x + 5) + C(x − 1)(x + 3)
x=1 ⇒ 24 = 24A ⇒ A=1
x = −3 ⇒ 20 = −8B ⇒ B = − 52
26 − x − x 2 1 5 1
x = −5 ⇒ 6 = 12C ⇒ C= 1
2
∴ ≡ − +
( x − 1)( x + 3)( x + 5) x − 1 2( x + 3) 2( x + 5)

7 a x2 ≡ A(x − 2)(x − 6) + B(x − 6) + C(x − 2)


x=2 ⇒ 4 = −4B ⇒ B = −1
x=6 ⇒ 36 = 4C ⇒ C=9
coeffs of x2 ⇒ A=1
x2 + 2x + 9 B C
b ≡A+ +
( x − 1)( x + 5) x −1 x+5
x2 + 2x + 9 ≡ A(x − 1)(x + 5) + B(x + 5) + C(x − 1)
x=1 ⇒ 12 = 6B ⇒ B=2
x = −5 ⇒ 24 = −6C ⇒ C = −4
coeffs of x2 ⇒ A=1

8 a x + 3
x2 + x − 2 x3 + 4x2 + 0x − 2
x3 + x2 − 2x
3x2 + 2x − 2
3x2 + 3x − 6
− x + 4
quotient: x + 3 remainder: −x + 4
x3 + 4 x 2 − 2 4− x
b ≡x+3+
x2 + x − 2 x2 + x − 2
4− x A B
≡ +
( x + 2)( x − 1) x+2 x −1
4 − x ≡ A(x − 1) + B(x + 2)
x = −2 ⇒ 6 = −3A ⇒ A = −2
x3 + 4 x 2 − 2 2 1
x=1 ⇒ 3 = 3B ⇒ B=1 ∴ ≡x+3− +
x2 + x − 2 x+2 x −1

9 a (x − 3)(x + 1) = x2 − 2x − 3
1
2
x − 2x − 3 x2 + 0x + 3
x2 − 2x − 3
2x + 6
x2 + 3 2x + 6
∴ ≡1+
( x − 3)( x + 1) ( x − 3)( x + 1)
2x + 6 A B
≡ +
( x − 3)( x + 1) x−3 x +1
2x + 6 ≡ A(x + 1) + B(x − 3)
x=3 ⇒ 12 = 4A ⇒ A=3
x2 + 3 3 1
x = −1 ⇒ 4 = −4B ⇒ B = −1 ∴ ≡1+ −
( x − 3)( x + 1) x−3 x +1

 Solomon Press
C4 PARTIAL FRACTIONS Answers - Worksheet A page 6

b x − 3
x − 4 x3 − 3x2 −
2
x + 2
x3 + 0x2 − 4x
2
− 3x + 3x + 2
2
− 3x + 0x + 12
3x − 10
x3 − 3 x 2 − x + 2 3 x − 10
∴ ≡x− 3+
x2 − 4 x2 − 4
3 x − 10 A B
≡ +
( x + 2)( x − 2) x+2 x−2
3x − 10 ≡ A(x − 2) + B(x + 2)
x = −2 ⇒ −16 = −4A ⇒ A=4
x3 − 3 x 2 − x + 2 4 1
x=2 ⇒ −4 = 4B ⇒ B = −1 ∴ ≡x−3+ −
x2 − 4 x+2 x−2

c 2
x2 + 6x + 8 2x2 + 7x + 0
2x2 + 12x + 16
− 5x − 16
2x2 + 7 x −5 x − 16
∴ ≡ 2+
x2 + 6x + 8 x2 + 6x + 8
−5 x − 16 A B
≡ +
( x + 2)( x + 4) x+2 x+4
−5x − 16 ≡ A(x + 4) + B(x + 2)
x = −2 ⇒ −6 = 2A ⇒ A = −3
2x2 + 7 x 3 2
x = −4 ⇒ 4 = −2B ⇒ B = −2 ∴ ≡2− −
x2 + 6x + 8 x+2 x+4

d 3(x + 1)(x − 1) = 3x2 − 3


(x − 4)(x + 5) = x2 + x − 20
3
2 2
x + x − 20 3x + 0x − 3
3x2 + 3x − 60
− 3x + 57
3( x + 1)( x − 1) 57 − 3 x
∴ ≡3+
( x − 4)( x + 5) ( x − 4)( x + 5)
57 − 3 x A B
≡ +
( x − 4)( x + 5) x−4 x+5
57 − 3x ≡ A(x + 5) + B(x − 4)
x=4 ⇒ 45 = 9A ⇒ A=5
3( x + 1)( x − 1) 5 8
x = −5 ⇒ 72 = −9B ⇒ B = −8 ∴ ≡3+ −
( x − 4)( x + 5) x−4 x+5

 Solomon Press
C4 PARTIAL FRACTIONS Answers - Worksheet A page 7

e 3x − 5
x + 4x + 3 3x + 7x2 + 0x
2 3
+ 4
3x3 + 12x2 + 9x
2
− 5x − 9x + 4
2
− 5x − 20x − 15
11x + 19
3 x3 + 7 x 2 + 4 11x + 19
∴ ≡ 3x − 5 +
x2 + 4x + 3 x2 + 4x + 3
11x + 19 A B
≡ +
( x + 1)( x + 3) x +1 x+3
11x + 19 ≡ A(x + 3) + B(x + 1)
x = −1 ⇒ 8 = 2A ⇒ A=4
3 x3 + 7 x 2 + 4 4 7
x = −3 ⇒ −14 = −2B ⇒ B=7 ∴ ≡ 3x − 5 + +
x2 + 4x + 3 x +1 x+3

f 2
2x2 − 7x + 3 4x2 − 7x + 5
2x2 − 14x + 6
7x − 1
4 x2 − 7 x + 5 7x −1
∴ ≡2+ 2
2x2 − 7 x + 3 2x − 7x + 3
7x −1 A B
≡ +
(2 x − 1)( x − 3) 2x − 1 x−3
7x − 1 ≡ A(x − 3) + B(2x − 1)
x = 12 ⇒ 5
2
= − 52 A ⇒ A = −1
4 x2 − 7 x + 5 1 4
x=3 ⇒ 20 = 5B ⇒ B=4 ∴ ≡2− +
2x2 − 7 x + 3 2x − 1 x−3

g 2
2
x2 − 2x − 3 2x + 0x + 0
2x2 − 4x − 6
4x + 6
2x2 4x + 6
∴ 2
≡2+ 2
x − 2x − 3 x − 2x − 3
4x + 6 A B
≡ +
( x + 1)( x − 3) x +1 x−3
4x + 6 ≡ A(x − 3) + B(x + 1)
x = −1 ⇒ 2 = −4A ⇒ A = − 12
2x2 1 9
x=3 ⇒ 18 = 4B ⇒ B= 9
2
∴ 2
≡2− +
x − 2x − 3 2( x + 1) 2( x − 3)

 Solomon Press
C4 PARTIAL FRACTIONS Answers - Worksheet A page 8

h x
2
x − 6x + 5 x3 − 6x2 + 6x + 1
x3 − 6x2 + 5x
x + 1
x3 − 6 x 2 + 6 x + 1 x +1
∴ 2
≡x+ 2
x − 6x + 5 x − 6x + 5
x +1 A B
≡ +
( x − 1)( x − 5) x −1 x−5
x + 1 ≡ A(x − 5) + B(x − 1)
x=1 ⇒ 2 = −4A ⇒ A = − 12
x3 − 6 x 2 + 6 x + 1 1 3
x=5 ⇒ 6 = 4B ⇒ B= 3
2
∴ ≡x− +
x2 − 6x + 5 2( x − 1) 2( x − 5)

i 3x + 4
3x2 − 4x − 4 9x3 + 0x2 − 27x − 2
9x3 − 12x2 − 12x
12x2 − 15x − 2
12x2 − 16x − 16
x + 14
9 x3 − 27 x − 2 x + 14
∴ 2
≡ 3x + 4 + 2
3x − 4 x − 4 3x − 4 x − 4
x + 14 A B
≡ +
(3 x + 2)( x − 2) 3x + 2 x−2
x + 14 ≡ A(x − 2) + B(3x + 2)
x = − 23 ⇒ 40
3
= − 83 A ⇒ A = −5
9 x3 − 27 x − 2 5 2
x=2 ⇒ 16 = 8B ⇒ B=2 ∴ ≡ 3x + 4 − +
3x 2 − 4 x − 4 3x + 2 x−2

x+5 A B
10 a ≡ + 11 a x(4x + 5) ≡ A(x + 2)2 + B(x − 1)(x + 2) + C(x − 1)
( x − 1)(2 x + 1) x −1 2x + 1
x + 5 ≡ A(2x + 1) + B(x − 1) x=1 ⇒ 9 = 9A ⇒ A=1
x=1 ⇒ 6 = 3A ⇒ A=2 x = −2 ⇒ 6 = −3C ⇒ C = −2
x = − 12 ⇒ 92 = − 32 B ⇒ B = −3 coeffs x2 ⇒ 4 = A + B ⇒ B = 3
2 3
∴ f(x) = − b x = −1 ∴ y = 1
2
x −1 2x + 1
b f ′(x) = −2(x − 1)−2 + 3(2x + 1)−2 × 2 f(x) = (x − 1)−1 + 3(x + 2)−1 − 2(x + 2)−2
6 2
= − f ′(x) = −(x − 1)−2 − 3(x + 2)−2 + 4(x + 2)−3
(2 x + 1)2 ( x − 1) 2
6 2
SP: − =0 grad = − 14 − 3 + 4 = 3
4
(2 x + 1)2 ( x − 1) 2
6(x − 1)2 − 2(2x + 1)2 = 0 ∴ y− 1
2
= 3
4
(x + 1)
2
x + 10x − 2 = 0 4y − 2 = 3x + 3
−10 ± 100 + 8
x= 3x − 4y + 5 = 0
2
x = −5 ± 3 3

 Solomon Press
C4 PARTIAL FRACTIONS Answers - Worksheet B

1 22 ≡ A(x + 4) + B(2x − 3)
x = 32 ⇒ 22 = 112 A ⇒ A=4
x = −4 ⇒ 22 = −11B ⇒ B = −2

2 x + 5 ≡ A(x − 3)2 + B(x + 1)(x − 3) + C(x + 1)


x = −1 ⇒ 4 = 16A ⇒ A= 1
4
x=3 ⇒ 8 = 4C ⇒ C=2
coeffs of x2 ⇒ 0=A+B ⇒ B = − 14

3 4x2 − 16x − 7 ≡ A(2x − 1)(x − 4) + B(x − 4) + C(2x − 1)


x=4 ⇒ −7 = 7C ⇒ C = −1
x= 21
⇒ −14 = − 2 B
7
⇒ B=4
coeffs of x2 ⇒ 4 = 2A ⇒ A=2

4 a f(1) = 3 + 11 + 8 − 4 = 18
f(−1) = −3 + 11 − 8 − 4 = −4
f(2) = 24 + 44 + 16 − 4 = 80
f(−2) = −24 + 44 − 16 − 4 = 0
∴ (x + 2) is a factor
3x2 + 5x − 2
x + 2 3x3 + 11x2 + 8x − 4
3x3 + 6x2
5x2 + 8x
5x2 + 10x
− 2x − 4
− 2x − 4

∴ f(x) = (x + 2)(3x2 + 5x − 2)
= (3x − 1)(x + 2)2
x + 16 A B C
b ≡ + +
f ( x) 3x − 1 x+2 ( x + 2)2
x + 16 ≡ A(x + 2)2 + B(3x − 1)(x + 2) + C(3x − 1)
x = 13 ⇒ 49
3
= 499 A ⇒ A=3
x = −2 ⇒ 14 = −7C ⇒ C = −2
2
coeffs of x ⇒ 0 = A + 3B ⇒ B = −1
x + 16 3 1 2
∴ ≡ − −
f ( x) 3x − 1 x+2 ( x + 2)2

1 A B C
5 ≡ + +
x(2 x − 1)2 x 2x − 1 (2 x − 1)2
1 ≡ A(2x − 1)2 + Bx(2x − 1) + Cx
x=0 ⇒ A=1
x= 21
⇒ 1
1= 2C ⇒ C=2
coeffs of x2 ⇒ 0 = 4A + 2B ⇒ B = −2
1 2 2
∴ f(x) = − +
x 2x − 1 (2 x − 1)2

 Solomon Press
C4 PARTIAL FRACTIONS Answers - Worksheet B page 2

6
x − 2
x2 + 7x + 10 x3 + 5x2 − 2x − 19
x3 + 7x2 + 10x
2
− 2x − 12x − 19
2
− 2x − 14x − 20
2x + 1

2x + 1
∴ f(x) ≡ x − 2 + 2
x + 7 x + 10
2x + 1 B C
≡ +
( x + 2)( x + 5) x+2 x+5
2x + 1 ≡ B(x + 5) + C(x + 2)
x = −2 ⇒ −3 = 3B ⇒ B = −1
x = −5 ⇒ −9 = −3C ⇒ C=3
1 3
∴ f(x) ≡ x − 2 − + [ A = −2, B = −1, C = 3 ]
x+2 x+5

4 A B
7 a ≡ +
( x + 1)( x − 1) x +1 x −1
4 ≡ A(x − 1) + B(x + 1)
x = −1 ⇒ 4 = −2A ⇒ A = −2
x=1 ⇒ 4 = 2B ⇒ B=2
2 2
∴ f(x) ≡ −
x −1 x +1

2 + 5x − x2 A B C
b ≡ + +
( x − 4)( x − 2)( x − 1) x−4 x−2 x −1
2 + 5x − x2 ≡ A(x − 2)(x − 1) + B(x − 4)(x − 1) + C(x − 4)(x − 2)
x=4 ⇒ 6 = 6A ⇒ A=1
x=2 ⇒ 8 = −2B ⇒ B = −4
x=1 ⇒ 6 = 3C ⇒ C=2
1 4 2
∴ g(x) ≡ − +
x−4 x−2 x −1
2 2 1 4 2
c − = − +
x −1 x +1 x−4 x−2 x −1
4 1 2
− − =0
x−2 x−4 x +1
4( x − 4)( x + 1) − ( x − 2)( x + 1) − 2( x − 2)( x − 4)
=0
( x − 2)( x − 4)( x + 1)
4(x2 − 3x − 4) − (x2 − x − 2) − 2(x2 − 6x + 8) = 0
x2 + x − 30 = 0
(x + 6)(x − 5) = 0
x = −6, 5

 Solomon Press
C4 VECTORS Answers - Worksheet A

1 a) −p b) 2q c) 1
2
p d) p e) −q f) p + q

g) 1
2
p + 2q h) p − q i) 2q − p j) −p − 2q k) 1
2
p−q l) − 12 p − 2q

2 a) u + v b) w − u c) u + v − w

3 a) q b) p + r c) r − q d) p + q + r e) −q − r f) q + r − p

4 a i = (a + 2b) + (a − 2b)
= 2a
ii = (a + 2b) − (a − 2b)
= 4b
b OA = 12 OS , OB = 14 TR

R S
A
B
O T

1
5 a i = 2
a
ii = b − a
iii = 12 (b − a)
iv = a + 1
2
(b − a) = 1
2
(a + b)
v = 1
2
(a + b) − 1
2
a= 1
2
b
b they are parallel (and the magnitude of CD is half that of OB )

6 a parallel, 3p = 32 (2p)
b not parallel
c parallel, (p − 13 q) = 13 (3p − q)
d parallel, (4q − 2p) = −2(p − 2q)
e parallel, (6p + 8q) = 8( 34 p + q)
f not parallel

7 a = (2m + 3n) − (4m + 2n)


= n − 2m
1 3
b OM = 2
OC = m + 2
n
AM = (m + 3
2
n) − 4m = 3
2
n − 3m
∴ AM = 3
2
BC
∴ AM is parallel to BC

 Solomon Press
C4 VECTORS Answers - Worksheet A page 2

8 a OM = 1
2
OA = 3u − 2v
AB = (3u − v) − (6u − 4v) = 3v − 3u
ON = OA + 1
3
AB = (6u − 4v) + 1
3
(3v − 3u) = 5u − 3v
b CM = (3u − 2v) − (v − 3u) = 6u − 3v
CN = (5u − 3v) − (v − 3u) = 8u − 4v
∴ CN = 4
3
CM
∴ CN and CM are parallel
common point C ∴ C, M and N are collinear

9 a a = 5, b = 3 b 2 + b = 0 and a − 4 = 0
∴ a = 4, b = −2
c −1 = b and 4a = −2 d 2a + 6 = 0 and b − a = 0
∴ a = − 12 , b = −1 ∴ a = −3, b = −3

1
10 a OC = 2
a
CB = b − 1
2
a
OD = 1
2
a+ 1
2
(b− 1
2
a) = 1
4
a+ 1
2
b
b AB = b − a
OE = OA + k AB
∴ OE = a + k(b − a)
c OE = l OD
∴ a + k(b − a) = l( 14 a + 1
2
b)
∴ 1−k= 1
4
l
1
and k= 2
l
3
adding 1= 4
l
4
l= 3

∴ OE = 4
3
( 14 a + 1
2
b) = 1
3
a+ 2
3
b
1 2
d k= 2
l= 3

∴ AE = 2
3
AB
∴ AE : EB = 2 : 1

 Solomon Press
C4 VECTORS Answers - Worksheet B

1 a 6i + j b −4i + 2j c −6i d 10i − 2j

2 a = 4(i − 3j) b = (4i + 2j) − (i − 3j)


= 4i − 12j = 3i + 5j
c = 2(i − 3j) + 3(4i + 2j) d = 4(i − 3j) − 2(4i + 2j)
= 14i = −4i − 16j

3 a = 9 + 16 = 5 b = 2 1+ 4 = 2 5
 3 1 5 1  3  −3 
c p + 2q =   + 2   =   d 3q − 2p = 3   − 2   =  
 −4   2 0  2  −4   14 
| p + 2q | = 5 | 3q − 2p | = 9 + 196 = 205 = 14.3 (3sf)

4 a = tan−1 1
2
= 26.6° b = tan−1 3 = 71.6°
c 5p + q = 5(2i + j) + (i − 3j) = 11i + 2j d p − 3q = (2i + j) − 3(i − 3j) = −i + 10j
angle = tan−1 112 = 10.3° angle = 180° − tan−1 10 = 95.7°

 4  7 
5 a   = 16 + 9 = 5 b   = 49 + 576 = 25
 3  −24 
 4  7 
∴ 1
5   ∴ 1
25  
 3  −24 

 −1  2
c   = 1+1 = 2 d   = 4 + 16 = 20 = 2 5
1  4

∴ 1  −1 = 1  −1
2   ∴ 1  2 = 1 1
5  
 
2  1 2   5
1 2 5  4  2

6 a | 5i + 12j | = 25 + 144 = 13
∴ 13 26
(5i + 12j) = 10i + 24j
b | −6i − 8j | = 36 + 64 = 10
∴ 1510
(−6i − 8j) = −9i − 12j
c | 2i − 4j | = 4 + 16 = 20 = 2 5
∴ 5 (2i − 4j) = 5 (i − 2j)
2 5

7 a (2i + λj) + (µi − 5j) = 3i − j b 2(2i + λj) − (µi − 5j) = −3i + 8j


2 + µ = 3 and λ − 5 = −1 4 − µ = −3 and 2λ + 5 = 8
∴ λ = 4, µ = 1 ∴ λ = 32 , µ = 7

8 a 6i + cj = 3(2i + j) b 6i + cj = − 23 (−9i − 6j)


∴ c=3 ∴ c=4
c 36 + c2 = 102 = 100 d 36 + c2 = ( 3 5 )2 = 45
∴ c2 = 64 ∴ c2 = 9
c>0 ∴c=8 c>0 ∴c=3

 Solomon Press
C4 VECTORS Answers - Worksheet B page 2

9 a a(i + 3j) + b(4i − 2j) = −5i + 13j


∴ a + 4b = −5 (1)
and 3a − 2b = 13 (2)
(1) + 2×(2) ⇒ 7a = 21
∴ a = 3, b = −2
b c(i + 3j) + (4i − 2j) = kj
∴ c+4=0
∴ c = −4
c (i + 3j) + d(4i − 2j) = k(3i − j)
∴ 1 + 4d = 3k
and 3 − 2d = −k
(1) + 2×(2) ⇒ 7 = k
∴ d=5

 −5   3  −8 
10 a AB =   −   =  
 2 6  −4 
b  AB  = 64 + 16 = 80 = 4 5
1
c = OA + 2
AB
 3 1  −8   −1
=  + 2   = 
6  −4  4
d OC = AB
 −8 
∴ pos. vector =  
 −4 

11 a = (2 − 4)2 + (−3 − 0) 2 + (3 − 9) 2 b = (7 − 11) 2 + (−1 + 3) 2 + (3 − 5)2


= 4 + 9 + 36 = 16 + 4 + 4
=7 = 24 = 2 6 = 4.90 (3sf)

12 a = 16 + 4 + 16 b = 1+1+1 c = 64 + 1 + 16 d = 9 + 25 + 1
=6 = 3 = 1.73 (3sf) =9 = 35 = 5.92 (3sf)

13 a | 5i − 2j + 14k | = 25 + 4 + 196 = 15
∴ 151 (5i − 2j + 14k)
b | 2i + 11j − 10k | = 4 + 121 + 100 = 15
∴ 10 15
(2i + 11j − 10k) = 23 (2i + 11j − 10k)
c | −5i − 4j + 2k | = 25 + 16 + 4 = 45 = 3 5
∴ 20 (−5i − 4j + 2k) = 4
5 (−5i − 4j + 2k)
3 5 3

14 λ2 + 144 + 16 = 142 = 196


λ2 = 36
λ=±6

 Solomon Press
C4 VECTORS Answers - Worksheet B page 3

1  4 9 1  −2   3


15 a =  3  + 2  −2  =  −1 b =  3  −  5  =  −2 
 −1 1 1  −1  −3   2
           
1  4  −2   3 1  4  −2   −12 
c =  3  +  −2  +  5  =  6  d = 2  3  − 3  −2  +  5  =  17 
 −1 1  −3   −3   −1 1  −3   −8 
               

16 a −2i + λj + µk = − 12 (4i + 2j − 8k) b −2i + λj + µk = 2


5
(−5i + 20j − 10k)
∴ λ = −1, µ = 4 ∴ λ = 8, µ = −4

17 a 2p − q = 2(i − 2j + 4k) − (−i + 2j + 2k) 18 a AB = (−4i + j + 8k) − (−2i + 7j + 4k)


= 3i − 6j + 6k = −2i − 6j + 4k
∴ | 2p − q | = 9 + 36 + 36 = 9 pos. vec of mid-point = OA + 1
2
AB
b (i − 2j + 4k) + k(−i + 2j + 2k) = (−2i + 7j + 4k) + 1
2
(−2i − 6j + 4k)
= l(2i − 4j − 7k) = −3i + 4j + 6k
∴ 1 − k = 2l (1) b AC = (6i − 5j) − (−2i + 7j + 4k)
−2 + 2k = −4l (2) = 8i − 12j − 4k
4 + 2k = −7l (3) AD = OA + 34 AC
[(1) and (2) are the same equation] = (−2i + 7j + 4k) + 3
4
(8i − 12j − 4k)
(2) − (3) ⇒ −6 = 3l = 4i − 2j + k
∴ l = −2
∴ k=5
 6  12   −6 
19 a (λi − 2λj + µk) = k(2i − 4j − 3k) 20 a BC =  1  −  −7  =  8 
 −8   −4   −4 
     
∴ λ = 2k (1) OM = OB + 1
2
BC
 12   −6   9
−2λ = −4k (2) =  −7  + 1
2
 
8 =  −3 
 −4   −4   −6 
     
µ = −3k (3) b OM = 3
2
OA
[(1) and (2) are the same equation] ∴ OM and OA are parallel
3×(1) + 2×(3) ⇒ 3λ + 2µ = 0 common point O
b λ2 + (−2λ)2 + µ2 = ( 2 29 )2 ∴ O, A and M are collinear
5λ2 + µ2 = 116
µ = − 32 λ ⇒ 5λ2 + 94 λ2 = 116
λ2 = 16
λ=±4
µ = − 32 λ and µ > 0 ∴ λ = −4, µ = 6

21 a d2 = (9 − t)2 + (1 + 2t)2 + (5 − t)2


= 81 − 18t + t2 + 1 + 4t + 4t2 + 25 − 10t + t2
= 6t2 − 24t + 107
b d = 6(t2 − 4t) + 107 = 6[(t − 2)2 − 4] + 107
2

= 6(t − 2)2 + 83
∴ closest when t = 2
min. d = 83 = 9.11 m (3sf)

 Solomon Press
C4 VECTORS Answers - Worksheet C

Note: For this worksheet especially, there may be alternative correct answers

1 a y b y c y

2
O 2 x
O x −1 O x

d y e y f r = i − 2j + s(2i + 3j)
3 y

O 9 x O x
7
O 3
x

− 72

2 a r = −i + j + s(3i − 2j)
b r = 4j + si
c r = 3i − j + s(i + 5j)

 3 1  2  −1  −3   2  −2   2  −4 
3 a dirn =   −   =   b dirn =   −   =   c dirn =   −   =  
 1 0 1 1  4  −3   3  −2   5
1  2  −3   2  2  −4 
∴ r =   + s  ∴ r =   + s  ∴ r =   + s 
0 1  4  −3   −2   5

4 a −1 + 2λ = 5 ∴ λ = 3
3 + cλ = 3 + 3c = 0 ∴ c = −1
b ci + 2j = k(6i + 3j)
∴ k = 23
∴ c=4

5 a r = −i + sj b r = s(i + 2j) c r = j + s(i + 3j)


d r = −2j + s(4i + 3j) e r = 5j + s(2i − j) f y= 1
4
x+2
∴ r = 2j + s(4i + j)

6 a x = 2 + 3λ , y = 1 + 2λ
x−2 y −1
b λ= =
3 2
2(x − 2) = 3(y − 1)
2x − 4 = 3y − 3
2x − 3y − 1 = 0

 Solomon Press
C4 VECTORS Answers - Worksheet C page 2

7 a x = 3 + λ , y = 2λ b x = 1 + 3λ , y = 4 + λ c x = 4λ , y = 2 − λ
y x −1 x
λ=x−3= λ= =y−4 λ= =2−y
2 3 4
2(x − 3) = y x − 1 = 3(y − 4) x = 4(2 − y)
2x − y − 6 = 0 x − 3y + 11 = 0 x + 4y − 8 = 0

d x = −2 + 5λ, y = 1 + 2λ e x = 2 − 3λ, y = −3 + 4λ f x = λ + 3, y = −2λ − 1


x+2 y −1 x−2 y+3 y +1
λ= = λ= = λ=x−3=
5 2 −3 4 −2
2(x + 2) = 5(y − 1) 4(x − 2) = −3(y + 3) −2(x − 3) = y + 1
2x − 5y + 9 = 0 4x + 3y + 1 = 0 2x + y − 5 = 0

3  −6  1  4  2  3
8 a   = − 12   b   ≠ k  c   = 23  
 −1  2  4 1  4 6
∴ parallel ∴ not parallel ∴ parallel
(1, 2) lies on first line (2, −5) lies on first line
when x = 1 on second line when x = 2 on second line
−2 − 6t = 1 ⇒ t = − 12 −1 + 3t = 2 ⇒ t = 1
⇒ y = 3 + 2( − 12 ) = 2 ⇒ y = 1 + 6(1) = 7
parallel and common point ∴ (2, −5) not on second line
∴ identical ∴ parallel but not identical

9 a 1 + λ = 2 + 3µ (1) b 4 − λ = 5 + 2µ (1) c 2λ = 2 − µ (1)


2=1+µ (2) 1 + λ = −2 − 3µ (2) 1 − λ = 10 + 3µ (2)
(2) ⇒ µ=1 (1) + (2) ⇒ 5 = 3 − µ (1) + 2×(2) ⇒ 2 = 22 + 5µ
∴ 5i + 2j µ = −2 µ = −4
∴ i + 4j ∴ 6i − 2j

d −1 − 4λ = 2 − µ (1) e −2 − 3λ = −3 + 5µ (1) f 1 + 3λ = 3 + µ (1)


5 + 6λ = −2 + 2µ (2) 11 + 4λ = −7 + 3µ (2) 2 + 2λ = 5 + 4µ (2)
2×(1) + (2) ⇒ 3 − 2λ = 2 4×(1) + 3×(2) 2×(1) − 3×(2)
λ= 21
⇒ 25 = −33 + 29µ ⇒ −4 = −9 − 10µ
∴ −3i + 8j µ=2 µ = − 12
∴ 7i − j ∴ 5
2
i + 3j

10 a r = 4i + k + s(i + 3j − 2k)
b r = 2i + j + sk
c r = −i + 4j + 2k + s(2i − 3j + 5k)

11 a AB = (6i − 3j + k) − (5i + j − 2k) = i − 4j + 3k


b r = (5i + j − 2k) + s(i − 4j + 3k)
c 5 + s = 3 ⇒ s = −2
when s = −2, r = (5i + j − 2k) − 2(i − 4j + 3k) = 3i + 9j − 8k
∴ l passes through (3, 9, −8)

 Solomon Press
C4 VECTORS Answers - Worksheet C page 3

12 a direction = (5i + 4j + 6k) − (i + 3j + 4k) b direction = (i + 5j + 2k) − (3i − 2k)


= 4i + j + 2k = −2i + 5j + 4k
∴ r = i + 3j + 4k + s(4i + j + 2k) ∴ r = 3i − 2k + s(−2i + 5j + 4k)
c r = s(6i − j + 2k) d direction = (4i − 7j + k) − (−i − 2j + 3k)
= 5i − 5j − 2k
∴ r = −i − 2j + 3k + s(5i − 5j − 2k)

13 a 3 + 2λ = 9 ∴ λ = 3
−5 + aλ = −5 + 3a = −2 ∴ a = 1
1 + bλ = 1 + 3b = −8 ∴ b = −3
b 2i + aj + bk= k(8i − 4j + 2k)
∴ k = 14
∴ a = −1, b = 1
2

14 a x = 2 + 3λ , b x = 4 + λ, c x = −1 + 4λ,
y = 3 + 5λ , y = −1 + 6λ, y = 5 − 2λ,
z = 2λ , z = 3 + 3λ , z = −2 − λ,
x−2 y −3 z y +1 z −3 x +1 y −5 z+2
(λ = ) = = (λ = ) x − 4 = = (λ = ) = =
3 5 2 6 3 4 −2 −1

x −1 y+4 x y −1 z+7 x+5


15 a s= = =z−5 b s= = = c s= =y+3=z
3 2 4 −2 3 −4
x = 1 + 3s, x = 4s, x = −5 − 4s,
y = −4 + 2s, y = 1 − 2s, y = −3 + s,
z = 5 + s, z = −7 + 3s, z = s,
r = i − 4j + 5k + s(3i + 2j + k) r = j − 7k + s(4i − 2j + 3k) r = −5i − 3j + s(−4i + j + k)

16 4 + s = 7 − 3t (1)
−2s = 2 + 2t (2)
3 + 2s = −5 + t (3)
(2) + (3) ⇒ 3 = −3 + 3t
t = 2, s = −3
check (1) 4 + (−3) = 7 − 3(2)
true ∴ intersect
point of intersection: (1, 6, −3)

17 2+λ=1+µ (1)
−1 + λ = 4 − 2µ (2)
4 + 3λ = 3 + µ (3)
(1) − (2) ⇒ 3 = −3 + 3µ
µ = 2, λ = 1
check (3) 4 + 3(1) = 3 + (2)
false ∴ do not intersect
(i + j + 3k) ≠ k(i − 2j + k) ∴ not parallel
∴ skew

 Solomon Press
C4 VECTORS Answers - Worksheet C page 4

 2  −4 
   
18 a 3 + 4λ = 3 + µ (1) b  −1  = − 1
2  2
 −3   6
   
1+λ=2 (2) ∴ parallel
5 − λ = −4 + 2µ (3)
(2) ⇒ λ=1
sub. (1) µ=4
check (3) 5 − (1) = −4 + 2(4)
true ∴ intersect
7
 
position vector of intersection:  2
 4
 

c 8 + λ = −2 + 4µ (1) d 1 + λ = 7 + 2µ (1)
2 + 3λ = 2 − 3µ (2) 5 + 4λ = −6 + µ (2)
−4 − 2λ = 8 − 4µ (3) 2 − 2λ = −5 − 3µ (3)
(1) + (3) ⇒ 4 − λ = 6 2×(1) + (3) ⇒ 4=9+µ
λ = −2, µ = 2 µ = −5, λ = −4
check (2) 2 + 3(−2) = 2 − 3(2) check (2) 5 + 4(−4) = −6 + (−5)
true ∴ intersect true ∴ intersect
 6  −3 
position vector of intersection:  −4  position vector of intersection:  −11
 0  10 
   

e 4 + 2λ = 3 + 5µ (1) f 6λ = −12 + 5µ (1)


−1 + 5λ = −2 − 3µ (2) 7 − 4λ = −1 + 2µ (2)
3 − 3λ = 1 − 4µ (3) −2 + 8λ = 11 − 3µ (3)
3×(1) + 2×(3) ⇒ 18 = 11 + 7µ 2×(2) + (3) ⇒ 12 = 9 + µ
µ = 1, λ = 2 µ = 3, λ = 1
2

check (2) −1 + 5(2) = −2 − 3(1) check (1) 6( 12 ) = −12 + 5(3)


false ∴ do not intersect true ∴ intersect
 2  5  3
 
5 ≠ k  −3  position vector of intersection:  5 
 −3   −4   2
     
∴ skew

 Solomon Press
C4 VECTORS Answers - Worksheet D

1 a =3+2=5 b = 12 − 5 = 7 c = −5 + 4 = −1

2 (i + 4j).(8i − 2j) = 8 − 8 = 0
∴ perpendicular

 3  c  2   3  2  c 
3 a  .  = 0 b  .  = 0 c   .  = 0
 −1  3  1 c  −5   −4 
3c − 3 = 0 6+c=0 2c + 20 = 0
c=1 c = −6 c = −10

4 a 4i − 3j = 16 + 9 = 5, 8i + 6j = 64 + 36 = 10


(4i − 3j).(8i + 6j) = 32 − 18 = 14
∴ angle = cos−1 514 ×10
= cos−1 257 = 73.7°

b 7i + j = 49 + 1 = 5 2 , 2i + 6j = 4 + 36 = 2 10


(7i + j).(2i + 6j) = 14 + 6 = 20
∴ angle = cos−1 5 2 20× 2 10
= cos−1 15 = 63.4°

c 4i + 2j = 16 + 4 = 2 5 , −5i + 2j = 25 + 4 = 29


(4i + 2j).(−5i + 2j) = −20 + 4 = −16
∴ angle = cos−1 2 5−×16 29 = cos−1 (− 5 8 29 ) = 131.6°

5 BA = (9i + j) − (3i − j) = 6i + 2j
BC = (5i − 2j) − (3i − j) = 2i − j
 BA  = 36 + 4 = 2 10 ,  BC  = 4 +1 = 5
BA . BC = (6i + 2j).(2i − j) = 12 − 2 = 10
∴ ∠ABC = cos−1 2 1010× 5 = cos−1 12 = 45°

6 a = 3 + 2 + 8 = 13 b = 6 + 6 − 2 = 10
c = −5 + 0 − 6 = −11 d = −3 + 22 + 32 = 51
e = 27 − 28 − 1 = −2 f =0+9+0=9

7 a = (2i + j − 3k).(i + 5j − k) = 2 + 5 + 3 = 10
b = (2i + j − 3k).(6i − 2j − 3k) = 12 − 2 + 9 = 19
c q + r = (i + 5j − k) + (6i − 2j − 3k) = 7i + 3j − 4k
p.(q + r) = (2i + j − 3k).(7i + 3j − 4k) = 14 + 3 + 12 = 29
p.q + p.r = 10 + 19 = 29
∴ p.(q + r) = p.q + p.r

8 a = p.q + p.r + p.q − p.r b = p.q + p.r + q.r − q.p


= 2p.q = p.q + p.r + q.r − p.q
= p.r + q.r
= (p + q).r

 Solomon Press
C4 VECTORS Answers - Worksheet D page 2

9 (5i − 3j + 2k).(3i + j − 6k) = 15 − 3 − 12 = 0


∴ perpendicular

10 BA = (3i + 4j − 6k) − (i + 5j − 2k) = 2i − j − 4k


BC = (8i + 3j + 2k) − (i + 5j − 2k) = 7i − 2j + 4k
BA . BC = (2i − j − 4k).(7i − 2j + 4k) = 14 + 2 − 16 = 0
∴ BA and BC are perpendicular ∴ ∠ABC = 90°

11 a (2i + 3j + k).(ci − 3j + k) = 0 b (−5i + 3j + 2k).(ci − j + 3ck) = 0


2c − 9 + 1 = 0 −5c − 3 + 6c = 0
c=4 c=3
c (ci − 2j + 8k).(ci + cj − 3k) = 0 d (3ci + 2j + ck).(5i − 4j + 2ck) = 0
c2 − 2c − 24 = 0 15c − 8 + 2c2 = 0
(c + 4)(c − 6) = 0 2c2 + 15c − 8 = 0
c = −4, 6 (2c − 1)(c + 8) = 0
c = −8, 12

1 8 1 8


 
12 a  2 = 1 + 4 + 4 = 3,  1  = 64 + 1 + 16 = 9,  2  .  1  = 8 + 2 + 8 = 18
 −2   −4   −2   −4 
       
∴ cos θ = 18
3× 9
= 2
3

 4  −2   4   −2 
       
b 1 = 16 + 1 + 4 = 21 ,  3 = 4 + 9 + 36 = 7,  1 . 3  = −8 + 3 + 12 = 7
 −2   −6   −2   −6 
       
∴ cos θ = 7
21 × 7
= 1
21
or 1
21
21

1  1 1  1
       
c 2 = 1+ 4 +1 = 6,  −7  = 1 + 49 + 4 = 3 6 ,  2  .  −7  = 1 − 14 − 2 = −15
 −1  2  −1  2 
       
∴ cos θ = −15
6 ×3 6
= − 56

5  3 5  3
       
d  −3  = 25 + 9 + 16 = 5 2 ,  −4  = 9 + 16 + 1 = 26 ,  −3  .  −4  = 15 + 12 − 4 = 23
 4  −1   4   −1 
       
∴ cos θ = 23
5 2 × 26
= 23
10 13
or 23
130
13

13 a (3i − 4k) = 9 + 16 = 5 b (2i − 6j + 3k) = 4 + 36 + 9 = 7


(7i − 4j + 4k) = 49 + 16 + 16 = 9 (i − 3j − k) = 1 + 9 + 1 = 11
(3i − 4k).(7i − 4j + 4k) = 21 + 0 − 16 = 5 (2i − 6j + 3k).(i − 3j − k) = 2 + 18 − 3 = 17
∴ angle = cos−1 5×5 9 = cos−1 19 = 83.6° ∴ angle = cos−1 7 ×1711 = 42.9°

c (6i − 2j − 9k) = 36 + 4 + 81 = 11 d (i + 5j − 3k) = 1 + 25 + 9 = 35


(3i + j + 4k) = 9 + 1 + 16 = 26 (−3i − 4j + 2k) = 9 + 16 + 4 = 29
(6i − 2j − 9k).(3i + j + 4k) = 18 − 2 − 36 = −20 (i + 5j − 3k).(−3i − 4j + 2k) = −3 − 20 − 6 = −29
∴ angle = cos−1 −20
11× 26
= 110.9° ∴ angle = cos−1 −29
35 × 29
= cos−1 ( − 29
35
) = 155.5°

 Solomon Press
C4 VECTORS Answers - Worksheet D page 3

14 a BA = (7 + 1)i + (2 − 6)j + (−2 + 3)k = 8i − 4j + k


BC = (−3 + 1)i + (1 − 6)j + (2 + 3)k = −2i − 5j + 5k
b  BA  = 64 + 16 + 1 = 9
 BC  = 4 + 25 + 25 = 3 6
BA . BC = (8i − 4j + k).(−2i − 5j + 5k) = −16 + 20 + 5 = 9
∴ ∠ABC = cos−1 9 × 39 6 = cos−1 3 1 6 = 82.2°
c = 1
2
× 9 × 3 6 × sin 82.18° = 32.8

15 a AB = (4i + 3j − 2k) − (3i − 2j − k) = i + 5j − k


AC = (2i − j) − (3i − 2j − k) = −i + j + k
 AB  = 1 + 25 + 1 = 3 3
 AC  = 1 + 1 + 1 = 3
AB . AC = (i + 5j − k).(−i + j + k) = −1 + 5 − 1 = 3
cos (∠BAC) = 3 33× 3 = 13
b sin2 (∠BAC) = 1 − ( 13 )2 = 8
9
8 2
sin (∠BAC) = 9
= 3
2
area = 1
2
× 3 3 × 3 × 23 2 = 3 2

 4 8  4 8
 
16 a  −4  = 16 + 16 + 4 = 6,  0  = 64 + 36 = 10,  −4  .  0  = 32 + 0 − 12 = 20
 2  −6   2   −6 
       
∴ acute angle = cos−1 6 20
×10
 = cos−1 1
3
= 70.5°

 6   4   6   4 
       
b  −1  = 36 + 1 + 324 = 19,  −12  = 16 + 144 + 9 = 13,  −1  .  −12  = 24 + 12 − 54 = −18
 −18   3   −18   3 
       
∴ acute angle = cos−1 19−×1813  = cos−1 18
247
= 85.8°

1  2 1  2
       
c  −1 = 1 + 1 + 9 = 11 ,  −5  = 4 + 25 + 9 = 38 ,  −1 .  −5  = 2 + 5 + 9 = 16
3  3 3  3
       
∴ acute angle = cos−1 16
11 × 38
 = cos−1 16
11 38
= 38.5°

 −4   5  −4   5 
 
d  −6  = 16 + 36 + 49 = 101 ,  −1  = 25 + 1 + 64 = 90 ,  −6  .  −1  = −20 + 6 − 56 = −70
7  −8   7   −8 
       
∴ acute angle = cos−1 −70
101 × 90
 = cos−1 70
101 90
= 42.8°

 Solomon Press
C4 VECTORS Answers - Worksheet D page 4

17 a AB = (6i + 5j + k) − (5i + 8j − k) = i − 3j + 2k
∴ r = 5i + 8k − k + λ(i − 3j + 2k)
b 5 + λ = 4 − 5µ (1)
8 − 3λ = −3 + µ (2)
−1 + 2λ = 5 − 2µ (3)
3×(1) + (2) ⇒ 23 = 9 − 14µ
µ = −1, λ = 4
check (3) −1 + 2(4) = 5 − 2(−1)
true ∴ intersect
pos. vector of int. = 9i − 4j + 7k
c (i − 3j + 2k) = 1 + 9 + 4 = 14
(−5i + j − 2k) = 25 + 1 + 4 = 30
(i − 3j + 2k).(−5i + j − 2k) = −5 − 3 − 4 = −12
acute angle = cos−1 14−×12 30  = cos−1 105
6
= 54.2° (1dp)

x−2 y z+5 x−4 y +1 z −3


18 λ= = = µ= = =
3 2 −6 −4 7 −4
x = 2 + 3λ, y = 2λ, z = −5 − 6λ x = 4 − 4µ, y = −1 + 7µ, z = 3 − 4µ
r = 2i − 5k + λ(3i + 2j − 6k) r = 4i − j + 3k + µ(−4i + 7j − 4k)
(3i + 2j − 6k) = 9 + 4 + 36 = 7 (−4i + 7j − 4k) = 16 + 49 + 16 = 9
(3i + 2j − 6k).(−4i + 7j − 4k) = −12 + 14 + 24 = 26
∴ acute angle = cos−1 726× 9  = cos−1 26
63
= 65.6°

19 a 7 + 2λ = −4 + 5µ (1)
− λ = 7 − 4µ (2)
−2 + 2λ = −6 − 2µ (3)
(1) − (3) ⇒ 9 = 2 + 7µ
µ=1
∴ A (1, 3, −8)
b (2i − j + 2k) = 4 + 1 + 4 = 3
(5i − 4j − 2k) = 25 + 16 + 4 = 3 5
(2i − j + 2k).(5i − 4j − 2k) = 10 + 4 − 4 = 10
acute angle = cos−1 3×103 5  = cos−1 ( 92 5 ) = 60.2° (1dp)
c 7 + 2λ = 5 ⇒ λ = −1
sub. λ = −1 in eqn for l
r = 7i − 2k − (2i − j + 2k) = 5i + j − 4k
∴ B lies on l
d AB = (5i + j − 4k) − (i + 3j − 8k) = 4i − 2j + 4k
 AB  = 16 + 4 + 16 = 6
∴ dist. of B from m = 6 sin 60.20° = 5.21 (3sf)

 Solomon Press
C4 VECTORS Answers - Worksheet D page 5

20 a AB = (11i + 5j + k) − (9i + 6j) = 2i − j + k


OC = 9i + 6j + λ(2i − j + k)
= OA + λ AB
∴ C lies on l
b [(9 + 2λ)i + (6 − λ)j + λk].[2i − j + k] = 0
2(9 + 2λ) − (6 − λ) + λ = 0
λ = −2
c sub. λ = −2 in OC
∴ 5i + 8j − 2k

21 a [(−4 + λ)i + (2 + 3λ)j + (7 − 4λ)k].[i + 3j − 4k] = 0


(−4 + λ) + 3(2 + 3λ) − 4(7 − 4λ) = 0
λ=1
∴ (−3, 5, 3)
b [(7 + 6λ)i + (11 − 9λ)j + (−9 + 3λ)k].[6i − 9j + 3k] = 0
6(7 + 6λ) − 9(11 − 9λ) + 3(−9 + 3λ) = 0
λ = 23
∴ (11, 5, −7)

 Solomon Press
C4 VECTORS Answers - Worksheet E

 5 1  4 
     
1 a 1 + 2λ = 7 ∴λ=3 2 a AB =  0 −  6 =  −6 
 −6   4  −10 
     
1  4 
p − 3λ = −1 ∴p=8 ∴ r =  6  + s  −6 
 4  −10 
   
−4 + qλ = −1 ∴ q = 1 b 1 + 4s = 5 + t (1)
b 2i + j − 3k = 4 + 1 + 9 = 14 6 − 6s = −5 − 4t (2)
−4i + 5j − 2k = 16 + 25 + 4 = 45 4×(1) + (2) ⇒ 10 + 10s = 15
(2i + j − 3k).(−4i + 5j − 2k) s = 12
3
= −8 + 5 + 6 = 3 ∴ pos. vector of C =  3 
 −1
 
θ = cos−1 3
14 45
 = 83.1° (1dp) c pos. vector of mid-point of AB
1
= OA + 2
AB
1  4  3
=  6  + 1
2

 −6 

=  3 
 4  −10   −1
     
∴ C is mid-point of AB

3 a PQ = (3i + j) − (5i − 2j + 2k) 4 a 5 + 2λ = 7 − µ (1)


= −2i + 3j − 2k −λ = −3 + µ (2)
∴ r = 5i − 2j + 2k + λ(−2i + 3j − 2k) 1 + 2λ = 7 − 2µ (3)
b 5 − 2λ = 4 + 5µ (1) (1) + (2) ⇒ 5 + λ = 4
−2 + 3λ = 6 − µ (2) λ = −1, µ = 4
2 − 2λ = −1 + 3µ (3) check (3) 1 + 2(−1) = 7 − 2(4)
(1) − (3) ⇒ 3 = 5 + 2µ true ∴ intersect
µ = −1, λ = 3 pos. vector of int. = 3i + j − k
check (2) −2 + 3(3) = 6 − (−1) b diagonals bisect each other
true ∴ intersect let M be point of intersection
pos. vector of int. = −i + 7j − 4k ∴ AM = (3i + j − k) − (9i − 2j + 5k)
c −2i + 3j − 2k = 4 + 9 + 4 = 17 = −6i + 3j − 6k
5i − j + 3k = 25 + 1 + 9 = 35 OC = OA + 2 AM
(−2i + 3j − 2k).(5i − j + 3k) = (9i − 2j + 5k) + 2(−6i + 3j − 6k)
= −10 − 3 − 6 = −19 = −3i + 4j − 7k
θ = cos−1 17−1935  = 38.8° c area of triangle ABC = 12 × 54 = 27

AC = 2(−6i + 3j − 6k) = 6(−2i + j − 2k)


 AC  = 6 4 + 1 + 4 = 18
let distance of B from l1 = d
∴ 12 × 18 × d = 27
d=3

 Solomon Press
C4 VECTORS Answers - Worksheet E page 2

 4  5   −1
     
5 a AB = (2i − j + 2k) − (4i + 2j − 4k) 6 a AB = 1 −  −1  = 2
 −8   −10  2
     
 5   −1
= −2i − 3j + 6k ∴ r =  −1  + λ  2 
 −10  2
   
∴ r = 4i + 2j − 4k + λ(−2i − 3j + 6k) b 5 − λ = 0⇒ λ = 5
b r = 4i − 7j − k + µ(6j − 2k) sub. λ = 5 in l
0
c −7 + 6µ = 2 ⇒ µ = 3
2
r =  9  ∴ C (0, 9, 0)
0
 
 5−λ 
 
sub. µ = 3
2
in l2 c OD =  −1 + 2λ 
 −10 + 2λ 
 
 −1
r = 4i − 7j − k + 3
2
(6j − 2k) OD .  2  = 0
2
 
= 4i + 2j − 4k ∴ A lies on l2 −(5 − λ) + 2(−1 + 2λ) + 2(−10 + 2λ) = 0
d −2i − 3j + 6k = 4 + 9 + 36 = 7 9λ − 27 = 0
 2
 
6j − 2k = 36 + 4 = 40 λ = 3, OD =  5
 −4 
 
(−2i − 3j + 6k).(6j − 2k) ∴ D (2, 5, −4)
= 0 − 18 − 12 = −30 d OD = 4 + 25 + 16 = 45 = 3 5
−1
θ = cos  −30
7 40
 = 47.3° (1dp) CD = 4 + 16 + 16 = 6
area = 1
2
×6× 3 5 = 9 5

 Solomon Press
C4 VECTORS Answers - Worksheet E page 3

7 a −6 + 4s = 6 ⇒ s = 3 8 a AB = (4i + 6j + 2k) − (4i + 5j + 6k)


sub. s = 3 in l1 = j − 4k
1 0 1
r =  −6  + 3  4  =  6  ∴ r = 4i + 5j + 6k + λ(j − 4k)
 −2   −1  −5 
     
∴ P (1, 6, −5) lies on l1 b 4=1+µ (1)
b 1 = 4 + 3t ⇒ t = −1 5+λ=5+µ (2)
sub. t = −1 in l2 6 − 4λ = −3 − µ (3)
 4  3
r =  −4  −  −2  (1) ⇒ µ=3
 −1   2
   
1
 
OQ =  −2  sub. (2) ⇒ λ=3
 −3 
 
c PQ = 0 + 64 + 4 = 68 = 2 17 check (3) 6 − 4(3) = −3 − (3)
 3
 
 −2  = 9 + 4 + 4 = 17 true ∴ intersect
 2
 
 3
∴ OR = OQ ± 2  −2  pos. vector of int. = 4i + 8j − 6k
 2
 
 −5  7
=  2  or  −6  c (j − 4k) = 1 + 16 = 17
 −7  1
   

(i + j − k) = 1 + 1 + 1 = 3
(j − 4k).(i + j − k) = 0 + 1 + 4 = 5
θ = cos−1 35 17  = 45.6° (1dp)
d let closest point be C
OC = (1 + µ)i + (5 + µ)j + (−3 − µ)k
AC = OC − OA
= (−3 + µ)i + µj + (−9 − µ)k
AC must be perpendicular to l2
∴ AC .(i + j − k) = 0
(−3 + µ) + µ − (−9 − µ) = 0
µ = −2
∴ OC = −i + 3j − k

 Solomon Press
C4 VECTORS Answers - Worksheet F

 0  2  −2 
     
1 a AB =  3 −  −1  =  4 2 a BA = (−4i + 2j − k) − (2i + 5j − 7k)
 −4   −5  1
     
 2  −2 
r =  −1  + λ  4  = −6i − 3j + 6k
 −5  1
   
b 2 − 2 λ = 6 + aµ (1) BC = (6i + 4j + k) − (2i + 5j − 7k)
−1 + 4λ = −5 − 3µ (2) = 4i − j + 8k
−5 + λ = 1 + µ (3)  BA  = 36 + 9 + 36 = 9
(2) + 3×(3) ⇒ −16 + 7λ = −2  BC  = 16 + 1 + 64 = 9
λ = 2, µ = −4 BA . BC = −24 + 3 + 48 = 27
sub. (1) 2 − 2(2) = 6 + a(−4) cos (∠ABC) = 927
×9
= 13
−2 = 6 − 4a b AC = (6i + 4j + k) − (−4i + 2j − k)
a=2 = 10i + 2j + 2k
point of intersection: (−2, 7, −3) OM = OA + 1
2
AC
= (−4i + 2j − k) + 12 (10i + 2j + 2k)
= i + 3j
c BM = (i + 3j) − (2i + 5j − 7k)
= −i − 2j + 7k
BM . AC = (−i − 2j + 7k).(10i + 2j + 2k)
= −10 − 4 + 14 = 0
∴ BM perpendicular to AC
d ∠ABC = cos−1 13 = 70.529
isosceles triangle
∴ ∠ACB = 12 (180 − 70.529) = 54.7° (1dp)

 Solomon Press
C4 VECTORS Answers - Worksheet F page 2

 11  9  2
     
3 a AB = 7 − 5 =  2 4 a (7i − 5j − k) = 49 + 25 + 1 = 5 3
 −3   −3   0
     
9  2
∴ r =  5  + λ  2  (4i − 5j + 3k) = 16 + 25 + 9 = 5 2
 −3   0
   
 9 + 2λ 
b OC =  5 + 2λ  (7i − 5j − k).(4i − 5j + 3k) = 28 + 25 − 3 = 50
 −3 
 
 2
OC .  2  = 0 cos (∠AOB) = 50
5 3 ×5 2
= 2
6
= 1
3
6
 0
 
2(9 + 2λ) + 2(5 + 2λ) + 0 = 0 b AB = (4i − 5j + 3k) − (7i − 5j − k)
8λ + 28 = 0 = −3i + 4k
 2
 
λ = − 72 , OC =  −2  AB . OB = (−3i + 4k).(4i − 5j + 3k)
 −3 
 
c OC = 4 + 4 + 9 = 17 = −12 + 0 + 12 = 0
 2
 
AC = 7
2  2 = 7 1+1 = 7 2 ∴ AB perpendicular to OB
 0
 
area = 1
2
× 17 × 7 2 = 20.4 c OC = 3
2
(4i − 5j + 3k)
d AC = 7
2
AB = 6i − 15
2
j+ 9
2
k
∴ area OAB : area OAC = 2 : 7 AC = (6i − 15
2
j + 92 k) − (7i − 5j − k)
= −i − 5
2
j + 112 k
AC . OA = (−i − 5
2
j+ 11
2
k).(7i − 5j − k)
= −7 + 25
2
− 11
2
=0
∴ AC perpendicular to OA
d ∠CAO = 90°
∴ ∠ACO = 90° − ∠AOC
= 90° − ∠AOB
= 90° − cos−1 ( 13 6 )
= 54.7°

 Solomon Press
C4 DIFFERENTIATION Answers - Worksheet A

1 a (5, 2)
4
b = −8 ∴ t = − 12
t

2 a (2, 0)
3 1 π 5π
b 1 + sin t = 2
, sin t = 2
, t= 6
, 6
3 5π 7π
2 cos t = − 3 , cos t = − , t= 6
, 6
2

∴ t= 6

x x x 1
3 a t= ∴ y = ( )2 b t= ∴y= c x2 = t 6, y3 = 8t 6
3 3 2 ( 2x )
2
y= 1
9
x2 y= ∴ y3 = 8x2
x

1
d t=4−y e t= 1
2
(x + 1) f t= +1
x
2 1 1
∴ x = 1 − (4 − y)2 ∴ y= ∴ y= =
1
4
(x + 1)2 2 − ( 1x + 1) 1 − 1x
8 x
y= y=
( x + 1)2 x −1

4 a t= 1
2
(x − 1)
∴ y= 1
4
(x − 1)2
b y

1
(0, 4
)
O (1, 0) x

x−3 y −1
5 a cos2 θ + sin2 θ = 1 b cos 2θ = 1 − 2 sin2 θ c cos θ = , sin θ =
2 2
∴ x2 + y2 = 1 ∴ y = 1 − 2x2 cos2 θ + sin2 θ = 1
x−3 2 y −1 2
∴ ( ) +( ) =1
2 2
(x − 3)2 + (y − 1)2 = 4
x y 1
d sec θ = , tan θ = e sin 2θ = 2 sin θ cos θ f sec θ =
2 4 x
1 + tan2 θ = sec2 θ ∴ y = 4 sin2 θ cos2 θ 1 + tan2 θ = sec2 θ
y x 1
∴ 1+( )2 = ( )2 y = 4 sin2 θ (1 − sin2 θ) ∴ 1 + y = ( )2
4 2 x
1
16 + y2 = 4x2 y = 4x2(1 − x2) y= −1
x2
y2 = 4x2 − 16

 Solomon Press
C4 DIFFERENTIATION Answers - Worksheet A page 2

x −1 y−4
6 a cos θ = , sin θ =
3 3
cos2 θ + sin2 θ = 1
x −1 2 y−4 2
( ) +( ) =1
3 3
(x − 1)2 + (y − 4)2 = 9
b centre (1, 4) radius 3
c y
θ = π
2
θ = 3π
θ = π
4 4

θ =π θ =0

θ = 7π
θ = 5π 4
4 θ = 3π
2

O x

7 a x = 5 cos θ, y = 5 sin θ, 0 ≤ θ < 2π


b x = 6 + 2 cos θ, y = −1 + 2 sin θ, 0 ≤ θ < 2π
c x = a + r cos θ, y = b + r sin θ, 0 ≤ θ < 2π

x
8 a t= b sin θ = 1 − x, cos θ = 2 − y
2
x x
∴ y = 4( )( − 1) cos2 θ + sin2 θ = 1 ∴ (2 − y)2 + (1 − x)2 = 1
2 2
y = x(x − 2) or (x − 1)2 + (y − 2)2 = 1
y y

(0, 2)
O
(0, 0) (2, 0) x
O x

c t=x+3 d t=x−1
2 2
∴ y = 4 − (x + 3) ∴ y=
x −1
y y

(−5, 0) (−1, 0) O x O
(0, −5) x
(0, −2)

 Solomon Press
C4 DIFFERENTIATION Answers - Worksheet B

dx dy
1 a = 1, = 2t
dt dt
dy dy dx
b = ÷ = 2t ÷ 1 = 2t
dx dt dt

dx dy dx dy dx dy
2 a = 2t, =3 b = 2t, = 6t2 + 2t c = 2 cos t, = −6 sin t
dt dt dt dt dt dt
dy dy dx 3 dy dy dx 6t 2 + 2t dy dy dx −6sin t
= ÷ = = ÷ = = 3t + 1 = ÷ = = −3 tan t
dx dt dt 2t dx dt dt 2t dx dt dt 2cos t

dx dy dx dy dx dy
d = 3, = t−2 e = −2 sin 2t, = cos t f = et + 1, = 2e2t − 1
dt dt dt dt dt dt
dy dy dx t −2 dy dy dx cos t dy dy dx 2e2t −1
= ÷ = = ÷ = = ÷ =
dx dt dt 3 dx dt dt −2sin 2t dx dt dt et +1
1 cos t
= = = − 14 cosec t = 2et − 2
3t 2 −4sin t cos t

dx dx dx
g = 2 sin t × cos t, h = 3 sec t tan t, i = −(t + 1)−2,
dt dt dt
dy dy dy 1 × (t − 1) − t × 1
= 3 cos2 t × (−sin t) = 5 sec2 t = = −(t − 1)−2
dt dt dt (t − 1)2
dy dy dx −3cos 2 t sin t dy dy dx 5sec 2 t dy dy dx −(t − 1)−2
= ÷ = = ÷ = = ÷ =
dx dt dt 2sin t cos t dx dt dt 3sec t tan t dx dt dt −(t + 1)−2
2
(t + 1)2 t +1
= 
5sec t
= − 32 cos t = = 5
3
cosec t = 
3tan t (t − 1) 2  t −1

3 a t = 1 ∴ x = 1, y = 3 b t = 2 ∴ x = −3, y = 0
dx 2 dy dx dy
= 3t , = 6t = −2t, = 2 − 2t
dt dt dt dt
dy dy dx 6t 2 dy dy dx 2 − 2t 1
= ÷ = 2 = = ÷ = =1−
dx dt dt 3t t dx dt dt −2t t
1
grad = 2 grad = 2

∴ y − 3 = 2(x − 1) ∴ y−0= 1
2
(x + 3)
1 3
y = 2x + 1 y= 2
x+ 2

π
c t= 3
∴x= 3 , y = −1 d t = 3 ∴ x = 0, y = 4
dx dy dx 1 1 dy
= 2 cos t, = 4 sin t =− = , = 2t
dt dt dt 4−t t−4 dt
dy dy dx 4sin t dy dy dx 2t
= ÷ = = 2 tan t = ÷ = 1 = 2t(t − 4)
dx dt dt 2cos t dx dt dt t −4

grad = 2 3 grad = −6
∴ y + 1 = 2 3 (x − 3) ∴ y − 4 = −6(x − 0)
y= 2 3x−7 y = 4 − 6x

 Solomon Press
C4 DIFFERENTIATION Answers - Worksheet B page 2

dx dy
4 θ = π
3
∴ x = 2, y = 2 3 5 a = −t−2, = −(t + 2)−2
dt dt
dx dy dy dy dx −(t + 2) −2
= sec θ tan θ, = 2 sec2 θ = ÷ =
dθ dθ dx dt dt −t −2
2
2sec 2 θ t2
= 
dy dy dx t 
= ÷ = = 
dx dθ dθ secθ tan θ (t + 2)2 t+2 
2secθ
= = 2 cosec θ b t=2 ∴x= 1
2
, y= 1
4
tan θ
4 3
grad = ∴ grad of normal = − 4
grad = 1
4
∴ grad of normal = −4
3
3
∴ y− 2 3 =− 4
(x − 2) ∴ y− 1
4
= −4(x − 1
2
)
4y − 8 3 = − 3 x + 2 3 4y − 1 = −16x + 8
3 x + 4y = 10 3 16x + 4y − 9 = 0

dx dx dy
6 a = 2 cos 2t 7 a = −3 sin θ, = 4 cos θ
dt dθ dθ
dy dy dy dx 4cosθ
= 2 sin t × cos t = sin 2t = ÷ =−
dt dx dθ dθ 3sin θ
dy dy dx sin 2t
= ÷ = = 1
2
tan 2t at (3 cos α, 4 sin α), θ = α
dx dt dt 2cos 2t
π 3 4cosα
b t= 6
∴x= 2
, y= 1
4
∴ grad = −
3sin α
3 4cosα
grad = 2
∴ y − 4 sin α = − (x − 3 cos α)
3sin α
3 3
∴ y− 1
4
= 2
(x − 2
) 3y sin α − 12 sin2 α = −4x cos α + 12 cos2 α
[ 3 x − 2y − 1 = 0 ] 3y sin α + 4x cos α = 12(cos2 α + sin2 α)
3y sin α + 4x cos α = 12
b at ( − 32 , 2 3 ),
3 cos α = − 32 ⇒ cos α = − 12
3
4 sin α = 2 3 ⇒ sin α = 2
3
∴ 3y × 2
+ 4x × ( − 12 ) = 12
4x − 3 3 y + 24 = 0

dx dy
8 a x = 0 ⇒ t2 = 0 ⇒ t=0 9 a = 2 sin θ, = 3 cos θ
dθ dθ
dy dy dx 3cosθ
y = 0 ⇒ t(t − 2) = 0 ⇒ t = 0, 2 = ÷ = or 3
2
cot θ
dx dθ dθ 2sin θ
3cosθ
∴ (0, 0), (4, 0) b i = 0 ∴ cos θ = 0
2sin θ
dx dy π 3π
b i = 2t, = 2t − 2 θ = 2
, 2
∴ (1, 3), (1, −3)
dt dt
dy dy dx 2t − 2 3cosθ
= ÷ = = 1 − t −1 ii → ∞ ∴ sin θ = 0
dx dt dt 2t 2sin θ
1 dy −1
t= x2 ∴ =1− x 2 θ = 0, π ∴ (−1, 0), (3, 0)
dx
1 1 1
ii y = x 2 ( x 2 − 2) = x − 2x 2
dy − 12
=1− x
dx

 Solomon Press
C4 DIFFERENTIATION Answers - Worksheet B page 3

π
10 a x = 0 ⇒ sin θ = 0 ⇒ θ =0 11 a t= 4
, x= 1
2
, y=1
dx dy
y = 0 ⇒ sin 2θ = 0 ⇒ θ = 0, π
2
= 2 sin t cos t , = sec2 t
dt dt
dy dy dx sec 2 t
∴ (0, 0), (1, 0) = ÷ = = 1
2
sec3 t cosec t
dx dt dt 2sin t cos t
dx dy
b = cos θ, = 2 cos 2θ grad = 1
2
× ( 2 )3 × 2 =2
dθ dθ
dy dy dx 2cos 2θ
= ÷ = ∴ y − 1 = 2(x − 1
2
)
dx dθ dθ cosθ
2cos 2θ
= 0 ∴ cos 2θ = 0 y = 2x
cosθ
π
θ = 4
∴ y=1 when x = 0, y = 0
c y = sin 2θ = 2 sin θ cos θ ∴ passes through origin
sin 2 t sin 2 t
cos θ = ± 1 − sin 2 θ b y2 = tan2 t = =
cos 2 t 1 − sin 2 t
x
0≤θ ≤ π
2
∴ cos θ = 1 − sin 2 θ ∴ y2 =
1− x

∴ y = 2 x 1 − x2

10 8
12 a t = 3, x = 3
, y= 3
dx dy
= 1 − t−2, = 1 + t−2
dt dt
dy dy dx 1 + t −2 t2 +1
= ÷ = =
dx dt dt 1 − t −2 t2 −1
5
grad = 4

∴ y− 8
3
= 5
4
(x − 10
3
)
[ 5x − 4y − 6 = 0 ]
b sub. parametric eqns into tangent
1 1
5(t + ) − 4(t − ) − 6 = 0
t t
5(t2 + 1) − 4(t2 − 1) − 6t = 0
t2 − 6t + 9 = 0
(t − 3)2 = 0
∴ t = 3 (at P), no other solutions
∴ does not intersect again
1 1
c x2 = (t + )2 = t2 + 2 + (1)
t t2
1 2 1
y2 = (t − ) = t2 − 2 + (2)
t t2
(1) − (2) ⇒ x2 − y2 = 4 [k = 4]

 Solomon Press
C4 DIFFERENTIATION Answers - Worksheet C

dy dy dy 2 dy
1 a =4 b = 3y2 c =2 cos 2y d = 3e y × 2y
dx dx dx dx
2 dy
= 6y ey
dx

dy dy dy
2 a 2x + 2y =0 b 2− + 2y =0
dx dx dx
dy dy
2y = −2x 2= (1 − 2y)
dx dx
dy x dy 2
=− =
dx y dx 1− 2y

dy dy dy
c 4y3 = 2x − 6 d 2x + 2y +3−4 =0
dx dx dx
dy x−3 dy
= 2x + 3 = (4 − 2y)
dx 2 y3 dx
dy 2x + 3
=
dx 4 − 2y

dy dy dy
e 2x − 4y +1+3 =0 f cos x − sin y = 0
dx dx dx
dy dy
2x + 1 = (4y − 3) cos x = sin y
dx dx
dy 2x + 1 dy cos x
= =
dx 4y − 3 dx sin y

dy dy
g 6e3x − 2e−2y =0 h sec2 x − 2 cosec 2y cot 2y = 0
dx dx
d y dy
6e3x = 2e−2y sec2 x = 2 cosec 2y cot 2y
dx dx
dy 3e3 x dy sec 2 x
= = 3e3x + 2y =
dx e −2 y dx 2cosec 2 y cot 2 y

1 2 dy
i =
x−2 2 y + 1 dx
dy 2y +1
=
dx 2( x − 2)

dy dy
3 a =1×y+x× b = 2x × y3 + x2 × 3y2
dx dx
dy dy
=y+x = 2xy3 + 3x2y2
dx dx
dy dy
c = cos x × tan y + sin x × sec2 y d = 3(x − 2y)2 × (1 − 2 )
dx dx
dy dy
= cos x tan y + sin x sec2 y = 3(x − 2y)2(1 − 2 )
dx dx

 Solomon Press
C4 DIFFERENTIATION Answers - Worksheet C page 2

dy dy dy
4 a 2x × y + x2 =0 b 2x + 3 × y + 3x × − 2y =0
dx dx dx
dy dy
x2 = −2xy 2x + 3y = (2y − 3x)
dx dx
dy 2y dy 2x + 3 y
=− =
dx x dx 2 y − 3x
dy dy dy
c 8x − 2 × y − 2x × + 6y =0 d −2 sin 2x × sec 3y + cos 2x × 3 sec 3y tan 3y = 0
dx dx dx
dy dy
8x − 2y = (2x − 6y) 3 cos 2x sec 3y tan 3y = 2 sin 2x sec 3y
dx dx
dy 4x − y dy 2sin 2 x 2
= = = 3
tan 2x cot 3y
dx x − 3y dx 3cos 2 x tan 3 y

dy dy dy dy
e = 2(x + y) × (1 + ) f 1 × ey + x × ey − =0
dx dx dx dx
dy dy
[1 − 2(x + y)] = 2(x + y) ey = (1 − xey)
dx dx
dy 2( x + y ) dy ey
= =
dx 1 − 2( x + y ) dx 1− xey
dy dy dy 1 dy
g 2 × y2 + 2x × 2y − 3x2 × y − x3 × = 0 h 2y + 1 × ln y + x × =0
dx dx dx y dx
dy dy x
2y2 − 3x2y = (x3 − 4xy) (2y + ) = −ln y
dx dx y
dy 2 y 2 − 3x2 y dy ln y y ln y
= =− =−
dx x 3 − 4 xy dx 2 y + xy 2 y2 + x

dy dy
i 1 × sin y + x × cos y + 2x × cos y + x2 × (−sin y) =0
dx dx
dy
sin y + 2x cos y = (x2 sin y − x cos y)
dx
dy sin y + 2 x cos y
=
dx x 2 sin y − x cos y

dy dy dy dy
5 a 2x + 2y −3 =0 b 4x − 1 × y − x × + 2y =0
dx dx dx dx
dy dy
2x = (3 − 2y) 4x − y = (x − 2y)
dx dx
dy 2x dy 4x − y
= =
dx 3 − 2y dx x − 2y
grad = 4 grad = −1
∴ y − 1 = 4(x − 2) ∴ y − 5 = −(x − 3)
[ y = 4x − 7 ] [y=8−x]
dy dy
c 4 cos y − sec x tan x = 0 d 2 sec2 x × cos y + 2 tan x × (−sin y) =0
dx dx
dy dy
4 cos y = sec x tan x 2 sec2 x cos y = 2 tan x sin y
dx dx
dy sec x tan x dy sec 2 x cos y
= =
dx 4cos y dx tan x sin y
2× 3 2 × 12 2 3 2
grad = 3
=1 grad = 3
= × = 3
3
4× 2
1× 2
3 3
π π π π
∴ y− 6
=x− 3
∴ y− 3
= 2
3
3 (x − 4
)
π
[y=x− 6
] [ 4 3 x − 6y + π(2 − 3)=0]

 Solomon Press
C4 DIFFERENTIATION Answers - Worksheet C page 3

dy dy dy dy
6 a 2x + 4y −1+4 =0 7 a 2x + 4 × y + 4x × − 6y =0
dx dx dx dx
dy dy
(4y + 4) = 1 − 2x 2x + 4y = (6y − 4x)
dx dx
dy 1 − 2x dy x + 2y
= =
dx 4( y + 1) dx 3y − 2x
b grad = 1
8
grad = −4
∴ grad of normal = −8 ∴ y − 2 = −4(x − 4)
∴ y + 3 = −8(x − 1) [ y = 18 − 4x ]
x + 2y
[ y = 5 − 8x ] b at Q, = −4
3y − 2x
x + 2y = −4(3y − 2x)
x = 2y
sub. into equation of curve
⇒ (2y)2 + 4y(2y) − 3y2 = 36
y2 = 4
y = 2 (at P) or −2
∴ Q (−4, −2)

8 ln y = ln ax
ln y = x ln a
1 dy
= ln a
y dx
dy
= y ln a = ax ln a
dx

3
9 a = 3x ln 3 b = 62x ln 6 × 2 c = 51 − x ln 5 × (−1) d = 2 x ln 2 × 3x2
3
= 2(62x) ln 6 = −(51 − x) ln 5 = 3x2( 2 x ) ln 2

dN
10 = 800 (1.04)t × ln 1.04
dt
N = 4000
∴ 4000 = 800(1.04)t
(1.04)t = 5
dN
= 800 × 5 × ln 1.04 = 157 (3sf)
dt
∴ growing at rate of 157 per minute

 Solomon Press
C4 DIFFERENTIATION Answers - Worksheet D

dy dy dy dx
1 a i = 2x + 3 2 = ×
dx dt dx dt
dx dy −1
ii = 3(t − 4)2 =1× 2x − 3 + x × 1
2
(2 x − 3) 2 × 2
dt dx
dy dy dx (2 x − 3) + x 3( x − 1)
b i = × = =
dt dx dt 2x − 3 2x − 3
dx dy dx dy
t = 5, = 3, x = 1, =5 x = 6, = 0.3, =5
dt dx dt dx
dy dy
∴ = 5 × 3 = 15 ∴ = 5 × 0.3 = 1.5
dt dt
dy
ii x = 8, = 19 ∴ y increasing at 1.5 units per second
dx
dx
8 = (t − 4)3 ∴ t = 6, = 12
dt
dy
∴ = 19 × 12 = 228
dt

dP dP dr dA dA dr
3 a = × 4 a = ×
dt dr dt dt dr dt
dr dP dA
= 0.2, P = 2πr ∴ = 2π A= πr2 ∴ = 2πr
dt dr dr
dP dA dA
∴ = 2π × 0.2 = 0.4π = −0.5, r = 8 ∴ = 16π
dt dt dr
dr
∴ perimeter increasing at 0.4π cm s−1 ∴ −0.5 = 16π ×
dt
dA dA dr dr
b = × = − 32π
1
= −0.00995 cm s−1
dt dr dt dt
dA
A = πr2 ∴ = 2πr ∴ radius decreasing at 0.00995 cm s−1 (3sf)
dr
dA dP dP dr
r = 10, = 20π b = ×
dr dt dr dt
dA dP
∴ = 20π × 0.2 = 4π cm2 s−1 P = 2πr ∴ = 2π
dt dr
dP
c 20 = 2πr × 0.2 ∴ r = 50
π
= 15.9 cm (3sf) ∴ = 2π × − 32π
1
= − 161
dt
∴ perimeter decreasing at 0.0625 cm s−1

 Solomon Press
C4 DIFFERENTIATION Answers - Worksheet D page 2

dV dV dl
5 a = × 6 a r
dt dl dt
dV dV 1 r
= 3.5, V = l3 ∴ = 3l2 h tan 30° = =
dt dl 3 h
h
200 = l3 ∴ l = 3
200 = 5.848 30° ∴ r=
3
dV
∴ = 3 × (5.848)2 = 102.6 V= 1
3
πr2h = 1
3
π× 1
3
h2 × h = 1
9
πh3
dl
dl
∴ 3.5 = 102.6 × b t = 120, V = 565.06
dt
dl 9 × 565.06
= 3.5 ÷ 102.6 = 0.0341 cm s−1 ∴ h= 3 = 11.7 cm (3sf)
dt π
dV dV dh
b 2 mm s−1 = 0.2 cm s−1 c = ×
dt dh dt
dV dV
3.5 = × 0.2 = 1
3
πh2
dl dh
dV dV
∴ = 3.5 ÷ 0.2 = 17.5 h = 11.74, = 144.4
dl dh
dV
∴ 17.5 = 3l2 = 600 × (−0.0005)e−0.0005t
dt
l= 17.5
3
= 2.415 = −0.3e−0.0005t
dV
V = (2.415)3 = 14.1 cm3 (3sf) t = 120, = −0.2825
dt
dh
∴ −0.2825 = 144.4 ×
dt
dh
= −0.00196
dt
∴ depth decreasing at 0.00196 cm s−1 (3sf)

 Solomon Press
C4 DIFFERENTIATION Answers - Worksheet E

dy dy dx dy
1 6x + 1 × y + x × − 2y =0 2 a = −a sin θ, = a(cos θ − 1)
dx dx dθ dθ
dy dy dy dx a(cosθ − 1) 1 − cosθ
6x + y = (2y − x) = ÷ = =
dx dx dθ dθ −a sin θ sin θ
dy 6x + y 1 − (1 − 2sin 2 θ2 ) sin θ2 θ
= = = = tan
dx 2y − x 2sin θ2 cos θ2 cos θ2 2
π
b x = 0 ⇒ cos θ = 0 ⇒ θ = 2
π
∴ y = a(1 − 2
), grad = 1
π
∴ y = x + a(1 − 2
)

dx dy dy dy
3 a = −sin θ, = cos 2θ 4 a 2x − 4 × y − 4x × + 2y =0
dθ dθ dx dx
dy dy dx cos 2θ dy
= ÷ = 2x − 4y = (4x − 2y)
dx dθ dθ − sin θ dx
dy 2x − 4 y x − 2y
= −cosec θ cos 2θ = =
dx 4x − 2 y 2x − y
π 3π
b x = 0 ⇒ cos θ = 0 ⇒ θ = 2
, 2
b grad = 3
π
c θ = 2
, grad = −1 × (−1) = 1 ∴ y − 10 = 3(x − 2) [ y = 3x + 4 ]
3π x − 2y
θ = 2
, grad = 1 × (−1) = −1 c =3
2x − y
product of gradients = 1 × (−1) = −1 x − 2y = 3(2x − y)
∴ tangents are perpendicular y = 5x, sub. into eqn of curve
d y = 12 sin 2θ = sin θ cos θ x2 − 4x(5x) + (5x)2 = 24
y2 = sin2 θ cos2 θ = cos2 θ (1 − cos2 θ) x2 = 4
∴ y2 = x2(1 − x2) x = 2 (at P) or −2 ∴ (−2, −10)

dx dy dy dy
5 a = 2t, = 2t − 1 6 3x2 − 3 + 1 × y + x × − 4y =0
dt dt dx dx
dy dy dx 2t − 1 dy
= ÷ = 3x2 − 3 + y = (4y − x)
dx dt dt 2t dx
2t − 1 dy 3x 2 − 3 + y
∴ =0 =
2t dx 4y − x
1 1
t= 2
grad = 3

∴ ( 94 , − 14 ) ∴ grad of normal = −3
2
b x=3 ⇒ t +2=3 ⇒ t=±1 ∴ y − 1 = −3(x − 1)
y = 2 ⇒ t2 − t = 2 y = 4 − 3x
t2 − t − 2 = 0
(t − 2)(t + 1) = 0
t = −1 or 2
∴ at (3, 2), t = −1
∴ grad = 32
∴ y−2= 3
2
(x − 3)
2y − 4 = 3x − 9
3x − 2y = 5

 Solomon Press
C4 DIFFERENTIATION Answers - Worksheet E page 2

dV dV dh dV dx 1 × (1 + t ) − t × 1 1
7 a = × , = 80 8 a = =
dt dh dt dt dt (1 + t )2 (1 + t )2
dV dy 1 × (1 − t ) − t × (−1) 1
= 40π × 0.1e0.1h = 4πe0.1h = =
dh dt (1 − t ) 2 (1 − t )2
dV dy dy dx 1 1
h = 4, = 4πe0.4 = ÷ = ÷
dh dx dt dt (1 − t )2 (1 + t )2
2
(1 + t )2 1+ t 
= 
dh dh
∴ 80 = 4πe0.4 × , = 4.27 = 
dt dt (1 − t ) 2 1− t 
−1
∴ depth increasing at 4.27 cm s (3sf) b t= 1
2
∴x= 1
3
, y=1
b after 5 seconds, V = 5 × 80 = 400 grad = 9 ∴ grad of normal = − 19
∴ 400 = 40π(e0.1h − 1) ∴ y − 1 = − 19 (x − 1
3
)
h = 10 ln ( 10
π
+ 1) = 14.31 27y − 27 = −3x + 1
dV
∴ = 4πe1.431 3x + 27y = 28
dh
dh dh 3t 27t
∴ 80 = 4πe1.431 × , = 1.52 c + = 28
dt dt 1+ t 1− t
∴ depth increasing at 1.52 cm s−1 (3sf) 3t(1 − t) + 27t(1 + t) = 28(1 − t 2)
26t 2 + 15t − 14 = 0
(13t + 14)(2t − 1) = 0
t = 12 (at P) or − 14
13

∴ t = − 14
13
at Q

dy dy dx dy
9 2 + 2x × y + x2 × − 2y =0 10 a = a sec θ tan θ, = 2a sec2 θ
dx dx dθ dθ
dy dy dy dx 2a sec2 θ
2 + 2xy = (2y − x2) = ÷ = = 2 cosec θ
dx dx dθ dθ a secθ tan θ
dy 2 + 2 xy π
= b θ = 4
, x= 2 a, y = 2a
dx 2 y − x2
2 + 2 xy
∴ = 0, 2 + 2xy = 0 grad = 2 2
2 y − x2
1 1
xy = −1, y=− ∴ grad of normal = −
x 2 2
1 1 2 1
sub. 2x + x2(− ) − (− ) =0 ∴ y − 2a = − (x − 2 a)
x x 2 2
1
2x − x − =0 2 2 y − 4 2 a = −x + 2a
x2
1
x= , x3 = 1 x+ 2 2y= 5 2a
x2
x = 1 ∴ (1, −1) c y2 = 4a2 tan2 θ = 4a2(sec2 θ − 1)
x
sec θ =
a
x
∴ y2 = 4a2[( )2 − 1]
a
y2 = 4(x2 − a2)

 Solomon Press
C4 DIFFERENTIATION Answers - Worksheet F

dx dy
1 a = 2t, = −2t−2 2 x=1 ∴y=4
dt dt
dy dy dx −2t −2 1 dy
= ÷ = =− = 4x ln 4
dx dt dt 2t t3 dx
b t = 2 ∴ x = 4, y = 1 grad = 4 ln 4 = 4 ln 22 = 8 ln 2
grad = − 18 ∴ y − 4 = (8 ln 2)(x − 1)
∴ grad of normal = 8 y = 4 + 8(x − 1) ln 2
∴ y − 1 = 8(x − 4)
y = 8x − 31

dx dy dy dy
3 a = sec θ tan θ, = −2 sin 2θ 4 a 4x + 6 × y + 6x × − 2y =0
dθ dθ dx dx
dy dy dx −2sin 2θ dy
= ÷ = 4x + 6y = (2y − 6x)
dx dθ dθ secθ tan θ dx
cosθ dy 2x + 3 y
= −4 sin θ cos θ × cos θ × =
sin θ dx y − 3x
= −4 cos3 θ at P, grad = 1
b θ = π6 ∴ x = 2 , y= 1
2
∴ grad of normal = −1
3
3 3
grad = −4 × ( 2
) = − 32 3 ∴ y + 5 = −(x − 2)
∴ y− 1
= − 32 3 (x − 2 ) x+y+3=0
2 3
2y − 1 = −3 3 x + 6 b sub. y = −x − 3 into eqn of curve
3 3 x + 2y = 7 [k = 7] 2x2 + 6x(−x − 3) − (−x − 3)2 + 77 = 0
5x2 + 24x − 68 = 0
(5x + 34)(x − 2) = 0
x = 2 (at P) or − 345 ∴ x = −6 54

π 3π
5 a y = 0 ⇒ cos θ = 0 ⇒ θ = 2
, 2
6 a sin θ = 1
2

∴ ( π2 − 1, 0), ( 3π
2
+ 1, 0) ∴ θ = π
6
dx dy π
b = 1 − cos θ, = −sin θ b θ = 6
∴y= 4
3
dθ dθ
dy dy dx − sin θ dx dy
= ÷ = = cos θ, = 2 sec θ × sec θ tan θ,
dx dθ dθ 1 − cosθ dθ dθ
2sin θ2 cos θ2 dy dy dx 2sec2 θ tan θ 2sin θ
=− = ÷ = =
1 − (1 − 2sin 2 θ2 ) dx dθ dθ cos θ cos 4 θ
cos θ2 θ
=− = −cot ∴ grad = 16
9
sin θ2 2
θ
c −cot =0 ∴ y− 4
3
= 16
9
(x − 1
2
)
2
θ π
= 2
, θ =π 9y − 12 = 16x − 8
2
∴ (π, −1) 16x − 9y + 4 = 0
1 1
c y = sec2 θ = =
cos 2 θ 1 − sin 2 θ
1
∴ y=
1 − x2

 Solomon Press
C4 DIFFERENTIATION Answers - Worksheet F page 2

dy dx dy
7 a 2 cos x − 2 sec2 2y =0 8 a = −4 sin t, = 3 cos t
dx dt dt
2 dy dy dy dx 3cos t
2 cos x = 2
= ÷ = = − 34 cot t
cos 2 y dx dx dt dt −4sin t
dy 3cos t
= cos x cos2 2y b y − 3 sin t = − (x − 4 cos t)
dx 4sin t
b grad = 1
2
× ( 12 )2 = 1
8
4y sin t − 12 sin2 t = −3x cos t + 12 cos2 t
∴ y− π
6
= 1
8
(x − π
3
) 3x cos t + 4y sin t = 12(sin2 t + cos2 t)
24y − 4π = 3x − π 3x cos t + 4y sin t = 12
x y
3x − 24y + 3π = 0 c cos t = , sin t =
4 3
x − 8y + π = 0 cos2 t + sin2 t = 1
x y
∴ ( )2 + ( )2 = 1
4 3
9x2 + 16y2 = 144

dx 1 × (t + 1) − t × 1 1
9 a = =
dt (t + 1)2 (t + 1)2
dy 2 × (t − 1) − 2t × 1 −2
= =
dt (t − 1) 2 (t − 1)2
dy dy dx −2 1
= ÷ = ÷
dx dt dt (t − 1)2 (t + 1)2
2
−2(t + 1)2 t +1
= = −2  
(t − 1) 2  t −1
b at O, t = 0 ∴ grad = −2
∴ grad of normal = 12
∴ y= 1
2
x
2t t
c = 1
2
×
t −1 t +1
4t(t + 1) = t(t − 1)
3t2 + 5t = 0
t(3t + 5) = 0
t = 0 (at O) or − 53
∴ ( 52 , 5
4
)
t
d x= ⇒ xt + x = t
t +1
x = t(1 − x)
x
t=
1− x
2x
∴ y= x
1− x

1− x
−1
2x
y=
x − (1 − x)
2x
y=
2x − 1

 Solomon Press
C4 INTEGRATION Answers - Worksheet A

1 a ex + c b 4ex + c c ln | x | + c d 6 ln | x | + c

2 a = 2t + 3et + c b = 1
2
t 2 + ln | t | + c c = 1
3
t 3 − et + c d = 9t − 2 ln | t | + c
7 1
1
e = ∫ (
t
+ t 2 ) dt f = 1
4
et − ln | t | + c g = ∫ (
3t
+ t −2) dt h = 2
5
ln | t | − 3
7
et + c
3
= 7 ln | t | + 23 t 2 + c = 1
3
ln | t | − t −1 + c

3 a = 5x − 3 ln | x | + c b = ln | u | − u−1 + c c = ∫ ( 25 et + 1
5
) dt
= 2
5
et + 1
5
t+c
1 1
d = ∫ (3 +
y
) dy e = ∫ ( 34 et + 3t 2 ) dt f = ∫ (x2 − 2 + x−2) dx
3
= 3y + ln | y | + c = 3
4
et + 2t 2 + c = 1
3
x3 − 2x − x−1 + c

4x2 − 4 x + 1 1
4 f ′(x) = = 4x − 4 +
x x
1
f(x) = ∫ (4x − 4 +
x
) dx = 2x2 − 4x + ln | x | + c
(1, −3) ⇒ −3 = 2 − 4 + 0 + c
∴ c = −1
f(x) = 2x2 − 4x + ln | x | − 1

4 5
5 a = [ex + 10x] 10 b = [ 12 t 2 + ln | t |] 52 c = ∫1 (
x
− x) dx

= (e + 10) − (1 + 0) = ( 252 + ln 5) − (2 + ln 2) = [5 ln | x | − 1
2
x2] 14
=e+9 = 21
2
+ ln 5
2
= (5 ln 4 − 8) − (0 − 1
2
)
= 10 ln 2 − 15
2
−1 1 3
d = ∫ −2 (2 +
3y
) dy e = [ex − 1
3
x3] −33 f = ∫2 (4 − 3r−1 + 6r−2) dr

= [2y + 1
3
ln | y |] −−12 = (e3 − 9) − (e−3 + 9) = [4r − 3 ln | r | − 6r−1] 32
= (−2 + 0) − (−4 + 1
3
ln 2) = e3 − e−3 − 18 = (12 − 3 ln 3 − 2) − (8 − 3 ln 2 − 3)
=2− 1
3
ln 2 = 5 − 3 ln 3
2
10 9
∫6 ∫4
− 12
g = [7u − eu] lnln 42 h = (2 + 9r−1) dr i = (x + 3ex) dx
1
= (7 ln 4 − 4) − (7 ln 2 − 2) = [2r + 9 ln | r |] 10
6 = [ 2x 2 + 3ex] 94
= 7 ln 2 − 2 = (20 + 9 ln 10) − (12 + 9 ln 6) = (6 + 3e9) − (4 + 3e4)
= 8 + 9 ln 53 = 3e9 − 3e4 + 2

2 4 1
6 = ∫0 (3 + ex) dx 7 = ∫1 (2x +
x
) dx

= [3x + ex] 02 = [ x2 + ln | x |] 14
= (6 + e2) − (0 + 1) = (16 + ln 4) − (1 + 0)
= e2 + 5 = 15 + 2 ln 2

 Solomon Press
C4 INTEGRATION Answers - Worksheet A page 2
1 4 3
8 a = ∫0 (4x + 2ex) dx b = ∫2 (1 +
x
) dx

= [2x2 + 2ex] 10 = [x + 3 ln | x |] 42
= (2 + 2e) − (0 + 2) = 2e = (4 + 3 ln 4) − (2 + 3 ln 2) = 2 + 3 ln 2
−1 1 ln 2
c = ∫ −3 (4 −
x
) dx d = ∫0 (2 − 1
2
ex) dx

= [4x − ln | x |] −−13 = [2x − 1


2
ex] ln0 2
= (−4 − 0) − (−12 − ln 3) = 8 + ln 3 = (2 ln 2 − 1) − (0 − 1
2
) = 2 ln 2 − 1
2

2 5 3 2
e = ∫ 1
2
(ex +
x
) dx f = ∫2 (x2 −
x
) dx

= [ex + 5 ln | x |] 21 = [ 13 x3 − 2 ln | x |] 32
2
1
= (e2 + 5 ln 2) − ( e 2 + 5 ln 1
2
) = (9 − 2 ln 3) − ( 83 − 2 ln 2)
1
= e2 − e 2 + 10 ln 2 = 19
3
− 2 ln 3
2

7
9 a 9− − 2x = 0 10 a y
x
2x2 − 9x + 7 = 0
(2x − 7)(x − 1) = 0 O (ln a, 0) x
x = 1, 72 (0, 1 − a)
y = −a
∴ (1, 0) and ( 72 , 0)
7 ln a
7
b = ∫1
2
(9 − − 2x) dx b = −∫ (ex − a) dx = −[ex − ax] ln0 a
x 0
7
= [9x − 7 ln | x | − x2] 12 = −[(a − a ln a) − (1 − 0)] = 1 − a + a ln a
= ( 632 − 7 ln 7
2
− 49
4
) − (9 − 0 − 1) c 1 − a + a ln a = 1 + a
= 11 14 − 7 ln 7
2
a ln a = 2a, ln a = 2, a = e2

3
11 a x = 3 ∴ y = e3 12 a ( − 4)2 = 0
x
dy
= ex ∴ grad = e3 x = 3
4
dx
∴ y − e3 = e3(x − 3) [ y = e3(x − 2) ] x= 9
16
∴ ( 169 , 0)
1 3
b at Q, y = 0 ∴ x = 2 b = ∫ 9
16
(
x
− 4)2 dx
1 − 12
at R, x = 0 ∴ y = −2e3 = ∫ 9
16
(9x−1 − 24 x + 16) dx
1
∴ Q (2, 0), R (0, −2e3) = [9 ln | x | − 48 x 2 + 16x] 19
16

c area under curve, 0 ≤ x ≤ 3 = (0 − 48 + 16) − (9 ln 9


16
− 36 + 9)
3
= ∫0 ex dx = [ex] 30 = e3 − 1 = −5 − 9 ln 9
16
≈ 0.178
area of triangle under PQ
= 12 × 1 × e3 = 12 e3
area of triangle above QR
= 12 × 2 × 2e3 = 2e3
shaded area
= (e3 − 1) − 12 e3 + 2e3 = 5
2
e3 − 1

 Solomon Press
C4 INTEGRATION Answers - Worksheet B

1 a = 1
8
(x − 2)8 + c b = 1
2
× 14 (2x + 5)4 + c c = 13 × 56 (1 + 3x)5 + c d = 4 × 16 ( 14 x − 2)6 + c
= 1
8
(2x + 5)4 + c = 2
5
(1 + 3x)5 + c = 2
3
( 14 x − 2)6 + c

e = − 15 × 15 (8 − 5x)5 + c f = ∫ (x + 7)−2 dx g = ∫ 8(4x − 3)−5 dx h = ∫ 1


2
(5 − 3x)−3 dx
= − 251 (8 − 5x)5 + c = −(x + 7)−1 + c = 1
4
× −84 (4x − 3)−4 + c = − 13 × −14 (5 − 3x)−2 + c
−1 1
= +c = +c
2(4 x − 3)4 12(5 − 3x )2

5 1
2 a = 2
5
(3 + t ) 2 + c b = ∫ (4 x − 1) 2 dx c = 1
2
ln2y + 1 + c
3
= 1
4
× 32 (4 x − 1) 2 + c
3
= 1
6
(4 x − 1) 2 + c
1
d = 1
2
e2x − 3 + c e =3× 1
−7
ln2 − 7r + c f = ∫ (5t − 2) 3 dt
4
= − 73 ln2 − 7r + c = 1
5
× 34 (5t − 2) 3 + c
4
= 3
20
(5t − 2) 3 + c

− 12
g = ∫ (6 − y ) dy h = − 53 e7 − 3t + c i =4× 1
3
ln3u + 1 + c
1
= −2(6 − y ) 2 + c = 4
3
ln3u + 1 + c

3 a f(x) = ∫ 8(2x − 3)3 dx b f(x) = ∫ 6e2x + 4 dx


= 1
2
× 2(2x − 3)4 + c = 3e2x + 4 + c
= (2x − 3)4 + c (−2, 1) ⇒ 1 = 3 + c
(2, 6) ⇒ 6 = 1 + c ∴ c = −2
∴ c=5 f(x) = 3e2x + 4 − 2
f(x) = (2x − 3)4 + 5
8
c f(x) = ∫ 2−
4x − 1
dx d f(x) = ∫ 8x − 3(3x − 2)−2 dx
= 2x − 8 × 1
4
ln4x − 1 + c = 4x2 + 1
3
× 3(3x − 2)−1 + c
= 2x − 2 ln4x − 1 + c = 4x2 + (3x − 2)−1 + c
( 12 , 4) ⇒ 4 = 1 + c (−1, 3) ⇒ 3 = 4 − 15 + c
∴ c=3 ∴ c = − 54
1
f(x) = 2x − 2 ln4x − 1 + 3 f(x) = 4x2 + − 4
5
3x − 2

 Solomon Press
C4 INTEGRATION Answers - Worksheet B page 2

4
4 a = [ 13 × 13 (3x + 1)3] 10 b = [ 12 × 14 (2x − 1)4] 12 c = ∫2 (5 − x)−2 dx

= 1
9
[(3x + 1)3] 10 = 1
8
[(2x − 1)4] 12 = [(5 − x)−1] 42
= 1
9
(64 − 1) = 1
8
(81 − 1) =1− 1
3
2
=7 = 10 = 3

6
∫2
1
d = [ 12 e2x + 2] −11 e = (3 x − 2) 2 dx f = [4 × 1
6
ln6x − 3] 12
3
= 1
2
(e4 − 1) = [ 13 × 23 (3 x − 2) 2 ] 62 = 2
3
[ ln6x − 3] 12
3
= 2
9
[ (3 x − 2) 2 ] 62 = 2
3
(ln 9 − ln 3)
= 2
9
(64 − 8) = 2
3
ln 3
= 12 94

1 7
∫0 ∫4
− 13
g = (7 x + 1) dx h = [ 15 ln5x + 3] −−17 i = 1
8
(x − 4)3 dx
2
= [ 17 × 32 (7 x + 1) 3 ] 10 = 1
5
(ln 2 − ln 32) = 1 1
8 4
[ (x − 4)4] 74
= 3
14
(4 − 1) = 1
5
(ln 2 − 5 ln 2) = 1
32
(81 − 0)
= 9
14
= − 54 ln 2 = 2 17
32

4 3
5 a = ∫3 e3 − x dx b = ∫2 (3x − 5)3 dx

= [−e3 − x] 34 = [ 13 × 14 (3x − 5)4] 32


= −e−1 − (−1) = 1
12
(256 − 1)
1
=1− = 21 14
e

4 3 0
c = ∫1 4x + 2
dx d = ∫ −2 (1 − 2x)−2 dx

= [3 × 1
4
ln4x + 2] 14 = [ − 12 × −(1 − 2x)−1] −02
= 3
4
(ln 18 − ln 6) = 1
2
(1 − 1
5
)
3 2
= 4
ln 3 = 5

1
6 = ∫0 12(2x + 1)−3 dx

= [ 12 × (−6)(2x + 1)−2] 10
−3
=[ ] 10
(2 x + 1)2
= − 13 − (−3)
8
= 3

 Solomon Press
C4 INTEGRATION Answers - Worksheet C

3x + 5 A B 3 A B
1 a ≡ + 2 ≡ +
( x + 1)( x + 3) x +1 x+3 (t − 2)(t + 1) t−2 t +1
3x + 5 ≡ A(x + 3) + B(x + 1) 3 ≡ A(t + 1) + B(t − 2)
x = −1 ⇒ 2 = 2A ⇒ A=1 t=2 ⇒ 3 = 3A ⇒ A=1
x = −3 ⇒ −4 = −2B ⇒ B = 2 t = −1 ⇒ 3 = −3B ⇒ B = −1
3x + 5 1 2 3

( x + 1)( x + 3)

x +1
+
x+3
∴ ∫ (t − 2)(t + 1)
dt
1 2 1 1
b = ∫ (
x +1
+
x+3
) dx = ∫ (
t−2

t +1
) dt
= lnx + 1 + 2 lnx + 3 + c = lnt − 2 − lnt + 1 + c
t−2
= ln +c
t +1

6 x − 11 A B 14 − x A B
3 a ≡ + b ≡ +
(2 x + 1)( x − 3) 2x + 1 x−3 x2 + 2x − 8 x+4 x−2
6x − 11 ≡ A(x − 3) + B(2x + 1) 14 − x ≡ A(x − 2) + B(x + 4)
x = − 12 ⇒ −14 = − 72 A ⇒ A = 4 x = −4 ⇒ 18 = −6A ⇒ A = −3
x=3 ⇒ 7 = 7B ⇒ B=1 x=2 ⇒ 12 = 6B ⇒ B=2
6 x − 11 14 − x
∴ ∫ (2 x + 1)( x − 3)
dx ∴ ∫ x2 + 2x − 8
dx
4 1 2 3
= ∫ (
2x + 1
+
x−3
) dx = ∫ (
x−2

x+4
) dx
= 2 ln2x + 1 + lnx − 3 + c = 2 lnx − 2 − 3 lnx + 4 + c
6 A B x +1 A B
c ≡ + d ≡ +
(2 + x)(1 − x) 2+ x 1− x 5 x 2 − 14 x + 8 5x − 4 x−2
6 ≡ A(1 − x) + B(2 + x) x + 1 ≡ A(x − 2) + B(5x − 4)
x = −2 ⇒ 6 = 3A ⇒ A=2 x = 45 ⇒ 95 = − 65 A ⇒ A = − 32
x=1 ⇒ 6 = 3B ⇒ B=2 x=2 ⇒ 3 = 6B ⇒ B= 1
2
6 x +1
∴ ∫ (2 + x)(1 − x)
dx ∴ ∫ 5 x 2 − 14 x + 8
dx
1 3
2 2
= ∫ (
2+ x
+
1− x
) dx = ∫ ( 2
( x − 2)
− 2
5x − 4
) dx

= 2 ln2 + x − 2 ln1 − x + c = 1
2
lnx − 2 − 3
10
ln5x − 4 + c
2+ x
= 2 ln +c
1− x

4 a x2 − 6 ≡ A(x + 4)(x − 1) + B(x − 1) + C(x + 4)


x = −4 ⇒ 10 = −5B ⇒ B = −2
x=1 ⇒ −5 = 5C ⇒ C = −1
coeffs of x2 ⇒ A=1
2 1
b = ∫ (1 −
x+4

x −1
) dx
= x − 2 lnx + 4 − lnx − 1 + c

 Solomon Press
C4 INTEGRATION Answers - Worksheet C page 2

x2 − x − 4 A B C
5 a ≡ + +
( x + 2)( x + 1) 2 x+2 x +1 ( x + 1)2
x2 − x − 4 ≡ A(x + 1)2 + B(x + 2)(x + 1) + C(x + 2)
x = −2 ⇒ A=2
x = −1 ⇒ C = −2
coeffs of x2 ⇒ 1=A+B ⇒ B = −1
x2 − x − 4 2 1 2
∴ ≡ − −
( x + 2)( x + 1) 2 x+2 x +1 ( x + 1)2
2 1 2
b = ∫ (
x+2

x +1

( x + 1)2
) dx

= 2 lnx + 2 − lnx + 1 + 2(x + 1)−1 + c

3x 2 − 5 B C
6 a ≡A+ +
x2 − 1 x +1 x −1
3x2 − 5 ≡ A(x + 1)(x − 1) + B(x − 1) + C(x + 1)
x = −1 ⇒ −2 = −2B ⇒ B=1
x=1 ⇒ −2 = 2C ⇒ C = −1
coeffs of x2 ⇒ A=3
3x 2 − 5 1 1
∴ ∫ x2 − 1
dx = ∫ (3 +
x +1

x −1
) dx
x +1
= 3x + lnx + 1 − lnx − 1 + c = 3x + ln +c
x −1
x (4 x + 13) A B C
b ≡ + +
(2 + x)2 (3 − x) 2+ x (2 + x)2 3− x
x(4x + 13) ≡ A(2 + x)(3 − x) + B(3 − x) + C(2 + x)2
x = −2 ⇒ −10 = 5B ⇒ B = −2
x=3 ⇒ 75 = 25C ⇒ C=3
2
coeffs of x ⇒ 4 = −A + C ⇒ A = −1
x (4 x + 13) 3 1 2
∴ ∫ (2 + x)2 (3 − x)
dx = ∫ (
3− x

2+ x

(2 + x)2
) dx

= −3 ln3 − x − ln2 + x + 2(2 + x)−1 + c


x2 − x + 1 B C
c ≡A+ +
x 2 − 3 x − 10 x−5 x+2
x2 − x + 1 ≡ A(x − 5)(x + 2) + B(x + 2) + C(x − 5)
x=5 ⇒ 21 = 7B ⇒ B=3
x = −2 ⇒ 7 = −7C ⇒ C = −1
coeffs of x2 ⇒ A=1
x2 − x + 1 3 1
∴ ∫ 2
x − 3 x − 10
dx = ∫ (1 +
x−5

x+2
) dx
= x + 3 lnx − 5 − lnx + 2 + c
2 − 6 x + 5 x2 A B C
d ≡ + +
x 2 (1 − 2 x) x x2 1 − 2x
2 − 6x + 5x2 ≡ Ax(1 − 2x) + B(1 − 2x) + Cx2
x = 12 ⇒ 1
4
= 14 C ⇒ C=1
x=0 ⇒ B=2
coeffs of x2 ⇒ 5 = −2A + C ⇒ A = −2
2 − 6 x + 5 x2 1 2 2
∴ ∫ x 2 (1 − 2 x)
dx = ∫ (
1 − 2x

x
+
x2
) dx

= − 12 ln1 − 2x − 2 lnx − 2x−1 + c

 Solomon Press
C4 INTEGRATION Answers - Worksheet C page 3

3x − 5 A B
7 ≡ +
( x − 1)( x − 2) x −1 x−2
3x − 5 ≡ A(x − 2) + B(x − 1)
x=1 ⇒ −2 = −A ⇒ A=2
x=2 ⇒ B=1
4 3x − 5 4 2 1
∴ ∫3 ( x − 1)( x − 2)
dx = ∫3 (
x −1
+
x−2
) dx

= [2 lnx − 1 + lnx − 2] 34


= (2 ln 3 + ln 2) − (2 ln 2 + 0) = 2 ln 3 − ln 2
x+3 A B
8 a ≡ +
x( x + 1) x x +1
x + 3 ≡ A(x + 1) + Bx
x=0 ⇒ A=3
x = −1 ⇒ 2 = −B ⇒ B = −2
3 x+3 3 3 2
∴ ∫1 x( x + 1)
dx = ∫1 (
x

x +1
) dx

= [3 lnx − 2 lnx + 1] 13


= (3 ln 3 − 2 ln 4) − (0 − 2 ln 2) = 3 ln 3 − 2 ln 2
3x − 2 A B
b ≡ +
x 2 + x − 12 x+4 x−3
3x − 2 ≡ A(x − 3) + B(x + 4)
x = −4 ⇒ −14 = −7A ⇒ A=2
x=3 ⇒ 7 = 7B ⇒ B=1
2 3x − 2 2 2 1
∴ ∫0 2
x + x − 12
dx = ∫0 (
x+4
+
x−3
) dx

= [2 lnx + 4 + lnx − 3] 02


= (2 ln 6 + 0) − (2 ln 4 + ln 3)
= 2(ln 2 + ln 3) − 4 ln 2 − ln 3 = ln 3 − 2 ln 2
9 A B
c 2
≡ +
2x − 7x − 4 2x + 1 x−4
9 ≡ A(x − 4) + B(2x + 1)
x = − 12 ⇒ 9 = − 92 A ⇒ A = −2
x=4 ⇒ 9 = 9B ⇒ B=1
2 9 2 1 2
∴ ∫1 2 x2 − 7 x − 4
dx = ∫1 (
x−4

2x + 1
) dx

= [lnx − 4 − ln2x + 1] 12


= (ln 2 − ln 5) − (ln 3 − ln 3) = ln 2 − ln 5
2 x2 − 7 x + 7 B C
d ≡A+ +
x2 − 2x − 3 x−3 x +1
2x2 − 7x + 7 ≡ A(x − 3)(x + 1) + B(x + 1) + C(x − 3)
x=3 ⇒ 4 = 4B ⇒ B=1
x = −1 ⇒ 16 = −4C ⇒ C = −4
coeffs of x2 ⇒ A=2
2 2 x2 − 7 x + 7 2 1 4
∴ ∫0 x2 − 2x − 3
dx = ∫0 (2 +
x−3

x +1
) dx

= [2x + lnx − 3 − 4 lnx + 1] 02


= (4 + 0 − 4 ln 3) − (0 + ln 3 − 0) = 4 − 5 ln 3

 Solomon Press
C4 INTEGRATION Answers - Worksheet C page 4

5x + 7 A B C
e ≡ + +
( x + 1)2 ( x + 3) x +1 ( x + 1)2 x+3
5x + 7 ≡ A(x + 1)(x + 3) + B(x + 3) + C(x + 1)2
x = −1 ⇒ 2 = 2B ⇒ B=1
x = −3 ⇒ −8 = 4C ⇒ C = −2
coeffs of x2 ⇒ 0=A+C ⇒ A=2
1 5x + 7 1 2 1 2
∴ ∫0 ( x + 1)2 ( x + 3)
dx = ∫0 (
x +1
+
( x + 1)2

x+3
) dx

= [2 lnx + 1 − (x + 1)−1 − 2 lnx + 3] 10


= (2 ln 2 − 1
2
− 2 ln 4) − (0 − 1 − 2 ln 3)
= 1
2
− 2 ln 2 + 2 ln 3
2+ x A B
f ≡ +
8 − 2x − x2 4+ x 2− x
2 + x ≡ A(2 − x) + B(4 + x)
x = −4 ⇒ −2 = 6A ⇒ A = − 13
x=2 ⇒ 4 = 6B ⇒ B= 2
3
1 1 2 1
2+ x
∴ ∫ −1 8 − 2x − x2
dx = ∫ −1 (
2− x
3
− 3
4+ x
) dx

= [ − 23 ln2 − x − 1
3
ln4 + x] −11
= (0 − 1
3
ln 5) − ( − 2
3
ln 3 − 13 ln 3)
= ln 3 − 1
3
ln 5

1 A B
9 a ≡ +
x − a2
2
x+a x−a
1 ≡ A(x − a) + B(x + a)
1
x = −a ⇒ 1 = −2aA ⇒ A=−
2a
1
x=a ⇒ 1 = 2aB ⇒ B=
2a
1 1 1
∴ ≡ −
x − a2
2
2a ( x − a ) 2a ( x + a )

1 1 1 1
b ∫ x − a2
2
dx =
2a ∫ (
x−a

x+a
) dx
1
= (lnx − a − lnx + a) + c
2a
1 x−a
= ln +c
2a x+a
1 1
c ∫ a2 − x2
dx = − ∫
x2 − a2
dx
1 x−a
=− ln + c
2a x+a
1 x+a
= ln +c
2a x−a

x−3 x +1 1
x−2
10 a = [ 16 ln ] −11 b = 4[ 12 ln ] −2 1 c = 3
2
[ 14 ln ] 10
x+3 x −1 2 x+2
= 1
6
(ln 1
2
− ln 2) = 2(ln 3 − ln 1
3
) = 3
8
(ln 1
3
− 0)
= − 13 ln 2 = 4 ln 3 = − 83 ln 3

 Solomon Press
C4 INTEGRATION Answers - Worksheet D

π
1 a = 2 sin x + c b = − 14 cos 4x + c c = 2 sin 1
2
x+c d = −cos (x + 4
)+c

e = 1
2
sin (2x − 1) + c f = 3 cos ( π3 − x) + c g = sec x + c h = −cot x + c

i = 5
2
tan 2x + c j = −4 cosec 1
4
x+c k = ∫ 4 cosec2 x dx l = ∫ sec2 (4x + 1) dx
= −4 cot x + c = 1
4
tan (4x + 1) + c

π π π
2 a = [sin x] 02 b = [ − 12 cos 2x] 06 c = [4 sec 1
2
x] 02
=1−0=1 = − 14 − ( − 12 ) = 1
4
= 4 2 − 4 = 4( 2 − 1)
π π 2π
π
d = [ 12 sin (2x − 3
)] 03 e = [ 13 tan 3x] 3π f = [−cosec x] π3
4 2

3 3 3 2
= 4
− (− 4
)= 2
= 0 − ( − 13 ) = 1
3
=− − (−1) = 1 − 2
3
3
3

3 a tan2 θ = sec2 θ − 1
b ∫ tan2 x dx = ∫ (sec2 x − 1) dx = tan x − x + c

4 a cos (A + B) ≡ cos A cos B − sin A sin B


let B = A ⇒ cos 2A ≡ cos2 A − sin2 A
cos 2A ≡ cos2 A − (1 − cos2 A)
cos 2A ≡ 2 cos2 A − 1
cos2 A ≡ 12 (1 + cos 2A)

b ∫ cos2 x dx = ∫ ( 12 + 1
2
cos 2x) dx = 1
2
x+ 1
4
sin 2x + c

5 a = ∫ ( 12 − 1
2
cos 2x) dx b = ∫ (cosec2 2x − 1) dx
= 1
2
x− 1
4
sin 2x + c = − 12 cot 2x − x + c
1 sin x
c = ∫ 1
2
sin 2x dx d = ∫ ×
cos x cos x
dx

= − 14 cos 2x + c = ∫ sec x tan x dx


= sec x + c
e = ∫ (2 + 2 cos 6x) dx f = ∫ (1 + 2 sin x + sin2 x) dx
= 2x + 1
3
sin 6x + c = ∫ (1 + 2 sin x + 1
2
− 1
2
cos 2x) dx
= ∫ ( 32 + 2 sin x − 1
2
cos 2x) dx
= 3
2
x − 2 cos x − 1
4
sin 2x + c
1 cos x
g = ∫ (sec2 x − 2 sec x tan x + tan2 x) dx h = ∫ ×
sin 2 x sin x
dx
1 cos x
= ∫ (sec2 x − 2 sec x tan x + sec2 x − 1) dx = ∫ ×
2sin x cos x sin x
dx

= ∫ (2 sec2 x − 2 sec x tan x − 1) dx = ∫ 1


2
cosec2 x dx
= 2 tan x − 2 sec x − x + c = − 12 cot x + c

 Solomon Press
C4 INTEGRATION Answers - Worksheet D page 2

i = ∫ (cos2 x)2 dx
= ∫ [ 12 (1 + cos 2x)]2 dx
= 1
4 ∫ (1 + 2 cos 2x + cos2 2x) dx

4 ∫
1 1
= [1 + 2 cos 2x + 2
(1 + cos 4x)] dx

8 ∫
1
= (3 + 4 cos 2x + cos 4x) dx
1 1
= 8
(3x + 2 sin 2x + 4
sin 4x) + c
3 1 1
= 8
x+ 4
sin 2x + 32
sin 4x + c
π π

∫0 ∫0
2 4 1
6 a = (1 + cos 2x) dx b = 2
sin 4x dx
π π
= [x + 1
2
sin 2x] 02 = [ − 18 cos 4x] 04
= ( π2 + 0) − (0 + 0) = π
2
= 1
8
− ( − 18 ) = 1
4

π π
1 cos 2 x
∫ (sec2 ∫
2 4
c = π
1
2
x − 1) dx d = π
× dx
3 6 sin 2 x sin 2 x
π π


4
= [2 tan 1
2
x − x] 2π = π
cosec 2x cot 2x dx
3 6
π
π 2 π
= (2 − 2
)−( − 3
) = [ − 12 cosec 2x] 4π
3 6
π 1
=2− 2
3
3 − 6
= − 1
2
− (− )= 1
3
3 − 1
2
3
π π
1 1
∫0 (1 − 4 sin x + 4 sin2 x) dx ∫
4 3
e = f = × dx
π
6 cos 2 x sin 2 x
π π
1
∫0 ∫
4 3
= [1 − 4 sin x + 2(1 − cos 2x)] dx = dx
π
6 ( 12 sin 2 x)2
π π

∫0 ∫ 4 cosec2 2x dx
4 3
= (3 − 4 sin x − 2 cos 2x) dx = π
6
π π
= [3x + 4 cos x − sin 2x] 04 = [−2 cot 2x] 3π
6
3π 2 2
=( 4
+ 2 2 − 1) − (0 + 4 − 0) = − (− )
3 3

= 4
+ 2 2 −5 = 4
3
3

7 a sin (A + B) ≡ sin A cos B + cos A sin B (1)


sin (A − B) ≡ sin A cos B − cos A sin B (2)
(1) + (2) ⇒ sin (A + B) + sin (A − B) ≡ 2 sin A cos B
sin A cos B ≡ 12 [sin (A + B) + sin (A − B)]
b = ∫ ( 12 sin 4x + 1
2
sin 2x) dx = − 18 cos 4x − 1
4
cos 2x + c

8 a = ∫ (cos 4x − cos 6x) dx b = ∫ ( 12 cos 3x + 1


2
cos x) dx
= 1
4
sin 4x − 1
6
sin 6x + c = 1
6
sin 3x + 1
2
sin x + c

c = ∫ [2 sin 5x + 2 sin (−3x)] dx d = ∫ [ 12 sin (2x + π


6
)− 1
2
sin π
6
] dx
= ∫ (2 sin 5x − 2 sin 3x) dx = ∫ [ 12 sin (2x + π
6
)− 1
4
] dx
π
= − 52 cos 5x + 2
3
cos 3x + c = − 14 cos (2x + 6
)− 1
4
x+c

 Solomon Press
C4 INTEGRATION Answers - Worksheet E

du du
1 a u = x2 + 1 ∴ = 2x b u = sin x ∴ = cos x
dx dx

∫ 2x(x2 − 1)3 dx = ∫ u3 du ∫ sin4 x cos x dx = ∫ u4 du


= 1
4
u4 + c = 1
5
u5 + c
= 1
4
(x2 + 1)4 + c = 1
5
sin5 x + c

du du
c u = 2 + x3 ∴ = 3x2 d u = x2 ∴ = 2x
dx dx

∫ ∫ ∫ ∫
2
3x2(2 + x3)2 dx = u2 du 2 x e x dx = eu du
= 1
3
u3 + c = eu + c
2
= 1
3
(2 + x3)3 + c = ex + c

du du
e u = x2 + 3 ∴ = 2x f u = cos 2x ∴ = −2 sin 2x
dx dx
x
∫ ( x + 3) 4
2
dx = ∫ 1
2
u−4 du ∫ sin 2x cos3 2x dx = ∫ − 12 u3 du

= − 16 u−3 + c = − 18 u4 + c
1
=− +c = − 18 cos4 2x + c
6( x 2 + 3)3

du du
g u = x2 − 2 ∴ = 2x h u = 1 − x2 ∴ = −2x
dx dx
3x 3 1

∫ 2
x −2
dx = ∫ 2u
du ∫ x 1 − x 2 dx = ∫ − 12 u 2 du
3
= 3
2
lnu + c = − 13 u 2 + c
3
= 3
2
lnx2 − 2 + c = − 13 (1 − x 2 ) 2 + c

du du
i u = sec x ∴ = sec x tan x j u = x2 + 2x ∴ = 2x + 2
dx dx

∫ sec3 x tan x dx = ∫ u2 du ∫ (x + 1)(x2 + 2x)3 dx = ∫ 1


2
u3 du
= 1
3
u3 + c = 1
8
u4 + c
= 1
3
sec3 x + c = 1
8
(x2 + 2x)4 + c

2 a i u=3
ii u = 4
du
b u = x2 + 3 ∴ = 2x
dx
1 4 du
∫0 2x(x2 + 3)2 dx = ∫3 u2 ×
dx
dx
4
= ∫3 u2 du
1 4
c ∫0 2x(x2 + 3)2 dx = ∫3 u2 du

= [ 13 u3] 34
= 64
3
− 9 = 12 13

 Solomon Press
C4 INTEGRATION Answers - Worksheet E page 2

du du
3 a u = x2 − 3 ∴ = 2x b u = sin x ∴ = cos x
dx dx
x = 1 ⇒ u = −2 x=0 ⇒ u=0
x=2 ⇒ u=1 x = π6 ⇒ u = 12
2 1 π 1

∫1 x(x2 − 3)3 dx = ∫ −2 u3 du ∫0 sin3 x cos x dx = ∫0 u3 du


1 6 2
2
1
= [ 18 u4] −12 = [ 14 u4] 02
= 1
8
(1 − 16) = 1
(1
4 16
− 0)
= − 158 = 1
64

du du
c u = x2 + 1 ∴ = 2x d u = tan x ∴ = sec2 x
dx dx
x=0 ⇒ u=1 x = − π4 ⇒ u = −1
π
x = 3 ⇒ u = 10 x= 4
⇒ u=1
3 10 π 1
4x 2
∫0 ∫1 ∫− tan2 x sec2 x dx = ∫ −1 u2 du
4
2
dx = du π
x +1 u 4

= [2 lnu] 10
1 = [ 13 u3] −11
= 2 ln 10 − 0 = 1
3
[1 − (−1)]
2
= 2 ln 10 = 3

du du
e u = x2 − 3 ∴ = 2x f u = x3 + 2 ∴ = 3x2
dx dx
x=2 ⇒ u=1 x = −2 ⇒ u = −6
x=3 ⇒ u=6 x = −1 ⇒ u = 1
3 x 6 −1 1
∫2 ∫1 ∫ −2 ∫ −6
1
1 −2
2
dx = 2
u du x2(x3 + 2)2 dx = 1
3
u2 du
x −3
1
= [ u 2 ] 16 = [ 19 u3] −16
= 6 −1 = 1
9
[1 − (−216)]
= 24 19

du du
g u = 1 + e2x ∴ = 2e2x h u = x2 − 4x ∴ = 2x − 4
dx dx
x=0 ⇒ u=2 x = 3 ⇒ u = −3
x = 1 ⇒ u = 1 + e2 x=5 ⇒ u=5
1 1+ e 2 5 5
∫0 e2x(1 + e2x)3 dx = ∫2 1
2
u3 du ∫3 (x − 2)(x2 − 4x)2 dx = ∫ −3 1
2
u2 du
2
= [ 18 u4] 12+ e = [ 16 u3] −53
= 1
8
[(1 + e2)4 − 16] = 1
6
[125 − (−27)]
2 4
= 1
8
(1 + e ) − 2 = 25 13

 Solomon Press
C4 INTEGRATION Answers - Worksheet E page 3

du
4 a u = 4 − x2 ∴ = −2x
dx
x=0 ⇒ u=4
x=2 ⇒ u=0
2 0 du
∫0 x(4 − x2)3 dx = ∫4 u3 × ( − 12
dx
) du
4
= ∫0 1
2
u3 du

b = [ 18 u4] 04
= 18 (256 − 0)
= 32

du du
5 a u = 2 − x2 ∴ = −2x b u = 1 + cos x ∴ = −sin x
dx dx
x=0 ⇒ u=2 x=0 ⇒ u=2
x=1 ⇒ u=1 x = π2 ⇒ u = 1
1 1 π 1
sin x 1
∫0 ∫2 ∫0 ∫2
2
x e2 − x dx = − 12 eu du 2
dx = − du
1 + cos x u
2 2 1
= ∫1 1
2
eu du = ∫1 u
du

= [ 12 eu] 12 = [lnu] 12
= 1
2
(e2 − e) = ln 2 − 0
= 1
2
e(e − 1) = ln 2

du
6 a u = sin x ∴ = cos x
dx
cos x
∫ cot x dx = ∫ sin x
dx
1 du
= ∫ ×
u dx
dx
1
= ∫ u
du
= lnu + c
= lnsin x + c
sin x
b ∫ tan x dx = ∫ cos x
dx
du
u = cos x ∴ = −sin x
dx
sin x 1 du
∫ cos x
dx = ∫ u
× (−
dx
) dx
1
= ∫ −
u
du
= −lnu + c
= −lncos x + c
= ln (cos x)−1 + c
= lnsec x + c
π
c = [ 12 lnsec 2x] 06
= 1
2
(ln 2 − 0)
1
= 2
ln 2

 Solomon Press
C4 INTEGRATION Answers - Worksheet E page 4

2x
7 a = 1
4
(x3 − 2)4 + c b = esin x + c c = 1
2 ∫ x2 + 1
dx
= 1
2
lnx2 + 1 + c
[= 1
2
ln (x2 + 1) + c ]
1
d = 1
3
(x2 + 3x)3 + c e = 1
2 ∫ 2 x( x 2 + 4) 2 dx f = − ∫ cot3 x (−cosec2 x) dx
3
= 1
2
× 2
3
( x 2 + 4) 2 + c = − 14 cot4 x + c
3
= 13 ( x 2 + 4) 2 + c

2cos 2 x 4 x3
g = ln1 + ex + c h = 1
2 ∫ 3 + sin 2 x
dx i = 1
4 ∫ ( x − 2)2
4
+c

[ = ln (1 + ex) + c ] = 1
2
ln3 + sin 2x + c = 1
4
× [−(x4 − 2)−1] + c
1
=− +c
4( x 4 − 2)

1 3 − 12
j = 1
4
(ln x)4 + c k = 2
3 ∫ 3
2
x 2 (1 + x 2 ) 2 dx l = − 12 ∫ −2 x(5 − x 2 ) dx
3 1
= 2
3
× 13 (1 + x 2 )3 + c = − 12 × 2(5 − x 2 ) 2 + c
3
= 2
9
(1 + x 2 )3 + c = − 5 − x2 + c

π 0 −2e 2 x
a = −∫ (−sin x)(1 + cos x)2 dx ∫ −1
2
8 b = − 12 dx
0 2 − e2 x
π
= −[ 13 (1 + cos x)3] 02 = − 12 [ln2 − e2x] −01
= − 13 (1 − 8) = − 12 [0 − ln (2 − e−2)]
= 7
3
= 1
2
ln (2 − e−2)
π 4 2x + 2
c = − ∫ π4 (−cot x cosec x) cosec3 x dx
6
d = 1
2 ∫2 x2 + 2x + 8
dx
π
= −[ 14 cosec4 x] 4π = 1
2
[lnx2 + 2x + 8] 42
6

= − 14 (4 − 16) = 1
2
(ln 32 − ln 16)
1
=3 = 2
ln 2

du
9 u = x + 1 ∴ x = u − 1, =1
dx

∫ x(x + 1)3 dx = ∫ (u − 1)u3 du


= ∫ (u4 − u3) du
1 5
= 5
u − 14 u4 + c
= 1
5
(x + 1)5 − 14 (x + 1)4 + c
= 1
20
(x + 1)4[4(x + 1) − 5] + c
= 1
20
(4x − 1)(x + 1)4 + c

 Solomon Press
C4 INTEGRATION Answers - Worksheet E page 5

du dx
10 a u = 2x − 1 ∴ x = 1
2
(u + 1), =2 b u2 = 1 − x ∴ x = 1 − u2, = −2u
dx du

∫ x(2x − 1)4 dx = ∫ 1
2
(u + 1)u4 × 1
2
du ∫ x 1 − x dx = ∫ (1 − u2)u × (−2u) du
= 1
4 ∫ (u5 + u4) du = 2 ∫ (u4 − u2) du
= 1
4
( 16 u6 + 1
5
u5) + c = 2( 15 u5 − 1
3
u3) + c
5 3
= 1
4
[ 16 (2x − 1)6 + 1
5
(2x − 1)5] + c = 2[ 15 (1 − x) 2 − 1
3
(1 − x) 2 + c
3
= 1
120
(2x − 1)5[5(2x − 1) + 6] + c = 2
15
(1 − x) 2 [3(1 − x) − 5] + c
3
= 1
120
(10x + 1)(2x − 1)5 + c = − 152 (2 + 3x)(1 − x) 2 + c

dx dx
c x = sin u ∴ = cos u d x = u2 ∴ = 2u
du du
1 1 1 1
∫ (1 −
3
x2 ) 2
dx = ∫ cos3 u
× cos u du ∫ x −1
dx = ∫ u −1
× 2u du

2(u − 1) + 2
= ∫ sec2 u du = ∫ u −1
du
2
= tan u + c = ∫ (2 +
u −1
) du
sin u
= +c = 2u + 2 lnu − 1 + c
cos u
x
= +c = 2 x + 2 ln x − 1 + c
1 − x2

du dx
e u = 2x + 3 ∴ x = 1
2
u− 3
2
, =2 f u2 = x − 2 ∴ x = u2 + 2, = 2u
dx du
x2 (u 2 + 2) 2
∫ (x + 1)(2x + 3)3 dx ∫ x−2
dx = ∫ u
× 2u du

= ∫ ( 12 u − 1
2
)u3 × 1
2
du = 2 ∫ (u4 + 4u2 + 4) du
= 1
4 ∫ (u4 − u3) du = 2( 15 u5 + 4
3
u3 + 4u) + c
5 3 1
= 1
4
( 15 u5 − 1
4
u4) + c = 2[ 15 (x − 2) 2 + 4
3
(x − 2) 2 + 4(x − 2) 2 ] + c
1
= 1
4
[ 15 (2x + 3)5 − 1
4
(2x + 3)4] + c = 2
15
(x − 2) 2 [3(x − 2)2 + 20(x − 2) + 60] + c
1
= 1
80
(2x + 3)4[4(2x + 3) − 5] + c = 2
15
(3x2 + 8x + 32)(x − 2) 2 + c
= 1
80
(8x + 7)(2x + 3)4 + c

 Solomon Press
C4 INTEGRATION Answers - Worksheet E page 6

dx du
11 a x = sin u ∴ = cos u b u = 2 − x ∴ x = 2 − u, = −1
du dx
x=0 ⇒ u=0 x=0 ⇒ u=2
x = 12 ⇒ u = π6 x=2 ⇒ u=0
1 π 2 0
1 1
∫0 ∫0 ∫0 x(2 − x)3 dx = ∫2 (2 − u)u3 × (−1) du
2 6
dx = × cos u du
1− x 2 cosu
π 2
∫0 ∫0 (2u3 − u4) du
6
= du =
π
= [u] 06 = [ 12 u4 − 1
5
u5] 02
π
= 6
−0 = (8 − 32
5
) − (0)
π 8
= 6
= 5

dx dx
c x = 2 sin u ∴ = 2 cos u d x = 3 tan u ∴ = 3 sec2 u
du du
x=0 ⇒ u=0 x=0 ⇒ u=0
x = 1 ⇒ u = π6 x = 3 ⇒ u = π4
π
1 3 x2 9 tan 2 u
∫0 4 − x 2 dx ∫0 ∫0 × 3 sec2 u du
4
2
dx =
x +9 9sec 2 u
π π

∫0 = 3∫ tan2 u du
6 4
= 2 cos u × 2 cos u du
0
π π

∫0 4 cos2 u du = 3∫ (sec2 u − 1) du
6 4
=
0
π π

∫0
6
= (2 + 2 cos 2u) du = 3[tan u − u] 04
π
π
= [2u + sin 2u] 06 = 3[(1 − 4
) − (0)]
3
= ( π3 + 2
) − (0) = 3
4
(4 − π)
1
= 6
(2π + 3 3 )

 Solomon Press
C4 INTEGRATION Answers - Worksheet F

du dv
1 u = x, = 1; = cos x, v = sin x
dx dx

∫ x cos x dx = x sin x − ∫ sin x dx


= x sin x + cos x + c

du dv du dv
2 a u = x, = 1; = ex , v = ex b u = 4x, = 4; = sin x, v = −cos x
dx dx dx dx

∫ xex dx = xex − ∫ ex dx ∫ 4x sin x dx = −4x cos x − ∫ −4 cos x dx


= xex − ex + c = −4x cos x + ∫ 4 cos x dx
x
= e (x − 1) + c = −4x cos x + 4 sin x + c
du dv du dv 1 3
c u = x, = 1; = cos 2x, v = 1
2
sin 2x d u = x, = 1; = ( x + 1) 2 , v = 2
3
( x + 1) 2
dx dx dx dx
3 3

∫ x cos 2x dx = 1
2
x sin 2x − ∫ 1
2
sin 2x dx ∫ x x + 1 dx = 2
3
x( x + 1) 2 − ∫ 2
3
( x + 1) 2 dx
3 5
= 1
2
x sin 2x + 1
4
cos 2x + c = 2
3
x( x + 1) 2 − 4
15
(x + 1) 2 + c
3
= 2
15
(x + 1) 2 [5x − 2(x + 1)] + c
3
= 2
15
(3x − 2)(x + 1) 2 + c
du dv du dv
e u = x, = 1; = e−3x, v = − 13 e−3x f u = x, = 1; = sec2 x, v = tan x
dx dx dx dx
x
∫ e3 x
dx = − 13 xe−3x − ∫ − 13 e−3x dx ∫ x sec2 x dx = x tan x − ∫ tan x dx
− sin x
= − 13 xe−3x + ∫ 1
3
e−3x dx = x tan x + ∫ cos x
dx
= − 13 xe−3x − 1
9
e−3x + c = x tan x + lncos x + c
−3x
= − 19 e (3x + 1) + c

du dv
3 i u = x, = 1; = (2x + 1)3, v = 1
8
(2x + 1)4
dx dx

∫ x(2x + 1)3 dx = 1
8
x(2x + 1)4 − ∫ 1
8
(2x + 1)4 dx
= 1
8
x(2x + 1)4 − 1
80
(2x + 1)5 + c
= 1
80
(2x + 1)4[10x − (2x + 1)] + c
= 1
80
(8x − 1)(2x + 1)4 + c

du
ii u = 2x + 1 ∴ x = 1
2
(u − 1), =2
dx

∫ x(2x + 1)3 dx = ∫ 1
2
(u − 1)u3 × 1
2
du
= 1
4 ∫ (u4 − u3) du
= 1
4
( 15 u5 − 1
4
u4) + c
= 1
4
[ 15 (2x + 1)5 − 1
4
(2x + 1)4] + c
= 1
80
(2x + 1)4[4(2x + 1) − 5] + c
= 1
80
(8x − 1)(2x + 1)4 + c, as for part i

 Solomon Press
C4 INTEGRATION Answers - Worksheet F page 2

du dv
4 u = x, = 1; = e−x, v = −e−x
dx dx
2 2 2
∫0 xe−x dx = [−xe−x] 02 − ∫0 −e−x dx = [−xe−x] 02 + ∫0 e−x dx

= [−xe−x − e−x] 02 = (−2e−2 − e−2) − (0 − 1)


= 1 − 3e−2

du dv du dv
5 a u = x, = 1; = cos x, v = sin x b u = x, = 1; = e2x, v = 1
2
e2x
dx dx dx dx
π π π 1 1
∫0 x cos x dx = [x sin x] 06 − ∫ ∫0 xe2x dx = [ 12 xe2x] 10 − ∫0 e2x dx
6 6 1
sin x dx 2
0
π
= [x sin x + cos x] 06 = [ 12 xe2x − 1
4
e2x] 10
3
π
= ( 12 + 2
) − (0 + 1) = ( 12 e2 − 1
4
e2) − (0 − 1
4
)
= 1
12
(π + 6 3 − 12) = 1
4
(e2 + 1)

du dv
c u = x, = 1; = sin 3x, v = − 13 cos 3x
dx dx
π π π

∫0 ∫0
4 4
x sin 3x dx = [ − 13 x cos 3x] 04 − − 13 cos 3x dx
π π

∫0
4
= [ − 13 x cos 3x] 04 + 1
3
cos 3x dx
π
= [ − 13 x cos 3x + 1
9
sin 3x] 04
π 1 1
= [− 12 (− )+ 1
9
( )] − (0)
2 2
1
= 72
2 (3π + 4)

du dv
6 a u = x2, = 2x; = ex , v = ex
dx dx

∫ x2ex dx = x2ex − ∫ 2xex dx


du dv
for ∫ 2xex dx, u = 2x,
dx
= 2;
dx
= ex , v = ex

∫ 2xex dx = 2xex − ∫ 2ex dx


= 2xex − 2ex + c
∴ ∫ x2ex dx = x2ex − (2xex − 2ex) + c
= ex(x2 − 2x + 2) + c
du dv
b u = ex , = ex ; = sin x, v = −cos x
dx dx

∫ ex sin x dx = −ex cos x − ∫ −ex cos x dx


= −e cos x + ∫
x
ex cos x dx
du dv
for ∫ ex cos x dx, u = ex ,
dx
= ex ;
dx
= cos x, v = sin x

∫ ex cos x dx = ex sin x − ∫ ex sin x dx


∴ ∫ ex sin x dx = −ex cos x + ex sin x − ∫ ex sin x dx
2 ∫ ex sin x dx = −ex cos x + ex sin x + c

∫ ex sin x dx = 1
2
ex(sin x − cos x) + c

 Solomon Press
C4 INTEGRATION Answers - Worksheet F page 3

du dv
7 a u = x2, = 2x; = sin x, v = −cos x
dx dx

∫ x2 sin x dx = −x2 cos x − ∫ −2x cos x dx


= −x cos x + ∫
2
2x cos x dx
du dv
for ∫ 2x cos x dx, u = 2x,
dx
= 2;
dx
= cos x, v = sin x

∫ 2x cos x dx = 2x sin x − ∫ 2 sin x dx


= 2x sin x + 2 cos x + c

2 2
∴ x sin x dx = −x cos x + (2x sin x + 2 cos x) + c
= (2 − x2)cos x + 2x sin x + c
du dv
b u = x2, = 2x; = e3x, v = 1
3
e3x
dx dx

∫ x2e3x dx = 1
3
x2e3x − ∫ 2
3
xe3x dx
du dv
for ∫ 2
3
xe3x dx, u = 2
3
x,
dx
= 2
3
;
dx
= e3x, v = 1
3
e3x

∫ 2
3
xe3x dx = 2
9
xe3x − ∫ 2
9
e3x dx
= 2
9
xe3x − 2
27
e3x + c
∴ ∫ x2e3x dx = 1
3
x2e3x − ( 92 xe3x − 2
27
e3x) + c
= 1
27
e3x(9x2 − 6x + 2) + c

du dv
c u = e−x, = −e−x; = cos 2x, v = 1
2
sin 2x
dx dx

∫ e−x cos 2x dx = 1
2 ∫
e−x sin 2x − − 12 e−x sin 2x dx
= 2
e sin 2x + ∫
1 −x 1
2
e−x sin 2x dx
du dv
for ∫ 1
2
e−x sin 2x dx, u= 1
2
e−x,
dx
= − 12 e−x;
dx
= sin 2x, v = − 12 cos 2x

∫ 1
2
e−x sin 2x dx = − 14 e−x cos 2x − ∫ 1
4
e−x cos 2x dx
∴ ∫ e−x cos 2x dx = 1
2
e−x sin 2x − 1
4
e−x cos 2x − 1
4 ∫ e−x cos 2x dx
5
4 ∫ e−x cos 2x dx = 1
2
e−x sin 2x − 1
4
e−x cos 2x + c

∫ e−x cos 2x dx = 1
5
e−x(2 sin 2x − cos 2x) + c

1
8 a
x
du 1 dv
b u = ln x, = ; = 1, v = x
dx x dx
1
∫ ln x dx = x ln x − ∫ x×x dx

= x ln x − ∫ dx
= x ln x − x + c
= x(ln x − 1) + c

 Solomon Press
C4 INTEGRATION Answers - Worksheet F page 4

du 1 dv du 1 dv
9 a u = ln 2x, = ; = 1, v = x b u = ln x, = ; = 3x, v = 3
2
x2
dx x dx dx x dx
1 1
∫ ln 2x dx = x ln 2x − ∫ x
× x dx ∫ 3x ln x dx = 3
2 ∫
x2 ln x −
x
× 3
2
x2 dx

= x ln 2x − ∫ dx = 2
x ln x − ∫
3 2 3
2
x dx
= x ln 2x − x + c = 3
2
x2 ln x − 3
4
x2 + c
= x(ln 2x − 1) + c = 3
4
x2(2 ln x − 1) + c

du 1 dv
c u = (ln x)2, = 2(ln x) × ; = 1, v = x
dx x dx

∫ (ln x)2 dx = x(ln x)2 − ∫ 2 ln x dx


du 1 dv
for ∫ 2 ln x dx, u = ln x,
dx
=
x
;
dx
= 2, v = 2x

∫ 2 ln x dx = 2x ln x − ∫ 2 dx
= 2x ln x − 2x + c

2 2
∴ (ln x) dx = x(ln x) − (2x ln x − 2x) + c
= x[(ln x)2 − 2 ln x + 2] + c

du dv du 1 dv
10 a u = x + 2, = 1; = ex , v = ex b u = ln x, = ; = x2, v = 1
3
x3
dx dx dx x dx
0 2
∫ −1 (x + 2)ex dx ∫1 x2 ln x dx
0 2
= [(x + 2)ex] −01 − ∫ −1 ex dx = [ 13 x3 ln x] 12 − ∫1 1
3
x2 dx

= [(x + 2)ex − ex] −01 = [ 13 x3 ln x − 1


9
x3] 12
= (2 − 1) − (e−1 − e−1) = ( 83 ln 2 − 8
9
) − (0 − 1
9
)
=1 = 8
3
ln 2 − 7
9

du dv du 2 dv
c u = 2x, = 2; = e3x − 1, v = 1
3
e3x − 1 d u = ln (2x + 3), = ; = 1, v = x
dx dx dx 2 x + 3 dx
1 3
∫ 1
3
2xe3x − 1 dx ∫0 ln (2x + 3) dx
1 3 2x
= [ 23 xe3x − 1] 11 −
3 ∫ 1
3
2
3
e3x − 1 dx = [x ln (2x + 3)] 30 − ∫0 2x + 3
dx
3 (2 x + 3) − 3
= [ 23 xe3x − 1 − 2
9
e3x − 1] 11
3
= [x ln (2x + 3)] 30 − ∫0 2x + 3
dx
3 3
= ( 23 e2 − 2
9
e2) − ( 92 − 2
9
) = [x ln (2x + 3)] 30 − ∫0 (1 −
2x + 3
) dx

= 4
9
e2 = [x ln (2x + 3) − x + 3
2
ln2x + 3] 30
= (3 ln 9 − 3 + 3
2
ln 9) − (0 − 0 + 3
2
ln 3)
= 15
2
ln 3 − 3

 Solomon Press
C4 INTEGRATION Answers - Worksheet F page 5

du dv
e u = x2, = 2x; = cos x, v = sin x
dx dx

∫ x2 cos x dx = x2 sin x − ∫ 2x sin x dx


du dv
for ∫ 2x sin x dx, u = 2x,
dx
= 2;
dx
= sin x, v = −cos x

∫ 2x sin x dx = −2x cos x − ∫ −2 cos x dx


= −2x cos x + ∫ 2 cos x dx
= −2x cos x + 2 sin x + c
π π

∫0
2 2 2
∴ x cos x dx = [x sin x + 2x cos x − 2 sin x] 02
= ( 14 π2 + 0 − 2) − (0 + 0 − 0)
= 1
4
π2 − 2

du dv
f u = e3x, = 3e3x; = sin 2x, v = − 12 cos 2x
dx dx

∫ e3x sin 2x dx = − 12 e3x cos 2x − ∫ − 32 e3x cos 2x dx


= − 2 e cos 2x + ∫
1 3x 3
2
e3x cos 2x dx
du dv
for ∫ 3
2
e3x cos 2x dx, u= 3
2
e3x,
dx
= 9
2
e3x;
dx
= cos 2x, v = 1
2
sin 2x

∫ 3
2
e3x cos 2x dx = 3
4
e3x sin 2x − ∫ 9
4
e3x sin 2x dx
∴ ∫ e3x sin 2x dx = − 12 e3x cos 2x + 3
4
e3x sin 2x − ∫ 9
4
e3x sin 2x dx
13
4 ∫ e3x sin 2x dx = − 12 e3x cos 2x + 3
4
e3x sin 2x + c
π π

∫0 e3x sin 2x dx = [− 12 e3x cos 2x + e3x sin 2x] 04


4
∴ 4
13
3
4

= 4
13
[(0 + 3
4
e 4
) − ( − 12 + 0)]

1
= 13
( 3e 4 + 2)

 Solomon Press
C4 INTEGRATION Answers - Worksheet G

π 3π
1 a x=0 ⇒ t=2 2 a x = 0 ⇒ cos θ = 0 ⇒ θ = 2
, 2
π
x=2 ⇒ t=3 for y > 0, θ = 2
at A
2
b area = ∫0 y dx y = 0 ⇒ sin θ = 0 ⇒ θ = 0, π
dx
x = 2t − 4 ∴ =2 for x > 0, θ = 0 at B
dt
3 1 dx
∴ area = ∫2 t
× 2 dt b x = 4 cos θ ∴

= −4 sin θ
3 2 0
= ∫2 t
dt ∴ area = ∫ π
2
2 sin θ × −4 sin θ dθ
π
c = [2 lnt] 32 ∫0 8 sin2 θ dθ
2
=
π

∫0 (4 − 4 cos 2θ ) dθ
2
= 2 ln 3 − 2 ln 2 c shaded area =
π
= 2 ln 3
2
= [4θ − 2 sin 2θ ] 02
x+4
d t= = (2π − 0) − (0 − 0)
2
2
∴ y= = 2π
x+4
2 2
∴ area = ∫0 x+4
dx area of ellipse = 4 × 2π

= [2 lnx + 4] 02 = 8π
= 2 ln 6 − 2 ln 4
= 2 ln 32

π
3 a y = 0 ⇒ sin 2t = 0 ⇒ t = 0, 2
dx
x = 2 sin t ∴ = 2 cos t
dt
area above x-axis
π

∫0
2
= 5 sin 2t × 2 cos t dt
π

∫0
2
= 10 sin 2t cos t dt
area enclosed by curve
π
= 2∫ 2
10 sin 2t cos t dt
0
π

∫0
2
= 20 sin 2t cos t dt
π
b = 40 ∫ 2
sin t cos2 t dt
0
π
= −40 ∫ 2
(−sin t)cos2 t dt
0
π
= −40[ 13 cos3 t] 02
= − 403 (0 − 1)
= 13 13

 Solomon Press
C4 INTEGRATION Answers - Worksheet H

1 a = 1
2
× 15 (2x − 3)5 + c b = −2 cot 1
2
x+c
= 1
10
(2x − 3)5 + c

2( x − 1) A B
c = 1
2
e4x − 1 + c d ≡ + , 2(x − 1) ≡ A(x + 1) + Bx
x( x + 1) x x +1
x = 0 ⇒ A = −2, x = −1 ⇒ B = 4
2( x − 1) 4 2
∫ x( x + 1)
dx = ∫ (
x +1

x
) dx

= 4 lnx + 1 − 2 lnx + c

e = ∫ 3 sec2 2x dx f = 1
2 ∫ 2x(x2 + 3)3 dx
= 3
2
tan 2x + c = 1
2
× 14 (x2 + 3)4 + c
= 1
8
(x2 + 3)4 + c

3
g = ∫ (sec x tan x)sec3 x dx h = 1
2
× 23 (7 + 2 x) 2 + c
3
= 1
4
sec4 x + c = 13 (7 + 2 x) 2 + c

du dv x+2 A B
i u = x, = 1; = e3x, v = 1
3
e3x j ≡ + , x + 2 ≡ A(x + 1) + B(x − 3)
dx dx ( x − 3)( x + 1) x − 3 x +1

∫ xe3x dx = 1
3
xe3x − ∫ 1
3
e3x dx x=3 ⇒ A= 5
4
, x = −1 ⇒ B = − 14
5 1
x+2
= 1
3
xe3x − 1
9
e3x + c ∫ 2
x − 2x − 3
dx = ∫ (
x−3
4
− 4
x +1
) dx
= 1
9
e3x(3x − 1) + c = 5
4
lnx − 3 − 1
4
lnx + 1 + c

k = 1
4
× ( − 12 )(x + 1)−2 + c l = ∫ (sec2 3x − 1) dx
1
=− +c = 1
3
tan 3x − x + c
8( x + 1)2

−2 x
m = ∫ [2 + 2 cos (4x + 2)] dx n = − 32 ∫ 1 − x2
dx
= 2x + 1
2
sin (4x + 2) + c = − 32 ln1 − x2 + c

du dv ( x + 2) + 2
o u = x,
dx
= 1;
dx
= sin 2x, v = − 12 cos 2x p = ∫ x+2
dx
2
∫ x sin 2x dx = ∫ (1 +
x+2
) dx

= − 12 x cos 2x + ∫ 1
2
cos 2x dx = x + 2 lnx + 2 + c
= − 12 x cos 2x + 1
4
sin 2x + c

 Solomon Press
C4 INTEGRATION Answers - Worksheet H page 2

2 π π
− sin x
∫1 6e2x − 3 dx ∫0 tan x dx = − ∫
3 3
2 a b dx
0 cos x
π
= [3e2x − 3] 12 = −[lncos x] 03
= 3(e − e−1) = −(ln 1
2
− 0)
= ln 2
2 2 6+ x A B
c ∫ −2 x−3
dx d ≡
(4 − x)(1 + x) 4 − x
+
1+ x
, 6 + x ≡ A(1 + x) + B(4 − x)

= [2 lnx − 3] −22 x = 4 ⇒ A = 2, x = −1 ⇒ B = 1


3 6+ x 3 2 1
= 0 − 2 ln 5 ∫2 4 + 3x − x 2
dx = ∫2 (
4− x
+
1+ x
) dx

= −2 ln 5 = [−2 ln4 − x + ln1 + x] 32


= (0 + ln 4) − (−2 ln 2 + ln 3)
= 4 ln 2 − ln 3
2 π π

∫1 (1 − 2x)3 dx ∫0 sin2 x sin 2x dx = ∫0 2 sin3 x cos x dx


3 3
e f
π
= [ − 12 × 14 (1 − 2x)4] 12 = [ 12 sin4 x] 03
3 4
= − 18 (81 − 1) = 1
2
( 2
) −0
= −10 = 9
32

dx du
3 a x = 3 sin u ∴ = 3 cos u b u = 1 − 3x ∴ x = 1
3
(1 − u), = −3
du dx
x=0 ⇒ u=0 x=0 ⇒ u=1
x = 32 ⇒ u = π6 x = 1 ⇒ u = −2
3 π 1 −2
1 1
∫0 ∫0 ∫0 x(1 − 3x)3 dx = ∫1 (1 − u)u3 × ( − 13 ) du
2 6
dx = × 3 cos u du 1
3
9−x 2 3cosu
π 1
∫0 ∫ −2 (u3 − u4) du
6 1
= du = 9
π
= [u] 06 = 1
9
[ 14 u4 − 1
5
u5] −12
π
= 6
−0 = 1
9
[( 14 − 1
5
) − (4 + 32
5
)]
π
= 6
= − 20
23

dx dx
c x = 2 tan u ∴ = 2 sec2 u d u2 = x + 1 ∴ x = u2 − 1, = 2u
du du
π
x=2 ⇒ u= 4
x = −1 ⇒ u = 0
π
x= 2 3 ⇒ u= 3
x=0 ⇒ u=1
2 3 π 0 1
1 1
∫2 ∫ × 2 sec2 u du ∫ −1 x 2 x + 1 dx = ∫0 (u2 − 1)2u × 2u du
3
dx =
4 + x2 π
4 4sec 2 u
π 1
∫ ∫0 2u2(u4 − 2u2 + 1) du
1 3
= 2 π
du =
4
π 1
= 1
2
[u] 3π
4
= ∫0 (2u6 − 4u4 + 2u2) du

= 1
2
( π3 − π
4
) = [ 72 u7 − 4
5
u5 + 2
3
u3] 10
= 1
24
π = ( 72 − 4
5
+ 2
3
) − (0)
16
= 105

 Solomon Press
C4 INTEGRATION Answers - Worksheet H page 3


2
+ 2x
4 a = − 23 ln5 − 3x + c b = 1
2
(2x + 2) e x dx
2
+ 2x
= 1
2
ex +c

3
− 12 (2 x + 1) +
c = ∫ 2x + 1
2
dx d = 1
2 ∫ (sin 5x + sin x) dx
3
= ∫ ( 2
2x + 1
− 1
2
) dx = 1
2
(− 15 cos 5x − cos x) + c
= 3
4
ln2x + 1 − 1
2
x+c = − 101 (cos 5x + 5 cos x) + c

du dv 3x2 + 6 x + 2 A B
e u = 3x, = 3; = (x − 1)4, v = 1
5
(x − 1)5 f ≡3+ +
dx dx ( x + 1)( x + 2) x +1 x+2

∫ 3x(x − 1)4 dx 3x2 + 6x + 2 ≡ 3(x + 1)(x + 2) + A(x + 2) + B(x + 1)


= 3
5
x(x − 1)5 − ∫ 3
5
(x − 1)5 dx x = −1 ⇒ A = −1, x = −2 ⇒ B = −2
3x 2 + 6 x + 2 1 2
= 3
5
x(x − 1)5 − 1
10
(x − 1)6 + c ∫ x2 + 3x + 2
dx = ∫ (3 −
x +1

x+2
) dx
= 1
10
(x − 1)5[6x − (x − 1)] + c = 3x − lnx + 1 − 2 lnx + 2 + c
5
= 1
10
(5x + 1)(x − 1) + c

− 13 3cos x
g = ∫ 5(2 x − 1) dx h = 1
3 ∫ 2 + 3sin x
dx
2
= 1
2
× 152 (2 x − 1) 3 + c = 1
3
ln2 + 3 sin x + c
2
= 15
4
(2 x − 1) 3 + c

− 12
i = 1
3 ∫ 3x 2 ( x3 − 1) dx j = ∫ (4 − 4 cot x + cot2 x) dx
1
cos x
= 1
3
× 2( x 3 − 1) 2 + c = ∫ (4 − 4 + cosec2 x − 1) dx
sin x

= 2
3
x3 − 1 + c = 3x − 4 lnsin x − cot x + c

6x − 5 A B C du dv
k ≡ + + l u = x2, = 2x; = e−x, v = −e−x
( x − 1)(2 x − 1)2 x −1 2x − 1 (2 x − 1)2 dx dx
6x − 5 ≡ A(2x − 1)2 + B(x − 1)(2x − 1) + C(x − 1) ∫ x2e−x dx = −x2e−x + ∫ 2xe−x dx
du dv
x = 1 ⇒ A = 1, x = 1
2
⇒ C=4 u = 2x, = 2; = e−x, v = −e−x
dx dx
coeffs of x2 ⇒ B = −2 ∫ x2e−x dx = −x2e−x − 2xe−x + ∫ 2e−x dx
6x − 5
∫ ( x − 1)(2 x − 1)2
dx = −x2e−x − 2xe−x − 2e−x + c
1 2 4
= ∫ (
x −1

2x − 1
+
(2 x − 1)2
) dx = −e−x(x2 + 2x + 2) + c

= lnx − 1 − ln2x − 1 − 2(2x − 1)−1 + c


x −1 2
= ln − +c
2x − 1 2x − 1

 Solomon Press
C4 INTEGRATION Answers - Worksheet H page 4

4 π π
1
∫2 ∫ cosec2 x cot2 x dx = − ∫ π4 (−cosec2 x)cot2 x dx
4
5 a dx b π
3x − 4 6 6
π
= [ 13 ln3x − 4] 42 = −[ 13 cot3 x] 4
π
6

= 1
3
(ln 8 − ln 2) = − 13 [1 − ( 3 )3]
= 2
3
ln 2 = 3 − 1
3

7 − x2 A B C du dv
c ≡ + + d u = x, = 1; = cos 1
2
x, v = 2 sin 1
2
x
(2 − x)2 (3 − x) 2− x (2 − x)2 3− x dx dx
π
7 − x2 ≡ A(2 − x)(3 − x) + B(3 − x) + C(2 − x)2 ∫0
2 1
x cos 2
x dx
π π
x = 2 ⇒ B = 3, x = 3 ⇒ C = −2 ∫0
2
= [2x sin 1
2
x] 02 − 2 sin 1
2
x dx
π
coeffs of x2 ⇒ A = 1 = [2x sin 1
2
x + 4 cos 1
2
x] 02
1 7 − x2
∫0 (2 − x)2 (3 − x)
dx = [π( 1
2
) − 4( 1
2
)] − [0 + 4]
1 1 3 2
= ∫0 (
2− x
+
(2 − x)2

3− x
) dx = 1
2
2 (π − 4) − 4

= [−ln2 − x+ 3(2 − x)−1 + 2 ln3 − x] 10


= (0 + 3 + 2 ln 2) − (−ln 2 + 3
2
+ 2 ln 3)
= 3
2
+ 3 ln 2 − 2 ln 3

5 π
1
∫1 ∫−
6
e dx f π
2 cos x cos 3x dx
4x + 5 6
1 π
= [ 14 × 2(4 x + 5) 2 ] 15 ∫
6
= [cos 4x + cos (−2x)] dx
− π6
π


6
= 1
2
(5 − 3) = (cos 4x + cos 2x) dx
− π6
π
=1 = [ 14 sin 4x + 1
2
sin 2x] −6π
6

3 3 3 3
= [ 14 ( 2
) + 12 ( 2
)] − [ 14 (− 2
) + 12 (− 2
)]
3
= 4
3
2 2
g ∫0 x 2 x 2 + 1 dx = 14 ∫0 4 x 2 x 2 + 1 dx h x + 2
3 x−2 x2 + 0x + 1
= 1
4
[ 23 (2 x 2 + 1) ] 02
2
x2 − 2x
= 1
6
(27 − 1) 2x + 1
= 4 13 2x − 4
5
1 x2 + 1 1 5
∫0 x−2
dx = ∫0 (x + 2 +
x−2
) dx

= [ 12 x2 + 2x + 5 lnx − 2] 10
= ( 12 + 2 + 0) − (0 + 0 + 5 ln 2)
= 5
2
− 5 ln 2

 Solomon Press
C4 INTEGRATION Answers - Worksheet H page 5

du dv
i u = x − 2, = 1; = (x + 1)3, v = 1
4
(x + 1)4
dx dx
1 1
∫0 (x − 2)(x + 1)3 dx = [ 14 (x − 2)(x + 1)4] 10 − ∫0 1
4
(x + 1)4 dx

= [ 14 (x − 2)(x + 1)4 − 1
20
(x + 1)5] 10
= (−4 − 8
5
) − ( − 12 − 1
20
)
= −5 201

2 x 4
6 a = ∫1 ( x + 2)3
2
dx b = ∫2 ln x dx
2 2x du 1 dv
= 1
2 ∫1 ( x 2 + 2)3
dx u = ln x,
dx
=
x
;
dx
= 1, v = x
4
= 1
2
[ − 12 (x2 + 2)−2] 12 = [x ln x] 42 − ∫2 dx

= − 14 ( 361 − 1
9
) = [x ln x − x] 42
= 1
48
= (4 ln 4 − 4) − (2 ln 2 − 2)
= 6 ln 2 − 2

6 ax 2 + b 6 b
7 ∫3 x
dx = ∫3 (ax +
x
) dx 8 a 6 − 2ex = 0

= [ 12 ax2 + b ln | x |] 36 x = ln 3 ∴ (ln 3, 0)
ln 3
= (18a + b ln 6) − ( 92 a + b ln 3) b = ∫0 (6 − 2ex) dx

∴ 27
2
a + b ln 2 = 18 + 5 ln 2 = [6x − 2ex] ln0 3
a, b rational = (6 ln 3 − 6) − (0 − 2)
∴ b = 5, 272 a = 18 = 6 ln 3 − 4
4
a= 3
, b=5

du
9 u = cot x ∴ = −cosec2 x 10 a y = 0 ⇒ 4 − t2 = 0
dx
π
x= 6
⇒ u= 3 t=±2
π dx
x= 4
⇒ u=1 x=t+1 ∴ =1
dt
2
cosec2 x = 1 + cot2 x = 1 + u2 ∴ area = ∫ −2 y × 1 dt
π 2
∫ cot2 x cosec4 x dx ∫ −2 (4 − t2) dt
4
∴ π
=
6
1
= ∫ 3
u2(1 + u2) × (−1) du b = [4t − 1 3 2
3
t ] −2
3
= ∫1 (u2 + u4) du = (8 − 8
3
) − (−8 + 8
3
)

= [ 13 u3 + 1
5
u5] 1
3
= 10 23
=( 3 + 9
5
3 ) − ( 13 + 1
5
)
= 14
5
3 − 8
15

= 2
15
( 21 3 − 4)

 Solomon Press
C4 INTEGRATION Answers - Worksheet H page 6

d ln x
11 a (x2 sin 2x + 2kx cos 2x − k sin 2x) 12 curve meets x-axis when =0 ∴x=1
dx x2
2 ln x
= 2x sin 2x + 2x2 cos 2x + 2k cos 2x area = ∫1 x2
dx
du 1 dv
−4kx sin 2x − 2k cos 2x u = ln x, = ; = x−2, v = −x−1
dx x dx
ln x 2 2
= 2x2 cos 2x + (2 − 4k)x sin 2x area = [−
x
]1 +
1 ∫x−2 dx
ln x
b let k = 1
2
= [− − x−1] 12
x
d
(x2 sin 2x + x cos 2x − 1
2
sin 2x) = ( − 12 ln 2 − 1
2
) − (0 − 1)
dx
= 2x2 cos 2x = 1
2
− 1
2
ln 2


2
∴ x cos 2x dx = 1
2
(1 − ln 2)
= 1
2
(x2 sin 2x + x cos 2x − 1
2
sin 2x) + c
= 1
4
(2x2 sin 2x + 2x cos 2x − sin 2x) + c

13 a f(1) = 18, f(2) = 80,


f(−1) = −4, f(−2) = 0
∴ (x + 2) is a factor
3x2 + 5x − 2
x + 2 3x3 + 11x2 + 8x − 4
3x3 + 6x2
5x2 + 8x
5x2 + 10x
− 2x − 4
− 2x − 4

∴ 3x3 + 11x2 + 8x − 4 = (x + 2)(3x2 + 5x − 2)


= (3x − 1)(x + 2)2
x + 16 A B C
b ≡ + +
3 x3 + 11x 2 + 8 x − 4 3x − 1 x+2 ( x + 2)2
x + 16 ≡ A(x + 2)2 + B(3x − 1)(x + 2) + C(3x − 1)
x = 13 ⇒ 49
3
= 499 A ⇒ A=3
x = −2 ⇒ 14 = −7C ⇒ C = −2
coeffs of x2 ⇒ 0 = A + 3B ⇒ B = −1
3 1 2
∴ f(x) ≡ − −
3x − 1 x+2 ( x + 2)2
0 3 1 2
c = ∫ −1 (
3x − 1

x+2

( x + 2)2
) dx

= [ln3x − 1 − lnx + 2 + 2(x + 2)−1] −01


= (0 − ln 2 + 1) − (ln 4 − 0 + 2)
= −1 − ln 2 − ln 22
= −1 − 3 ln 2
= −(1 + 3 ln 2)

 Solomon Press
C4 INTEGRATION Answers - Worksheet I

2 2 2
1 = π ∫ 1 ( )2 dx 2 = π∫ (x2 + 3)2 dx
2 x 0
2 2
= π ∫ 1 4x−2 dx = π∫ (x4 + 6x2 + 9) dx
2
0

= π[−4x−1] 21 = π[ 15 x5 + 2x3 + 9x] 02


2

= π[−2 − (−8)] = π[( 325 + 16 + 18) − (0)]


= 6π = 202
5
π ≈ 127

1 −1 3
a = π∫ b = π∫
x
3 ( 2e 2 )2 dx ( )2 dx
0 −2 x2
1 −1
= π∫ 4ex dx = π∫ 9x−4 dx
0 −2

= π[4ex] 10 = π[−3x−3] −−12


= π(4e − 4) = π(3 − 3
8
)
= 4π(e − 1) = 21
8
π
9 1 2 1
c = π∫ (1 + )2 dx d = π∫ (3x + )2 dx
3 x 1 x
9 2
= π∫ (1 + 2x−1 + x−2) dx = π∫ (9x2 + 6 + x−2) dx
3 1

= π[x + 2 ln | x | − x−1] 93 = π[3x3 + 6x − x−1] 12


= π[(9 + 2 ln 9 − 1
9
) − (3 + 2 ln 3 − 1
3
)] = π[(24 + 12 − 1
2
) − (3 + 6 − 1)]
= π( 6 92 + 2 ln 3) = 55
2
π
6 1 1
e = π∫ ( )2 dx f = π∫ (e1 − x)2 dx
2 x+2 −1
6 1 1
= π∫ dx = π∫ e2 − 2x dx
2 x+2 −1

= π[lnx + 2] 62 = π[ − 12 e2 − 2x] −11


= π(ln 8 − ln4) = − 12 π(1 − e4)
= π ln 2 = 1
2
π(e4 − 1)

2 4 3
∫0 = π∫
1 −1
4 a = dx 5 ( 2x 2 + x 2 )2 dx
x+2 1
3
= [4 lnx + 2] 02 = π∫ (4x + 4 + x−1) dx
1

= 4(ln 4 − ln 2) = 4 ln 2 = π[2x2 + 4x + ln | x |] 13
2 4
b = π∫ ( )2 dx = π[(18 + 12 + ln 3) − (2 + 4 + 0)]
0 x+2
2
= π∫ 16(x + 2)−2 dx = π(24 + ln 3)
0

= π[−16(x + 2)−1] 02
= π[−4 − (−8)] = 4π

 Solomon Press
C4 INTEGRATION Answers - Worksheet I page 2

6 a y 7 a y=0 ∴x= 1
3

∴ ( 13 , 0)
3 1
(0, 0) (3, 0)
b = ∫ 1
3
(3 −
x
) dx

O x = [3x − ln | x |] 31
3

= (9 − ln 3) − (1 − ln 1
3
)
3
b = π∫ (3x − x2)2 dx = 8 − 2 ln 3
0
3 3 1
= π∫ (9x2 − 6x3 + x4) dx c = π ∫ 1 (3 − )2 dx
0 3 x
3
= π[3x3 − 3
2
x4 + 1
5
x5] 30 = π ∫ 1 (9 − 6x−1 + x−2) dx
3

= π[(81 − 243
2
+ 243
5
) − (0)] = π[9x − 6 ln | x | − x−1] 31
3

= 81
10
π = π[(27 − 6 ln 3 − 1
3
) − (3 − 6 ln 1
3
− 3)]
= π( 26 − 12 ln 3)
2
3

1
8 a x− =0
x
x2 = 1
x = ± 1 ∴ (−1, 0) and (1, 0)
3 1
b = ∫1 (x −
x
) dx

= [ 12 x2 − ln | x |] 13
= ( 92 − ln 3) − ( 12 − 0)
= 4 − ln 3
3 1
c = π∫ (x − )2 dx
1 x
3
= π∫ (x2 − 2 + x−2) dx
1

= π[ 13 x3 − 2x − x−1] 13
= π[(9 − 6 − 1
3
) − ( 13 − 2 − 1)]
= 16
3
π

 Solomon Press
C4 INTEGRATION Answers - Worksheet J

dy e 9
1 a
dx
= 2x, grad = 2 2 a = ∫1 (4x +
x
) dx

∴ grad of normal = − 12 = [2x2 + 9 ln | x |] 1e


∴ y − 2 = − 12 (x − 1) = (2e2 + 9) − (2 + 0)
[y= 5
2
− 1
2
x] = 2e2 + 7
e 9
b y=0 ∴x=5 b = π∫ (4x + )2 dx
1 x
e
∴ (5, 0) = π∫ (16x2 + 72 + 81x−2) dx
1

c volume 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 = π[ 163 x3 + 72x − 81x−1] 1e


1
= π∫ (x2 + 1)2 dx = π[( 163 e3 + 72e − 81e−1) − ( 163 + 72 − 81)]
0
1
= π∫ (x4 + 2x2 + 1) dx = 869 (3sf)
0

= π[ 15 x5 + 2
3
x3 + x] 10
= π[( 15 + 2
3
+ 1) − (0)] = 28
15
π
volume 1 < x ≤ 5 = volume of cone
= 13 × π × 22 × 4 = 163 π
total volume
= 1528
π + 163 π
= 36
5
π

π 4 x+3
3 a = π ∫ π3 cosec2 x dx b = π∫ ( )2 dx
6 1 x+2
π 4 x+3
= π[−cot x] 3π = π∫ dx
6 1 x+2
4 ( x + 2) + 1
= −π( 1 − 3) = π∫ dx
3 1 x+2
4 1
= π( 3 − 1
3
3) = π∫ (1 + ) dx
1 x+2
= 2
3
π 3 = π[x + lnx + 2] 14
= π[(4 + ln 6) − (1 + ln 3)]
= π(3 + ln 2)
π 2
d = π∫
1
c = π∫ 4
(1 + cos 2x)2 dx ( x 2 e2 − x)2 dx
0 1
π 2
= π∫ 4
(1 + 2 cos 2x + cos2 2x) dx = π∫ xe4 − 2x dx
0 1
π
du dv
= π∫ 4
( 32 + 2 cos 2x + 1
2
cos 4x) dx u = x, = 1; = e4 − 2x, v = − 12 e4 − 2x
0 dx dx
π 2
= π[ 32 x + sin 2x + 1
8
sin 4x] 04 = π{[− 12 xe4 − 2x] 12 + ∫1 1
2
e4 − 2x dx}

= π[( 83 π + 1 + 0) − (0)] = π[− 12 xe4 − 2x − 1


4
e4 − 2x] 12
= 1
8
π(3π + 8) = π[(−1 − 1
4
) − (− 12 e2 − 1
4
e2)]
= 1
4
π(3e2 − 5)

 Solomon Press
C4 INTEGRATION Answers - Worksheet J page 2

1 π
volume = π ∫
− 12 x 2
∫0
2
4 ( xe ) dx 5 a = (2 sin x + cos x) dx
0
1 π
= π∫ x2e−x dx = [−2 cos x + sin x] 02
0
du dv
u = x2, = 2x; = e−x, v = −e−x = (0 + 1) − (−2 + 0)
dx dx

∫ x2e−x dx = −x2e−x + ∫ 2xe−x dx =3


π
du dv
u = 2x, = 2; = e−x, v = −e−x b = π∫ 2
(2 sin x + cos x)2 dx
dx dx 0
π

∫ x2e−x dx = −x2e−x − 2xe−x + ∫ 2e−x dx = π∫ (4 sin2 x + 4 sin x cos x + cos2 x) dx


2
0
π
= −x2e−x − 2xe−x − 2e−x + c = π∫ 2
(2−2 cos 2x + 2 sin 2x + 1
2
+ 12 cos 2x) dx
0
π
volume = π[−e−x(x2 + 2x + 2)] 10 = π∫ 2
( 52 − 3
2
cos 2x + 2 sin 2x) dx
0
π
= π[−e−1(1 + 2 + 2)] − [−1(2)] = π[ 52 x − 3
4
sin 2x − cos 2x] 02
= π(2 − 5e−1) = π[( 54 π − 0 + 1) − (0 − 0 − 1)]
= 1
4
π(5π + 8)

6 a x=0 ⇒ θ =0 7 a y = 0 ⇒ t = 0, −1
x = 1 ⇒ θ = π4 x=0 ⇒ t=±1
dx
b x = tan θ ∴ = sec2 θ t ≥ 0 ∴ t = 0, 1

π
dx
∴ volume = π ∫ 4
(sin 2θ )2 × sec2 θ dθ b x = t2 − 1 ∴ = 2t
0 dt
π 1
1
= π∫ 4
(4 sin2 θ cos2 θ × ) dθ ∴ volume = π ∫ [t(t + 1)]2 × 2t dt
0 cos 2 θ 0
π 1
= 4π ∫ 4
sin2 θ dθ = 2π ∫ t3(t2 + 2t + 1) dt
0 0
π 1
c = 4π ∫ 4
( 12 − 1
2
cos 2θ ) dθ = 2π ∫ (t5 + 2t4 + t3) dt
0 0
π
= 4π[ 12 θ − 1
4
sin 2θ ] 04 = 2π[ 16 t6 + 2 5
5
t + 1 4 1
4
t ]0
= 4π[( 18 π − 1
4
) − (0)] = 2π[( 16 + 2
5
+ 1
4
) − (0)]
= 1
2
π(π − 2) = 49
30
π

 Solomon Press
C4 INTEGRATION Answers - Worksheet K

1 a y= ∫ (x + 2)3 dx b y= ∫ 4 cos 2x dx
y= 1
4
(x + 2)4 + c y = 2 sin 2x + c

dy 1
c x= ∫ 3e2t + 2 dt d
dx
=
2− x
1
x= 3
2
e2t + 2t + c y= ∫ 2− x
dx
y = −ln2 − x + c

e N= ∫ t t 2 + 1 dt f y= ∫ xex dx
1
du dv
N= 1
2 ∫ 2t (t 2 + 1) 2 dt u = x,
dx
= 1;
dx
= ex , v = ex
3
N= 1
2
× 23 (t 2 + 1) 2 + c y = xex − ∫ ex dx
3
N = 13 (t 2 + 1) 2 + c y = xex − ex + c [ y = ex(x − 1) + c ]

2 a y= ∫ e−x dx b y= ∫ tan3 t sec2 t dt


y = −e−x + c y= 1
4
tan4 t + c
π
y = 3 when x = 0 y = 1 when t = 3
∴ 3 = −1 + c ∴ 1= 1
4
( 3 )4 + c
c=4 c=1− 9
4
= − 54
∴ y = 4 − e−x ∴ y= 1
4
4
tan t − 5
4
[y= 1
4
(tan4 t − 5) ]
du 4x
c
dx
=
x2 − 3
d y= ∫ 3 cos2 x dx
4x 2x
u= ∫ x2 − 3
dx = 2 ∫
x2 − 3
dx y= 3
2 ∫ (1 + cos 2x) dx
u = 2 lnx2 − 3 + c y= 3
2
(x + 1
2
sin 2x) + c = 3
4
(2x + sin 2x) + c
π
u = 5 when x = 2 y = π when x = 2
∴ 5=0+c ∴ π= 3
4
(π + 0) + c
π
c=5 c= 4
∴ u = 2 lnx2 − 3 + 5 ∴ y= 3
4
(2x + sin 2x) + π
4
[y= 1
4
(6x + 3 sin 2x + π) ]

x −8 A B dy x −8
3 a ≡ + b =
x2 − x − 6 x−3 x+2 dx x2 − x − 6
x −8 2 1
x − 8 ≡ A(x + 2) + B(x − 3) y= ∫ x2 − x − 6
dx = ∫ (
x+2

x−3
) dx
x = 3 ⇒ −5 = 5A ⇒ A = −1 y = 2 lnx + 2 − lnx − 3 + c
x = −2 ⇒ −10 = −5B ⇒ B = 2 y = ln 9 when x = 1
x −8 2 1
≡ − ∴ ln 9 = 2 ln 3 − ln 2 + c
x2 − x − 6 x+2 x−3
c = ln 2 (ln 9 = ln 32 = 2 ln 3)
∴ y = 2 lnx + 2 − lnx − 3 + ln 2
when x = 2, y = 2 ln 4 − 0 + ln 2 = ln (42 × 2)
= ln 32

 Solomon Press
C4 INTEGRATION Answers - Worksheet K page 2

1
4 a ∫ 2y + 3
dy = ∫ dx b ∫ cosec2 2y dy = ∫ dx
1
2
ln2y + 3 = x + c − 12 cot 2y = x + c
[y= 1
2
(ke2x − 3) ] [ cot 2y = k − 2x ]

1 1 1
c ∫ y
dy = ∫ x dx d ∫ y
dy = ∫ x +1
dx

lny = 1
2
x2 + c lny = lnx + 1 + c
1 x2
[ y = ke 2
] [ y = k(x + 1) ]

e ∫ y dy = ∫ (x2 − 2) dx f ∫ sec2 y dy = ∫ 2 cos x dx


1
2
y2 = 1 3
3
x − 2x + c tan y = 2 sin x + c
2 2 3
[y = 3
x − 4x + k ]

− 12 dy
g ∫ e3 − y dy = ∫ x dx h y
dx
= x(y2 + 3)
1
y
−e3 − y = 2 x 2 + c ∫ y2 + 3
dy = ∫ x dx
2y
[ y = 3 − ln (k − 2 x ) ] 1
2 ∫ y2 + 3
dy = ∫ x dx
1
2
lny2 + 3 = 1
2
x2 + c
2
[ y2 = k e x − 3 ]

1 dy e2 x
i ∫ y
dy = ∫ x sin x dx j
dx
=
ey
du dv
u = x,
dx
= 1;
dx
= sin x, v = −cos x ∫ ey dy = ∫ e2x dx

lny = −x cos x + ∫ cos x dx ey = 1


2
e2x + c
lny = sin x − x cos x + c [ y = ln ( 12 e2x + c) ]
[ y = kesin x − x cos x ]
y −3
k ∫ y ( y − 1)
dy = ∫ x dx l ∫ y−2 dy = ∫ ln x dx
y −3 A B du 1 dv
≡ + u = ln x, = ; = 1, v = x
y ( y − 1) y y −1 dx x dx
y − 3 ≡ A(y − 1) + By −y−1 = x ln x − ∫ dx
−1
y = 0 ⇒ A = 3, y = 1 ⇒ B = −2 −y = x ln x − x + c
3 2 1
∫ (
y

y −1
) dy = ∫ x dx [y=
x − x ln x + k
]

3 lny − 2 lny − 1 = 1
2
x2 + c

 Solomon Press
C4 INTEGRATION Answers - Worksheet K page 3

5 a ∫ 2y dy = ∫ x dx b ∫ (y + 1)−3 dy = ∫ dx
y2 = 1
2
x2 + c − 12 (y + 1)−2 = x + c
y = 3 when x = 4 (y + 1)−2 = k − 2x
∴ 9=8+c y = 0 when x = 2
c=1 ∴ 1=k−4
∴ y2 = 12 x2 + 1 k=5
∴ (y + 1)−2 = 5 − 2x
1
[ (y + 1)2 = ]
5 − 2x

1 1 1
c ∫ y
dy = ∫ cot2 x dx d ∫ y+2
dy = ∫ x −1
dx
1
∫ y
dy = ∫ (cosec2 x − 1) dx lny + 2 = lnx − 1 + c

lny = −cot x − x + c y = 6 when x = 3


y = 1 when x = π2 ∴ ln 8 = ln 2 + c
π
∴ 0=0− 2
+c c = ln 4
π
c= 2
∴ lny + 2 = lnx − 1 + ln 4
π
∴ lny = 2
− cot x − x [ y + 2 = 4(x − 1) ⇒ y = 4x − 6 ]

dy y
e ∫ cot y dy = ∫ x2 dx f
dx
=
x+3
cos y − 12 − 12
∫ sin y
dy = ∫ x2 dx ∫ y dy = ∫ ( x + 3) dx
1 1
lnsin y = 1
3
x3 + c 2 y 2 = 2( x + 3) 2 + c
π
y= 6
when x = 0 y = x+3 + k
∴ ln 1
2
=0+c y = 16 when x = 1
c = −ln 2 ∴ 4=2+k
3
∴ lnsin y = 1
3
x − ln 2 k=2
1 x3
[ 2 sin y = e 3
] ∴ y = x+3 + 2
[ y = ( x + 3 + 2)2 ]

sin y
g ∫ sin y dy = ∫ xe−x dx h ∫ 1 + cos y
dy = ∫ 1
2
x−2 dx
du dv − sin y
u = x, = 1; = e−x, v = −e−x −∫ dy = ∫ 1
2
x−2 dx
dx dx 1 + cos y
−cos y = −xe−x + ∫ e−x dx −ln1 + cos y = − 12 x−1 + c
−cos y = −xe−x − e−x + c ln1 + cos y = 1
2
x−1 + k
cos y = (x + 1)e−x + k y= π
3
when x = 1
y = π when x = −1 ∴ ln 3
2
= 1
2
+k
∴ −1 = 0 + k k = ln 3
2
− 1
2

k = −1 ∴ ln1 + cos y = 1
2
x−1 + ln 3
2
− 1
2
1− x
∴ cos y = (x + 1)e−x − 1 [ (1 + cos y)2 = 9
4
e x
]

 Solomon Press
C4 INTEGRATION Answers - Worksheet L

( x + 4) A B dy
1 a ≡ + 2 = ey × ex cos x
(1 + x)(2 − x) 1+ x 2− x dx
x + 4 ≡ A(2 − x) + B(1 + x) ∫ e−y dy = ∫ ex cos x dx
du dv
x = −1 ⇒ A = 1, x = 2 ⇒ B = 2 u = ex , = ex ; = cos x, v = sin x
dx dx
( x + 4) 1 2

(1 + x)(2 − x)

1+ x
+
2− x
I= ∫ ex cos x dx = ex sin x − ∫ ex sin x dx
1 1 2 du dv
b ∫ y
dy = ∫ (
1+ x
+
2− x
) dx u = ex ,
dx
= ex ;
dx
= sin x, v = −cos x

lny = ln1 + x − 2 ln2 − x + c I = ex sin x − (−ex cos x + ∫ ex cos x dx)


y = 2 when x = 3 2I = ex sin x + ex cos x + C
∴ ln 2 = ln 4 − 0 + c −e−y = 12 ex(sin x + cos x) + c
c = −ln 2 e−y = k − 1
2
ex(sin x + cos x)
∴ lny = ln1 + x − 2 ln2 − x − ln 2 y = 0 when x = 0
1+ x
[y= ] ∴ 1=k− 1
2
2(2 − x)2
3
k= 2

∴ e−y = 3
2
− 1
2
ex(sin x + cos x)
[ 2e−y = 3 − ex(sin x + cos x) ]

dy k dN
3 = 4 a = kN
dx x dt
dy 1
dx
= 5
3
when x = 3 b ∫ N
dN = ∫ k dt
k
∴ 5
3
= , k=5 ln N = kt + c
3
5
y= ∫ x
dx N = ekt + c = ec × ekt
y = 5 ln | x | + c N = Aekt
y = 4 when x = 3 c t = 0, N = 40 ∴ A = 40
∴ 4 = 5 ln 3 + c t = 5, N = 60 ∴ 60 = 40e5k
c = 4 − 5 ln 3 ∴ k = 15 ln 32 = 0.0811 (3sf)
∴ y = 5 ln | x | + 4 − 5 ln 3 d t = 12 ∴ N = 40e0.08109 × 12
x
y = 5 ln   + 4 = 106 (3sf)
3

 Solomon Press
C4 INTEGRATION Answers - Worksheet L page 2

dm
5 a let side length be l 6 a − = km
dt
A 1
A = 6l2 ∴ l =
6 ∫ m
dm = ∫ −k dt
A −3 3
V = l3 = ( )3 = 6 2 A 2 ln m = −kt + c
6
dV −3 1
∴ = 3
2
× 6 2 × A2 = k A m = e−kt + c = ec × e−kt
dA
dV dV dA
b = × m = Ae−kt
dt dA dt
dV
= cA t = 0, m = 24 ∴ A = 24
dt
dA
∴ cA = k A × m = 24e−kt
dt
dA
= d A b t = 20, m = 22.6 ∴ 22.6 = 24e−20k
dt
dA
A = 100, =5 ∴d= 1
2
∴ k = − 201 ln 22.6
24
= 0.00301 (3sf)
dt
dA dm
= 1
2
A c = −km = −0.003005 × 22.6
dt dt

∫ ∫
− 12
2A dA = dt = −0.0679 (3sf)
1
4A = t + C 2
∴ decreasing at 0.0679 grams per day
t = 10, A = 100 ∴ C = 30 d m = 12 ∴ 12 = 24e−0.003005t
1
A 2 = 14 (t + 30) t = − 0.003005
1
ln 12
A= 1
16
(t + 30)2 = 231 days (nearest day)

dP dV
7 a − = k P 8 a − = aV where a is a positive constant
dt dt
− 12 dV dV dh
∫ P dP = ∫ −k dt
dt
=
dh
×
dt
1
r
2 P 2 = −kt + c if angle at vertex = 2θ, tan θ =
h
P = 1
2
c− 1
2
kt = a − bt ∴ r = bh where b is a positive constant
dV
∴ P = (a − bt)2 V= 1
3
πr2h = 1
3
πb2h3 ∴ = πb2h2
dh
dh
b t = 0, P = 400 ∴ 400 = a − 0 ∴ −πb2h2 × =a× 1
3
πb2h3
dt
dh
a = 20 = −kh where k is a positive constant
dt
1
c t = 30, P = 100 ∴ 100 = 20 − 30b b ∫ h
dh = ∫ −k dt
b= 1
3
lnh = −kt + c
∴ P = (20 − 1
3
t) 2
h = e−kt + c = ec × e−kt = Ae−kt
t = 50 ∴ P = (20 − 50
3
)2 t = 0, h = 12 ∴ A = 12
= 11 19 t = 20, h = 10 ∴ 10 = 12e−20k
∴ k = − 201 ln 56
∴ h = 12e−kt, k = 0.00912 (3sf)
c 6 = 12e−0.009116t
t = − 0.009116
1
ln 12 = 76.0 (3sf)

 Solomon Press
C4 INTEGRATION Answers - Worksheet L page 3

1 A B
9 a ≡ +
(1 + x)(1 − x) 1+ x 1− x
1 ≡ A(1 − x) + B(1 + x)
x = −1 ⇒ A = 12 , x = 1 ⇒ B = 1
2
1 1 1
≡ +
(1 + x)(1 − x) 2(1 + x) 2(1 − x)
dm
b t = 0, m = 0, = 0.5
dt
∴ 0.5 = k × 1
k = 0.5
1
c ∫ (1 + m)(1 − m)
dm = ∫ 1
2
e−t dt
1 1

∫ ( 2
1+ m
+ 2
1− m
) dm = ∫ 1
2
e−t dt
1
2
ln1 + m − 1
2
ln1 − m = − 12 e−t + c
ln1 + m − ln1 − m = C − e−t
t = 0, m = 0 ∴ 0 − 0 = C − 1
C=1
ln1 + m − ln1 − m = 1 − e−t
for 0 ≤ m < 1, 1 + m > 0 and 1 − m > 0
∴ ln (1 + m) − ln (1 − m) = 1 − e−t
1+ m 
ln  = 1 − e
−t
1− m 
1.1
d m = 0.1 ∴ ln = 1 − e −t
0.9
t = −ln (1 − ln 119 ) = 0.2240 hrs
= 13.4 minutes
1+ m 
e t → ∞, ln  → 1
1− m 
∴ limiting value of m is given by
1+ m
=e
1− m
1 + m = e(1 − m)
m(1 + e) = e − 1
e −1
m= = 0.4621
1+ e
∴ max. produced ≈ 462 g

 Solomon Press
C4 INTEGRATION Answers - Worksheet M

1 a x 1 3 5
x ln (x + 1) ln 2 3 ln 4 5 ln 6
∴ integral ≈ 1
2
× 2 × [ln 2 + 5 ln 6 + 2(3 ln 4)] = 18.0 (3sf)
π π π
b x 6 3 2
1
cot x 3 0
3
π 1
∴ integral ≈ 1
2
× 6
× [ 3 + 0 + 2( )] = 0.756 (3sf)
3

c x −2 −1 0 1 2
x2
e 10 1.492 1.105 1 1.105 1.492
∴ integral ≈ 2 × 1 × [1.492 + 1.492 + 2(1.105 + 1 + 1.105)] = 4.70 (3sf)
1

d x 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1


arccos (x2 − 1) 3.142 2.786 2.419 2.024 1.571
∴ integral ≈ 12 × 0.25 × [3.142 + 1.571 + 2(2.786 + 2.419 + 2.024)] = 2.40 (3sf)

e x 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5


sec2 (2x − 1) 3.4255 2.0602 1.4680 1.1788 1.0411 1
∴ integral ≈ 1
2
× 0.1 × [3.4255 + 1 + 2(2.0602 + 1.4680 + 1.1788 + 1.0411)] = 0.796 (3sf)

f x 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
3 −x
xe 0 0.368 1.083 1.344 1.172 0.842 0.535
∴ integral ≈ 1
2
× 1 × [0 + 0.535 + 2(0.368 + 1.083 + 1.344 + 1.172 + 0.842)] = 5.08 (3sf)

1
2 a 2− =0
sin x
1
sin x = 2
π π
x= 6
,π− 6
π 5π
x= 6
, 6
π π π 2π 5π
b x 6 3 2 3 6
2 − cosec x 0 0.8453 1 0.8453 0
π
∴ area ≈ 2 × 6 × [0 + 0 + 2(0.8453 + 1 + 0.8453)] = 1.41 (3sf)
1

3 a x −1 0 1 2
f(x) 0 0.5236 1.0472 2.0944
∴ I ≈ 12 × 1 × [0 + 2.0944 + 2(0.5236 + 1.0472)] = 2.62 (3sf)

b x −1 −0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2


f(x) 0 0.2709 0.5236 0.7763 1.0472 1.3717 2.0944
∴ I ≈ 12 × 0.5 × [0 + 2.0944 + 2(0.2709 + 0.5236 + 0.7763 + 1.0472 + 1.3717)] = 2.52 (3sf)

 Solomon Press
C4 INTEGRATION Answers - Worksheet M page 2

4 a x 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5


ln x 0 ln 1.5 ln 2 ln 2.5 ln 3 ln 3.5 ln 4 ln 4.5 ln 5
i ≈ 12 × 2 × [0 + ln 5 + 2(ln 3)] = 3.807 (3dp)
ii ≈ 1
2
× 1 × [0 + ln 5 + 2(ln 2 + ln 3 + ln 4)] = 3.983 (3dp)
iii ≈ 1
2
× 0.5 × [0 + ln 5 + 2(ln 1.5 + ln 2 + ln 2.5 + ln 3 + ln 3.5 + ln 4 + ln 4.5)] = 4.031 (3dp)
b 2 → 4 strips, increase = 0.176
4 → 8 strips, increase = 0.048
e.g. suggest 8 → 16 strips, increase ≈ 0.013
16 → 32 strips, increase ≈ 0.004
32 → 64 strips, increase ≈ 0.001
∴ area ≈ 4.031 + 0.013 + 0.004 + 0.001 = 4.049
du 1 dv
c u = ln x, = ; = 1, v = x
dx x dx
5 5 1
∫1 ln x dx = [x ln x] 15 − ∫1 x
× x dx

= [x ln x − x] 15
= (5 ln 5 − 5) − (0 − 1)
= 5 ln 5 − 4
= 4.047 (3dp)

0
5 volume = π ∫ (ex − x)2 dx
−4
0
let I = ∫ −4 (ex − x)2 dx
x −4 −3 −2 −1 0
x 2
(e − x) 16.147 9.301 4.560 1.871 1
∴ I ≈ 12 × 1 × [16.147 + 1 + 2(9.301 + 4.560 + 1.871)] = 24.306
∴ volume ≈ 24.306 × π = 76.4 (3sf)

 Solomon Press
C4 INTEGRATION Answers - Worksheet N

dy x
1 = [ 14 × 8 ln4x − 3] 72 2 =
dx cos y sin 3 y
= 2[ln4x − 3] 72 ∫ cos y sin3 y dy = ∫ x dx
4 2
= 2(ln 25 − ln 5) 1
4
sin y = 1
2
x +c
25 4 2
= 2 ln 5
sin y = 2x + k
π
= 2 ln 5 y= 4
when x=1
2
= ln 5 ∴ ( 1 )4 = 2 +k
2
1
= ln 25 4
=2+k
k = − 74
∴ sin4 y = 2x2 − 7
4

3 a x 0 0.5 1 1.5
x 2 −1
e 0.3679 0.4724 1 3.4903
∴ integral ≈ 2 × 0.5 × [0.3679 + 3.4903 + 2(0.4724 + 1)] = 1.70 (3sf)
1

b x 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5


2
e x −1 0.3679 0.3916 0.4724 0.6456 1 1.7551 3.4903
∴ integral ≈ 2 × 0.25 × [0.3679 + 3.4903 + 2(0.3916 + 0.4724 + 0.6456 + 1 + 1.7551)]
1

= 1.55 (3sf)

3(2 − x) A B C dN
4 a ≡ + + 5 a = kN
(1 − 2 x )2 (1 + x) 1 − 2x (1 − 2 x )2 1+ x dt
1
3(2−x) ≡ A(1−2x)(1+x)+B(1+x)+C(1−2x)2 ∫ N
dN = ∫ k dt
x= 1
2
⇒ 9
2
= 3
2
B ⇒ B=3 ln N = kt + c
x = −1 ⇒ 9 = 9C ⇒ C=1 N = ekt + c = ec × ekt
coeffs x2 ⇒ 0 = −2A + 4C ⇒ A = 2 ∴ N = Aekt
2 3 1
f(x) ≡ + + b t = 0, N = 200 ∴ A = 200
1 − 2x (1 − 2 x )2 1+ x
2 2 3 1
b = ∫1 (
1 − 2x
+
(1 − 2 x )2
+
1+ x
) dx t = 2, N = 3000 ∴ 3000 = 200e2k

= [−ln1 − 2x + 3
2
(1 − 2x)−1 + ln1 + x] 12 ∴ k= 1
2
ln 15 = 1.354
= (−ln 3 − 1
2
+ ln 3) − (0 − 3
2
+ ln 2) ∴ N = 200e1.354t
= 1 − ln 2 ∴ 10 000 = 200e1.354t
1
t = 1.354 ln 50 = 2.889 hours
= 2 hours 53 minutes
c 5 per second = 18 000 per hour
dN
= 200 × 0.1354e1.354t
dt
∴ 18 000 = 270.8e1.354t
1
t = 1.354 ln 18000
270.8
= 3.099 hours
= 3 hours 6 minutes

 Solomon Press
C4 INTEGRATION Answers - Worksheet N page 2
4 dx
∫0
− 12
6 a = (2 x + 1) dx 7 u2 = x + 3 ∴ x = u2 − 3, = 2u
du
1
= [ 12 × 2(2 x + 1) 2 ] 04 x=0 ⇒ u= 3
1
= [ (2 x + 1) ] 04 2
x=1 ⇒ u=2
1 2
=3−1=2 ∫0 x x + 3 dx = ∫ 3
(u2 − 3)u × 2u du
4 1 2
b = π∫ ( )2 dx = ∫ (2u4 − 6u2) du
0 2x + 1 3
4 1
= π∫ dx = [ 25 u5 − 2u3] 23
0 2x + 1
= π[ 12 ln2x + 1] 04 = ( 645 − 16) − ( 25 × 9 3 − 2 × 3 3 )
1
= 1
2
π(ln 9 − 0) = π ln 9 2 = − 165 − ( − 125 3 )
= π ln 3 = 4
5
( 3 3 − 4) [k= 4
5
]

x 2 − 22 B C
8 a sin (A + B) ≡ sin A cos B + cos A sin B 9 a ≡A+ +
( x + 2)( x − 4) x+2 x−4
sin (A − B) ≡ sin A cos B − cos A sin B x2 − 22 ≡ A(x+2)(x−4)+B(x−4)+C(x+2)
adding x = −2 ⇒ −18 = −6B ⇒ B = 3
2 sin A cos B ≡ sin (A + B) + sin (A − B) x=4 ⇒ −6 = 6C ⇒ C = −1
2
b y = 0 ⇒ sin 4t = 0 ⇒ t = 0, π4 , π2 , 3π
4
coeffs x ⇒ A=1
2 3 1
curve in 1st quadrant: 0 ≤ t ≤ π
4
b = ∫0 (1 +
x+2

x−4
) dx
dx
x = 2 sin 2t ∴ = 4 cos 2t = [x + 3 lnx + 2 − lnx − 4] 02
dt
area in 1st quadrant = (2 + 3 ln 4 − ln 2) − (0 + 3 ln 2 − ln 4)
π

∫0
4
= sin 4t × 4 cos 2t dt = 2 + 6 ln 2 − ln 2 − 3 ln 2 + 2 ln 2
total area = 4 × area in 1st quadrant = 2 + 4 ln 2
π

∫0
4
= 16 sin 4t cos 2t dt = 2 + ln 16
π
c = 8∫ 4
(sin 6t + sin 2t) dt
0
π
= 8[− 16 cos 6t − 1
2
cos 2t] 04
= 8[(0 − 0) − (− 1
6
− 1
2
)] = 5 13

10 a = 1
2 ∫ (1 − cos 2x) dx = 1
2
(x − 1
2
sin 2x) + c = 1
4
(2x − sin 2x) + c
du dv
b u = x, = 1; = sin2 x, v = 1
2
x− 1
4
sin 2x
dx dx

∫ x sin2 x dx = x( 12 x − 1
4
sin 2x) − ∫ ( 12 x − 1
4
sin 2x) dx
= 1
2
x2 − 1
4
x sin 2x − ( 14 x2 + 1
8
cos 2x) + c
2
= 1
4
x − 1
4
x sin 2x − 1
8
cos 2x + c
2
= 1
8
(2x − 2x sin 2x − cos 2x) + c
π π
c = π∫ ( x sin x )2 dx = π ∫
1
2
x sin2 x dx
0 0

= 1
8
π[2x2 − 2x sin 2x − cos 2x] 0π
= 1
8
π[(2π2 − 0 − 1) − (0 − 0 − 1)] = 1
4
π3

 Solomon Press
C4 INTEGRATION Answers - Worksheet O

π
1 A B
∫0
6
1 a 2
≡ + 2 = 1
2
[cos 4x + cos (−2x)] dx
x − 3x + 2 x −1 x−2
π

∫0
6
1 ≡ A(x − 2) + B(x − 1) = ( 12 cos 4x + 1
2
cos 2x) dx
π
x = 1 ⇒ 1 = −A ⇒ A = −1 = [ 18 sin 4x + 1
4
sin 2x] 06
3 3
x=2 ⇒ B=1 = ( 18 × 2
+ 1
4
× 2
) − (0)
1 1 1
∴ ≡ − = 3
16
3
x 2 − 3x + 2 x−2 x −1
4 1 4 1 1
b ∫3 x 2 − 3x + 2
dx = ∫3 (
x−2

x −1
) dx

= [lnx − 2 − lnx − 1] 34


= (ln 2 − ln 3) − (0 − ln 2)
2
= 2 ln 2 − ln 3 = ln 23
4
= ln 3
[ a = 4, b = 3 ]

4 1
3 a x + 2 4 a = π∫ (2 − )2 dx
2
x−1 x + x − 1 1 x
4
x2 − x = π∫ (4 − 4x
− 12
+ x−1) dx
1
2x − 1 1
2x − 2 = π[4x − 8x 2 + ln | x |] 14
1 = π[(16 − 16 + ln 4) − (4 − 8 + 0)]
= π(4 + ln 4) = π(4 + ln 22)
quotient: x + 2, remainder: 1 = π(4 + 2 ln 2) = 2π(2 + ln 2)
x2 + x − 1 1
b ∫ x −1
dx = ∫ (x + 2 +
x −1
) dx b = 103 × 2π(2 + ln 2)
= 1
2
x2 + 2x + lnx − 1 + c = 2000π(2 + ln 2) = 16 900 cm3

π
du 1 dv
x2 ∫0
1 3
5 a u = ln x, = ; = x, v = 2
6 a = sec x tan x dx
dx x dx
π
∫ x ln x dx = 1
2
x2 ln x − ∫ 1
2
x dx = [sec x] 03
= 1
2
x2 ln x − 1
4
x2 + c =2−1
2
= 1
4
x (2 ln x − 1) + c =1
1 du
b ∫ y
dy = ∫ x ln x dx b u = cos θ ∴

= −sin θ

lny = 1
4
x2(2 ln x − 1) + c θ =0 ⇒ u=1
y > 0 ∴ ln y = 1
4
x2(2 ln x − 1) + c θ = π
4
⇒ u= 1
2
π 1
sin θ 1
∫0 dθ = ∫1
4
y = 4 when x = 2 2
× (−1) du
cos 4 θ u4
1
∴ ln 4 = 2 ln 2 − 1 + c, c=1 = ∫ 1
2
u−4 du

∴ ln y = 1
4
x2(2 ln x − 1) + 1 = [ − 13 u−3] 11
2

when x = 1, ln y = 1
4
(0 − 1) + 1 = 3
4
= − 13 (1 − 2 2 )
3
∴ y= e 4
= − 13 + 2
3
2 [ a = − 13 , b = 2
3
]

 Solomon Press
C4 INTEGRATION Answers - Worksheet O page 2

du dv
7 a x = 0 ⇒ t = − 12 8 a u = 6x, = 6; = cos 3x, v = 1
3
sin 3x
dx dx
x=3 ⇒ t=1 ∫ 6x cos 3x dx = 2x sin 3x − ∫ 2 sin 3x dx
dx
b x = 2t + 1 ∴ =2 = 2x sin 3x + 2
3
cos 3x + c
dt
1 1 dx
∴ area = ∫− 1
2 2−t
× 2 dt b x = 2 sin u ∴
du
= 2 cos u
1 2
= ∫− 1
2 2−t
dt x=0 ⇒ u=0
π
= [−2 ln | 2 − t |] −1 1 x= 3 ⇒ u= 3
2

3 π
1 1
∫0 ∫0
3
= −2(0 − ln 5
2
) dx = × 2 cos u du
4−x 2 2cosu
π

∫0
5 3
= 2 ln 2
= du
1 1 π
c = π∫ ( )2 × 2 dt = [u] 03
− 12 2−t
1
= 2π ∫ (2 − t)−2 dt = π
3
−0
− 12

= 2π[(2 − t)−1] −1 1 = π
3
2

= 2π(1 − 2
5
)= 6
5
π

A 5x + 1 A B
9 a A = πr2 ∴ r = 10 a ≡ +
π (1 − x)(1 + 2 x) 1− x 1 + 2x
A
P = 2πr = 2π = 2 πA 5x + 1 ≡ A(1 + 2x) + B(1 − x)
π
dA
= cP = c × 2 πA = 2c π × A x=1 ⇒ 6 = 3A ⇒ A=2
dt
dA
∴ = k A x = − 12 ⇒ − 32 = 3
2
B ⇒ B = −1
dt
− 12 2 1
b ∫ A dA = ∫ k dt f(x) ≡
1− x

1 + 2x
1
1
2 1
∫0
2
2 A 2 = kt + C b = ( − ) dx
1− x 1 + 2x
1
A = 1
2
kt + 1
2
C = pt + q = [−2 ln1 − x − 1
2
ln1 + 2x] 02
2
∴ A = (pt + q) = (−2 ln 1
2
− 1
2
ln 2) − (0 − 0)
c t = 0, A = 25 ∴ 25 = 0 + q = 2 ln 2 − 1
2
ln 2 = 3
2
ln 2
−1
q=5 c (1 − x) =
( −1)( −2) ( −1)( −2)( −3)
t = 20, A = 40 ∴ 40 = 20p + 5 1 + (−1)(−x) + 2
(−x)2 + 3× 2
(−x)3 +…
p= 2 10 − 5
= 1 + x + x2 + x3 + …
20

A = 50 ⇒ 50 = ( 2 10 − 5
t + 5)2 (1 + 2x)−1 =
20
( −1)( −2)
t = ( 5 2 − 5) ÷ 2 10 − 5
20
1 + (−1)(2x) + 2
(2x)2 + ( −1)(3−×2)(
2
−3)
(2x)3 +…
2 3
= 31.3 minutes (3sf) = 1 − 2x + 4x − 8x + …
f(x) =
2(1 + x + x2 + x3) − (1 − 2x + 4x2 − 8x3) + …
f(x) = 1 + 4x − 2x2 + 10x3 + …

 Solomon Press
C4 INTEGRATION Answers - Worksheet P

1
1 a when y = 3, x = 3

area 0 ≤ x ≤ 1
3
=3× 1
3
=1
3 1
area 1
3
<x≤3= ∫ 1
3 x
dx

= [ln | x |] 31
3

= ln 3 − ln 1
3
= ln 3
1 = ln 9
3

total area = 1 + ln 9
b volume 0 ≤ x ≤ 13 = volume of cylinder
= π × 32 × 1
3
= 3π
3 1
volume 1
3
< x ≤ 3 = π ∫ 1 ( )2 dx
3 x
3
= π∫1 x −2
dx = π[−x−1] 31
3
3

= π[ − 13 − (−3)] = 8
3
π
total volume = 3π + 8
3
π= 17
3
π

2 a x 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4


x sec ( 13 x) 0 0.507 1.058 1.709 2.545 3.718 5.552 8.901 17.004
i ≈ 1
2
× 2 × [0 + 17.004 + 2(2.545)] = 22.1 (3sf)
ii ≈ 1
2
× 1 × [0 + 17.004 + 2(1.058 + 2.545 + 5.552)] = 17.7 (3sf)
iii ≈ 12 ×0.5×[0 + 17.004 + 2(0.507 + 1.058 + 1.709 + 2.545 + 3.718 + 5.552 + 8.901)] = 16.2 (3sf)
b e.g. halving the interval width leads to the estimate reducing by 4.4, then 1.5
further halving might lead to reductions of approximately 0.5 and 0.2 so I ≈ 15.5


3 a − = kθ 4 a sin4 x ≡ (sin2 x)2
dt
1
∫ θ
dθ = ∫ −k dt ≡ [ 12 (1 − cos 2x)]2
ln θ = −kt + c ≡ 1
4
(1 − 2 cos 2x + cos2 2x)
θ = e−kt + c = ec × e−kt ≡ 1
4
− 1
2
cos 2x + 1
4
[ 12 (1 + cos 4x)]
∴ θ = Ae−kt ≡ 3
8
− 1
2
cos 2x + 1
8
cos 4x
t = 0, θ = 25 − 10 = 15 ∴ p= 3
8
, q = − 12 , r = 1
8
π

∫0
2
∴ A = 15 b = ( 83 − 1
2
cos 2x + 1
8
cos 4x) dx
π
∴ θ = 15e−kt = [ 83 x − 1
4
sin 2x + 1
32
sin 4x] 02
b t = 30, θ = 20 − 10 = 10 = ( 163 π − 0 + 0) − (0 − 0 + 0)
∴ 10 = 15e−30k = 3
16
π
k = − 301 ln 2
3
= 0.0135 (3sf)
c θ = 15 − 10 = 5
∴ 5 = 15e−0.01352t
t = − 0.01352
1
ln 13
= 81.3 minutes (3sf)

 Solomon Press
C4 INTEGRATION Answers - Worksheet P page 2

dx
5 a ∫ y−3 dy = ∫ x dx 6 a x = eu ∴ u = ln x,
du
= eu
2 + ln x 2+u
− 12 y−2 = 1
2
x2 + c ∫ x2
dx = ∫ u 2
(e )
× eu du

y−2 = k − x2 = ∫ (2 + u)e−u du
1
y2 = b x = eu
k − x2
b y= 1
2
when x = 1 x=1 ⇒ u=0
1
∴ 1
4
= x=e ⇒ u=1
k −1
e 2 + ln x 1
k=5 ∴ ∫1 x2
dx = ∫0 (2 + u)e−u du
1 dv dw
∴ y2 = v = 2 + u, = 1; = e−u, w = −e−u
5 − x2 du du
1
= [−(2 + u)e−u] 10 + ∫0 e−u du

= [−(2 + u)e−u − e−u] 10


= (−3e−1 − e−1) − (−2 − 1)
= 3 − 4e−1

π 6 − 2x2 A B C
7 a x = 0 ⇒ cos 2t = 0 ⇒ t = 4
8 a ≡ + +
( x + 1)2 ( x + 3) ( x + 1)2 x +1 x+3
y = 0 ⇒ tan t = 0 ⇒ t = 0 6 − 2x2 ≡ A(x + 3) + B(x + 1)(x + 3) + C(x + 1)2
dx
x = cos 2t ∴ = −2 sin 2t x = −1 ⇒ 4 = 2A ⇒ A=2
dt
0
shaded area = ∫ π
4
tan t × (−2 sin 2t) dt x = −3 ⇒ −12 = 4C ⇒ C = −3
π
sin t
∫0 coeffs x2 ⇒ −2 = B + C ⇒ B = 1
4
= × 4 sin t cos t dt
cos t
π

∫0 4 sin2 t dt b x=0 ⇒ y=2


4
=
π

∫0 f(x) = 2(x + 1)−2 + (x + 1)−1 − 3(x + 3)−1


4
b = (2 − 2 cos 2t) dt
π
= [2t − sin 2t] 04 f ′(x) = −4(x + 1)−3 − (x + 1)−2 + 3(x + 3)−2
= ( π2 − 1) − (0 − 0) ∴ f ′(0) = −4 − 1 + 1
3
= − 143
π
= 2
−1 ∴ y − 2 = − 143 (x − 0)
c i sin2 A = 1
2
(1 − cos 2A) 3y − 6 = −14x
2 1
ii cos A = 2
(1 + cos 2A) 14x + 3y = 6
sin 2 t 1
(1 − cos 2t ) 1 2 1 3
y2 = tan2 t =
cos 2 t
= 2
1
2
(1 + cos 2t )
c = ∫0 (
( x + 1)2
+
x +1

x+3
) dx

1− x
∴ y2 = = [−2(x + 1)−1 + lnx + 1 − 3 lnx + 3] 10
1+ x
= (−1 + ln 2 − 3 ln 4) − (−2 + 0 − 3 ln 3)
= 1 − 5 ln 2 + 3 ln 3

 Solomon Press