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Mark Scheme Summer 2009

GCE

GCE Biology (8040/9040 & 8042/9042)

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Summer 2009
Publications Code UA021146
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ii 0906
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Contents

General Introduction iv
Unit Codes and Unit Titles v
General Information vi

Mark Schemes

Unit 1 6101 Molecules and cells 1

Unit 2B 6102 Exchange, transport and reproduction 12


Unit 2H 6112 Exchange, transport and reproduction in humans 21

Unit 3 6103/02* Written alternative to coursework* 31


6103/03 Energy and the environment 35

Unit 4 Core material Respiration and coordination 40


Option A Microbiology and biotechnology 47
Option B Food science 52
Option C Human health and fitness 58

Unit 5B 6105 Genetics, evolution and biodiversity 63


Unit 5H 6115 Genetics, human evolution and biodiversity 75

Unit 6 6106/02 Written alternative to coursework 86


6106/03 Synoptic Paper 92

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GENERAL INTRODUCTION
Mark schemes are prepared by the Principal Examiners and revised, together with the relevant
questions, by a panel of senior examiners and subject teachers. The schemes are further
amended at the Standardisation meetings attended by all examiners. The Standardisation
meeting ensures as far as possible that the mark scheme covers the candidates' actual
responses to questions and that every examiner understands and applies it in the same way.

The schemes in this document are the final mark schemes used by the examiners in this
examination and include the amendments made at the meeting. They do not include any
details of the discussions that took place in the meeting, nor do they include all of the possible
alternative answers or equivalent statements that were considered to be worthy of credit.

It is emphasised that these mark schemes are working documents that apply to these papers in
this examination. Every effort is made to ensure a consistent approach to marking from one
examination to another but each marking point has to be judged in the context of the
candidates' responses and in relation to the other questions in the paper. It should not be
assumed that future mark schemes will adopt exactly the same marking points as this one.

Edexcel cannot under any circumstances discuss or comment informally on the marking of
individual scripts. Any enquiries about the marks awarded to individual candidates can be
dealt with only through the official Enquiry about Results procedure.

iv 0906
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Unit Codes and Unit Titles
These Mark Schemes cover the units offered in this examination for Advanced
Subsidiary Biology and Biology (Human) (8040 and 8042) and Advanced Biology and
Biology (Human) (9040 and 9042). The units available in this examination series for the
complete qualifications are listed in the table below.

Level Unit Biology Biology (Human)

AS 1 6101 Molecules and cells 6101

Exchange, transport and Exchange, transport and


2 6102 6112
reproduction reproduction in humans

3 6103 Energy and the environment and Practical Assessment 6103

A2 4 6104 Respiration and coordination and Options 6104

Genetics, evolution and Genetics, human evolution


5 6105 6115
biodiversity and biodiversity

6 6106 Synoptic and Practical Assessment 6106

Cashing in
The following tables show the units that must be taken in order to obtain an award for AS or
Advanced GCE Biology, or for AS or Advanced GCE Biology (Human).

Advanced Subsidiary

Level Unit 8040 Biology 8042 Biology (Human)


AS 1 6101* 6101*
2 6102* 6112*
3 6103* 6103*

Advanced GCE

Level Unit 9040 Biology 9042 Biology (Human)


AS 1 6101* 6101*
2 6102* 6112*
3 6103* 6103*
A2 4 6104# 6104#
5 6105# 6115#
6 6106# 6106#

* No longer available – final resit opportunity was June 2009


#
Available for final time in January 2010.

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GENERAL INFORMATION
The following symbols are used in the mark schemes for all questions:

Symbol Meaning of symbol


; semi colon Indicates the end of a marking point
Indicates that credit should be given for other correct
eq alternatives to a word or statement, as discussed in the
Standardisation meeting
Words or phrases separated by an oblique are alternatives
/ oblique
to each other
Indicate the beginning and end of a list of alternatives
{} curly brackets (separated by obliques) where necessary to avoid
confusion
Words inside round brackets are to aid understanding of
() round brackets
the marking point but are not required to award the point
Words inside square brackets are instructions or guidance
[] square brackets
for examiners
[CE] or [TE] Consecutive error / transferred error

Crossed out work

If a candidate has crossed out an answer and written new text, the crossed out work can be
ignored. If the candidate has crossed out work but written no new text, the crossed out work for
that question or part question should be marked, as far as it is possible to do so.

Spelling and clarity

In general, an error made in an early part of a question is penalised when it occurs but
not subsequently. The candidate is penalised once only and can gain credit in later
parts of the question by correct reasoning from the earlier incorrect answer.

No marks are awarded specifically for quality of language in the written papers, except
for the essays in the synoptic paper. Use of English is however taken into account as
follows:

• the spelling of technical terms must be sufficiently correct for the answer to be
unambiguous
e.g. for amylase, ‘ammalase’ is acceptable whereas ‘amylose’ is not
e.g. for glycogen, ‘glicojen’ is acceptable whereas ‘glucagen’ is not
e.g. for ileum, ‘illeum’ is acceptable whereas ‘ilium’ is not
e.g. for mitosis, ‘mytosis’ is acceptable whereas ‘meitosis’ is not

• candidates must make their meaning clear to the examiner to gain the mark.

• a correct statement that is contradicted by an incorrect statement in the same part


of an answer gains no mark – irrelevant material should be ignored.

vi 0906
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Unit 1 (6101 /01) - Molecules and cells

Question Answer Mark


Number

1 Feature Prokaryotic Eukaryotic


cell cell
nuclear envelope x 9

cell surface 9 9
membrane
mitochondria x 9

Golgi apparatus x 9

one mark for every two correct responses ;;;; (4)

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Question Answer Mark
Number

2 1. Benedict’s / Fehling’s ;

2. orange / red / brown / yellow / green ;

3. acid / named acid ;

4. alkali / named alkali ;

5. iodine (in KI) ; (5)

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Question Answer Mark
Number

3(a) 1. one glycerol, two fatty acids and one


phosphate group drawn ;

2. fatty acid(s) joining to glycerol with ester bond


/ ester bond joining fatty acid(s) to glycerol ;

3. one phosphate group joined to glycerol with


ester bond ; (3)

Question Answer Mark


Number

3(b) {soluble / can dissolve} in water / eq ; (1)

Question Answer Mark


Number

3(c) 1. form a (phospholipid) bilayer / eq ;

2. {phosphate / hydrophilic region} {interacts /


eq} with {aqueous environment / surroundings
/ cytoplasm} ;

3. {fatty acids / hydrophobic region } {restricts /


eq} movement of {charged / polar / water
soluble molecules} {into cell / out of cell / max
eq} ; (2)

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Question Answer Mark
Number

4(a) A = starch grain ;

B = granum ; (2)

Question Answer Mark


Number

4(b) 1. correct measurement between X and Y ;


(from 99 to 104 mm)

2. correct division by 5 ;

3. correct magnification e.g. 19800 to 20800 ; (3)

Question Answer Mark


Number

4(c) palisade / guard / spongy / mesophyll ; (1)

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Question Answer Mark
Number

5(a)(i) 1. {root tip / shoot tip / meristematic tissue} /


eq ;

2. dividing cells are present / eq ; (2)

Question Answer Mark


Number

5(a)(ii) {acetic / acid} orcein / Feulgen’s / acetocarmine /


Schiff’s reagent / lactoproprionic acid / toluidine blue
/ eq ; (1)

Question Answer Mark


Number

5(a)(iii) idea of getting {a single layer / eq} of cells ; (1)

Question Answer Mark


Number

5(b)(i) BDAC; (1)

Question Answer Mark


Number

5(b)(ii) A = anaphase ;

C = telophase ; (2)

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Question Answer Mark
Number

6(a) 1. reference to kinetic energy of molecules /eq ;

2. idea that molecules are moving randomly /


eq ;

3. idea that overall movement of molecules is max


down the concentration gradient ; (2)

Question Answer Mark


Number

6(b) 1. (at beginning) there is a concentration gradient


/eq ;

2. as concentration of A decreases on outside, it


increases on inside / eq ;

3. substance A moves from outside to inside ;

4. as concentration {gradient / difference} gets


smaller, rate of change decreases ;

5. {no change in concentration / eq} when equal max


on both sides / it reaches equilibrium ; (3)

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Question Answer Mark
Number

6(c)(i) 1. active transport requires {energy / ATP} ;

2. active transport can move molecules against a


concentration gradient ;
max
3. active transport requires a protein (pump) ; (2)

Question Answer Mark


Number

6(c)(ii) 1. rate of change would be (almost) {linear /


constant / eq} ;

2. (changes) would occur faster /eq ;

3. idea that (overall) movement of molecules


would not stop when concentrations equal e.g.
equilibrium would not be reached,
concentration inside would be greater than max
outside ; (2)

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Question Answer Mark
Number

7(a)(i) C A G U C A C G C ;; (2)

Question Answer Mark


Number

7(a)(ii) gln, ser, arg ; (1)

Question Answer Mark


Number

7(a)(iii) 1. 21 (amino acids) ;

2. correct multiplication by 3 (to give 63) ; (2)

Question Answer Mark


Number

7(b)(i) 1. contains {protein / enzymes} ;

2. and (r)RNA ;

3. reference to two subunits ;

4. reference to appropriate binding sites e.g. for max


mRNA ; (2)

8 0906
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Question Answer Mark
Number

7(b)(ii) 1. ribosome {attaches/eq} to mRNA ;

2. two tRNA molecules (held in ribosome) /eq ;

3. (each) carrying a {specific/eq} amino acid /


eq ;

4. reference to anticodons on tRNA /eq ;

5. reference to complementary {bases / codon}


on mRNA /eq ;

6. peptide bonds form between amino acids /eq ;

7. ribosome moves along mRNA /eq ;


max
8. correct reference to {start / stop} codons ; (5)

9 0906
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Question Answer Mark
Number

8(a)(i) 1. {protein / substrate} and enzyme {collide /


bind} / reference to enzymes-substrate
complex being formed/ eq ;

2. peptide bonds {broken / eq} ;

3. {reference to / description of} hydrolysis ;

4. reference to formation of {smaller peptide max


chains / amino acids} ; (3)

Question Answer Mark


Number

8(a)(ii) idea that {smaller peptides / amino acids} dissolve


whereas protein did not / eq ; (1)

Question Answer Mark


Number

8(b)(i) 1. activity increases between pH 5 and 8 / eq ;

2. most active at pH 8 / eq ;

3. activity drops between pH 8 and 10 ;


max
4. correct manipulation of figures ; (2)

Question Answer Mark


Number

8(b)(ii) 1. pH is determined by {H+ concentration / eq} ;

2. reference to ionisation of {R groups / side


chains} ;

3. reference to {bonds / appropriate named


bond} {breaking / eq} ;

4. reference to change in shape of active site ;

5. {substrate / protein} cannot bind to active site max


/ eq ; (3)

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Question Answer Mark
Number

8(c) 1. to keep the temperature (of the reaction)


constant ;

2. reference to {(45 °C) optimum temperature of


trypsin / fastest rate} ;

3. reference to a change in the temperature


changes the rate of reaction e.g. idea that
change in temperature {changes the kinetic
energy of the molecules / changes the {number max
/ energy / frequency} of the collisions}; (2)

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Unit 2B (6102/01) - Exchange, transport and reproduction

Question Answer Mark


Number

1 1. Graafian / ovarian ;

2. luteinising hormone / LH ;

3. corpus luteum / yellow body ;

4. endometrium / lining of the uterus ; (4)

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Question Answer Mark
Number

2(a) A sinoatrial node / sinuatrial node / SAN /


pacemaker ;

B atrioventricular node / AVN ;

C Purkyne fibres / Purkyne tissue / bundle of His ; (3)

Question Answer Mark


Number

2(b) 1. reference to more muscle ;

2. increased force of contraction / increased


pressure / eq ;

3. left ventricle pumps blood round the whole max


body / eq ; (2)

Question Answer Mark


Number

2(c) 1. {oxygen / blood} supply to the heart muscle /


eq ;

2. consists of coronary artery / coronary arteries ;

3. capillaries / cardiac {vein / veins} / coronary max


sinus ; (2)

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Question Answer Mark
Number

3(a) 1. {single layer of epithelium / simple epithelium


/ thin epithelium} to reduce diffusion distance
/ eq ;

2. (presence of) microvilli to increase surface


area ;

3. (presence of) capillaries to transport absorbed


products / maintain {diffusion / concentration}
gradients ;

4. {lacteal / eq} for absorption of fats / eq ;


max
5. reference to carrier proteins explained ; (3)

Question Answer Mark


Number

3(b)(i) 1. {greater / faster / more steady / eq} uptake


when sodium ions are present ;

2. comparative, manipulated data comment – e.g.


‘total uptake is 23 times higher in the presence
of sodium ions’ or ‘684 µmol more taken up in
presence of sodium ions’ ; (2)

Question Answer Mark


Number

3(b)(ii) 1. reference to sodium-glucose cotransport / eq ;

2. membrane contains transporter proteins (for


glucose and sodium) / eq ;

3. without sodium, uptake is by (facilitated) max


diffusion only / eq ; (2)

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Question Answer Mark
Number

4(a) 1. diaphragm contracts / eq ;

2. (and) moves downwards / flattens ;

3. external intercostal muscles contract ;

4. (and) raise the rib cage / pull ribs upwards /


pull ribs outwards ;

5. reference to increase in volume of the thorax / max


decrease in pressure ; (4)

Question Answer Mark


Number

4(b) 1. consists of {flattened epithelial cells /


squamous epithelium / type I pneumocytes} /
thin epithelium / thin wall ;

2. type II pneumocytes / surfactant-secreting


cells / eq ;

3. (alveolus is) surrounded with {connective tissue


/ collagen / elastic fibres} ;

4. (alveolus is) surrounded with capillaries / eq ;

5. credit correct reference to presence of


macrophages / eq ;
max
6. reference to presence of basement membrane; (3)

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Question Answer Mark
Number

4(c)(i) 1. as concentration of carbon dioxide increases,


pulmonary ventilation increases / eq ;

2. reference to less change from 0% to 3% /


greater change from 4% to 6% ;

3. credit manipulated, quantitative comment,


e.g. overall increase in pulmonary ventilation max
of 26 dm3 min-1 ; (2)

Question Answer Mark


Number

4(c)(ii) {carbon dioxide / reduced pH / increased acidity}


stimulates the respiratory centre / eq ; (1)

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Question Answer Mark
Number

5(a) Mark as paired points i.e. adaptation ; function ;

1. presence of {haemoglobin / respiratory


pigment} ;

2. with a high affinity for oxygen ;

3. presence of breathing tube / eq ;

4. to obtain oxygen from the air ;

5. presence of gills ;
max
6. to increase surface area (for gas exchange) ; (4)

Question Answer Mark


Number

5(b) 1. flattened body / streamlined shape / eq ;

2. to reduce resistance to water / eq ;

3. presence of hooks / claws / eq ;

4. to hold on to substrate / eq ; (4)

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Question Answer Mark
Number

6(a) 1. vessels / vessel elements ;

2. tracheids ;

3. presence of pits ;

4. fibres / sclerenchyma ;

5. lignified / eq ;
max
6. parenchyma / packing tissue ; (3)

Question Answer Mark


Number

6(b)(i) 1. stomata open ;

2. increase in {light intensity / temperature /


wind speed} / decrease in humidity ;
max
3. (therefore) transpiration rate increases ; (2)

Question Answer Mark


Number

6(b)(ii) 1. stomata close ;

2. decrease in {light intensity / temperature /


wind speed} / increase in humidity ;
max
3. (therefore) transpiration rate decreases ; (2)

18 0906
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Question Answer Mark
Number

7(a) Pollination
1. {transfer / eq} of pollen (grains) ;

2. (from an anther) to a stigma / eq ;

Protandry
3. stamen ripens / anthers mature / pollen
released / eq ;

4. before carpels (mature) / eq ; (4)

Question Answer Mark


Number

7(b)(i) 1. 90 – 45 or 45 ;

2. ÷ 6 ;

3. = 7.5 ; (3)

Question Answer Mark


Number

7(b)(ii) 1. (with boron) pollen tubes grow faster / longer


/ eq ;

2. (with boron) keep growing / no levelling off


AND (without boron) stops growing / levels off
/ eq ;

3. manipulated quantitative comparison, e.g. at


the end of experiment, pollen tubes are 3 max
times longer ; (2)

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Question Answer Mark
Number

8(a)
Description Name of leucocyte

neutrophil /polymorph ;

monocyte ;

eosinophil / acidophil ;
(3)

Question Answer Mark


Number

8(b)(i) 1. reference to decrease in the affinity of


haemoglobin for oxygen ;

2. haemoglobin releases oxygen / eq ;

3. {at the same / at a given} partial pressure of


oxygen / eq ;

4. idea that this makes oxygen available to max


{cells / tissues / organs} ; (3)

Question Answer Mark


Number

8(b)(ii) 1. curve shifts to the right ;

2. oxygen released more readily / more oxygen


released / eq / idea that temperature
increases in active tissues ; (2)

20 0906
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Unit 2H (6112/01) - Exchange, transport and reproduction in humans

Question Answer Mark


Number

1 1. Graafian / ovarian ;

2. luteinising hormone / LH ;

3. corpus luteum / yellow body ;

4. endometrium / lining of the uterus ; (4)

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Question Answer Mark
Number

2(a) A sinoatrial node / sinuatrial node / SAN /


pacemaker ;

B atrioventricular node / AVN ;

C Purkyne fibres / Purkyne tissue / bundle of His ; (3)

Question Answer Mark


Number

2(b) 1. reference to more muscle ;

2. increased force of contraction / increased


pressure / eq ;

3. left ventricle pumps blood round the whole max


body / eq ; (2)

Question Answer Mark


Number

2(c) 1. {oxygen / blood} supply to the heart muscle /


eq ;

2. consists of coronary artery / coronary arteries ;

3. capillaries / cardiac {vein / veins} / coronary max


sinus ; (2)

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Question Answer Mark
Number

3(a) 1. {single layer of epithelium / simple epithelium


/ thin epithelium} to reduce diffusion distance
/ eq ;

2. (presence of) microvilli, to increase surface


area ;

3. (presence of) capillaries, to transport absorbed


products / maintain {diffusion / concentration}
gradients ;

4. {lacteal / eq} for absorption of fats / eq ;


max
5. reference to carrier proteins explained ; (3)

Question Answer Mark


Number

3(b)(i) 1. {greater / faster / more steady / eq} uptake


when sodium ions are present ;

2. comparative, manipulated data comment – e.g.


‘total uptake is 23 times higher in the presence
of sodium ions’ or ‘684 µmol more taken up in
presence of sodium ions ; (2)

Question Answer Mark


Number

3(b)(ii) 1. reference to sodium-glucose cotransport / eq ;

2. membrane contains transporter proteins (for


glucose and sodium) / eq ;

3. without sodium, uptake is by (facilitated) max


diffusion only / eq ; (2)

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Question Answer Mark
Number

4(a) 1. diaphragm contracts / eq ;

2. (and) moves downwards / flattens ;

3. external intercostal muscles contract ;

4. (and) raise the rib cage / pull ribs upwards /


pull ribs outwards ;

5. reference to increase in volume of the thorax / max


decrease in pressure ; (4)

Question Answer Mark


Number

4(b) 1. consists of {flattened epithelial cells /


squamous epithelium / type I pneumocytes} /
thin epithelium / thin wall ;

2. type II pneumocytes / surfactant-secreting


cells / eq ;

3. (alveolus is) surrounded with {connective tissue


/ collagen / elastic fibres} ;

4. (alveolus is) surrounded with capillaries / eq ;

5. credit correct reference to presence of


macrophages / eq ;
max
6. reference to presence of basement membrane; (3)

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Question Answer Mark
Number

4(c)(i) 1. as concentration of carbon dioxide increases,


pulmonary ventilation increases / eq ;

2. reference to less change from 0% to 3% /


greater change from 4% to 6% ;

3. credit manipulated, quantitative comment,


e.g. overall increase in pulmonary ventilation max
of 26 dm3 min-1 ; (2)

Question Answer Mark


Number

4(c)(ii) {carbon dioxide / reduced pH / increased acidity}


stimulates the respiratory centre / eq ; (1)

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Question Answer Mark
Number

5(a) 1. reference to damage to cartilage ;

2. reference to change in bone ;

3. in joints / knees / hips / spine / hands / feet ;

4. causes swelling / pain / reduced movements max


(in joints) ; (3)

Question Answer Mark


Number

5(b) 1. in postmenopausal women / eq ;

2. {tablets / skin patches / eq} contain oestrogen


(and progesterone) ;

3. reference to use in preventing bone loss /


reducing the risk of fractures ;
max
4. due to loss of calcium / eq ; (3)

26 0906
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Question Answer Mark
Number

6(a) Any two from:

1. air pressure ;

2. partial pressure of oxygen / pO2 ;

3. temperature ;
max
4. humidity ; (2)

Question Answer Mark


Number

6(b)(i) 1. reference to increase in birth weight as


atmospheric pressure increases ;

2. more effect 60 to 80 kPa / little difference 80


to 100 kPa / levels out 80 or 87 or 93 to 100
kPa ;

3. credit manipulated quantitative comment e.g.


overall increase of 0.31 kg ; (3)

Question Answer Mark


Number

6(b)(ii) 1. suggest that birth weight decreases as altitude


increases ;

2. reference to greater effect at high altitude /


less effect at low altitude / eq ; (2)

Question Answer Mark


Number

6(b)(iii) lower pO2 at high altitude / reference to


{hypoxia / eq }/ babies develop more slowly ; (1)

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Question Answer Mark
Number

6(b)(iv) Any two from:

1. age of mother ;

2. nutrition / diet ;

3. genetic factors / eq ;

4. smoking ;
max
5. alcohol intake ; (2)

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Question Answer Mark
Number

7(a) 1. sweat glands {secrete / eq} sweat ;

2. water in sweat evaporates / eq ;

3. evaporation has a cooling effect / eq ;

4. reference to latent heat ;

5. reference to change in rate of sweating in max


relation to changes in body temperature ; (3)

Question Answer Mark


Number

7(b)(i) 1. calculation ;

2. 36.8 ; (2)

Question Answer Mark


Number

7(b)(ii) 1. temperature higher (in the afternoon) ;

2. {exercise / activity} increases {metabolic rate


/ metabolism} ;

3. (which) generates heat / eq ; (3)

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Question Answer Mark
Number

8(a)
Description Name of leucocyte

neutrophil / polymorph ;

monocyte ;

eosinophil ;
(3)

Question Answer Mark


Number

8(b)(i) 1. reference to decrease in the affinity of


haemoglobin for oxygen ;

2. oxygen released more readily / more oxygen


released / eq ;

3. {at the same / at a given} partial pressure of


oxygen / eq ;

4. idea that this makes oxygen available to max


(respiring) tissues ; (3)

Question Answer Mark


Number

8(b)(ii) 1. curve shifts to the right ;

2. oxygen released more readily / more oxygen


released / eq / idea that temperature max
increases in active tissues ; (2)

30 0906
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Unit 3 (6103/02) - Written Alternative to Coursework
(International candidates ONLY)

Question Answer Mark


Number

1(a) Snail density Mortality %


snails per 625 Juvenile Adult
cm2
10 10.0 15.0
20 0 37.5
35 8.6 48.6
50 7.0 58.0

neat table correctly formatted ;

correct rows and columns with labels and units ;

adult percentages correct ;

juvenile percentages correct ; (4)

Question Answer Mark


Number

1(b) A axes correctly orientated & labelled scale correct ;

F line graph format ;

P all points correctly plotted ;

L accurately drawn line passing through all points ; (4)

31 0906
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Question Answer Mark
Number

1(c) 1. adult mortality increases with population


density eq ;

2. juvenile mortality not affected by population


density ;

3. reference to large difference (51%) at highest


density / suitable manipulation of figures ;

4. all juveniles at 20 snails per 625 cm2 survive / max


eq ; (3)

Question Answer Mark


Number

1(d) 1. dead snails in cage may affect live snails ;

2. difficult to control environmental factors for


each cage ;

3. some adult snails may die off naturally / may


have only short life span / may give birth /
eq ;

4. difficult to {define ‘juvenile’ / determine age


of} snails ;

5. reference to effect on percentage mortality in


low density (death of one snail causes large max
change in percentage) ; (3)

32 0906
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Question Answer Mark
Number
2(a)
1. control of growth medium - any TWO of same
soil/compost, same volume, same containers,
seed sown at same density / eq ;

2. TWO named abiotic factors standardised for


growth e.g. light, temperature, water ;

3. standard sampling e.g. same mass / volume / use


of cork borer ;

4. sampling at intervals of growth ;

5. {grind / homogenise / blend / eq} sample ;

6. filter extract ;

7. add {stated / same} volume of sucrase / add fixed


volume of dilute HCl ;

8. incubate at fixed temperature (max 50 °C) {for


fixed time / until equilibrated} / boil then
neutralise ;

9. add {stated /same} volume of Benedict’s solution


/use of test strip e.g. Diabur ;

10. reference to Benedict’s solution in excess / allow


time for test strip colour to develop / eq ;

11. boil / heat above 60 °C for fixed time ;

12. filter dry and weigh precipitate / use of


colorimeter / compare with colour chart ;
max
13. repeat at least 3 times in total ; (9)

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Question Answer Mark
Number

2(b) 1. suitable table with raw data and units to


match method plan ;

2. reference to rate of production ;

3. line graph format / alternative matching plan ;


max
4. correct orientation and labelling of axes ; (3)

Question Answer Mark


Number

2(c) Limitations

1. different regions of the root might contain


different concentrations of sucrose ;

2. presence of other reducing sugars in {either /


both} varieties ;

3. mass of precipitate very small / precipitate


can give inaccurate colorimeter readings / test
strip colours difficult to match to standard ;

4. difficult to ensure that all sucrose is {broken


down by sucrase / hydrolysed by HCl / eq} ;

Further work

5. conduct field trials of both varieties / test


both varieties in different climatic conditions ;

6. extract sucrose in normal way and check actual


mass / measure sugar content at maturity / eq
(if not in method);

7. more detailed analysis for other sugars max


present ; (6)

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Unit 3 (6103/03) - Energy and the environment

Question Answer Mark


Number

1(a)(i) suitable named ruminant e.g. cow / sheep / deer /


moose ; (1)

Question Answer Mark


Number

1(a)(ii) 1. reference to microorganisms / bacteria / eq ;

2. reference to cellulase / cellulose-digesting


enzyme / eq ;

3. into {sugars / monosaccharides / glucose /


fatty acids / eq} ;
max
4. that can be absorbed / are soluble / eq ; (3)

Question Answer Mark


Number

1(b)(i) cross in box under tooth A ; (1)

Question Answer Mark


Number

1(b)(ii) 1. {side-to-side / rotational / circular / eq}


movement of jaw ;

2. sharp ridges on tooth ;

3. idea of interlocking of upper and lower molar


teeth ;

4. reference to {grinding / eq} ;

5. {increase surface area / release cell contents /


break cell walls} for {digestion / enzyme max
action} ; (3)

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Question Answer Mark
Number

2(a)(i) ((295 - 55) ÷ 295) x 100 ;

81.4 ; (2)

Question Answer Mark


Number

2(a)(ii) 1. A, B and C more-or-less same / eq ;

2. D (significantly) less efficient than A, B & C /


eq ;

3. any other valid comparison ;


max
4. manipulated data to support any comparison ; (3)

Question Answer Mark


Number

2(b)(i) 1. nitrification is oxidation, denitrification is


reduction ;

2. nitrification requires {oxygen / aerobic


conditions}, denitrification requires anaerobic
conditions / removal of ammonium must take
place in aerobic conditions, removal of nitrate
in anaerobic conditions ; (2)

Question Answer Mark


Number

2(b)(ii) 1. ammonium ;

2. ammonium is {oxidised / converted / nitrified}


to nitrites ;

3. to nitrates ;

4. nitrates then need to be removed (by max


denitrification) ; (3)

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Question Answer Mark
Number

2(c)(i) the {enrichment / increase / eq} of {nutrients /


minerals / eq} ; (1)

Question Answer Mark


Number

2(c)(ii) 1. increased {algae / plant} growth / reference to


algal bloom ;

2. {algae / plants} die ;

3. reference to increased {decomposition / eq} by


aerobic {bacteria / fungi / eq} ;

4. uses up oxygen (in water) / BOD increases ;

5. fish suffocate / eq ;

6. reference to toxins (from algae) killing fish ;


max
7. reference to lack of food for fish ; (4)

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Question Answer Mark
Number

3(a)(i) 87 528 – 50 304 OR 22 953 + 14 271 ;

37 224 ; (2)

Question Answer Mark


Number

3(a)(ii) 1. biomass can vary {seasonally / eq} ;

2. idea of fluctuations in different trophic levels


may not coincide / eq ;

3. energy flow {takes account of time / cancels


out fluctuations} / biomass only at one time /
eq ;

4. reference to variable content of {biomass / max


organic} material ; (2)

Question Answer Mark


Number

3(b) 1. reference to {biomass / organisms / bodies /


eq} washed away (as stream flows) ;

2. reference to decay / eq ;
max
3. excretion ; (2)

Question Answer Mark


Number

3(c)(i) 1. nitrate decreased, ammonium and phosphate


increased ;

2. phosphate increased more than ammonium ;

3. nitrate decrease much larger than increase in


other two ions ;

4. suitable manipulation of data to support a max


comparison ; (3)

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Question Answer Mark
Number

3(c)(ii) 1. numbers of primary consumers {increase /


decrease} if producers {increase / decrease} ;

2. tertiary consumers {depend / feed} on


secondary consumers which {depend / feed} on
primary consumers ; (2)

Question Answer Mark


Number

3(d) 1. (increase in) {grazing animals / cattle} may


lead to {overgrazing / increased trampling} ;

2. {overgrazing / trampling} removes {plant


cover / eq} ;

3. deforestation removes protective canopy /


eq ;

4. reference to {plant / tree} roots {bind /


stabilise} soil ;

5. soil exposed to {heat / rain / wind} ;

6. (therefore) soil {dries out / washes away /


blows away} ;

7. reference to changes in local weather


pattern (due to plant loss) ;
max
8. reference to salinisation caused by increased (4)
evaporation from surface of exposed soil ;

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Unit 4 (6104/Core) - Respiration and coordination

Question Answer Mark


Number

1(a) outer segment labelled R / rhodopsin ; (1)

Question Answer Mark


Number

1(b) 1. rhodopsin is {bleached / broken down / split /


eq} (in bright light) ;

2. (re-)synthesized / eq in {dark / dim / eq} ;

3. this takes time / eq ;


max
4. reference to dark adaptation ; (3)

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Question Answer Mark
Number

2(a)(i) sensory / afferent / pseudo-unipolar (neurone ) ; (1)

Question Answer Mark


Number

2(a)(ii) 1. {receive / eq} the {impulse / stimulus / eq }


from {receptor /sense} {organ / cell} ;

2. {pass impulse to / eq} {CNS / brain / spinal


cord / {relay / effector /eq} neurone} ; (2)

Question Answer Mark


Number

2(a)(iii) arrow drawn points upwards from dendrite to synaptic


knob ; (1)

Question Answer Mark


Number

2(b) 1. depolarisation of (neurone) membrane ;

2. {rapid / brief / sudden / temporary} /


reference to changes from negative to
positive (on the inside) ;

3. caused by {inflow / eq} of sodium ions / max


increased permeability to Na+ ; (2)

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Question Answer Mark
Number

3(a)(i) B matrix ;

C crista / inner membrane ; (2)

Question Answer Mark


Number

3(a)(ii) C; (1)

Question Answer Mark


Number

3(b)(i) 1. reference to reaction components used up /


not available, e.g. glucose, ADP, phosphate ;

2. no source of {electrons / hydrogen} to {react


with / eq} oxygen / eq ;

3. yeast switch to anaerobic respiration / aerobic


respiration stops / eq ;

4. this is because oxygen levels are too low / eq ;

5. idea of oxygen dissolving into solution from the


air / oxygen levels (in suspension) are max
maintained / eq ; (2)

Question Answer Mark


Number

3(b)(ii) 1. (antimycin A) prevents {electrons / H+}


{reaching oxygen / pass along chain} / eq} ;

2. oxygen is not reduced / does not form water


/ does not act as (final) electron acceptor / (2)
eq ;

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Question Answer Mark
Number

3(b)(iii) 1. ATP production {decreases / slows down} /


eq ;

Then any two from:

2. idea of electron transport chain is where


{most / eq} ATP produced ;

3. {oxidative phosphorylation / eq} {stops /


eq} ;

4. Krebs cycle {stops / eq} ;

5. idea that {NADH / eq} cannot be reoxidised ;

6. reference to {yeast switches to anaerobic max


respiration / ATP produced in glycolysis} ; (3)

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Question Answer Mark
Number

4(a)(i) 1. increase in age, slower rate / eq ;

2. credit quantitative manipulation of figures


e.g at age 30 there is a decrease of 2.7 mmol
dm-3 / at age 80 the decrease is 0.6 mmol
dm-3 ;

3. credit quantitative comparison of two ages


e.g. 80 is 4½ times lower than 30 / rate at 30 max
is 2.7 mmol dm-3 but at 80 it is much slower (3)
at 0.6 mmol dm-3 ;

Question Answer Mark


Number

4(a)(ii) change in activity in {pancreas / liver} {change /


decrease} in amount of insulin, change in {sensitivity /
uptake} by body cells ; (1)

Question Answer Mark


Number

4(b)(i) 1. correct readings from graph (8.8 and 4.8) ;

2. correct subtraction (4.0) and x 100 ;

3. correct division (÷ 4.8) to give 83(.3) ; (3)

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Question Answer Mark
Number

4(b)(ii) 1. stimulates the conversion of {glycogen to


glucose / glycogenolysis} / eq ;

2. reference to activation of enzymes ;

3. stimulates uptake of amino acids (into cells) /


eq ;

4. (amino acids / fatty acids) are converted into


glucose / gluconeogenesis / eq ;

5. glucose released into {blood / hepatic vein /


eq} ;
max
6. (glucagon) inhibits insulin production / eq ; (3)

Question Answer Mark


Number

4(b)(iii) any appropriate named hormone e.g. adrenaline ; (1)

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Question Answer Mark
Number

5(a) 1. {active transport / eq} of {Na+ / Cl-} out of


ascending limb ;

2. correct reference to {water potential / eq}


(in medulla) ;

3. water passes out of {collecting duct /


descending limb} (into blood / vasa recta /
medulla) / eq ;

4. correct reference to osmosis ;

5. reference to counter-current mechanism ;

6. the longer the loop the greater the effect /


eq ;

7. reference to ascending limb being max


impermeable to water ; (5)

Question Answer Mark


Number

5(b) 1. reference to reduces dehydration ;

2. (ADH) increases permeability {of collecting


duct / distal convoluted tubule} to water ;

3. reference to {aquaporins / water channels /


eq} ;

4. more water {reabsorbed / absorbed into the


blood} ;

5. correct reference to osmosis ;

6. idea that a more concentrated solution is max


produced ; (4)

46 0906
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Unit 4A (6104/01) - Microbiology and biotechnology

Question Answer Mark


Number

6 Appearance Appearance
Stage of of Gram of Gram
Gram stain negative positive
bacteria bacteria

purple purple

purple purple

colourless purple

pink / red purple

any 2 correct boxes for 1 mark ;;;; (4)

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Question Answer Mark
Number

7(a) 1. reference to infection / bacteria entering


{cells / macrophases / tissues} ;

2. reference to tissue destruction ;


max
3. credit correct details of tuberculosis ; (2)

Question Answer Mark


Number

7(b)(i) 1. (overall) decrease in number of cases / eq ;

2. {sharp / fast / eq} decrease between 1980 and


{1984 to 1988} ;

3. idea of {fluctuation / smaller decrease}


between {1987 / 1988} and {2003 / 2004} ;
max
4. credit correct manipulation of figures ; (2)

Question Answer Mark


Number

7(b)(ii) 1. treatment is not improving / eq ;

2. bacteria are becoming resistant to antibiotics /


eq ;

3. idea that pulmonary TB does not account for max


{all / majority} of deaths ; (2)

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Question Answer Mark
Number

8(a)(i) 1. a drop in pH to {5.5 to 5.3} has no effect on


viscosity ;

2. drop in pH from {5.5 to 5.3} causes an increase


in viscosity / eq ; (2)

Question Answer Mark


Number

8(a)(ii) 1. reference to lactic acid {fermentation /


production} ;

2. by {bacteria / Lactobacilli} ;

3. (appropriate acid) causes drop in pH ;

4. (fall in pH) causes {coagulation / eq} of (milk) max


proteins / eq ; (3)

Question Answer Mark


Number

8(b) 1. reference to use of Penicillium ;

2. reference to {(fed) batch fermentation /


secondary metabolite / production at end of
growth phase} ;

3. reference to {nutrients / carbon source /


named carbon source / nitrogen source /
named nitrogen source} (at start) ;

4. reference to {maintaining temperature (25-


27°C) / use of water jacket} ;

5. reference to maintaining pH (6.8-7.7) ;

6. reference to aeration / eq ;

7. reference to addition of {growth factor /


phenylacetic acid} ;

8. reference to {extraction from / secretion} of max


penicillin into culture fluid ; (4)

49 0906
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Question Answer Mark
Number

9(a) reference to or description of {absorbance / (1)


transmission} ;

Question Answer Mark


Number

9(b) 1. 0.09 – 0.07 x 100(%) ;

2. divided by 0.07 = 28.57(%) ; (2)

Question Answer Mark


Number

9(c) 1. no change in turbidity from {0 – 1 / 3 – 4 / 9 –


10} cell numbers remain constant / eq ;

2. (0 – 1 hour) bacteria {acclimatises / synthesises


enzymes} / eq ;

3. (3 – 4 hours) synthesis different enzymes ;

4. (9 – 10 hours) nutrient {run out / eq} / toxin


built up / eq ;

5. turbidity increases from {1 – 3 / 4 – 9} cell


numbers are increasing ;

6. (1 -3 hours (first)) first nutrient metabolised ;

7. (4 – 9 hours) {second nutrient / carbon source} max


used ; (4)

50 0906
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Question Answer Mark
Number

9(d) 1. reference to serial dilution / description of


two steps ;

2. (0.1 – 1 cm3) bacterial suspension {onto /


into} solid agar ;

3. reference to plating technique / eq ;

4. range of dilutions plated / replicates used ;

5. count colonies and multiply by dilution factor


for cells/cm3 ;

6. reference to sampling at regular time


intervals ;

7. reference to agitation of culture ;


max
8. reference to aseptic technique ; (4)

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Unit 4B (6104/02) - Food science

Question Answer Mark


Number

6
Means of reducing
Method of preservation
food spoilage
prevents growth of
aerobic
microorganisms /
delays growth of
facultative anaerobes ;

decreases pH / increases
acidity / eq ;

prevents rancidity (of


lipids) / prevents
oxidation / reference
to reduction of free
radicals;

heat treatment / high


temperature (62 - 72ºC) ;
(4)

52 0906
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Question Answer Mark
Number

7(a) 1. energy needed (by an individual) for {essential


body processes / at rest / eq} ;

2. named example of body process e.g. pumping


of heart / ventilation / maintenance of body
temperature / chemical processes ; (2)

Question Answer Mark


Number

7(b)(i) 1. (energy expenditure of) males is greater than


that for females (for all activities) / eq ;

2. the greatest difference is during running and


swimming / eq ;

3. manipulation of figures to compare males and max


females (with units) ; (2)

Question Answer Mark


Number

7(b)(ii) 1. idea that males could be putting in more effort


than females ;

2. males were heavier than females / eq ;

3. males have faster metabolic rate ;


max
4. reference to activity not standardised / eq ; (2)

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Question Answer Mark
Number

8(a) 1. cholesterol increases the chances of developing


coronary heart disease / eq ;

2. HDL cholesterol decreases the chances of


developing coronary heart disease / eq ;
max
3. credit quantitative manipulated figures ; (2)

Question Answer Mark


Number

8(b) Maximum of two marks from either list

Cause an increase in coronary heart disease:


high levels of LDL ;
high levels of cholesterol ;
high levels of saturated fat ;
high levels of salt ;
excess energy intake ;

Cause a decrease in coronary heart disease:


HDL ;
NSPs / pectins / gums ;
antioxidants / vitamin C ; max
unsaturated fat ; (3)

54 0906
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Question Answer Mark
Number

8(c) 1. help to reduce incidence of cancer / eq ;

2. decreases transit time of stools / eq (in large


intestine) ;

3. idea of reduces contact time of carcinogens


with wall of intestine ;

4. reference to digestion (of NSP) by bacteria ;

5. producing metabolites that help to prevent


cells becoming cancerous / eq ;

6. reference to reducing {constipation / IBS /


diverticulitis} ;

7. softens stools / eq ;

8. idea of reducing pressure on walls of intestine ;

9. which would form tears / pouches (in max


diverticulitis) ; (4)

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Question Answer Mark
Number

9(a)(i) cabbage ;

salt / sodium chloride ; (2)

Question Answer Mark


Number

9(a)(ii) any 2 from:


Enterobacter (chloacae),
Leuconostoc (mesanteroides),
{Lactobacillus / eq} (plantarum),
{Lactobacillus / eq} (brevis)
lactic acid bacteria ;; (2)

Question Answer Mark


Number

9(b)(i) 1. correct subtraction ;

2. correct division to give answer of 1 ; (2)

Question Answer Mark


Number

9(b)(ii) 1. up to two days no change in pH ;

2. due to bacteria acclimatising / synthesising


enzymes ;

3. decrease in pH between {2 and 6 / 8 and 13}


days ;

4. due to bacteria producing (organic) acid;

5. increase in pH between {6 and 8 / 13 and 15}


days ;

6. due to bacterial {breakdown/ metabolism }of max


some of the acids produced ; (4)

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Question Answer Mark
Number

9(b)(iii) reference to lowest pH reached / to allow cabbage to


absorb acid / to allow changes to occur to the flavour
/ to allow gas production to stop before packaging /
eq ; (1)

57 0906
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Unit 4C (6104/03) - Human health and fitness

Question Answer Mark


Number

6
One location One function

synapse / terminal
bouton / synaptic cleft / initiate muscle
{neurotransmitter / eq}/ contraction / slows
motor end plate / down heartbeat / eq
neuromuscular junction

{phosphorisation of
(skeletal) muscle ADP / eq} / energy
store / eq

(mechanical) strength
bone / teeth
/ eq

muscle oxygen store / eq

any 2 correct boxes for 1 mark ;;;; (4)

58 0906
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Question Answer Mark
Number

7(a) 1. (individuals training have) higher energy


demands / carbohydrates provide {energy /
ATP} ;

2. reference to supplies carbohydrate to glucose ;

3. reference to conversion of glucose to


glycogen ;
max
4. reference to glycogen stores in muscle ; (2)

Question Answer Mark


Number

7(b)(i) 1. both decrease during exercise and increase


after exercise ;

2. (during exercise) {greater / faster} decrease in


glycogen in individual on high carbohydrate
diet / eq ;

3. (after exercise) {more glycogen replaced /


glycogen replaced faster} in individual on high
carbohydrate diet / eq ;
max
4. correct comparative manipulation of data ; (2)

Question Answer Mark


Number

7(b)(ii) 1. high carbohydrate reference to more glucose


(available) ;

2. high carbohydrate idea that {surplus / eq}


glucose remains from glycogen breakdown
during exercise ; (2)

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Question Answer Mark
Number

8(a)(i) 1. (during first two minutes / up to 5 minutes)


{both increase / rise in oxygen consumption as
increase in energy expenditure / eq} ;

2. (after this) {great / eq} decrease in energy


expenditure but oxygen consumption {rises a
little and falls / plateaus / changes very little
/ eq} ; (2)

Question Answer Mark


Number

8(a)(ii) 1. idea that during exercise oxygen demand of


muscles exceeds supply ;

2. reference to anaerobic respiration ;

3. produces lactic acid / eq ;

4. (lactic acid) results in muscle fatigue ;

5. oxygen needed to remove lactic acid / eq ;


max
6. oxidising it to carbon dioxide and water / eq ; (3)

Question Answer Mark


Number

8(b) 1. ATP is source of energy that can be used (by


muscles) directly / eq ;

2. (during muscle contraction) myosin binds to


actin / eq ;

3. myosin head {swivels / eq} to move actin /


eq ;

4. and this uses ATP ;

5. ATP needed to detach myosin (from actin) /


eq ;
max
6. so that process can continue / eq ; (4)

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Question Answer Mark
Number

9(a)(i) 1. (occupational) lung diseases / eq ;

2. (caused due to) inhalation of dust / eq ;

3. occurs over time / effects not seen for at least


10 years / eq ;

4. dust particles engulfed by macrophages / eq ;

5. formation of nodular lesions / eq ;

6. ref to fibrosis / collagen network ;

7. leads to necrosis / cavities (within the lungs) /


eq ;

8. severe cases ischaemia / shortage of oxygen / max


hypoxemia / eq ; (4)

Question Answer Mark


Number

9(a)(ii) asbestosis/ silicosis / bauxite fibrosis / berylliosis /


siderosis / labrador lung / byssinosis ; (1)

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Question Answer Mark
Number

9(b)(i) 1. (1020 - 435) x 100(%) ;

2. divided by 435 = 134.48(%) ; (2)

Question Answer Mark


Number

9(b)(ii) 1. 1993 to 2001 no real pattern / numbers


fluctuate / eq ;

2. 2001 to 2002 {largest / eq} increase in numbers


/ eq ;

3. 2002 to 2004 number relatively steady / eq ;

4. 2004 to 2005 {large / eq} decrease / eq ;


max
5. no overall trend / eq ; (3)

Question Answer Mark


Number

9(c) most miners are men / eq ; (1)

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Unit 5B (6105/01) - Genetics, evolution and biodiversity

Question Answer Mark


Number

1(a) coppice / coppiced / coppicing ; (1)

Question Answer Mark


Number

1(b) 1. woodland divided into {areas / blocks / fells /


eq} ;

2. idea of different {areas / blocks / fells / eq}


harvested in {rotation / each year /eq} ;

3. reference to cutting down trees (close) to


ground level ;

4. to form {stools / stump / eq} ;

5. reference to (side) {shoots / poles / eq}


allowed to grow / eq ;
max
6. for several years / at least 3 years ; (4)

Question Answer Mark


Number

1(c) 1. different {environmental / abiotic / named


abiotic} factor(s) within the {wood / eq} ;

2. (because) {areas / eq} are at different stages


of development / eq ;

3. idea of a {range of / new / diversity of}


{habitats / niches / food sources} {created / max
maintained / eq} ; (2)

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Question Answer Mark
Number

2(a) (plant) growth substances / PGS / growth regulator /


PGR ; (1)

Question Answer Mark


Number

2(b)(i) 1. A is largest / A has {developed / grown} the


most / A is larger than {B / C / both} ;

2. B shows no signs of {development / growth /


eq} / very small / eq ;

3. C {grown / developed} to approximately 2/3


to 3/4 the size of A / eq ;

4. reference to another visible difference e.g. max


shape, depth of colour ; (2)

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Question Answer Mark
Number

2(b)(ii) 1. {auxin / PGS} needed for strawberry


{development / ripening / growth / eq} ;

2. {auxin / PGS} {formed / eq} by {achenes / eq} ;

3. (diffuses) into {flesh / cells / strawberry / eq};


[NB if awarded, do not award mp7]

4. no {auxin /PGS} when {achenes /eq} removed ;

5. (therefore) strawberry does not {develop /


ripen / grow / eq} in B ;

6. auxin (in paste) {stimulates / causes / eq}


strawberry {development / ripening / growth /
eq} in C ;

7. (diffuses) into {flesh / cells / strawberry / eq};


[NB do not award if mp3 given]

8. reference to another PGS involved in


{development / ripening / growth / eq} ;

9. named example of another suitable PGS ;

10. reference to enhanced effect on auxin with


another PGS ;
max
11. reference to synergism ; (5)

65 0906
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Question Answer Mark
Number

3(a) 1. reference to {controlled / eq} by a pair of


alleles ;

2. reference to {different / alternative} forms of


alleles / eq ;
max
3. reference to same locus ; (2)

Question Answer Mark


Number

3(b) 1. all {offspring / F1} are heterozygous for both


characteristics / eq ;

2. colour shows codominance / eq ;

3. bilateral is dominant (over radial) / accept


converse ;
max
4. correct use of term {genotype / phenotype} ; (3)

Question Answer Mark


Number

3(c) 1. key {showing / use of} symbols ;

2. genotypes of F1 and white, radial given ;

3. correct gametes for both ;

4. genotypes of expected offspring ;

5. phenotypes linked to genotypes of offspring ;


max
6. 1 :1 :1 :1 ; (4)

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Question Answer Mark
Number

4(a)(i) 1. ATP as a source of energy ;

2. reference to active {transport / uptake} / eq ;

3. for {proton pumps / protein carriers / max


transport proteins / eq} in membrane ; (2)

Question Answer Mark


Number

4(a)(ii) 1. increases surface area / large SA : V ;

2. (increased SA) {increases / maximises / eq}


uptake ;

3. reference to more {proton pumps / protein max


carriers / transport proteins / eq} ; (2)

Question Answer Mark


Number

4(b)(i) mp pigment plant sun shade


1 g/mass abc both less or more ;

2 g/area a/c both more or less ;

3 g/area b M same or same ;

4 g/area b T less or more ; max


(3)

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Question Answer Mark
Number

4(b)(ii) 1. idea of less light available to shaded plants /


eq ;

2. more pigment able to absorb more light (in


shade) ;

3. more pigment per mass means less light passes


through leaf / eq ;

4. pigments absorb different wavelengths ;

5. light in sun and shade may have different


wavelengths / eq ;

6. examples quoted ;

7. idea of photosynthesis rates maintained in max


shade plants ; (4)

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Question Answer Mark
Number

5(a)(i) 1. produces {sucrase / carbohydrase} ;

2. reference to {hydrolysis / breakdown} of


glycosidic bond ;
max
3. to form glucose and fructose ; (2)

Question Answer Mark


Number

5(a)(ii) 1. proteins used for growth, carbohydrates for


energy ;

2. larva (needs more protein because it) is main


growth stage ;

3. adult (needs more carbohydrate because it) is max


{more active / flies} ; (2)

Question Answer Mark


Number

5(b) 1. biological (control) ;

Then any TWO from:

2. crops not {contaminated / toxic / eq} / no


bioaccumulation ;

3. pesticides less specific / eq ;

4. long-term balance can be established /


pesticides may need to be applied several
times / reference to resurgence / reference to
resistance ;

5. no health risk to glasshouse workers / eq ;

6. adult lacewings might aid pollination / eq ;


max
7. suitable for organic crops ; (3)

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Question Answer Mark
Number

5(c) 1. reference to sympatric speciation ;

2. reference to prezygotic mechanism ;

3. sub-populations are reproductively isolated /


eq ;

4. gene flow {inhibited / restricted / eq}


(between sub-populations) ;

5. mutations arise (in sub-populations) ;

6. (cause) gene pools diverge / eq ;

7. sub-populations become {phenotypically /


physically / physiologically} different from
each other ;

8. so that successful mating cannot occur max


between them / no fertile offspring / eq ; (5)

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Question Answer Mark
Number

6(a) 1. carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas / eq ;

2. idea of fossil fuels release carbon dioxide


removed from atmosphere {long ago / eq} and
biofuels release carbon dioxide removed
{recently / eq} ;

3. fossil fuel use increases carbon dioxide in


atmosphere and biofuels {maintain balance / max
are carbon neutral / eq} ; (2)

Question Answer Mark


Number

6(b) 1. {mixed / eq} with {petrol / petroleum / eq} ;

2. {10 / 20} % ethanol to {90 / 80} % petrol / eq ; (2)

Question Answer Mark


Number

6(c)(i) 1. reference to {many times greater / a lot


higher / eq} ;

2. mean from other sources = 1000 dm3 (per


hectare) ;

3. palm seeds approximately {4 times / 300%} max


greater than other sources ; (3)

Question Answer Mark


Number

6(c)(ii) 1. more income / eq ;

2. create more employment / eq ;

3. prevents increased urbanisation / maintains


rural population / eq ;

4. reduce dependency on fossil fuels / eq ;


max
5. reduce need to import fuels / eq ; (2)

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Question Answer Mark
Number

6(d) 1. reference to legislation / eq ;

2. reference to {EU Habitats Directive / Natura


2000} ;

3. promotes conservation of (natural) habitats /


eq ;

4. to {maintain / encourage} biodiversity eq ;

5. example of specific {ecosystems / habitats} in max


annexe 1 ; (3)

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Question Answer Mark
Number

7(a) biotic are caused by living organisms, abiotic by non-


living ; (1)

Question Answer Mark


Number

7(b) 1. named animal in suitable named habitat ;

2. suitable abiotic factor and how it is measured ;

3. suitable technique ; (3)

Question Answer Mark


Number

7(c)(i) 1. haemoglobin is found in {red blood cells /


erythrocytes} ;

2. haemoglobin can bind {temporarily /


reversibly} to oxygen / haemoglobin has high
affinity for oxygen ;

3. reference to (haemoglobin molecule has) four


{iron-containing / haem} groups ;

4. each {iron-containing / haem} group combines


with one oxygen molecule / four oxygen
molecules can combine with each haemoglobin max
molecule ; (3)

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Question Answer Mark
Number

7(c)(ii) 1. at{low altitudes / high ppO2}, no difference


in % saturation (between the two mice) ;

2. {as altitude increases / ppO2 falls}


dissociation curve of high altitude
{haemoglobin / mice} is {to the left / above}
;

3. (so) oxygen combines more easily with high


altitude haemoglobin / eq ;

4. credit manipulation of figures ;

5. at high altitudes, mice with high altitude


haemoglobin are at an {advantage / eq} ;
max
6. (high altitude haemoglobin) allows mice to (4)
{be active / move around / eq} ;

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Unit 5H (6115/01) - Genetics, human evolution and biodiversity

Question Answer Mark


Number

1(a) coppice / coppiced / coppicing ; (1)

Question Answer Mark


Number

1(b) 1. woodland divided into {areas / blocks / fells /


eq} ;

2. idea of different {areas / blocks / fells / eq}


harvested in {rotation / each year /eq} ;

3. reference to cutting down trees (close) to


ground level ;

4. to form stools / stump / eq ;

5. reference to (side) {shoots / poles / eq}


allowed to grow / eq ;
max
6. for several years / at least 3 years ; (4)

Question Answer Mark


Number

1(c) 1. different {environmental / abiotic / named


abiotic} factor(s) within the {wood / eq} ;

2. (because) {areas / eq} are at different stages


of development / eq ;

3. idea of a {range of / new / diversity of}


{habitats / niches / food sources} {created / max
maintained / eq} ; (2)

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Question Answer Mark
Number

2(a)(i) chorionic villus sampling / amniocentesis ; (1)

Question Answer Mark


Number

2(a)(ii) 1. miscarriage / abortion /eq ;

2. damage / injury to { mother / fetus} ;


max
3. infection to {mother / fetus} ; (2)

Question Answer Mark


Number

2(b) 1. Down’s syndrome ;

Then any four from:

2. reference to {extra chromosome / trisomy /


three chromosomes} at 21 ;

3. reference to non-disjunction ;

4. chromosomes fail to separate / eq ;

5. during anaphase 1 / meiosis 1 ;

6. {egg / oocyte / ovum} has 24 chromosomes / max


has an extra chromosome ; (5)

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Question Answer Mark
Number

3(a) 1. reference to {controlled / eq} by a pair of


alleles ;

2. reference to {different / alternative} forms of


alleles / eq ;
max
3. reference to same locus ; (2)

Question Answer Mark


Number

3(b) 1. all {offspring / F1} are heterozygous for both


characteristics / eq ;

2. colour shows codominance / eq ;

3. bilateral is dominant (over radial) / accept


converse ;
max
4. correct use of term {genotype / phenotype} ; (3)

Question Answer Mark


Number

3(c) 1. key {showing / use of} symbols ;

2. genotypes of F1 and white, radial given ;

3. correct gametes for both ;

4. genotypes of expected offspring ;

5. phenotypes linked to genotypes of offspring ;


max
6. 1 :1 :1 :1 ; (4)

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Question Answer Mark
Number

4(a)(i) 1. sequence of {nucleotides / bases} on DNA /


{length / section} of DNA ;

2. codes for {sequence of amino acids /


polypeptide} ;

3. reference to triplet of bases corresponds to an max


amino acid ; (2)

Question Answer Mark


Number

4(a)(ii) 1. formed by condensation (reaction) ;

2. between (two) amino acids ;

3. between carboxyl group (of amino acid 1) and max


amino group (of amino acid 2) ; (2)

Question Answer Mark


Number

4(b) 1. Neanderthals, (modern) human and


chimpanzee most closely related ;

2. (because) sequences identical ;

3. idea of orang-utan, gorilla and monkey


relationship rank order ;

4. (because) orang-utan has 1 difference, gorilla 2


differences and monkey 3 differences ;

5. one difference described ;

6. idea of number of differences indicates max


divergence related to geological time ; (4)

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Question Answer Mark
Number

4(c) 1. reference to {carbon / potassium-argon}


dating ;
14
2. reference to decay of {radio-isotope / C/
40
K} is {predictable / eq} ;

3. reference to {carbon / potassium} taken into


skull material when Neanderthal was {alive /
eq} ;

4. reference to how skull is aged by reference max


to data from decay of isotopes ; (3)

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Question Answer Mark
Number

5(a)(i) 1. produces {sucrase / carbohydrase} ;

2. reference to {hydrolysis / breakdown} of


glycosidic bond ;
max
3. to form glucose and fructose ; (2)

Question Answer Mark


Number

5(a)(ii) 1. proteins used for growth, carbohydrates for


energy ;

2. larva (needs more protein because it) is main


growth stage ;

3. adult (needs more carbohydrate because it) is max


{more active / flies} ; (2)

Question Answer Mark


Number

5(b) 1. biological (control) ;

Then any TWO from:

2. crops not {contaminated / toxic / eq} / no


bioaccumulation ;

3. pesticides less specific / eq ;

4. long-term balance can be established /


pesticides may need to be applied several
times / reference to resurgence / reference to
resistance ;

5. no health risk to glasshouse workers / eq ;

6. adult lacewings might aid pollination / eq ;


max
7. suitable for organic crops ; (3)

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Question Answer Mark
Number

5(c) 1. reference to sympatric speciation ;

2. reference to prezygotic mechanism ;

3. sub-populations are reproductively isolated /


eq ;

4. gene flow {inhibited / restricted / eq}


(between sub-populations) ;

5. mutations arise (in sub-populations) ;

6. (cause) gene pools diverge / eq ;

7. sub-populations become {phenotypically /


physically / physiologically} different from
each other ;

8. so that successful mating cannot occur max


between them / no fertile offspring / eq ; (5)

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Question Answer Mark
Number

6(a) 1. carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas / eq ;

2. idea of fossil fuels release carbon dioxide


removed from atmosphere {long ago / eq} and
biofuels release carbon dioxide removed
{recently / eq} ;

3. fossil fuel use increases carbon dioxide in


atmosphere and biofuels {maintain balance / max
are carbon neutral / eq} ; (2)

Question Answer Mark


Number

6(b) 1. {mixed / eq} with {petrol / petroleum / eq} ;

2. {10 / 20} % ethanol to {90 / 80} % petrol / eq ; (2)

Question Answer Mark


Number

6(c)(i) 1. reference to {many times greater / a lot


higher / eq} ;

2. mean from other sources = 1000 dm3 (per


hectare) ;

3. palm seeds approximately {4 times / 300%} max


greater than other sources ; (3)

Question Answer Mark


Number

6(c)(ii) 1. more income / eq ;

2. create more employment / eq ;

3. prevents increased urbanisation / maintains


rural population / eq ;

4. reduce dependency on fossil fuels / eq ;


max
5. reduce need to import fuels / eq ; (2)

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Question Answer Mark
Number

6(d) 1. reference to legislation / eq ;

2. reference to {EU Habitats Directive / Natura


2000} ;

3. promotes conservation of (natural) habitats /


eq ;

4. to {maintain / encourage} biodiversity eq ;

5. example of specific {ecosystems / habitats} in max


annexe 1 ; (3)

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Question Answer Mark
Number

7(a) biotic are caused by living organisms, abiotic by non-


living ; (1)

Question Answer Mark


Number

7(b) 1. named animal in suitable named habitat ;

2. suitable abiotic factor and how it is measured ;

3. suitable technique ; (3)

Question Answer Mark


Number

7(c)(i) 1. haemoglobin is found in {red blood cells /


erythrocytes} ;

2. haemoglobin can bind {temporarily /


reversibly} to oxygen / haemoglobin has high
affinity for oxygen ;

3. reference to (haemoglobin molecule has) four


{iron-containing / haem} groups ;

4. each {iron-containing / haem} group combines


with one oxygen molecule / four oxygen
molecules can combine with each haemoglobin max
molecule ; (3)

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Question Answer Mark
Number

7(c)(ii) 1. at{low altitudes / high ppO2}, no difference


in % saturation (between the two mice) ;

2. {as altitude increases / ppO2 falls}


dissociation curve of high altitude
{haemoglobin / mice} is {to the left / above}
;

3. (so) oxygen combines more easily with high


altitude haemoglobin / eq ;

4. credit manipulation of figures ;

5. at high altitudes, mice with high altitude


haemoglobin are at an {advantage / eq} ;
max
6. (high altitude haemoglobin) allows mice to (4)
{be active / move around / eq} ;

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Unit 6 (6106-02) - Written Alternative to Coursework

Question Answer Mark


Number

1(a)
Number of Mimosa seeds
/ 0.25 m-2
In floodplain In woodland
habitat habitat
Without With Without With
mining mining mining mining
moths moth moth moth
500 194 22 32
505 200 28 34
605 241 29 35
606 255 33 38
729 306 33 39
751 340 38 48 Median
number
758 350 42 52
805 369 46 55
825 400 48 60
830 491 51 62
900 512 61 65
Median 751 340 38 48
number

neat tables correctly formatted including medians (only if


medians identified) ;

correctly labelled columns with units ;

numbers ranked ;

all medians correct ; (4)

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Question Answer Mark
Number

1(b) A graph correctly orientated with labelled axes and


key ;

F bar chart {for medians / for means (if


calculated)} OR histogram for size classes ;

Floodplain
Number Not Infected
classes infected
101 – 200 2
201 – 300 2
301 – 400 5
401 – 500 1
501 – 600 2 1
601 – 700 2
701 – 800 3
801 – 900 4

Woodland
Number Not Infected
classes infected
21 – 30 3 0
31 – 40 3 5
41 – 50 3 1
51 – 60 1 3
61 – 70 1 2

P data plotted correctly ; (3)

Question Answer Mark


Number

1(c) there is no significant difference between {the


number of seeds produced in uninfected and infected
Mimosa in either the floodplain or woodland habitats /
the effect of mining moths in the two habitats / eq} ; (1)

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Question Answer Mark
Number

1(d) there is a significant difference between {the


(median) number of seeds produced in the floodplain,
but not in the woodland / the effect of the mining
moths in the two habitats / eq} ;

since the smallest U / U2 value is less than 30 in the


floodplain habitat, but not in woodland ; (2)

Question Answer Mark


Number

1(e) biological control is effective in the floodplain, but


not in the woodland ; (1)

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Question Answer Mark
Number

2(a) General methodology


1. plant buttercups at different densities /
eq ;

2. TWO named abiotic factors for growth


controlled ;

3. stated area for each density (at least 1m x


1m) ;

4. sampling using quadrat of stated size (max


1m2) / method of determining suitably
sized quadrat ;

5. suitable method of random sampling


described ;

6. number of samples for each density


(minimum 10) ;

7. use of key to identify buttercups ;

8. count / tally total number of parent plants


in quadrat and number with runners / eq
(note parent counts not needed if fixed
densities used) ;

Specific precautions
9. any suitable precaution to ensure validity
of counts in the context of quadrat use e.g.
only runners inside quadrat counted ;

10. parent plant definition in the context of


runners (e.g. plant with no incoming
runners / no intact runners to older
plants) ;

11. defining a runner (in the context of this


investigation) e.g. runner with a young
plant OR developing bud attached ;

Repeats
12. reference to sound environmental
protection ;

13. repeat two more times {not in different max


season etc}; (8)

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Style
account is concise and well-organised, there is
good use of technical vocabulary and almost no
spelling errors – 2 marks

there is some lack of organisation, limited


vocabulary and a number of spelling errors – 1
mark

the account lacks organisation, there is little or


no technical vocabulary and many spelling
errors – 0 marks (2)

Total (10)

Question Answer Mark


Number

2(b) 1. appropriate null hypothesis described (in terms


of significant correlation / significant
difference linked to method) {accept in
method} ;

2. table with all raw data (and repeats if carried


out) and units ;

3. density (shown / calculated) with SI units i.e..


m-2;

4. means calculated ;

5. suitable graphical format (scatter gram / line


of best fit / bar chart) ;

6. axes with units (that correspond to summary


data) correct way round ;
max
7. use of (named) appropriate statistical test ; (5)

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Question Answer Mark
Number

2(c) Limitations
1. difficulty in identifying plant as a
parent ;

2. difficulty in identifying runners ;

3. plants not evenly distributed / eq ;

4. influence of {other density-dependent


factors / intra-specific competition /
species} not considered ;

5. unsuitable time / season for asexual


reproduction ;

6. difficult to control one named abiotic


factor {not if method suggests
greenhouse or similar} ;

Further work
7. investigate (density-dependent) asexual
reproduction in other species OR types
of plants ;

8. carry out laboratory-based investigation


(on density of plants and asexual
reproduction) ;

9. find density at which asexual


reproduction stops ;

10. investigate further details of density


effect e.g. number of runners / young
plants per parent / average length of
runners ;

11. investigate relationship between density


and sexual reproduction / fruits / max
flowers / seeds ; (6)

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Unit 6 (6106/03) - Synoptic Paper

Question Answer Mark


Number

1(a)(i) 1. {stimulates / eq} {ovulation / eq} ;

2. {stimulates / eq} {development of the corpus


luteum / eq} ;

3. {stimulates /eq} secretion of {progesterone / max


oestrogen / testosterone / androgens} ; (2)

Question Answer Mark


Number

1(a)(ii) exocytosis / a description of this process ; (1)

Question Answer Mark


Number

1(a)(iii) negative ; (1)

Question Answer Mark


Number

1(a)(iv) 1. GnRH transported {directly / faster / straight /


short distance} to the (anterior) pituitary ;

2. LH transported {in the general circulation /


round the body / longer distance / slowly} ; (2)

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Question Answer Mark
Number

1(b) 1. concentration of oestrogen increases,


concentration of progesterone decreases / eq
;

2. credit a comment on the relative change in


each e.g. change in oestrogen concentration
is {less / slower} than the change in
progesterone / percentage change in
oestrogen is greater ;

3. credit a manipulated quantitative


comparative comment (e.g. change in max
oestrogen is 8.5 ng per cm3, change in (2)
progesterone is 56 ng per cm3 / change in
oestrogen is 85%, change in progesterone is
35%) ;

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Question Answer Mark
Number

2(a)(i) 1. feed on dead or decaying (organic) matter /


eq ;

2. {secrete / releases} enzymes / reference to


extracellular digestion ;
max
3. {absorb / eq} products of digestion / eq ; (2)

Question Answer Mark


Number

2(a)(ii) 1. {obtain nutrients / eq} from {a host / living


organism} ;

2. reference to {harm / eq} to host ;


max
3. (only) the parasite benefits / eq ; (2)

Question Answer Mark


Number

2(b)(i) 1. aphids {obtain nutrients from crop plants /


suck sap / feed on crop} ;

2. reduce crop yield / reduce productivity / eq ;

3. spread diseases / spread viruses / eq ;


max
4. reduce value of crop / eq ; (3)

Question Answer Mark


Number

2(b)(ii) 1. use of {one organism / predator / parasite} ;

2. idea of reduce number of {pests / prey} ; (2)

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Question Answer Mark
Number

2(c)(i) 1. use of quadrat of suitable stated area ;

2. reference to the use of {Lincoln Index /


capture-mark-recapture method} ;

3. credit correct formula for Lincoln Index ;

4. use of (sweep) net / pooter / pitfall trap ;

5. reference to counting ladybirds ;

6. population density = number (of ladybirds) max


per unit area / number ÷ area ; (3)

Question Answer Mark


Number

2(c)(ii) 1. harlequin ladybirds have increased / eq ;

2. both other species have decreased / eq ;

3. reference to {competition / niche /


competitive exclusion / breed faster / able to
exploit other food sources / fewer predators /
disease resistant / eat native species / eq} ; (3)

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Synoptic Essay mark scheme

Scientific Descriptor
Content (S)
11 The essay demonstrates a sound understanding of the topic and contains a
(Good) significant amount of material from most areas of the mark scheme,
including A2 content.
Suitable examples are included and the candidate has clearly and
coherently linked together information from different parts of the
specification.

9 An above average essay, with accurate content. The essay includes a good
(Above balance of material from several areas of the mark scheme, including A2
average) content, and examples where appropriate.
There may be some minor factual errors.

7 The essay includes relevant information from some areas of the mark
(Average) scheme, including A2 content. The candidate links together some facts
and principles. Some examples are included.
There may be some minor factual errors.

5 The essay includes some generally factually accurate and relevant


(Below material, and there is some attempt to link material from more than one
average) area of the mark scheme. The A2 content, in particular, lacks depth
and accurate details.

3 There are some correct facts, but the essay lacks depth and accuracy.
(Poor) The essay contains little or no relevant information from the A2
content.

1 There are very few correct facts. The essay is generally superficial and
(Poor) inaccurate.

0 No correct or relevant material is included.


(Poor)

Notes Marks

If a scientific content mark of 0, 1, or 3 is awarded, it is very unlikely that


a balance mark of more than 1 is appropriate.

An essay containing AS content only can be awarded a max of 3 for


scientific content.

An essay containing A2 content only can be awarded a max of 7 for


scientific content. S = (11)

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Balance(B) Descriptor Marks
2 Most of the main topic areas outlined are covered
Some discussion of each of the areas chosen, illustrated
with suitable examples where appropriate
Material included is all relevant to the topic and the
candidate has linked information from more than one
area of the specification.
Few, if any, errors (2)

1 Some of the main topic areas outlined are covered.


Some discussion of each of the areas chosen.
Some irrelevant material included.
There are some examples which link together different
areas of the specification.
Some errors (1)

0 Very limited account, possibly only one aspect chosen


Material mostly irrelevant
No examples of the candidate linking information from
different topics
Large number of errors (0)

Coherence(C) Descriptor Marks


2 Material logically presented, with little or no repetition
Essay has coherence, ideas are developed well;
continuous prose used throughout
Essay has an introduction and a conclusion, summing up
the main points
Technical terms have been used correctly
Spelling, punctuation and grammar are sound (2)

1 Material is presented in an orderly way and some ideas


developed
Continuous prose used throughout
The introduction and conclusion may be present, but
brief
Technical terms are used and generally in the correct
context
Spelling, punctuation and grammar are generally sound (1)

0 Essay style not used


Material in note form or numbered points
Very poor standard of spelling, punctuation and
grammar (0)

97 0906
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Question Answer Mark
Number

3 introduction could include outline structure of DNA


and explanation of term GMO –

basic structure of a nucleotide –

phosphate –

deoxyribose –

purine and pyrimidine bases –

DNA as a polynucleotide -

complementary base pairing and the double helix –

use of plasmids as vectors –

isolation of gene –

roles of endonuclease and ligase –

isolation of mRNA and role of reverse transcriptase -

introduction of recombinant plasmid to host cell –

plasmid replication –

use of marker genes -

credit references to specific examples e.g.


production of chymosin and use of Agrobacterium – (15)

98 0906
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Question Answer Mark
Number

4B introduction could include outline of transport in


flowering plants and need for mineral ions –

uptake of ions, root hairs and active transport –

diffusion of ions –

pathways across root –

apoplast pathway –

symplast pathway –

vacuolar pathway –

structure and role of endodermis –

structure of xylem in relation to transport –

cohesion tension, transport of mineral ions in xylem –

specific references to:

nitrate –

phosphate –

magnesium –

could also include a reference to transport of


phosphate in phloem – (15)

99 0906
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Question Answer Mark
Number

5H introduction could include outline of protein structure


and how proteins are used as evidence for human
evolution –

amino acids and the formation of a peptide bond –

polypeptides –

primary structure, secondary structure, tertiary


structure, quaternary structure –

bonding –

reference to globular proteins and fibrous proteins –

haemoglobin and collagen –

references to analysis of amino acid sequences in


haemoglobin / cytochrome ;

immunological studies of blood sera –

serum protein precipitation as evidence for


phylogenetic relationships – (15)

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