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Aim

The aim of this investigation was to ﬁnd out how the weight attached to a parachute affected the landing time.

Prediction

The heavier the weight attached to a parachute, the shorter the landing time.

Hypothesis

To calculate the initial acceleration of the object (which is the weights + the parachute) I have to list out the different forces applied to the weight ﬁrst. 1. Gravity (It’s negative, because it has a downward direction) 2. Air Resistance *the parachute weights almost nothing, so it won’t be included in the calculations

Since F=MA, F(gravity)=M *9.8 Although the surface area increases whenever I add one more weight onto it, the shape is still very not aerodynamic, therefore the air resistance should be roughly the same. Also, due to limitations, I cannot drop the parachute high enough for the air resistance to make a noticeable difference. So, I’ll call the air resistance R, which would be a constant.

I have to calculate the net force ﬁrst:

F(net)=Air resistance - Gravity =R - 9.8M Since the air resistance is not big enough to cancel the gravity force, the net force would be a negative number, which I would call F(net).

Since F=MA, F(net)=M*A

A=F(net)/M Because F(net) is a negative number, the bigger M is, the smaller F(net)/M is. Since F(net) is a negative number, the smaller F(net)/M is, the greater the downward acceleration, making the landing time shorter.

As time change, the velocity of the object changes, and therefore the air resistance increases. But if an object have a greater mass, it would achieve a greater velocity when it reached the terminal velocity (which would not happen in this experiment since the height is not high enough).

That is why I think that the heavier the weight attached to the parachute is, the shorter the landing time.

Method

Equipment list Variables (independent, dependent, and control variables) Rubbish Bag, meter ruler x2, stationaries, 30cm strings x4 , 100g weight x5 and a weight holder

 independent Variable Dependent Variable Control Variables The weight attached to the parachute The landing time The size and shape of the parachute, height of dropping parachute, wind speed and direction

Fair test Procedure

1. Cut the garbage bag and make it ﬂat.

2. Draw a 50cm^2 square on the garbage bag and cut it out

3. Poke 4 holes in the four corners with something sharp

4. Tie one end of a string (30 cm)to each hole poked

5. Tie the four strings to the weight holder, and now the parachute is made

6. Add a 100g weight to the weight holder

7. Drop it vertically to the ground at the height of 2m and

time the landing time (you might want to stand on a chair)

8. Repeat step 7 for 3 times

9. Go back to step 6 until you ﬁnished step 8 with 500g of

weight attached.

Step 6

Safety

Beware of Falling off the chair

Step 2
Step 7
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2&*#3\$4'56.+/7'
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Results

Table

 Landing Time 1st Trial 2nd Trial 3rd Trial Average 100g 1.37 1.38 1.47 1.40666667 200g 1.24 1.18 1.15 1.19 300g 0.94 0.94 1.00 0.96 400g 0.84 0.78 0.81 0.81 500g 0.62 0.78 0.81 0.73666667

Graph

The Relationship between the weight attached to the parachute and the landing time

1.5

1.2
0.9
0.6
Landing Time (s)

0.3

0

0

1

2

3

4

5

Weight Attached (100g)

Use the result data to describe the results. What was the relationship between the independent variable and dependent variable? (positive, negative, or no relationship) Compare the result data. Explain the results by using the theory within the hypothesis.

The results matched with my prediction. The relationship between the weight attached to the parachute and the landing has a negative relationship with each other. I think that my results ﬁtted my predication, because of my calculations in the hypothesis. The greater the mass is , the quicker the acceleration, which applies to this case. As the weight increases, the acceleration increases, therefore the landing time is shortened.

Conclusions

The results matched my original prediction very well and is very consistent with my prediction. The results collected from different trials matched each other quite well. To summarize, the greater the weight attached to the parachute is, the shorter the landing time.

Evaluation

In general, I would consider my experiment as pretty successful. But there were some limitation, preventing me from collecting more precise datas.

Possible sources of error:

•Cannot record a more precise landing time since it’s timed by human •The Strings tangled up after some trials •The dropping point isn’t exactly 2m

Limitations:

•For some reasons, I cannot drop the parachute from a higher height •Human do not have perfect accuracy for timing •The place where I dropped the parachute isn’t exactly the same since it is done by human

How to reduce possible errors:

•Record each trial, and ﬁnd out the landing time in slow motion •Untangled the strings for each trial (if possible) •Do 2 more trials

If I had time, I would do research and experiment about the relationship between:

•Parachute size and landing time •Shape of Parachute and landing time •length of the strings attached to the parachute and landing time

Source: