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APEX BANK

WHAT IS BANK?
An organization usually a corporation, chartered by a State or Federal government, which does most or all of the following: Bank receives demand deposits and time deposits, honors instruments drawn on them, and pays interest on them; y y y y y Discounts notes, Makes loans, And invests in securities; collects cheques, drafts, and notes; Certifies depositor's cheques; and issues drafts and cashier's cheques.

WHAT IS BANKING?
Banking is generally a highly regulated industry, and government restrictions on financial activities by banks have varied over time. Banking = holds an active account at a bank. Normally used in relation to depositing or cashing payroll checks. Non-Banking = Does not hold an active or open account at a bank. Normally referred to when one is cashing payroll checks at a check cashing location. Banking in India originated in the last decades of the 18th century. The first banks were The General Bank of India, which started in 1786, and Bank of Hindustan, which started in 1790; both are now defunct. The oldest bank in existence in India is the State Bank of India, which originated as the Bank of Calcutta in June 1806, and immediately became the Bank of Bengal. This was one of the three
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presidency Banks, the other two being the Bank of Bombay and the Bank of Madras, all three of which were established under charters from the British East India Company. For many years the Presidency banks acted as quasi-central banks, as did their successors. The three banks merged in 1921 to form the Imperial Bank of India, which, upon India's independence, became the State Bank of India.

Types of banks
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Retail bank Commercial bank Investment bank Central bank Credit unions Online banks Savings and loans

1. A retail bank is a bank that works with consumers,

otherwise known as 'retail customers'. Retail banks provide basic banking services to the general public, including:
y y y y y y

Checking and savings accounts CDs Safe deposit boxes Mortgages and second mortgages Auto loans Unsecured and revolving loans such as credit cards

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2. A commercial bank is a bank that works with businesses. Commercial banks handle banking needs for large and small businesses, including:
y y y y y y y

Basic accounts such as savings and checking Lending money for real and capital purchases Lines of credit Letters of credit Lockbox services Payment and transaction processing Foreign exchange Commercial banks often function as retail banks as well, serving individuals along with businesses.

3. Investment banks help organizations use investment markets. For example, when a company wants to raise money by issuing stocks or bonds, an investment bank helps them through the process. Investment banks also consult on mergers and acquisitions, among other things. Investment banks primarily work in the investment markets and do not take customer deposits. However, some large investment banks also serve as commercial banks or retail banks. 4. A central bank is an organization responsible for managing banking activity. Within the USA the central bank is the Federal Reserve, or 'the Fed'. Other countries have central banks as well. Their roles are similar, but they may have different objectives. In the US, the central bank has three primary goals:

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y y y

Conduct monetary policy Supervise and regulate financial firms Provide financial services

5. Credit unions are nonprofit organizations that strive for service over profitability. A credit union is an institution owned by the members or customers. Contrast this with banks where the customers are just customers. Banks answer to profitability. 6. Online banks are banks that you primarily (or exclusively) use on the Internet. Online banks allow you to have more choice and flexibility. You can do things on a computer, and you often get more competitive rates from online banks. They claim that they do not have the overhead and expenses associated with brick-and-mortar banks, so they can pass the savings on to you. 7. Savings and Loans (S&L's) are specialized banks created to promote affordable homeownership. After World War II, the government helped build the Savings and Loans industry by insuring deposits on savings accounts. This encouraged people to save their money, despite federallyregulated low interest rates.

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History Of Apex Bank


M.P. State Coop. Bank Ltd. had been registered on 02/04/1912 (Under Cooperative Act 1912, dhara 2) at Jabalpur naming Provisional Cooperative Bank Ltd. Central Provinces brar, later on its Head Office has been transferred to Nagpur. Bank has started its operations with the initial capital of Rs.5.00 lakhs aiming to provide finance in the field of Agriculture. Earlier individual shareholders were nominated as the representatives on the board of the Bank, to provide the democratic status to the Bank; maximum share has been transferred to cooperative societies and District Central Cooperative Banks, which started a movement to form a Board of Apex Bank with the representatives from Members Cooperative Institutions.

In the year 1956 Madhya Pradesh Cooperative Bank Ltd. Nagpur has been divided and came into existence as Mahakaushal Coop Bank, Jabalpur with the affiliations of 14 District Banks. With the reorganization of the Indian state in the year 1956 and formation of new Madhya Pradesh state on 01 Nov, 1956 Mahakaushal Coop Bank has been renamed as M.P.Rajya Sahakari Bank Mydt. (M.P.State Coop Bank Ltd.)expanding their working with 56 District Central Coop Banks simply on the basis of one district one bank rule the number of District Central Coop. Banks come to 52 in 1956,48 in 1961,44 in 1966,43 in 1968 and finally 45 after division of Bhopal District Central Coop Bank,and Raisen District Central Coop Bank. again in November 2000 after the division of Madhya Pradesh State and formation of New Chattisgarh State 7 Districts Central Coop Banks has transferred to the new state and rest 38 districts Central Coop Banks has been remained with Madhya Pradesh State Coop Bank.

Apex Bank Profile


M.P.Rajya Sahakari Bank Mydt.(APEX BANK) is a premier organization providing long term, medium term and short term
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Agriculture finance in the state with help of NABARD through District Central Coop Banks and Primary Agriculture Credit Cooperatives Societies (PACCS)to farmers & different strata of the society in order to the fulfill their financial requirements. Apex Bank is operating with their 20 Branches in the state serving through the attractive Loan and deposit schemes. Apex Bank is playing a pivotal in the field of providing rural finance in the M.P.State providing Agriculture/Non-Agriculture Loans and Advances with the help of NABARD under various schemes also offering commercial loans to customer under the Loan portfolio such as Consumer Loans. Housing Loan,Higher Education Loan, Project Loan, Vehicle Loan etc. to name a few.

Board of Directors
1 2
3 4 5 6 7 8 Shri Bhanwar Singh Shekhawat Smt. Sarita Singh Shri Kailash Soni Shri Yashpal Singh Sisodia Shri Kailash Sharma Smt. Savatri Singh Shri Maniram Shri Asharam Chairman Vice Chairman Vice Chairman Member Member Member Member Member

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9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Shri Ram Vilas Patel Shri Ved Singh Thakur Smt. Sampatiya Bai Uike Shri Ramchandra Hirajee Shri Amrik Singh Shri Ranjeet Singh Chauhan Shri Rajpal Singh Sisodia Commissioner Cooperative & Registrar Cooperative Society M.P. Chief General Manager, National Agri. & Rural Development Bank, Regional office Bhopal. Managing Director, M.P. State Cooperative Bank, Bhopal.

Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member

17 18

Consolidated Financial Status of District Central Co-operative Bank


Rs.in Crores Sr. No. 1 2009-10 Tentative 38 38

PARTICULARS

2007-08

2008-09

No. of DCCB

38

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2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Share Capital Reserves and Other Funds Deposits Borrowings Loans & Adv. O/S. Working Capital Profit for the year (Amt.) No. of Banks

342.77 1409.08 5226.25 1883.37 5262.44 8823.44 82.85 37 1.54 1 45.13 15 406.24 23

392.23 1568.16 6041.53 1810.75 5422.75 9846.34 121.64 37 4.49 1 65.45 17 330.53 21

451.06 1725.65 7050.35 1919.40 5802.34 11027.90 175.70 38 0 0 94.90 19 287.73 19

10 Loss for the year (Amt.) 11 No. of Banks

12 Accumulated Profit (Amt.) 13 No. of Banks

14 Accumulated Loss (Amt.) 15 No. of Banks

Branches Of Apex Bank In Bhopal

s.no. 1. 2. 3. 4.

PLACE Main branch T.T. Nagar Arera colony (E-4) M.P. Nagar Ibrahimpura
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CONTACT NO. 2674751 2674753 2674760 2674766

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5. 6. 7.

Indrapuri piplani Kotra sultanabad Malik market hamidia road

2674766 2674762 2674759

DEMAND DRAFT
S.No PARTICULARS . REMITTANCES(DRAFTS, MTS, TTS) 1 Upto Rs.1000/Rs.1001/- to Rs.5000/Rs.5001/- to Rs.10000/Rs.10001/- to Rs.1.00Lac REVISED RATE (Inclusive of Service Tax & Education Cess)

Above Rs.1.00 Lac REMITTANCES BANKER'S CHEQUE/ 2 PAY ORDER) Upto Rs.1000/Rs.1001/- to Rs.5000/Rs.5001/- to Rs.10000/Rs.10001/- to Rs.1.00Lac

Rs.10/- per instrument Rs.15/- per instrument Rs.15/- per instrument Rs.2/- per thousand or part thereof with a minimum of Rs.25/Minimum Rs.200/- Rs.1.60 per thousand maximum Rs.16000/-

Rs.10/- per instrument Rs.15/- per instrument Rs.15/- per instrument Rs.1.50 per thousand or part thereof Rs.1.20 per thousand
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Above Rs.1.00 Lac

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3.

Revalidation on DD

minimum Rs.150/maximum Rs.5000/Rs.30/- per DD

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LOCKERS RATE

s.no. 1.

LOCKER CHARGES LOCKER CHARGES PER YEAR

w.e.f. 01/11/2008

*SIZE A 500/- *SIZE B 700/*SIZE C 900/- *SIZE D 1200/*SIZE E 1500/- * SIZE F 2000/TWO FREE VISIT IN A MONTH ADDITIONAL PER VISIT CHARGESRS.30/-

2.

LOCKER VISIT

FIXED DEPOSITS RATE

S.No. FIXED DEPOSIT DURATION

INTEREST RATES IN % for Below 1.00 Cr.

INTEREST RATES IN % for 1.00 Cr. and Above 4.00 5.25 5.75 6.75 8.00 8.75 8.50

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

From 7 to 14 days From 15 to 45 days From 46 to 90 days From 91 to 179 days From 180 days to less than 01 year 01 year or more but less than 2 year 02 year or more
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3.50 5.00 5.50 6.50 7.50 8.75 8.50

APEX BANK

** If you are senior citizen, then on submission of proof to bank, you can avail 1 % more
interest on a deposit of 10,000/- or more for a period of one year & above.

 The Reserve Bank of India, India's central banking authority, was nationalized on January 1, 1949 under the terms of the Reserve Bank of India (Transfer to Public Ownership) Act, 1948 (RBI, 2005b).[Reference www.rbi.org.in]
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 In 1949, the Banking Regulation Act was enacted which empowered the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) "to regulate, control, and inspect the banks in India."  The Banking Regulation Act also provided that no new bank or branch of an existing bank could be opened without a license from the RBI, and no two banks could have common directors.

Commercial Banking Commercial Banking in India provides a full range of products and services: Loan Products, Corporate Finance, Financial Markets, Payments & Cash Management, Trade Finance Solutions and Debt Capital Market.

RBI on Cooperative In 1935 Reserve Bank of India was established. A separate section for providing agricultural credit was opened. In 1937 this section studied various problems of Indian co-operative movement and submitted its report stating that development of co-operative societies should be given priority.

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National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development


development bank in India based in Mumbai, Maharashtra. NABARD was established on the recommendations of Shivaraman Committee, by an act of Parliament on 12 July 1982 to implement the National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development Act 1981 NABARDS ROLE: 1: serves as an apex financing agency for the institutions providing investment and production credit for promoting the various developmental activities in rural areas 2: co-ordinates the rural financing activities of all institutions engaged in developmental work at the field level and maintains liaison with Government of India, State Governments, Reserve Bank of India (RBI) and other national level institutions concerned with policy formulation undertakes monitoring and evaluation of projects refinanced by it. NABARD's refinance is available to State Co-operative Agriculture and Rural Development Banks (SCARDBs), State Co-operative Banks (SCBs), Regional Rural Banks (RRBs), Commercial Banks (CBs) and other financial institutions approved by RBI. While the ultimate beneficiaries of investment credit can be individuals, partnership concerns, companies, State-owned corporations or cooperative societies, production credit is generally given to individuals. NABARD's role in rural development in India is phenomenal.National Bank For Agriculture & Rural Development (NABARD) is set up as an apex Development Bank by the Government of India with a mandate for facilitating credit flow for promotion and development of agriculture, cottage and village industries. The credit flow to agriculture activities sanctioned by NABARD reached Rs 1,574,800 million in 2005-2006. The overall GDP is estimated to grow at 8.4 per cent. The
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APEX BANK

Indian economy as a whole is poised for higher growth in the coming years. The purpose of RIDF is to promote innovation in rural & agricultural sector through viable means. Effectiveness of the program depends upon many factors, but the type of organization to which the assistance is extended is crucial one in generating, executing ideas in optimum commercial way. Cooperative is member driven formal organization for socio-economic purpose, while SHG is informal one. NGO have more of social color while that of PRI is political one.

NABARD SANCTIONS FOUR TYPES OF LIMITS


ST(SAO)

OTHER CROPS

OPP

NPDP

DTP

ST (SAO): SHORT TERM SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL OPERATION. OPP: OILSEED PRODUCTION PROJECT PROGRAMME NPDP: NATIONAL PULSES DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME DTP: DEVELOPMENT OF TRIBAL POPULATION OTHER CROPS (EXCEPT OPP, NPDP, DTP)

ST (SAO) Production Loan

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Different lines of production credit limit under ST (SAO) are made available to the DCCBs for financing agriculture purposes viz. credit limit for oilseed (OPP), Pulses (NPDP), Development of tribal populace (DTP) and other crops (STN)

A. ST Credit Limit for Other Crops During the year 2010-11, credit limit of Rs. 1586.02 crores was sanctioned for financing in other crops to DCCBs for financing to member farmers other than oilseeds & pulses crop.
B. Oilseed Production Programme

During the year 2010-11 under Oilseed Production Programme, Apex Bank has sanctioned aggregate credit limit to the tune of Rs.965.19 crores to DCCBs for disbursing the crop loan to the farmer members of the PACS.
C. Credit limit for Pulses (NPDP)

3 DCCBs were sanctioned total credit limit disbursement in pulses crops for the year 2010-11.

of

Rs.32.34

crores for

D. Credit limit for Development of Tribal Population (DTP)

In the year 1995-96, Govt. of India has started special programme for development of Tribal populace. Under the above programme, 19 tribal dominated districts of Madhya Pradesh have been selected and credit limit to the tune of Rs. 218.35 crores was sanctioned to 14 DCCBs in the year 2010-11.

THREE TIER STRUCTURE OF APEX BANK

S.C.B. D.C.C.B P.A.C.S


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FARMERS SCB DCCB PACS State Co-Operative Bank (Apex Bank) District Central Co-Operative Bank Primary Agriculture Co-Operative Society

In apex bank there is three tier structure in which first is S.C.B which is at state level, State Level Implementing and Monitoring Committee (SLIC) under the chairmanship of Secretary Finance and similarly at DCCB Level District Level Implementing and Monitoring Committees (DLICs) have been constituted under the chairmanship of District Collectors. PACS come under DCCB , Farmers are provided loan amount as a member of PACS. {The members are elected by PACS, as member of S.C.B.}NABARD finances only 45% remaining 55% is arranged by society, DCCB and apex bank. Basically farmers go to PACS if not available then loan amount is forwarded to DCCB if again loan could not be sactioned then case is forwarded to apex bank. Formation of co-operative bank to help the farmers in three distinct periods as for : 1. short term ( for less than one year) 2. medium term (between one to five years) 3. long term (more than five years) NABARDS ROLE AND FUNCTIONS ARE SUMMARISED BELOW:-

    

credit functions developmental & promotional functions supervisory functions institutional capacity building Customer Relationship Management (CRM) helps to achieve goals.
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Madhya Pradesh Rajya Sahakari Bank Mydt. Bhopal Statement showing PACS position of DCCBS As on 31st March 2007
PACS AFFILLATED TO DCCB BALAGHAT 112 CHHINDWADA 118 JABALPUR 97 MANDLA 0 NARSINGHPUR 93 SEONI 10 BHIND 166 DATlA 55 GUNA 140 GWALIOR 99 MORENA 132 SHIVPURI 86 KHARGONE 57 DHAR 11 INDORE 111 JHABUA 0 KHANDWA 96 BHOPAL 35 BETUL 32 RAISEN 87 RAJGARH 140 VIDISHA 154 HOSHANGABAD 114 SEHORE 91 REWA 135 SATNA 144 NAME OF DCCB LAMPS FSS/LSS TOTAL NO. OF PACS 126 145 121 87 104 57 168 78 148 76 136 89 183 95 120 71 159 35 91 113 140 154 150 96 148 158

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26

14 27 23 87 11 22 0 0 8 0 3 3 120 79 9 71 53 0 57 16 0 0 26 5 3 12

0 0 1 0 0 25 1 0 0 0 1 0 6 5 0 0 10 0 2 10 0 0 10 0 10 3

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27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38

SHAH DOL SIDHI SAGAR DAMOH PANNA TIKAMGARH CHHATARPUR UJJAIN. DEWAS. RATLAM MANDSAUR SHAJAPUR

10 51 165 89 84 87 113 170 98 83 166 146

90 38 13 13 4 0 0 0 21 18 5 0

1 4 0 0 0 0 0 2 4 2 1 0

101 93 178 102 88 87 113 172 123 103 172 146

TOTAL

3577

851

98

There are 4500 societies of apex bank at present 3800 approximately. And 1000 1500 branches are of apex bank . apex bank mainly works for rural areas and provides loan to farmers.

LOANS
Agricultural Loans And Advances Provided By Apex Bank Are: 1. ST (SAO)Production Loan. 2. Oilseed production programme. 3. Credit Limit for Oilseeds.
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4. Credit Limit for Development Tribal Population. 5. ST Credit Limit for the other Crops. 6. Medium Term Conversion /Rephasement Loans. 7. Disbursement of Loan to small Marginal Farmers. 8. Fertilizer Cash Credit limit. 9. Kisan Credit Card scheme. 10. Integrated Rural Development Programme/ Swarnjayanti gram Swarojgar(SGSY) Non-Agricultural finance: 1.Financing for Purchase of Shares of Industrial Coop Units. 2. Finance for Distribution of Chemical Fertilizers. 3. Finance for Working Capital. 4. Financing of Agro-Industrial Coop Units. 5. C.C. Limits for procurement & marketing of agriculture Produce. 6. Financial Accommodation for Public Distribution Scheme. 7. Financial for working Capital Requirements of Coop Processing Units. 8. Financial Accommodation for Weavers & Ind Coop Units. 9. Financial Accommodation to Cooperatives and other institutions. 10. Loans against Pledge Ornament

CONSUMER LOAN
MADHYA PRADESH RAJYA SAHAKARI BANK MYDT; BHOPAL Home Banking - Individual Loan Rates w.e.f. 15.02.2010

1. CONSUMER LOAN
Purpose For House hold items
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APEX BANK

Max. Loan Rs. 60,000/Amount Margin 25%, 10% (in group cases) , 15% (in case of Employees*) Money Interest 12.50% , 9.5% p.a. (in case of Employees*) Rate Insurance In case of vehicle. Repayment 5 years on monthly basis Period Security i) Salaried Guarantee of 1 person + Advance cheque/ Authority letter/ Employer acceptance letter. Guarantee of 1 person + Collateral Security i.e. N.S.C. / F.D.R. and Advance Cheques

ii) Non Salaried

2. VEHICLE LOAN
Top Purpose For personal use and Commercial use Max. Loan Light- Rs.5.00 lacs (Personal) Amount Heavy-Rs.10.00 lacs (Commercial) Margin 15.0% & 25.0% , 15% (in case of Employees*) Money Interest 12.0%, 9.5% p.a. (in case of Employees*) Rate Insurance Insurance of vehicle. Repayment 5 years on monthly basis Period Security:i) Salaried Guarantee of 1 person + Employer acceptance letter /authority letter/Advance Cheques Guarantee of 1 person + Collateral Security i.e. N.S.C. / F.D.R./Advance Cheques

ii) Non Salaried

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3. HOUSE LOAN
Top Purpose For purchases/construction of Houses, Modernisation Max. Loan Rs. 15.00 lacs Amount Margin 20.0% up to Rs. 25,000 Money 25.0% up to Rs. 50,000 30.0% above Rs. 50,000 Interest Up to 5 years Above 5years Rate Up to 2.00 lacs 9.50% 10.00% Above 2.00 lacs 10.00% 10.50%
@ 9.5% (in case of Employees*)

Insurance Insurance of house Repayment 15 years on monthly basis including moratorium up to 18 months Period Security:i) Salaried Mortgage of assets + Letter of Employer /Advance Cheques Mortgage of assets/ Advance Cheques ii) Non Salaried

4. C.C. AGAINST COLLATERAL SECURITY


Top Purpose For business Max. Loan Rs. 25.00 lacs Amount Margin Pledge 25% Money Hypothecation 40% Interest 13.00% up to Rs. 2.00 lacs 13.50% above Rs.2.00 lacs Rate Insurance Insurance of stock. Repayment 1 year Period

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Security

Security of 1 person + security in the form of fixed asset, NSC, FDR etc.

5. LOAN AGAINST PLEDGE OF ORNAMENTS


Purpose Loan on pledge of gold/ silver ornament for personal uses. Max. Loan Rs. 1.00 lac Amount Margin 40.0%, 15% (in case of Employees*) Money Interest 12.50% For SC/ST/SF, 13.00% For others , 9.5% (in case of Employees*) Rate Insurance Insurance of ornaments Repayment 12 months Period Security Pledge of ornaments

6. PROJECT LOAN
Top Purpose Project development Max. Loan Rs. 25.00 lacs inclusive of working capital Amount Margin 25.0% - 40.0% (Risk basis) Money Interest 13.50% Rate Insurance Mortgage of asset & machinery Repayment 7 years including 12-18 months moratorium period Period Security Security of 1 person + Collateral security

7. PERSONAL LOAN
Top Purpose Personal use i.e. Marriage, Travels & other purposes etc. Max. Loan Rs. 1.00 lacs Amount Margin Nil Money Interest 13.50%, 9.5% (in case of Employees*) Rate
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Insurance Not required Repayment 5 years on monthly basis Period Security Guarantee of 1 person, Letter of Authority/ Employer Acceptance /Advance Cheques

8. MORTGAGE LOAN
Top Purpose Personal use i.e. Marriage, Travels & other purposes etc. Max. Loan Rs. 25.00 lacs, subject to 50.0% of value of fixed assets. Amount Interest 12.50%, 9.5% (in case of Employees*) Rate Insurance Mortgage of assets Excluding land properties. Repayment 10 years on monthly basis Period Security Mortgage of assets + Advance cheques

9. TRAVELS LOAN
Top Purpose For Traveling purposes Max. Loan Rs. 1.00 lacs Amount Margin Money 20.0%, 15% (in case of Employees*) Interest Rate 13.50%, 9.5% (in case of Employees*) Insurance Not required Repayment Period 3 years Security Guarantee of 2 person , Advance Cheques, Letter of Authority/ Employer acceptance.

10. EDUCATIONAL LOAN


Top Purpose Loan for pursuing higher education for 2 students in a family i.e. Engineering, Medical and Master degree courses etc. Max. Loan Amount Rs. 3.00 lacs

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Margin Money

20%, 15% (in case of Employees*) Interest Rate 13%, 9.5% (in case of Employees*) Repayment Period Maximum 5 years on monthly basis. Security Guarantee of 1 person, Collateral Security or NSC, FDR etc.

11. UTSAVA LOAN

Purpose For Festival Purposes. Max. Loan Amount Rs. 1.00 Lacs Margin Money 20% Of The Proposal , 15% (in case of Employees *) Interest Rate 13.50%, 9.5% (in case of Employees*) Repayment Period 36 Month Security 1. Guarantee of 2 Person, 2. Letter Of Authority OR Employer Undertaking. 3. 36 Advance Cheques.

12. MEDICAL TREATMENT LOAN


Purpose For Medical Treatment & Expenses of Critical illness Max. Loan Amount Rs. 1.00 Lacs Margin Money Interest Rate Loan Period Repayment Period NIL 13.50%, 9.5% (in case of Employees*) 60 Months 60 Months

Security As below. For Salaried Persons Guarantee of one person, Employer Letter of authority OR Acceptance Letter and Advance Cheques. Non Salaried Person Collateral Security of 2 times value of loan in form of fixed assets OR lien of 1.5 times value of loan amount in form of FDR/NSC/Surrender Value of
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Insurance Policy.

Insurance

Not Required

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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research in common parlance refers to search for knowledge. Research is an art of scientific investigation. The advanced learners dictionary of current English lays down the meaning of research as a careful investigation or inquiry specially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge. Research is an academic activity and as such the term should be used in technical sense. According to CLIFFORD WOODY research comprises defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions; collecting, organising and evaluating data; making deduction and reaching conclusions ; and at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis. The term approach refers to the systematic method consisting of enunciating the problem, formulating a hypothesis, collecting the facts or data, analyzing the facts and reaching certain conclusions.

PURPOSE OF RESEARCH
The purpose of research is to discover answer to questions through the applications of scientific procedures. The main aim of research is to find out the truth which is hidden and which has not been discovered as yet. Though which research study has its own specific purpose. We may think of research objectives as falling into no. of following broad grouping:1) To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights into it. 2) To portray accurately and characteristics of a particular individual, situation or a group. 3) To determine the frequency with which something occurs or with which it is associated with something else. 4) To test a hypothesis of a casual relation between variables.

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RESEARCH PROCESS
Research Process Consists Of Series Of Actions Or Steps Necessary To Effectively Carry Out Research And The Desired Sequencing Of These Steps. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) FORMULATING THE RESEARCH PROBLEM EXTENSIVE LITERATURE SURVEY DEVELOPMENT OF WORKING HYPOTHESIS PREPARING THE RESEARCH DESIGN DETERMINING SAMPLE DESIGN COLLECTING THE DATA EXECUTION OF THE PROJECT ANALYSIS OF DATA HYPOTHESIS TESTING

10) GENERALISATIONS AND INTERPRETATION 11) PREPARATION OF REPORT OR THESIS The last point is very important as it contains the layout of the report that is preliminary pages; the main ext; and the end matter. In preliminary pages report should carry title and data followed by acknowledgement and forward. Then there should be table of contents followed by a list of tables , graphs and charts, if any, given in the report. The main text includes introduction; summary of findings; main report; conclusion. The end part should be enlisted in kinds of bibliography, i.e. list of books, journals, reports, etc. index should be given specially in a published report.

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HYPOTHESIS
MEANING: - HYPOTHESIS means assumption or some supposition to be proved or disproved. But for a researcher hypothesis is a formal question that he intends to resolve.a research statement is a predictive statement, capable of being tested by scientific methods, it relates an independent variable to dependent variable.

Methods of data collection


The task of data collection begins after a research problem has been defined and research design. While deciding about the method of data collection to be used for study. The researcher should keep in mind two ways of data viz. primary and secondary. The primary data are those which are collected for the first time, and thus happen to be original in character. The secondary data , on the other hand are those which have already been collected by someone else and which are passed through the statistical process. COLLECTION OF PRIMARY DATA:Collection of data is done during the course of doing experiments research of the descriptive type and sample surveys, thus in other words, means that there are several methods of collecting primary data , particularly in surveys as (i) observation method; (ii) interview method; (iii) Through questionnaires; (iv) through schedules. COLLECTION OF SECONDARY DATA:Secondary data are those which are already collected and analyzed by someone else. Secondary data may either be published or unpublished data. Researcher can refer various publications of central, state and local governments. books and magazines, news papers reports and publications of various associations connected with business and industry, banks, stock exchange,
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etc; in different fields ; and public records and statistics. The sources of unpublished data may be in the form of diaries, letters, unpublished bibliographies and autobiographies and also may be available with scholars and research workers , trade associations. Researcher must be very careful in using secondary data.

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MEANING OF FINANCIAL STATEMENT


Final accounts are those accounts which are prepared with the object to specify the trading results of a certain period and financial position on a specific date. these are called as final accounts because they are prepared at the end of financial year and after closing of the final account no records are done in that financial year.

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