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OBJECTIVES: To develop a comprehensive knowledge of Restaurant service in the Hotel and catering
Industry- to induce in the student professional competence at basic level and ensure a thorough grounding in the principles of Food Service and all its related activities.

INTRODUCTION TO THE HOTEL INDUSTRY: The growth of the catering industry in India.
Career opportunities in the Hotel and catering Industry. Different types of catering establishments. Attributes of a Waiter; personal hygiene and appearance attitudes. Job satisfaction. Salesmanship.

DEPARTMENTAL ORGANIZATION: Various hotel departments and their personnel. Relationship

between the Food and Beverage Department and other departments. Principal staff of various types of restaurants, their duties and responsibilities. RESTAURANT ORGANIZATION: Food Service areas and ancillary departments- Room Services; Still Room, Stores; Linen Room; Kitchen Stewarding, Hot Sections.

RESTAURANT SERVICE: Mise-en-place; Laying Tables; Forms and Methods of Service; Receiving the
Guest; Service at Table; Social Skills.

RESTAURANT EQUIPMENT: Crockery cutlery- silverware and stainless steel; Glassware and linen.
VARIETY OF MENUS: Types of Meals and Menu, Fixed menu and a la Carte, classical French menu terms; Indian Food and accompaniments; planning a simple menu; breakfast menus.


OBJECTIVES: To develop and perfect skills and techniques in the basic operational activities of food and
beverage service of Breakfast, Lunch and Dinner. Familiarization of Restaurant Equipment Method of cleaning and upkeep of silver Arrangement of Sideboards Laying of Table Linen Lay-out for various meals Folding serviettes in various designs Receiving guests and taking orders Service of Food Service of Breakfast


Hotel and other food service industries are part of the Hospitality Industry. ANCIENT DEFINITION


The word Hotel is derived from the Latin word hospitum i.e. the halls in olden days where guests were given hospitality, or in short the notion of hospitality can be described as the sprit, practice, quality and an act of receiving and treating strangers and guest in warm, friendly and generous way without any consideration for the reward and / or return. MODERN DEFINITION Hospitality in the modern sense comprises of four characteristic features. 1. Is conferred by a host on a guest a home away from home. 2. It is interactive i.e. involving the coming together of a provider and receiver. 3. It comprises of a blend of tangible and in-tangible factors. 4. The host provides the guests a sense of security and psychological and physiological comfort. The four attributes, if put to practice; deliver the desired feeling of being at home. EVOLUTION OF HOTEL AND CATERING INDUSTRY The industry came into being in other words started in the 6 th century B.C. The earliest forms of hotels were just large halls where travelers slept on the floor along with the animals on which they traveled and in India they were know as Sarai khana or Dharmashala and in the west they were know as Inns. Then changes in the mode of transport and travel i.e. with the invention of wheels, speed of travel increased with the development of vehicles. The industrial revolution in England and other countries travel for business gradually started increasing and with the growth of economy an increase in travel for recreation and meaningful utilization of leisure and this created a yearning among people to travel beyond the traditional boundaries. The early travelers all belonged to particular segment of the society i.e. either they were the kings and nobles, the religious messengers, missionaries, traders and soldiers. The first class of people i.e. the kings and nobles traveled on horseback or carriages and were usually entertained by people of their own class in palaces or castles or mansions and were well fed. Monasteries provided shelters to the religious order while the soldiers were lodged in or tents. But the traders had to put themselves up in places like Serai khana or Inns and it is they who helped develop this particular sector because they had no other alternatives. Than with the improvement of roads and transport more and more people started moving around and then to provide accommodation and food for this increasing number of travelers, many more Sarai khana and Inns were set up along the frequently traveled roads and pathways. Thus the Sarai khana and Inn keeping began its steady growth and became more popular. In earlier days husband and wife team normally ran these Sarai khanas or Musafir khanas or Inns and they just provided basic necessities of shelter and food.

WHAT IS A HOTEL? A hotel is defined as a place where a bonafide traveler can receive food and shelter provided he is in a position to pay for it and is in fit condition to be received. The lead in hotel keeping was taken by the emerging nations of Europe specially Switzerland. It was in Europe that the birth of a n organized hotel industry took place in the shape of chalets and small hotels, which provided a variety of services then the basic necessities and were mainly patronized by the aristocracy as the so called upper class society. The City hotel in New York was the first building meant solely for use as a hotel, and it was built in the year 1794. And then later hotel began to be built all over the world. In the year 1827 the Delmonico brothers who were immigrants from Switzerland opened a pastry shop and caf in New York City, and is proved be a change for the better from the eateries of that era, and led to the opening of their first restaurant a few years later. Thus the art of food service became recognized as the part of dining experience (N.B. It is believed that in 1650 Mr. Pascal started the first catering establishment as Caf in Paris. Simultaneously coffee shop in London, Oxford, Cambridge). The big boom in the hotel industry came in the 1920s when the concept of chain hotels was born, under the stewardship of E.M Sattler. After the Second World War the hotel industry regained its prominence and registered a steady growth. Of late, there has been a phenomenal growth in the hotel industry particularly in those countries, which attract business travelers, and tourists in large numbers from all over the world. In 1950s motel and international hotel chain a big boost to the industry. These chains either bought up smaller individually owned properties, or their own hotels. Many individual hotel operators merged with these international hotel chains as it increased their ability to cope with the growing competition. The expansion of cities all over the world and their rapid growth led to further development of the travel and hospitality industry. Restaurants of all kinds and hotel of various sizes and types mushroomed and the guest became used to a standardized type of service. Based on this standardization the hotel industry felt the need for trained hoteliers and skilled professional to manage the various establishments and provide services set to a predetermined standard. As the demand for skilled professional in all departments of hotels increased the need was felt for specialized training institutions. Today the level of training in the catering industry is highly advanced and specialized N.B. Cesar Ritz and Auguste Escoffier popularized dinning in Europe John Naisbitt predicted the advent of ethnic and specialty restaurant with professionally trained personnel to satisfy the consumer.


WHAT IS A CATERING ESTABLISHMENT An organization providing Food and Beverage is called a catering establishment. Catering establishments are broadly classified into primary catering establishment and secondary catering establishment. PRIMARY CATERING ESTABLISHMENT Hotel, Restaurants and fast food outlets, which are primarily concerned with the provision of food and beverage as a main source of revenue, are called primary catering establishment. SECONDARY CATERING ESTABLISHMENT In this case the provision of food and beverage is a part of another business such as welfare catering and industrial catering. TYPES OF CATERING ESTABLISHMENT

Primary Hotel Restaurants Outdoors Catering Bars& Pubs Popular Fast Food Catering Restaurants Restaurants Departmental Club Store Catering Transport Catering Welfare Catering


Industrial Leisure Catering Linked Catering

Airlines Railways Ship

Surface catering

HOTELS: - The main purpose of hotels is to provide accommodation, which may or

may not include the service of food and beverage .A hotel may be a small family run unit providing a limited service in one restaurant, or a large luxury hotel providing service through a number of outlets such as the coffee shop, room service, banquets, specialty restaurant, grill room, and cocktail bars. The service in these types of hotels is usually personalized and the tariff is very high, as they generally cater to persons of a high social standing. Medium class hotels are similar to luxury hotels, though there surrounding are less luxurious and the facilities are not of the same standard as those available in the luxury category.

RESTAURANT: - They are of various standards .A specialty or an A graded

restaurants; objective is the provision of food and beverage of a particular region. The food service and prices are often comparable to those similar restaurants in luxury hotels. They offer a wide choice from an elaborate menu and a very high quality of service.

BARS & PUBS: - The idea is fairly new in India and borrowed from the concept of
public houses in England .The are geared to provide service of all types of alcohol with an emphasis on draught beer and good music. Foods may also be served from a limited menu.


CATERING RESTAURANT: - The objective of popular catering restaurant is to provide a quick and economic meal, in a clean and standardized dining room and is very popular among urban population of India. They are of various styles and categories. Some restaurants serve only vegetarian food while some specialize in the food of a particular region such as the Punjab or Andhra Pradesh etc. FAST FOOD RESTAURANT: - This is basically an American concept .The service of
food & beverage is at a faster pace, than an a la cart Restaurant as the menu is compiled with a special emphasis on the speed of preparation and service, and to make this type of service financially viable, a large turnover of customers is necessary .The investments is rather large due to the specialized and expensive equipment needed and high labour costs involved.

OUTDOOR CATERING: - This means catering to a large number of people at a

venue of their choice. Hotels, restaurants and catering contractors meet this growing demand .The types of food and set up depends entirely on the price agreed upon outdoor catering includes catering for functions such as marriages parties and convention.

DEPARTMENTAL STORE CATERING: - Some departmental stores apart from

carrying on their primary activity of retailing their own wares provide catering as an additional facility. This type of catering evolved when large departmental stores wished to provide food and beverages to their customers as a part of there retailing concept. It is in convenient and time consuming for customer to take a break from shopping and have some refreshments at a different location. Thus arose the need of some sort of a dining facility in the departmental location. This style of catering is becoming more popular and varied nowadays.

CLUB CATERING: - This refers to the provision of food and beverage to a

restricted clientele. The origin of this service can be trace back to England where membership of a club was considered prestigious. Today, in India there is a proliferation of clubs to suit different needs. Clubs for people with similar interests such as golf clubs and cricket clubs, to name a few, have sprung up. The service and food in these clubs tend to be of a fairly good standard and are economically priced.

NIGHTCLUBS: - are usually situated in large cities that have an affluent urban
population. They offer entertainment with good food and expensive drinks.

TRANSPORT CATERING: - The provision of food and beverages to passengers,

before, during and after a journey on trains, aircraft, ships and in buses or private vehicles is termed as transport catering. The major forms of modern day transport catering are airline catering, railway catering, ship catering and surface catering in coaches or buses, which operate on long distance routes.

AIRLINES CATERING: - Catering to airline passenger on flight as well as at

restaurants situated at airport is termed as airlines catering and catering to passengers en route is normally contracted out to a flight catering unit of a reputed hotel as to a catering contractor. Civil aviation progressed rapidly after 2nd World War when large number of surplus, D.C.-III, C-47 aircraft were available for disposal. From 1946 private commercial Airlines began with subsequent food requirement. Initially food was provided in boxes pre-packed as the majority of aircraft where without facilities of in-flight catering services. The international carriers operating through India had no flight kitchen so they were largely dependant on the Airport Restaurants or hotels situated in nearby cities to cater to their requirements. It was necessary to improve and to expand the kitchen service inside the airport to provide passengers with a comfortable service along with the food within the cost of the Airline ticket. Several flight kitchens have been established in Delhi, Mumbai and Kolkata to cope with the needs of the International Carriers. Air India floated a subsidiary company with a view to operate flight kitchen known as CHEF -AIR and also accommodate travelers in five star category hotels at major airports (The Centaur Group of Hotels). Now a days several flight kitchens are being established near the major airports of India such as, Taj Sats Airlines Catering, Oberois Flight Kitchen, Ambassador Sky Chef, Sky Gourmet, Chef Air which are catering to the various domestic and International Airlines.

RAILWAY CATERING: - Catering to railway passengers both during the journey as

well as during halts at different railway station is called railway catering. Traveling by train for long distances can be very tiring; hence a constant supply of a verity of refreshment choice helps to make the journey less tedious. In the mid 19th century the railway network began in India with an operation the was to grow the length and breadth of the vast sub-continent with travel made easier, people were transported from one part to another part of country. At most of the larger stations of the big cities refreshment rooms were established. The trains would halt to an appropriate length of time so that the passengers could have a light and simple meal. Third class passengers were unable to afford the luxury food eating in the refreshment room would avail themselves from the numerous venders on the station platforms. Railway companies even went to extent of the city hotels attached to the stations so that the passengers who are changing from one region to another region could spend the night before and after in relative comfort. The luxury of sleeping cars and restaurant cars were a much later development. The present railway catering service is managed both departmentally and through the licensed contractors. Catering facilities are available 2995 stations in India and the licensed contractors cater the most numbers. Recently the India Tourism Development Corporation (ITDC) has appointed consultant for the improvement of railway catering. In this new type of service the meals are served in a disposable aluminum foil casseroles. The foods are cooked in base kitchen (in major stations) and kept in hot cases in pantry cars.

Indian railway also owns several railway city hotels at Ranchi, Puri, Howrah, Tatanagar, Cochi and Tiruvanantapuram.

SHIP CATERING: - Voyages by sea were once a very popular mode of traveling,

but with the on set of air travel, sea voyages have declined sharply. However, recently it has again become popular with a large number of people opting for pleasure cruises. Cargo and passenger ships have kitchens and restaurants on board .The equality of food, service and facilities offered depends on the class of the ship and the price, and the passengers are willing to pay. These are cruises to suit every pocket. There are cruises of two to five days duration which offer budget accommodation comparable to a limited service hotel, while luxury cruises of seven days to three months duration offer luxuries state rooms and various other facilities that are comparable to first class resort. Luxury cruises prepares travelers with deluxe accommodation and attentive and specialized service at a very high provision. All these ships provide a verity of food and beverage service outlets, to cater to the individual needs of the passengers. They range from room service and cocktail bars to specialty dining restaurants .The ships to specialty that caters to the cruise sectors today, are virtually floating palaces with every conceivable guest service available aboard them. This sector has been growing in popularity in recent times, and has become affordable to a large cross section of people.

SURFACE CATERING: - Catering to passenger traveling by surface such as buses

and private vehicles is called surface catering. These catering establishments are normally located around a bus terminus or on a highway. They may be either government run restaurants, or privately owned establishments of late there has been a growing popularity of Punjabi style catteries called Dhabas on the highways.

WELFARE CATERING: - The provision of food and beverage to people to fulfill a

social need, determined by a recognized authority, is known as welfare catering. This grew out of the welfare state concept, prevalent in western countries. It includes catering in hospitals, schools, colleges, the armed forces and prisons.

INDUSTRIAL CATERING: - The provision of food and beverage to people at work,

in industries and factories at highly subsidized rates is called industrial catering .It is based on the assumption that better fed employees are happy and more productive. Catering for a large work force may be undertaken by the management itself, or may be contracted out to professional caters. Depending on the choice of menu suggested by the management, catering contractors undertaken to face the workforce for a fixed period of time at a predetermined price.

LEISURE LINKED CATERING: -This types of catering refer to the provision of food
and beverage to people engaged in leisure. This includes the provision of food and beverage includes stalls and Kiosks at exhibition, theme parks, galleries and theaters.

1. For all the hotels staff menial jobs are part of their normal work. This follows from the fact that in this industry, service is of the utmost importance and hence everyone must involve himself in achieving that objective. This would mean that right from the general manager to the utility worker everyone is actually serving the guest in one way or the other. 2. To ensure a proper attitude to menial tasks, the trainer at times may himself have to do the work that the waiter does, to drive home the fact that at all levels manual work is done. 3. The waiter should be told of the importance of his job and made to realize that the hotel cannot run without the essential service that he provides.

1. The waiter should be briefed about the tip system and show how a good service can fetch greater tips. At this stage emphasize the point that a guest gives lavish tips only when he is pleased with the service and the service can only be good when the waiter is willing to serve. 2. A waiter is a responsible of the hotel and his restaurant. He projects its image and is responsible for maintaining its high standards. On his attitude and action will depend the image of the hotel.


The waiter should be made to feel that his supervisors have more authority and maturity to guide him. He should also be told that without a proper line of authority, there would be utter chaos. The example of some of his seniors should guide him at the job. He should be made to understand that he has lot to learn from their knowledge, attitude and skill in tackling in their jobs. Moreover, it is his seniors who will assess him and mould him and it is they who to a great extent determine his future by recommending him for advancements in his job, promotion, transfer and raise in salary.


1. A cheerful attitude is an asset. It is infectious as one cheerful person spread cheer and goodwill wherever he goes. As a result the work atmosphere is pleasant and free of tension and overwork. 2. A cheerful attitude towards colleagues is an advantage because a waiter would be able to obtain the maximum co-operation and help from them. 3. Job satisfaction comes from which oneself and depends on ones attitude towards ones work. If one has a cheerful outlook any kind of work can seem worthwhile and interesting.


1. One of the best ways to develop cordial relations and a team spirit is through group effort. Let the group set the goals. Show how much easier it becomes to resolve problems when everyone puts their head together. The phrase united we stand divided we fall should be the motto. 2. Through team spirit and teamwork efficiency is increased. Increase in efficiency implies higher sales turnover, which implies more earning for everyone. 3. By maintaining cordial relations, one not only benefits financially but also personally. A good friendship is also an asset and is of great help during times of trouble. 4. Cordial relations with guests are also very important. A guest who is pleased with the friendly atmosphere of a restaurant is bound to visit it again and again. However, friendliness does not mean over familiarity.


A waiter should realize that the work he is doing is not an ordinary kind of work. It is an art, which not everyone can do. It is an art, which has developed from times unmemorable and is still being developed.


1. Role-playing sessions on the basis of log book case lets help in developing a waiters and initiative. 2. Also former case studies can be undertaken to inculcate tact and initiative. 3. Interesting and amusing anecdotes from personal experience or from the experience of others are good illustrations. 1. A waiter is like a salesman for his department and he projects the image of his restaurant. Thus, as a representative of the organization he must endeavor to maintain high standards. 2. Any negligence on his part would at once reflect on the status of the organization and its high standards. 3. He must act and behave in a manner befitting the type of setup he is working in. 4. Good actions and behavior are always noted and go a long way in improving a waiters prospects and status.



1. Honesty is always the best policy. The reward for being honest can vary from cash and publicity in hotel magazines to appreciation letters from the public. It can also get the waiter appreciation and recommendation, which could help the waiters prospect in the profession. 2. Examples of actual incidents where honesty has paid dividends should be quoted. 3. The waiter must be told exactly is regarded as dishonesty e.g. stealing cutleries, eating guest food, overcharging a guest are all forms of dishonesty. 1. It is the hallmark of a good waiter to be courteous on all occasions not towards guest but also towards his colleagues and other people working in the same unit. 2. Courtesy should be inherent in his nature and a sign of his desire to please those with whom he comes in contact. His manner should not be just part of the technique of his restaurant. 3. The advantage and necessity of being courteous should be emphasized as it not only smoothens operations but also ensure better ties.



1. After the waiter has served breakfast and a guest is leaving, he should say Thank you have a pleasant day. It should be said with utmost sincerity. 2. When approaching a guest use the word assist e.g. May I assist you or may I be of assistance. 3. When the guests are leaving after lunch or dinner or even if they have just stopped for a cup of coffee or a drink, say thank you. I hope everything was all right. Do come again or its been a pleasure serving you. Please come again soon. 4. Always present the Bill without delay keeps it at the side station when the guests are nearing the end of their meal. 5. While taking an order the waiter should approach the guest from the left and place the menu in front of him and in quire, May I have your order, sir/ madam? wait patiently facing the guest until after any necessary advice asked has been given, and the order is complete. Give the guest enough time to decide what he wants and do not rush him. 6. Guests should never get the feeling that they are being hustled. It is really proper to let them finish their drink before asking for their food order. In the evening this holds true. At noon a lot of people are on a tight schedule so the lunchtime menu should be presented as soon as the guest is seated. Before taking the food order the waiter should ask whether they would like a drink, may we bring you a drink before lunch? If the answer is No he should take the food order and serve it as soon as it is ready. If the answer is yes the drink order should be served. When the drink is placed on the table the waiter should ask, Would you like to order now or shall I come back later? If the answer is Later the waiter should not forget to come back while the guest is finishing his drink. If the guest orders right away, the food should be brought as soon as it is ready to serve, even if the guest has not finished his drink. 7. If a guest says his food or drink isnt right, the waiter should not tell him so, even if he is sure that the guest is wrong. The waiter should tell him I am sorry. Please let me bring you another or may I bring you something else?

The waiter should take the order back to the kitchen and tell the chef to replace it. If he has any trouble he should tell the manager. 8. In case there are restaurants having bar counters or bars in the immediate neighborhood of the restaurant, guests who cannot be seated in the restaurant should be asked if they wish to wait in the bar until a table is available. If possible the supervisors should accompany the guest to the other facility to make that will be taken care of properly. 9. In case a waiter is busy and cannot attend to a guest at once, he should inform him that he would attend to him immediately or in a moment. 10. If the waiter knows the guests name it is advisable to address him by his name as this shows that the guest is getting personalized service. 11. If a guest may become impatient if he cannot catch the waiters eye. A waiter should never ignore guests or just pass them by, because they are not on his station. He should stop and acknowledge the call by saying politely, I will send your station waiter, sir. 12. When two tables are occupied approximately at the same time, the waiter must take the order of the party, first. 13. Each guest entering the restaurant must be received at the door by the hostess or the supervisor in a cordial and pleasant manner and be conducted to a seat. Chairs should be held for the convenience of lady guests and gentleman is possible. 14. Guest must be asked prior to seating whether the table, which they have been allotted, is agreeable to them.


Given below are certain attitudes, which a waiter must be warned against adapting. 1. Forgetting to say thank you or failing to acknowledge tipping. 2. Craving for tips, counting tips or jingling coins in pockets. 3. Bad temper or indifference. 4. Talking too much to guests while they are conversing with each other. 5. Ignoring guests by talking amongst them. 6. Hurrying guests to get their stations cleaned so that they can leave early. 7. Using a bad form of speech. 8. Adding up bills wrongly. 9. Using bad form of service e.g. spilling food 10. Eating during the service 11. Putting the service cloth in the trouser pockets 12. Compiling menus by keeping them in their shirt front. 13. Carrying pens or pencils behind their ears or their hairs. 14. Having bad breath, body odor, toe jam, dirty or untidy hair, dirty hands or nails. 15. Chewing gum. 16. Wearing greasy or spotted or other wise dirty clothes. Sneezing or coughing Carelessly. 17. Wearing high heel shoes or Un polished shoes 18. Quarrelling or being noisy and shirking responsibility. 19. Indulging in preferential treatment.


Co-ordination and communication: communication is the means by which problems are diagnosed and decisions are diffused both with the organization and external to it or is a result of a process of delegations of specific responsibilities and the development of individual objectives.

Communication can also be defined as a means of giving information in an attempt to influence someones activities or as a means of obtaining response from them either in the form of an activity, another communication or a reply. With out communication it is not possible to achieve effective coordination, as without communication no one can know what activities are required to be co-coordinated. Nature of co-ordination: Co-ordination is a process whereby works, which has been sub-divided, is brought together and unified into specific task or objective. The need for co-ordination and synchronization of the work of individual is one of the most important managerial activities. Failing to achieve continuous or proper coordination on a continued basis will lead to dissatisfied clients, loss of trade and profit with unenviable consequences. Co-ordination is not periodic activity of management. It must be ongoing. The greater the degree of work the greater the degree of efficiency achieved. The nature of communication: the process requires rendering or receiving a message as a means of transmitting the message. Since communication is a three way process, some feed back is required. The message may be verbal or written, either in words or figures or in the form of gesture or facial expression. Feedback may be immediate in case of conversation or delayed in the case of written matter. It is essential to show whether the message has been received and understood. A willingness to read the part of the receiver is a fundamental process without it, true communication cannot take place.

COMMUNICATION AND ORGANIZATION: 1. DOWNWARD COMMUNICATION: This follows a line of command from the point
of origin down to the point where action is required through inter mediate points in the form of command or orders to be carried out, on the assignment of work to individuals. A General manager may issue an edict that all members of staff must improve their standards of personal appearance. The restaurant manager may decide to re-locate the tables of two waiters and then tell them of his decision.


COMMUNICATION: This is described as how information is transmitted from the lower region of company to the senior manager. Such information may be a response to a request from management or may be a regular report, passed upward as a matter of routine. employee at same level in organization namely, those of equivalent status often is different departments.

3. HORIZONTAL COMMUNICATION: This term indicates communication between


Food & Beverage Manager Secretary Asst. F & B Manager Out Let Managers (Banquets, Room Service, Bar, Restaurants, Coffee Shop, Night Club) Reception Head Waiter Head Waiter Station Head Waiter Station Waiter Junior Station waiter Assistant Station Waiter Apprentice The staff arrangement in the restaurant and their number depends on the type and standard of the establishment. In every restaurant, whether belonging to a hotel, non-residential establishment or in the form of canteen there must be one person charge under whom there will be principal assistance in charge of sections of the room and under each of them there will be general assistants.

Depending on the size of the establishment the F&B Manager is either responsible for implementation of agreed policies or for contributing to the setting of catering policies. He is responsible for i) Ensuring that the required profit margins are achieved for each F&B Service area in a specified financial period. ii) Updating and compiling new wine lists according to availability of stock, current trends and customer needs. iii) For compiling, in liaison with the kitchen, menus for the various food service areas and for special occasions. iv) The purchasing of all materials required in the department. v) Ensuring that quality in relation to the price paid is maintained. vi) Determining portion size in relation to selling price in consultation with the Exec. . Chef. vii) Departmental training and promotions and maintaining high professional standards. viii) Employing and dismissing staff. ix) Holding regular meetings with section heads to ensure all areas are working effectively efficiently in a well-coordinated manner.


In absence of F&B Manager, the Asst. F&B Manager acts as the departmental head. In general, he helps the F&B Manager in running the department smoothly and acts as his deputy.


He has over all responsibility for the organization and administration of the food and beverage service areas. This includes the lounges, floor grillrooms, restaurants and possibly some of the banqueting suits. It is the restaurant manager who sets standards for service and he is responsible for any staff training that may have to be carried out on or off the job. With the assistance of reception headwaiter or headwaiter he may make out duty rotas, holiday lists and hours of duty so that all the service areas run efficiently and smoothly. All staff would be engaged after interviews with the personnel manager and the restaurant manager. He is responsible for the restaurant service and is in-charge persons concerned with it. He fixes the price of the menu and also plans the menu in consulting with the executive chef and food and beverage controller.

The Restaurant Manager (Directeur de restaurant)

He is responsible for accepting any bookings and maintaining the booking diary up to date. He will reserve tables and allot their reservation to particular stations. He greets the guests up on arrival and takes them to the table and seats them, leaving them in charge of the station headwaiter. The reception headwaiter should have a good knowledge of food and beverage and be able to instruct the trainees where necessary. He would relieve the restaurant manager or headwaiter on their day off.


He has over all charge of the staff team in the dining room and is responsible for seeing that all the duties necessary for the preparation for service are well and efficiently carried out, and nothing forgotten. He will aid the reception headwaiter


during the service and possibly take some orders if the station headwaiter is very busy. He helps the restaurant manager or the reception headwaiter on their day off. (He is in direct charge of either the whole of a small restaurant or a part of a big restaurant). He supervises service, directly receives the guests or through the restaurant manager in case of certain VIPs seats them. He should be a good organizer and diplomat. He must look after all the complaints and put things rightly. But he must not upset the smooth flow of kitchen disrupt harmony of pantry. He is responsible for the mise en place. In large hotels in restaurants there may be more than one head waiter, namely: a) second head waiter b) third head waiter.

He has the overall responsibility of the team staff working under him and serving a set number of tables could be anything from four to eight in numbers. The set of tables under the station headwaiters control is called a station. He must have a very good knowledge of food and wine and its correct services, and be able to instruct these under him. He would take the order usually from the host and carry out the services at the table with the help of his assistants.


He must be able to carry out the same as a station headwaiter and relieve him on his day off. Both he and the station head waiter work together as a team to provide efficient and speedy service.


This is a post, which is usually found in Europe and in the American hotels. As the term implies he is next in seniority to chef de rang and aids him in his work.


He acts by instruction from the chef de rang. He is responsible for giving the KOTs to the kitchen, bring dishes to the sideboard, removing plates from the guests table and returning used plates to the washing up area. During the mise en place he would carry out some cleaning and preparatory tasks.








He is the learner, having just joined the food and beverage service staff and possibly wishing to take up waiting as a career. During the service he will keep the sideboard well filled with equipment and he may help to fetch and carry items as required. He would carry out certain cleaning tasks during the preparation periods.


He is responsible for the carving trolley and the curving of joints at the table as required. He will plate up each portion with the appropriate accompaniment. He has to be very skilled to get maximum number of portion from each joint with as little wastage as possible.


He is responsible for the service of meals in the apartments. When working in this position the waiters has to serve both food and drinks and therefore have a through knowledge of each and their correct service involved.



He is a commis, junior assistant assigned to a trolley usually of hors d oeuvre, pastries, assorted cheese, salads etc.

He is responsible for the service of all alcoholic drinks during the service of meals. He must have a thorough knowledge of best wines to go with certain foods and of the licensing laws in respect of his particular establishment and areas.


Sometimes it is the responsibility of the restaurant staff i.e. the waiters to make the bill in small establishment, but in sophisticated restaurants, the restaurant cashier does it. In any case, the waiter will present the bill to the guest.



The food and beverage service department of a hotel is the most labour intensive department. It is divided into sections called outlets for effective management control. Each outlet is headed by an outlet manager and has its own operational procedures. A food and beverage manager heads the department and he delegates authority and responsibilities to the outlet managers. BANQUETS This outlet is usually the largest revenue-earning outlet in the food and beverage service department. It serves food and beverage to a gathering of people at special function such as wedding, parties, receptions, cocktail dinner, seminars, conferences and meeting. Banquet function can be held at lunch or dinnertime and the pattern of operation may vary from one kind to another. The outlet also rents out banquet halls for exhibitions, concerts and other programmers. TYPES OF FOOD SERVICE IN BANQUETS - The Indian banqueting menu consists of a fixed predetermined buffet menu selected from the varied cuisines of India or a selection of dishes from continental food.

ORGANISING A BANQUET FUNCTION- It is normally planned in advance, since considerable time is required for planning and organizing a function. However the food and beverage service personnel should be prepared for any exigency as guest may suddenly demand the unexpected. The banquet outlet has its own staff that works in shifts to cater to these functions the banquets sales assistant are responsible for managing the banquet reservation system in the banquet office.

COFFEE SHOP: Its an outlet, which is open 24hrs a day and is usually found in star category hotels. The basic concept behind this type of operation is less priced and more turnover. The service is informal i.e. not very elaborate and formal. Generally the foods are pre- plated other then the Indian dishes where the entre or the main course are placed on the table or sometimes being served by a waiter. Promptness of service is of prime importance. The prices of the food and beverage, which are being served, are not very high priced compared to a specialty restaurant. Being open for 24hrs its the only venue where one can get a decent meal on a long after all the other restaurants have closed has a provision of serving many types of foods like Indian, Chinese, Continental and different types of alcoholic beverages are only served during permitted hours. (Sometimes varies from state to state.) The revenue generated from this outlet is the second highest in the food and beverage service department.
RESTAURANT A restaurant is a commercial establishment committed to the sale of food and beverage. A restaurant may be a licensed part of a hotel operation, whereby the sales of the restaurant contribute to the sales performance of the hotel as a whole. Restaurants may also be independent business entities under individual ownership and management. CONTINENTAL RESTAURANT The atmosphere is more sophisticated and caters for people who can eat at leisure. The accent is on good continental food and elaborate service. SPECIALTY RESTAURANTS: Every five star hotel has at least one specialty restaurant, and it is specialist in serving one particular type of cuisine, but again now a day the concept of having a multi cuisine restaurant is also gaining popularity as they offer guests a wide variety of choice of food. The service in this type of a restaurant is very formal and stylist. The prices of the food items in the menu are comparatively higher because of its higher overheads. The menu offered may either be an a la carte, buffet, or a table d hotel. Sometimes flamb dishes are also served where the food is prepared right in front of the guest from a special food trolley known as guerdon trolley and hence the waiter should be highly skilled. These restaurants normally function dinning lunch and dinner sessions. Entertainment in the form of music by a band or an orchestra may also be provided. For a specialty restaurant to be profitable it should provide not only excellent food and service but also a good dcor ambiance. The components used should be of high standards, as this will enrich the entire dinning experience of the guests.

ROOM SERVICE: Is a very important part of food and beverage service department? The guests orders his or her food and beverage requirement over the phone from his room and

the person taking the order is know as the Room Service Order Taker. He takes down the whole order on a kitchen order ticket (KOT) and for a beverage on a bar order ticket (BOT) with date and time of order taken and the service time and hands over the order ticket to the room service waiter, who in turn places the relevant order ticket either to the kitchen or the bar for drinks and subsequently picks them and serves them to the room at a specified time. As far as the question of revenue earning is concerned it has a very small turnover. Considerable effort and labour is necessary to run this outlet and can be termed as a guest facility and operate 24hrs. The menu is similar to that of a coffee shop but the prices are slightly higher comparatively because of higher overheads i.e. in terms of staff and equipment. The prime importance in this type of an outlet is accuracy and promptness i.e. the whole order taken has to be carried out accurately within the specified time. The outlet is headed by a outlet manager known as Room service manager. Under him there are captains followed by waiters. It is the responsibility of this captains and waiters to check each room service tray or trolleys so as to ensure they have the relevant food ordered by the guest along with necessary cover and accompaniments. There is always an average waiting time for each set of orders and this may vary from hotel to hotel. In most of the hotels to speed up the service of food and beverage we have room service floor pantries from where the required cutleries, crockery and glassware and certain accompaniments required for serving of foods in a room is present. Again the efficiency of a room service outlet is also measured in terms of clearance i.e. it is the responsibility of the room service waiting staff to ensure that all trays and trolleys are cleaned from the guest rooms after service is done because there is nothing more annoying to a guest the sight of used trays and trolleys in the corridors. This department is also responsible for providing food and beverage amenities to regular guests and VIPs, which may include fruit basket cookies, dry fruits and nuts and soft beverages and hard liquor. BAR: In a hotel this particular outlet can be divided into two and they are 1. Public bar 2. Dispense bar

1. PUBLIC BAR: Are situated in the public area of a hotel and caters to persons who pays for it irrespective of the fact whether they are in-house guests i.e. staying with the hotel or an outside guest. Cocktail snacks can be served and the prerequisites are served should be fast and discreet, good dcor, ambiance, efficient staff and availability of wide variety of beverages. 2. DISPENSE BAR: Generally situated at the back area of the hotel and is used for dispensing and serving drinks to the other outlets of the hotel such as the coffee shop, room service, banquets, specialty restaurants etc. other than the above outlets one may also come across outlets like a barbecue restaurants and a pastry cake shop a night club and a discotheque. BARBEQUE RESTAURANT:

The term barbeque is said to have originated from ancient French practice of cooking the whole animal over an open fire. (In French Barbe means beard and refers to the whiskers of the animal and que means the tail) This type of an outlet is generally located near the swimming pool and of late has become very popular. Normally during the day the space may be used for some other and in the evening it is used for private functions or a barbeque restaurant for an a la carte guest. The two main reasons of having a barbeque restaurant are: (i) Increase the revenue of the hotel. (ii) Gives a variation of dinning i.e. provides the guests with another venue to dine. The food served here is barbequed cooked over a charcoal grill. PASTRY AND CAKE SHOP: This outlet has become very popular in Indian luxury hotels during the last few years. It caters to both in-house and non-resident guests. It may be a self-service counter on a small area where there are a few tables with waiter service and is normally located at the lobby area of the hotel and mostly the business in this outlet is in the form of take- a ways. Discotheques: A restaurant, which is meant for dancing to, recorded music being played by a disc jockey a live band, may also perform. An essential part of a discotheque is a bar while the food offered consists mainly of snacks. NIGHTCLUBS: It is principally opens at night for dinners, dance and cabaret. A dispensing bar is always provided. Dcor is lavish while service is elaborate. A live band is important to the set up. Most establishments insist on formal wear so as to enhance the atmosphere. SELF HELP OR CAFETERIA SERVICE The second type of service is self-help or cafeteria service. This service cuts down the cost of labour and thereby the high price food. The clientele or the guest here waits on himself or herself. This indicates that if the service is of their own. Here the customer takes a tray or plate and moves along-selecting the dishes from the display counter, and arrives at the place where the cashiers totals up the trays contents and the customer having made his payments carries the tray to the table. The used dishes are collected and returned to the washing up area by the cafeteria staff. Mobile trolleys are convenient for this purpose. Layout is a very important to ensure that the service is quick. Sufficient tables and chairs are provided in the dinning hall. The cafeteria unit must have a hot plate, refrigerator, a water cooler and a display counter. There should be a rail to rest and slide the trays upon. Some units have conveyer belts upon which the trays are placed. The service may be table dhte or a la Carte and the courses are provided in proper sequence. A strict supervision is very essential for a high-class cafeteria service. A spoon and knife and a fork wrapped in a napkin may be kept at one end of the counter for the customers to pick up. In India two types of cafeteria service are in operation. From the point of view of sales, in the first case coupons are sold at the beginning and the customers buy food equal to the value of the coupons, but he is restricted from buying anything more unless he goes again to get the additional coupons. Many a times the customers feel lazy to do this and so in such cases it sometimes results into a loss of the business. In the second care the guest collects whatever he likes from the counter and pays at the end. If the cashier is not vigilant enough he can make mistakes in totaling, which may result into a loss of the business. But from the customers point of view this is a better arrangement.

FOOD SERVICE AREAS AND ANCILLARY DEPARTMENTS ROOM SERVICE: Is a very important part of food and beverage service department? The guests orders his or her food and beverage requirement over the phone from his room and the person taking the order is know as the Room Service Order Taker. He takes down the whole order on a kitchen order ticket (KOT) and for a beverage on a bar order ticket (BOT) with date and time of order taken and the service time and hands over the order ticket to the room service waiter, who in turn places the relevant order ticket either to the kitchen or the bar for drinks and subsequently picks them and serves them to the room at a specified time. As far as the question of revenue earning is concerned it has a very small turnover. Considerable effort and labour is necessary to run this outlet and can be termed as

a guest facility and operate 24hrs. The menu is similar to that of a coffee shop but the prices are slightly higher comparatively because of higher overheads i.e. in terms of staff and equipment. The prime importance in this type of an outlet is accuracy and promptness i.e. the whole order taken has to be carried out accurately within the specified time. An outlet manager known as Room service manager heads the outlet. Under him there are captains followed by waiters. It is the responsibility of this captains and waiters to check each room service tray or trolleys so as to ensure they have the relevant food ordered by the guest along with necessary cover and accompaniments. There is always an average waiting time for each set of orders and this may vary from hotel to hotel. In most of the hotels to speed up the service of food and beverage we have room service floor pantries from where the required cutleries, crockery and glassware and certain accompaniments required for serving of foods in a room is present. Again the efficiency of a room service outlet is also measured in terms of clearance i.e. it is the responsibility of the room service waiting staff to ensure that all trays and trolleys are cleaned from the guest rooms after service is done because there is nothing more annoying to a guest the sight of used trays and trolleys in the corridors. This department is also responsible for providing food and beverage amenities to regular guests and VIPs, which may include fruit basket cookies, dry fruits and nuts and soft beverages and hard liquor. STILLROOM The service room, the server, or pantry is the auxiliary section situated just behind the serving doors and between the kitchen (hot kitchen) and the room, which supports the service. The pantry leads to the stillroom, plate room and glass room and the wash-up area. An ideal pantry must have the following minimum conveniences

1. There should be two serving doors, connecting the server with the
restaurant, marked IN and OUT. 2. The door must have a metal kicking plate at the bottom to prevent hard wear and tear. 3. A large box for collecting the soiled linen and napkin should be provided to prevent its loss. If the box has a flat top it can be used as extra service space. A chute may be provided to send the soiled linen from the service room to the Linen Room. 4. Cupboards for crockery, plates, cutlery, linen etc. must be provided. For cleaning materials like brooms etc. appropriate storage should be provided. 5. Two or three tier tables for receiving dirty plates and silver helps in quick disposal of this equipment to their respective places of washing and returning back. These tables and boxes should be as near to the exit door from the restaurant as possible or between the door and the service lift. 6. In order to save breakage, the glass pantry forms a separate section where glassware is stored and washed in a special wooden sink. The glasses when washed or dried are placed on wooden trays and stored in shelves provided which help in checking and preventing them from being knocked off. 7. Separate dustbins should be provided for the collection of waste food and other disposable matters. 8. A special heated table cupboard with a hot case inside which a supply of hot plates can be kept forms an essential part of the equipment necessary for the pantry. 9. Generally there is also a dispense bar, wire store adjoining the pantry so that the waiter can collect orders for wine, beer, minerals etc. ordered by the guests.

After putting the dirty linen, silver, and china in their proper places, the waiter goes to the service table in the service room or in the kitchen to collect the rest set of dishes ordered by the guest. Then he takes the appropriate plates from the hot cupboard and re enters the restaurant.

LINEN ROOM It is the area where all the linens for the daily operation of a restaurant are kept. The fresh linens are brought from the central linen stores of the hotel and the soiled linens are also returned back to the central linen stores after proper counting. The linens used in the restaurants are as follows: Tablecloths Napkins Placemats Table Skirting Table toppers Aprons Chair Covers Table Pads Valances, Lace Skirting Two Tier Table Skirting Table Runners etc.
KITCHEN STEWARDING Kitchen stewarding employees are not actively engaged in cooking to ensure clean, efficient, and economical food service: Assigns KITCHEN HELPER (hotel & rest.) and other noncooking employees to such activities as dishwashing and silver cleaning. Inspects kitchens, workrooms, and equipment for cleanliness and order. The duties of a kitchen steward are as follows: Wash Wall and Ceilings Sweep Floors Mop Floors Clean and Wax Hardwood and Parquet Floors Clean Stainless Steel Surfaces Clean Floor Mats Use Garbage Disposals Empty and Clean Trash Cans Use and Clean the Trash Compactor Use Pressure-Washing Equipment Handle Recycling Programs Report Evidence of Rodents, Insects, and Pests Wash Dishes, Silverware, and Glasses Wash Pots and Pans Burnish Silverware Clean Braising Pans Clean Broilers Clean Compartment Steamers Clean Deep-Fat Fryers Clean Microwave Ovens Clean Ovens Clean Ranges Clean Kitchen Hoods Clean Ventilation Grills

Clean Steam Kettles Clean Large Mixers Clean Slicing Machines Clean Food Grinders and Choppers Clean Vertical Cutters and Mixers Clean Juice Dispensers Clean Coffee Urns Clean Coffee Makers Clean Milk Dispensers Clean and Sanitize Cutting Boards Clean and Sanitize Can Openers Clean Reach-In Freezers Clean Reach-In Refrigerators Clean Walk-In Freezers Clean Walk-In Refrigerators Clean and Treat Drains Clean Vegetable Preparation Sinks Clean Food Storerooms Clean the Receiving Dock Clean the Employee Cafeteria Clean Restaurant Dining Rooms Clean Large Trash Bins and Surrounding Areas Clean Grease Traps Stock Side Stations Clean Banquet and Room Service Carts Set Up Carts for Banquets Deliver Banquet Food and Plating Areas Assist in Plating Banquets Help Banquet Servers Prepare Trays HOTPLATE It is the section, which is situated between the kitchen & the restaurant. Here the chef keeps the prepared food for service and the service person picks up the prepared food for the service. This is the border between kitchen & restaurant. The person, who bridges the gap between the kitchen and restaurant, is known as Chef Aboyer or Barker. He takes the order from the restaurant and passes the order to the kitchen.

The term Mis-en-place (Preparation for service) is the traditional term used for all the duties that have to be carried out in order to have the room ready for service. A duty rota showing the tasks and duties to be completed before service, and which member of staff is responsible. The daily duties might be stated as follows:

Check the booking diary for reservations. Make out the seating plan for the day. Make out a plan of the various stations and show where the staff will be working. Go over the menu with staffs immediately before service. Check that all duties on the duty rota are covered and that a full team of staff is present.

Every day vacuum the carpet and brush the surrounds. Clean and polish the doors and glasses. Empty waste bins and ashtrays. Each day on completion of all duties, line up all the table and chairs.

Collecting the cleanliness from the H/K department, checking items against the list, distributing them to the various service points, laying tablecloths and folding the serviettes. Ensuring that stocks are sufficient to meet the needs. Ensuring that the glass cloths & waiters cloths are available. The preparation of the linen basket for return to the linen room.

Switch on the hot plate. Ensure all the doors are closed. Items to be placed in the hot plate would be according to the menu offered. Set out the required kitchen silvers on top of the hot plate. Stock up after each service with clean and polished china wares in readiness for the next meal service.

Collection of cutlery, flatware and hollowware from the silver room. Polishing and sorting out of various cutleries for the service with the required quantities. Daily cleaning of cutleries, flatwares, hollowwares as per the daily rota. Daily cleaning of ashtrays, carving trolley etc.

Checking and polishing of side plates and make ready for lay-up. Checking and polishing of crockery for hotplate according to menu and service requirements. Preparation of service plates/flats for sideboards.

Place all the cutleries in the proper boxes of the sideboard. Place all the crockeries in the appropriate place of the sideboard. Place the service salvers & finger bowls in the sideboard. Place soup & sauce ladels, bread buskets and butter dish. Check for check pad, service cloths and menu cards.

Polishing and refilling of oil-vinegar stand, sugar basins, cruet set & pepper mills. Ketchup, French & English, W. Sauce etc should be there.

Open the bar and remove the liqueur trolley from the bar area. Bar silvers requiring cleaning to be taken to the silver man. Clear any debris left from the previous day. Wipe down the bar tops as well as the glasswares. Clean the shelves and scrub out the bar floor. Check the pads, wine lists, and line up the clean and wiped glasses. Prepare the bar for service with the various bar equipments. Check the availability of beverages and pick up from store.


In any establishment a clients first impression on entering the dining room are of great importance. A customer may be gained or lost on this impression alone. The creation of the atmosphere by the right choice of furniture and equipment is therefore a important factor. The selection of the linen, tableware, small equipment and glassware will be determined by considering:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

The The The The The

type of clientele expected site or location layout of food and beverage service area types of services offered funds available.

Modern designs tends towards a versatile system of lighting by which a food and beverage service area may have bright lightings at lunch time and a diffused lighting in the evening and for buffet. It is also an advantage to be able to change the colours of the lights for special functions e.g. cabaret, floorshows etc. The caterer must find colour and lighting scheme, which will attract and please as many people as possible. There is a definite association between colour and foods, which must not be overlooked. The following colours are regarded as most acceptable pink, pale yellow, clear green, blue, saffron, peach colour. These colours reflect the natural colours found in good and well-presented foodstuff. Bright illumination may be found in bar counter with light colours on the walls and the ceilings. But food service areas are better with dimmer illumination FURNITURE Furniture may be chosen according to the need of the establishment. Very often by using different materials designs and finishes and by careful arrangements one can change the atmosphere and the appearance of the food service area to suit different occasions. Wood is the most commonly used material in dining room furniture. It is found as the principal material in chairs and tables used in all food and beverage service areas with the exception of canteen, staff dining rooms, and cafeterias. A. CHAIRS: They come in an enormous range of designs, materials, colours to suit all situations and occasions because of wide range of styles. The chairs vary in size, height, weight but it is sufficient to say that as a guide a chairs seat is 46 cm (18 inches) from the ground. The height from the ground to back is 1 meter (3 ft).
B. TABLES: Tables comes in three accepted shapes round, square, rectangular. An

establishment may have a mixture of shapes to give a variety. The tables may be for two or four people or two or three tables may be put together to seat larger parties and extensions may be provided in order to cope with special parties etc. SQUARE TABLE ROUND TABLES RECTANGLE TABLE 76 cm sq. (2 ft 5 in.) To seat 2 people 1-meter (3 ft) sq. to seat 4 people 1-meter (3 ft) sq. in diameter to seat 4 people 1.52 meter (5ft) in diameter to seat 8 people. 137cm* 76cm(4 ft 6 in.*2 ft 6 in.) to seat 4 people to which extensions can be added for larger parties.

C. SIDE BOARDS: Also known as dummy waiter or side table. Styles and designs of sideboard vary from establishment to establishment. It depends upon: 1. The style of menu and service offered. 2. The number of waiters and waitress working from one sideboard. 3. The number of tables to be served from one sideboard. 4. The amount of equipments it is expected to hold.

D. RECEPTION DESK: There should be one reception desk at the entrance of the dining room or restaurant on which a reservation book and a telephone must be placed. Reception head waiter who is know as the maitre d hotel de reception will be responsible to attend all the reservation calls and enter them in the book.


Table laying is usually a good exercise for a brigade of waiters. Each men therefore will be allotted tasks throughout the room i.e. restaurant.


Before laying the tablecloth, make sure that the table is properly placed, it is steady and well cleaned. Where tables are to be covered with a cloth, the tabletop should be fitted with baize. This is necessary: 1. To lessen the noise of the plates cutleries, glassware etc. placed on the table 2. To keep the table cloth in correct position, to hand evenly without slipping 3. To protect the guest wrist from the edge of the table. The tablecloth should have the right side on top. The tablecloth should be placed on the table forming a line down the middle of the table. It should fall nine inches below the edge of the table on all sides.


Having covered all the tables with a tablecloth, the chairs should be placed in their correct position. They should be cleaned and then the general mise en place starts or begins. 1. Show plates are placed at the center of each cover about one inch away from the edge of the table. Plates must be checked polished and kept on the sideboards. If the plates are edged always place them so that it remains in uppermost position facing the guest. 2. Some kind of showpiece should be provided for each table, i.e. a flower arrangement in a flower vase at the center of the table. A few attractively arrangement flower in a low flower vase is much more appreciated then a large bouquet. Heavily scented flowers must be avoided. 3. Each cover should form a balanced definite unit. It must not be over crowded. All chinaware, glassware, cutleries etc. required for a person to be placed on the table for complete meal is called cover. Each cover requires a length of 24 to 27 inches and a width of 15 inches. 4. Place only the required silvers needed for the meal. The sequence of silver should be from outside towards inside in the order of the menu. 5. The knives should be placed at the right hand side of the cover with their cutting edge toward the left hand side of the guest. The forks are placed on the left hand side of the corner with their prongs turned up. Spoons are placed sometimes at the right hand side and sometimes at the top of the cover. When no knife is used, for example spaghetti, macaroni, noodles etc. the fork is placed at the right hand side of the cover in place of the knife. 6. The silvers for appetizers should be placed either on the show plate or in their usual position with the rest of the silvers. 7. The glass tumbler for water should be placed at the top of the large knife (Joint knife) 8. The butter dish should be placed at the tip of the fork, butter knife and the dish with the handle directed towards the right hand side of the guest. 9. The serviette should be placed either at the center of the cover or on the side plate or inside the water tumbler. 10. All cutleries, linen, plates etc. should be placed to 1 inch away from the edge of the table in a line. 11. Salt and pepper cruet set for each cover or between two covers.

12. The menu card should be placed either on the table or at the side board( but never tacked inside the waiters dickey) 13. The silver should be covered with a napkin to avoid the rattling noise. The silver should never be handled with bare hand while picking them up. Never touch the blades or prongs but hold the handles. 14. For every meal or for each cover there must be one side plate placed at the extreme left of the cover. The side knife (small knife) should be place on the side plates, with its cutting edge facing out side. 15. One ashtray should be provided on the table, which should be cleaned immediately after use. 16. On a round table cover are laid between legs. 17. Table number should be placed on the table in such a manner so that it becomes clearly visible from the entrance of the restaurants.

One of the technical terms very often used in the hospitality industry is a "cover". What does this mean? There are two definitions according to the context.

1) When discussing how many guests a restaurant or dining room will seat or how many guests will be attending a certain party, we refer to the total number of guests concerned as so many "covers". 2) When laying a table in readiness for service there are a variety of place settings, which have to be laid according to the type of meal and service being offered. This place setting is a type of cover being laid. In other words a cover denotes all the necessary cutlery, flatware, crockery, glassware and linen necessary to a lay a certain type of place setting for a specific meal.


This cover follows the principle that the cutlery and flatware for each course will be laid just before each course is served. The traditional cover given below represents the cover for hors d' oeuvres which is the first course in a classic menu sequence. Fish plate Serviette Fish knife Fish fork Side plate Side knife Wine glass When an a la carte cover is being laid, the cutlery and flatware required by the guest for the dishes ordered will be placed course by course. In other words there should not be at any time during the meal, more cutlery and flatware on the table than is required by the guest at that specific time.


This cover follows the principle that the cutlery and flatware for the entire meal will be laid before the first course is served. The traditional cover is given below: Serviette Soup spoon Fish knife Fish fork Meat knife Meat fork Dessert spoon Dessert fork Side plate Side knife Wine glass When a Table dhte cover has been laid, the steward should remove, after the order has been taken, any unnecessary cutlery and flatware and really any extra items that may be required. After the above covers have been laid, the tablelayout should be completed by the addition of the following items: Cruet set Ashtray Bud vase All applicable cutlery and flatware should be laid 1.25 cm from the edge of the table. Water goblets after polishing should be placed at the top right-hand of the cover.


One cover denotes all the necessary cutlery, flatware, crockery, glassware and linen necessary to lay a certain type of place setting for a specific meal, for a single person. SIZE OF ONE COVER = 18x24 Inches. STANDARD TABLE SETUP Central Appointments Ash Tray Flower Vase Cruet Set FOR ONE COVER Cheese Plate Butter Knife/Side Knife All Purpose Fork All Purpose Spoon All Purpose Knife Dinner Napkin Water Goblet


Round Table (4 Covers) 3 Feet in Diameter Round Table (8 Covers) 5 Feet in Diameter Rectangular Table (4 Covers) 4 Feet 6 Inches x 2 Feet 6 Inches. Square Table (2 Covers) 2 Feet 6 Inches Square Square Table (4 Covers) 3 Feet Square Round Table (4 Covers) 54 Inches x 54 Inches Square Table (2 Covers) 54 Inches x 54 Inches Square Table (4 Covers) 72 Inches x 72 Inches Rectangular Table (4 Covers) 72 Inches x 54 Inches



Dinner Napkin 18 Inches Square Cocktail Napkin 06 Inches Square


Height of Chair 18 Inches from the Ground to Base and 39 Inches Height of Table 02 Feet 6 Inches From Ground To Top


All Purpose Spoon - 8 Inches All Purpose Knife - 10 Inches All Purpose Fork - 8 Inches

The quality of food service in a restaurant is an important as the food itself. Thus to ensure the successful running of a restaurant, the style of food service to be adopted must be carefully chosen keeping in mind the following points. o Standard of the establishment o Standard of the guests. o Time available for service o Turnover of guest o Type of menu o Cost of the meals served o Location of the establishment o The number of staff employed o The amount of money involved in use of different equipment. Service of Food & Beverage in the hospitality industry is broadly classified into three segments. 1. Table Service 2. Self Service 3. Assisted Service

It means service to the customers at a laid cover. This type of service is also divided into seven categories. They are as follows: Platter to plate or Silver service Family service Pre plated or American service Butler service Russian service Gueridon or flamb service Bar counter service


DESCRIPTION USES ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGE S Presentation and service of food by the staffs from oval, flat dishes or portion bowls from the left hand side. High-class establishments, cruise liners, first class travel catering and formal banquets. Dishes look good and the service is of very high class by the skilled staffs. Required skilled staffs, cost are increased, service is slow and lots of cutleries and crockery are used.

DESCRIPTION USES ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGE S Main courses are plated with vegetables, placed in multi-portioned dishes for customers to help themselves. Sauces are offered. Some functions, private parties, clubs and institutions. Staff requirements & skills are decreased. It is timesaving. Customers can decide portions and accompaniments. Service is impersonal and wastage may occur.


DESCRIPTION USES ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGE S Service of pre-plated food direct from the kitchen. Semi-formal outlets, caf, coffee shops, fast-food outlets. Economy of equipment, speed & simplicity, saves labour, increases turnover, labour may be semi skilled but it reduces cost. Kitchen timings & staffs are increased. Appearance may be affected due to over crowding of plates.

DESCRIPTION USES ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGE S Presentation of food & beverage by the highly skilled staffs to the V.I.P. resident guests in their room or in the V.I.P. lounge. High class establishments and in Royal functions Personalized and good presentation. Required highly skilled staffs, increases costs, suitable for small gathering.

DESCRIPTION USES ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGE S Table is laid with food for guests to help themselves. At functions and private parties but limited use. Staff requirements & skills are decreased. It is timesaving. Customers can decide portions and accompaniments. Service is impersonal and wastage may occur.


DESCRIPTION TROLLEY TYPE USES ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGE S Food is served from the side table or trolley, may include carving, cooking and flambing, preparation of salads and their dressing. Gueridon or flamb, horsd`oeuvre, salads, sweets or pastries, deserts, cheese, wines & liqueur, cold cuts. Specialty restaurants, high-class establishments, nightclubs. Help in merchandising, foods are spectacular and classy. Required highly skilled staffs, time consuming, special & costly equipments, Portion control is difficult.


DESCRIPTION USES ADVANTAGES Service to the customers at bar counter. Seated on bar stools. Bars, pubs & nightclubs. Quick and personalized service.


More pressure on staffs, staffs need to be efficient.

It is a combination of Table & Self service. It is of two types. Buffet Service Carvery Service

DESCRIPTION USES ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGE S It is a service where guests select food & beverage from the display; consumption is either at the table or standing or in the lounge area. Banquets, private parties. Staff requirements are low. Possible queue, delays and erratic food control.

DESCRIPTION USES ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGE S Some parts are served and some are to be selfserved. Also used for breakfast service. Banquets, private parties. Staff requirements are low. Possible queue, delays and erratic food control.

It is a service by the customers themselves. It is also known as counter service or cafeteria service.


DESCRIPTION USES ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGE S The guests queue passes by a service counter, select their menu requirements and pay the cashier at the end of the counter. Institutional catering, fast food establishments. Clean, quick and economical for the staffs. Speed depends on the cashier and the back up staffs, cost of equipment is high.

The fundamental of true French service is that here the guest gets the opportunity to be helped to the restaurant staff. To the dishes. In French service the waiter fulfils the rule that is he serves the food and divides the potion for the guests. Generally French service is also known as silver service. The portion are individually served from electroplated silver or earthenware containers and served on the plates placed on the table before the guest. This form of service can also be done from a gueridon trolley. In this case the waiter places the dishes on the cover immediately after it is prepared. Sometimes flamb dishes are also served from the gueridion trolley. For this type of service movement space is required inside the restaurant, which adds to the luxury. It requires more number of waiters hence this is a very expensive type of service.



The basic of the English service is that it gives the opportunity to help themselves to the service of the dishes. This form of service originates from the English tradition of the master of the family or the host carving and portioning at the table. For large parties certainly, for a family of four or more, a sideboard should be used. But for a small party the food may be placed directly on the table. In this case the waiter brings the plates and dishes to the sideboard or to the table and sets them in front of the host. The host then portions the food and distributes it. Sometimes this service is also known as the carving and the service of the food is the responsibility of the host. Note:- It is interesting to note that silver service is claimed to be of French origin by the British as well as the French people and hence is the point of controversy regarding the actual origin of silver service.

The basic element in Russian service is derived from the old Russian style of having large joints, whole fish or whole birds, often decoratively treated in dishes with their elaborates garnishes kept on the side board visible to the guest to help themselves as an English service. The Russian service is still seen for the service of whole birds, meat joints and whole fish to be presented in large portion after carving from the sideboard. Otherwise Russian service as a distinctive and separate form of service of this style no longer exists.


Fundamentally, this is a simplified form of service evolved in recent years (Depending upon the pre plating and pre setting of tables with the silver needed throughout the meal). Plated food is brought from the kitchen by a waiter on a tray, which is then placed on a tray stand, beside a guests table.


This service cuts down the cost of labour (and there by its high priced). The clients or guests here get pre-plated food. The food is directly served from the kitchen. This is also a form of personalized service as waiters serve the guests. This kind of service is usually used in canteen, boarding houses and fast food restaurants and coffee shop.


The second type of service is self-help or cafeteria service. This service cuts down the cost of labour and thereby the high price food. The clientele or the guest here waits on himself or herself. This indicates that if the service is of their own. Here the customer takes a tray or plate and moves along-selecting the dishes from the display counter, and arrives at the place where the cashiers totals up the trays contents and the customer having made his payments carries the tray to the table. The used dishes are collected and returned to the washing up area by the cafeteria staff. Mobile trolleys are convenient for this purpose. Layout is a very important to ensure that the service is quick. Sufficient tables and chairs are provided in the dinning hall. The cafeteria unit must have a hot plate, refrigerator, a water cooler and a display counter. There should be a rail to rest and slide the trays upon. Some units have conveyer belts upon which the trays are placed. The service may be table dhte or a la Carte and the courses are provided in proper sequence. A strict supervision is very essential for a high-class cafeteria service. A spoon and knife and a fork wrapped in a napkin may be kept at one end of the counter for the customers to pick up. In India two types of cafeteria service are in operation. From the point of view of sales, in the first case coupons are sold at the beginning and the customers buy


food equal to the value of the coupons, but he is restricted from buying anything more unless he goes again to get the additional coupons. Many a times the customers feel lazy to do this and so in such cases it sometimes results into a loss of the business. In the second case the guest collects whatever he likes from the counter and pays at the end. If the cashier is not vigilant enough he can make mistakes in totaling, which may result into a loss of the business. But from the customers point of view this is a better arrangement.

It implies serving of food and beverage in guest rooms of hotels. Small orders are served in trays. Major means are taken to the room on trolleys. The guest places his order with the room service order taker. The waiter receives the order and transmits the same to the kitchen. In the meanwhile he prepares his tray or trolley. He then goes to the cashier to have a cheque prepared to take along with the food order for the guests signature or payment. Usually clearance of soiled dishes from the room is done after half an hour or an hour. However, the guest can telephone Room Service for the clearance as and when he has finished with the meal. There are two types of Room Service: CENTRALIZED: Here al the food orders are processed from the main kitchen and sent to the rooms by a common team of waiters. DECENTRALIZED: Each floor or a set of floor may have separate pantries to service them. Orders are taken at a central point by order-takers who in turn convey the order to the respective pantry. MOBILE PANTRIES: Some hotels have pantries installed in service elevators. A central point that conveys it to the mobile pantry receives orders. The pantry has to just switch on the floor and give instant service. For the sake of information, in countries, which have a shortage of manpower, large hotels install mechanized dispensing units in rooms. The guest inserts the necessary value of coins into the machine, which will eject pre-prepared food and beverages for guest consumption. BREAKFAST SERVICE Breakfast means breaking the fast and is the most important meal of the day. Breakfast service is very important for the waiter to create a favourable impression on the guest and ensure he comes back to the restaurant for all his other meals. Therefore, the service should be quick; the food should be of good quality and as ordered by the guest. Defined as the first meal of the day and literally means, breaking the fast of the night. It was during the 15th century that certain foods were created and served only at breakfast and this tradition continues even today. Today the foods eaten at home for breakfast have a lot to do with convenience, as people do not have the time to make and eat a leisurely breakfast. Bread-like items are popular breakfast foods during the workweek: bagels, muffins, scones, cereal or musli, with a cup of tea or coffee. Weekends are when the so-called "big breakfast" or "English breakfast" is served where eggs take center stage as well as bacon, sausages, tomatoes, toast, jams and preserves. Some breakfast foods and their countries of origin are: NORTH AMERICA - quick breads, especially muffins.


FRANCE - croissant SCANDINAVIA - Danish pastries GERMANY - kugelhopf (a rich yeast-leavened cake, similar to brioche, containing raisins and lemon peel with almonds on top.) SCOTLAND AND IRELAND - baps (a soft roll that contains butter or some other type of fat to produce a tender baked good.) ENGLAND - crumpet (a perforated pancake-type baked good made with yeast and cooked on a griddle in a ring mold.) SPAIN - churros (A deep-fried sweet dough, much like a doughnut, that is coated with confectioners' sugar or a cinnamon/sugar mixture when still hot.) MIS EN-PLACE FOR BREAKFAST SERVICE The evening before, a clean tablecloth is laid on the table, and then the cover is set. A full breakfast cover will require side plates, side knife salt pepper, mustard, cruet set, fish-knife, fish fork, large knife and large fork, a dessert spoon, arranged in the usual way. Ashtray and butter dish are also placed for breakfast. Next morning the table settings are completed with breakfast cups and saucer with teaspoon and table napkins. A bowl of grain sugar and another with sugar cubes or sugar milk, a jug of cream is also kept on the table. Arrangement is made for service of preserves, butter dish and butter knife. The sideboard should be ready with service accessories, extra napkins, water jug, tumblers, crockery and a number of proprietary sauces. The commis will assemble all the things on the sideboard just before the service. Unnecessary items should never be kept on the table. BREAKFAST SERVICE IN RESTAURANTS The guests are received in the usual way. The rules for serving breakfast are the same as any other meal. In first class restaurants or hotels, silver service is done but now-a-days most hotels provide plate service to expedite the service. Coffee, toasts, rolls, brioche and croissant are placed on the table at the same time as porridge or cereals unless the guest orders otherwise. At breakfast time toasts are always served in toast racks, and never stacked in a pile. Which makes it soggy? Make sure that the toasts and tea is freshly made and coffee and hot milk really hot. After the main dish, the waiter moves the side plate in front of the guest and serves the toast rack and preserves nearer to the guest. BREAKFAST SERVICE IN ROOMS This is done by the floor waiter (Chef detage) of the room service department. Trolleys or trays are used for serving breakfast in the guest rooms. Tray is used for one and trolleys for more than one room. They are laid with chine and cutlery the previous night in the floor pantry. At the last minute, the waiter places the hot food and beverage on the tray or trolley and takes sit to the guest room at the requested time. Breakfast in the rooms are usually ordered the previous night or given as a standing order or through doorknob breakfast order cards. After knocking and waiting to be admitted, the tray is placed on a special table on the bed if required by the guest. The trolley is wheeled into the room, placed in the center or by the window or bed as requested.

Before leaving the room, the waiter will show all the dishes to the guest so that changes can be made immediately, if required. The bill is also presented to the guest before the waiter leaves the room. There are some basic principles in food and beverage service that a waiter must know: 1. When the waiter at the table serves food from a platter onto a guest plate, the service is done from the left. 2. When food is pre-plated the service to the guest is usually done from the right, though modern convention permits service from the left also. 3. All beverages are served from the right. 4. Soups are served from the right unless it is poured by a waiter from a large tureen into a soup cup in which case it is done from the left of the guest. 5. Ladies are always served first and the remaining guests clockwise. Soiled plates should always be cleared from the table from the right. Empty crockery and fresh cutlery are always served from the right. Never reach across a Customer. Hence, when a guest is present at the table, all items and equipment on the right of guest must be placed from the right and that on the left from the left.


Pastry slicer Corn on the cob holder Caviar knife Grape scissors Sundae spoon Snail fork Silver skewers Sugar tongs Sweet fork Joint knife Soup spoon Dessert spoon Oyster fork Lobster pick Fruit knife & Fork Grape fruit spoon Cheese knife Snail tongs Preserve spoon Fish knife Table fork Table spoon Tea spoon Dessert fork Asparagus holder Pastry fork Butter knife Nutcrackers Ice cream spoon Snail dish Stilton scoop Mustard spoon Fish fork Side knife Sweet spoon Coffee spoon

Cereal bowl Tea cup / Saucer Coffee cup / Saucer Tea pot Sugar pot Cruet set

Joint plate / Large plate Half plate / Fish plate / Dessert plate Quarter plate / Side plate / B & B plate Soup plate Coffee pot Sauce boat

Champagne saucer Red wine glass Champagne flute Cocktail glasses

Wine goblets White wine glass

Martini glass High ball Rolly polly Worthington Sundae glass Brandy balloon Water tumbler Old fashioned

Dock glass Collins Shot glass Lager glass Beer goblet Brandy sniffer Beer mugs Champagne tulip

Port glass Zombie Juice glass Pilsner glass Water goblet Liqueur glass Beer tanker Fancy Collins


This is perhaps one of the most costly items in the overheads; therefore its control is of utmost importance. At the end of each service the dirty linen should be noted and sent to the housekeeping department to be exchanged for clean ones. Dirty serviettes (napkins) when being exchanged for cleans ones should be tied in bundles of tens. 1. TABLE CLOTH: Square, or a diameter. 183cm x 244cm (72in x 96in.) to fit a rectangular shaped table. 183cm x 137cm (72in.x 54in.) to fit a rectangular shaped table. 2. SLIP CLOTH: 3. SERVIETTE: 1 Mt x 1Mt (36in. x 36 in.) used to cover a grubby table cloth 46-50 cm (18-20 in.) square of linen. 36-42 cm (14-17 in.) square of paper. 137cm x 137cm (54in. x 54in.) to fit a table 76cm (2ft 6in.) Round table 1-meter (3 ft) diameter. 183cm x 183cm (72in. x 72in.) to fit a table 1 meter (3 ft.) in

4. BUFFET CLOTH: 2 mt x 4 mt (6ftx 12 ft). This is the general size and where there are Longer tables more buffet cloth is required. 5. TROLLEY CLOTH OR SIDE BOARD CLOTH: They are usually made from tablecloth Which are not suitable for use on the tables anywhere. 6. WAITERS CLOTH OR SIDE BOARD CLOTH: USED by every waiter or on tray for the service. 7. GLASS CLOTH: Used for polishing and wiping glassware.


A meal is defined as a dish or a set of dishes taken in a particular time of a day to satisfy ones hunger. Following are the types of meal: The general timing is around 6:00 to 8:30am, again may vary from person to person. It should be a very heavy meal, because the longest period of time for which the stomach remains without food in between previous nights dinner and the morning breakfast. The different types of Breakfast are as follows:a) CONTINENTAL BREAKFAST: It is also known as European Breakfast. It contains fruit juice (fresh or canned), cut fruits, toast or breads along with jam, jelly, marmalade, butter, honey etc. It ends with tea or coffee. When the breakfast with tea, it is known as THE SIMPLE and when it ends with coffee it known as THE CAF SIMPLE. THE COVER LAYOUT CONSISTS OF: (a) A side plate and a side knife (b) A butter dish and a butter knife on a quarter plate (c) A tea cup and saucer with a teaspoon (d) A sugar pot with tongs (e) A bread boat or toast rack (f) Serviette (g) Jam, marmalade and honey pots


b) AMERICAN BREAKFAST: This breakfast is heavier then the continental breakfast. It contains fresh or canned fruit juices, cut fruits, cereals (corn flakes, wheat flakes etc.) with hot or cold meal, sugar or honey. The bread or toast with preservatives followed by EGG TO ORDER which means efficient preparation of eggs can be served according to the choice of the guest. Finally it ends with coffee or tea. c) ENGLISH BREAKFAST: This breakfast is the heaviest of all breakfast at first fresh fruits juice and cut fruits are served. Then the serials are given with hot or cold milk with sugar or honey. Then breads or toasts are served with preserves followed by the EGG TO ORDER. Then the meat or fish preparations are served and finally it ends up with coffee it is known as THE CAF COMPLETE. THE COVER CONSISTS OF: (a) A side plate and a side knife (b) A butter dish and a butter knife on a quarter plate (c) A tea cup and saucer with a teaspoon (d) A sugar pot (a tongs, if there are sugar cubes) (e) A cruet set (/) A fish knife and fish fork (g) Dinner knife and fork (h) Jam, marmalade and honey (i) Dessert spoon and fork (j) Serviette TYPICAL ENGLISH BREAKFAST MENU: Chilled fruit juices: Orange, pineapple. Tomato, grapefruit. Stewed fruit: Prunes, pears, apples, figs. Cereals: Porridge, cornflakes. Fish: Grilled herring, fried sole. Eggs: Poached, boiled, scrambled, fried, omelets Meat: Sausages, bacon, salami, kidney, breakfast steak. Breads: Toast, rolls, brioche, croissant, bread sucks. Preserves: Jam, marmalade, honey, butter. Beverage: Tea, coffee, hot chocolate. Eggs can be served with: grilled tomatoes, sauted mushrooms, baked beans, fried Potatoes. d) INDIAN BREAKFAST: These various types of preparations, which differ from region to region in India. Such as puri & bhaji, paratha & sabji, stuffed paratha like aloo paratha, paneer paratha etc with curd & pickles, idli and dosa with sambhar & chatni, lassi fresh fruit juice, regional sweet dishes are also included. This is an intermediate meal between breakfast and lunch. The name has derived from the timing of the meal. As it is taken around 11oclock in the morning. At this time a cup of tea or coffee is taken with biscuits or cookies. This is the first major meal of the day; generally it is served around 12 noon to 1:30 pm. During this time various dishes are taken but the amount must be



controlled A good amount of food is that when you think that a little more can be eaten, stop at that time. It is normally taken at around 2:30 to 3:00pm, a cup of tea or coffees along with cookies are taken. It is also known as La five o clock. It is taken generally between 4:30 to 6pm.It is somewhat an elaborate meal. Tea or coffee is taken along with a good amount of snacks like cutlets, fish fingers. Fritters. Cocktails. Sandwiches, kebabs, pakodas. 6. DINNER It is the most elaborate meal of the day. It is taken in a relaxed mood. The time of dinner is generally 8:30 to 9:30pm.A heavy wholesome food is taken, which involves many courses. Alcoholic beverage is also served in dinner. It is the second major meal after the lunch. 7. SUPPER It is taken just before sleeping. It is very light and consists of only one or two cookies or goodnight chocolates.



In olden times, the bill of ---- as it is termed in English, or menu in French was not presented at the table. It is said that in the year 1541AD,in a state banquet Duke Henry of Brunswick was seen to refer to a long slip of paper. On being asked about the contents of that paper he said it was a programme of dishes prepared for the party and with reference to it he could see what items was coming and save his appetite accordingly. Thus we may presume that the menu developed from this event. UTILITY OF MENU PLANNING 1 It enables the guest to select dishes according to his liking and budget. 2 It enables the cook to verify what he is cooking everyday 3 It enables the waiter to take order clearly and quickly without confusion. 4 It enables the management to arrive at the cost for the preparation of food in the kitchen and maintaining proper profitability. TYPES OF MENU Although menu can be made for various types of establishment, occasions clients and function. There are basically two types of menu 1. Table dhte 2. A la Carte. The former is a menu at fixed price with limited or no choice and the a la carte is a list of all dishes that may be prepared by the establishment and from which the guest may choose his own menu. Each dish is priced separately and a certain cooking time has to be allowed because it is cooked to order.

MAXIMS OF MENU PLANNING The menu is the most important part of the caterers work, and its planning or compilation is regarded as an art, which can only be acquired through experience and studies. The menu may be treated as a bridge linking the establishment to the customers. Thus this important link should be handled by a number of people in liaison namely the F&B manager, Executive chef. It must be remembered that a suitable menu is one, which considers the following factors: 1) The principle of balanced diet. 2) The principle of digestibility. 3) Seasons of the year and availability of raw materials. 4) The nature of occasion (especially of the party catering) 5) The resources of the kitchen staff and equipment available within the specific Period. 6) The resources of serving staff including the space and availability of equipment. 7) Clear cost and price policy of the management. 8) Balancing of food in terms of flavour, color, texture and consistency. 9) Storage facility. The following are other important points to be considered while compiling a table d'hote menu: Menu should not contain two dishes, which are composed of the same principle ingredient. Example if cauliflower soup is in the menu cauliflower should not be used in vegetable curry or in any vegetable boiled preparation afterwards. Two white meats or two red meats should never follow each other. Example Pork with veal or mutton with beef or chicken with turkey. A light dish should be followed by heavier dish and again a lighter dish should follow it. Repetition of cooking methods should be avoided. Example If grilled fish is there in the menu grilled chicken or grilled mutton should be avoided. LANGUAGE The menu should be written either in French or in English or in any local vernacular language, and should be clearly and easily understandable to the guest. There should not be any mixture of language. Dished of nation or of outstanding or personal importance should not be translated. Example Irish stew, Fish Colbert etc. Ensure proper spelling and correct terms and correct sequence within the course.


According to the French classical menu there are twelve elaborate courses as given below:

1. APPETIZERS OR HORS D'OEUVRE:This course is composed usually of dishes of tangy and salty nature with which a meal often commences with an aim to stimulate appetite. The term Hors d'oeuvre varieties usually applied to a variety of dishes offered under this course such as potato salad, Russian salad, meat salad, chicken salad, sausages, salami, smoked salmon, egg mayonnaise, goose liver paste, anchovies, sardines etc. Single items may also be served from the above list of appetizers before the service of soup. Some fruits juices, fruit cocktails, certain varieties of fresh fruits, different shellfish cocktails etc. are also served as appetizers. There are mainly two types of appetizers: (a)General Appetizers (b)Classical Appetizers. a) GENERAL APPETIZERS: Fish knife and fish fork are the silver used in this course. Many establishments have introduced their own specially designed cutleries for the service of hors d oeuvres which are know as hors doeuvre knife and hors doeuvre fork. The general crockery is a half plate.

b) CLASSICAL APPETIZERS: Different dishes served under this heading are oysters, caviar, prawn cocktails, crab cocktails, melon grape fruit tomato juice cocktails pineapple punch etc. Service of these dishes may be as follows:

a. FRUIT JUICE: These are served in a fruit juice glass (pony tumbler / glass)
Placed on an under plate with a teaspoon.

b. MELON: There are mainly five types of melon served in restaurant namely

Cantaloupe, Cherantaise, Honeydew, Pasteque and Watermelon. When the melon is over ripe and served with skin, a dessertspoon should be provided in addition to its usual silver, fruit knife and fruit fork. If the melon is cut into small pieces, provide a teaspoon. The general crockery is a half plate. liner with a grape fruit spoon. In case of non-availability of grapefruit spoon and fork a teaspoon is provided. If the grape fruit cup is not available place the grape fruit on a napkin folded into a lotus shape, which is further placed on a half plate.

c. GRAPE FRUIT: Grape fruit is served in a grape fruit cup placed on an under

Some examples of general Hors doeuvres


B. C. D.

SALADS (PLAIN AND COMPOUND): Examples of plain salads includes fish and meat salads, cucumber salad, tomato salad, potato salad, beetroot salad etc. Examples of compound salads include Russian salads (mixed vegetables in mayonnaise), Italian salad (vegetable salad with cube of salami, anchovy fillets and mayonnaise). FISH: It may include items such as anchovy, herring, lobster, mackerel, smoked eel etc. MEAT: Includes items such as pates, ham, (raw, boiled or smoked) and salami. CANAPS: These are slices of bones with crusts removed, cut into a variety of shapes, then toasted or fried in oil or butter and garnished. Garnishes can include smoked salamis, fois gras, prawns, cheese, asparagus tips, egg, gherkins etc. EGGS: These can be poached or hard boiled cut into two and garnished or stuffed with onions fillings, which include the yolk.




ASPARAGUS: Fresh asparagus cab is extra hot with melted butter or hollandaise sauce or cold with vinaigrette or mayonnaise. It is useful to place an upturned fork under the right hand side of the plate tip the plate so that the sauce will form in a well at the bottom of the plate towards the left hand side. Eating can be with a side knife and fork, with an asparagus tong (holder) or with the fingers. If with the fingers, then a finger bowl and a spare napkin should be offered. CAVIAR: Caviar is the roe of sturgeon fish, the best-known species of fish. (Caviar is the roe of sturgeon family. It is also made of the roe of beluga, herring ...........starka, osetra. Served with a caviar knife


(carved blade knife) or side knife on the right hand side of the cover. Served onto a cold fish plate. A finger bowl is also provided on the table. If caviar knife is not available a fish knife and fish fork is laid on the table.


CHARCUTERIE: This can include a selection of orange or meat (mainly pork items including ham, salamis, smoked ham etc. Cover is a side knife and dessert fork or a joint knife and fork. OYSTERS: They are sold in dozens in the market and generally six oysters are served in a portion. Oysters are served on a bed of crushed ice in a soup plate or tea plate, which should again be placed on an under plate. Silver used for oysters is an oyster fork placed on the right hand side of the cover making an angle of 45 degree with the edge of the table. If oyster fork is not available a fish fork is provided. A finger bowl should also be placed on the table. SHELLFISH COCKTAIL: prawn cocktail, lobster cocktail, shrimp cocktail, crab cocktail, Cray fish cocktail etc are served in a tall lobster cocktail glass placed on an under plate with a tea spoon.



In general soup may be called an extract of meat or vegetable. Usually two types of soups are provided on the menu. (A)Thick or cream soup (B)Thin or clear soup THICK OR CREAM SOUP: Are served in a soup plate with a soupspoon kept on the right hand side. Examples are cream of tomato soup, puree of lentil soup, Scotch broth, mulligatawny soup THIN OR CLEAR SOUP: This type of soup can be further divided into two kinds. 1) Consomm without garnish 2) Consomm with garnish Consomm with garnish are served in deep plate or a soup plate with a soupspoon placed on the right hand side of the cover. Example consomm julienne, consomm royal, consomm celestine etc. Consomm without garnish are served in a double handled soup cup with a dessertspoon placed at the right hand side of the cover. Example consomm Claire and Consomm en tasse. Note: - now days many catering establishment serve all different types of consomm or clear soup, in consomm cup or soup cup with a dessert spoon. Fish being a lighter dish prepares the palate for the heavier dishes to follow. Silvers used are fish knife and fish fork and the food is served on a half plate. Dishes following fish are served before the main course is known as entre, which literally means entrance. This dish is complete in itself with its appropriate accompanying sauces and vegetables. Example meat chop, breast cutlets, chicken




cutlets, etc. and various other dishes made of egg, example scotch egg, peas omelets etc. Silvers used are small knife, small fork and the food is served in half plate. It is better known as joints such as legs of mutton, ribs of beef, shoulder of lamb, saddle of mutton etc. braised or roasted or grilled or boiled and served along with potatoes and at least two vegetables with their appropriate sauce. This actually the main course of the menu. In Indian style of cooking, curries may be made out of such joints and are served with accompaniments like pulao, rice, chapattis, naan, pickles, chutney, papad, Bombay duck etc. Silvers used are large knife and large fork and the food is served on a full plate. In Indian type of main dish a dessertspoon may also be provided in addition to its usual silver. A finger bowl with lukewarm water should also be placed on the table. This is actually a rest course and consumed. A sorbet is a water ice brandy. Served in a tumbler with a preferably strong variety are served



it counter acts the effects of dishes already flavoured with a few drops of champagne or teaspoon placed on an under plate, Cigarette in the course.

This course signifies the poultries and game, for example chicken, duck, turkey, partridge, pheasants etc. accompanied by suitable sauces and gravy. Nicely dressed salad is also served with it, along with some potato preparation. Silver used is large knife large fork and the food is served in a full plate. In Indian type of preparation, a finger bowl and an additional dessertspoon should be given.


In this course dressed vegetables are served as a separate dish itself and the vegetables mostly chosen are asparagus, artichoke, cauliflower, cabbage, tomato, French beans, green peas etc. These items are served on a half plate with a small knife and a small fork lay on the table. For serving asparagus no cutlery is required as it is eaten with hand. A finger bowl should be provided with each. This course may consist of either hot or cold sweets. Example: caramel custard, honeycomb mould, coffee mouse, opera cream etc. Silvers provided for general sweets are dessertspoon or dessert fork or small fork. Crockery is half plate. Plain ice cream, vanilla ice cream, strawberry ice cream, pistachio ice cream etc. Are served in an ice cream cup with an ice cream spoon on an under plate. Parfait ice cream like tutti fruity is served in a tall parfait glass with a parfait spoon placed on under plate. There are mainly three types of savouries. Savouries are small tit-bits, which are salty and tangy in taste, served to cut down the sweetness of tongue. FISH SAVOURY- Sardine, Tuna, is generally served on toast as fish savoury. Generally silver are fish knife and fish fork. And the dish is served on a half plate. MEAT SAVOURY Liver on toast, kidney on toast, angel on horseback, are served as meat savoury on half plate with a small knife and a small fork.





CHEESE SAVOURY- Assorted cheese is offered to the guests on a cheese boat placed on the cheese tray with a cheese knife. For the guest a cheese plate or a quarter plates should be placed on the cover along with a small knife. Cheese should always be served with some accompaniment like cream cracker biscuits, butter, celery stick, watercress. A finger bowl should also be provided on the table. It means the service of fruits may be fresh or dry. Assorted fruits are served on fruit baskets. Silver used on the cover is fruit knife and fruit fork. Finger bowl should also be passed on the table. If grapes are served, a grape scissor and an additional finger bowl with cold water should also be laid on the table. In case of nuts provide a nutcracker. Fruits should always be served in a fruit plate. It is served at the end of a meal in a coffee cup or demi tasse. Liquors or brandy may also be served along with coffee. Cigarettes or cigars are also offered to the guest at this stage. Note: - While planning a menu coffee should not be considered to be one of the courses. It is just the concluding part of a meal. When a meal completes with tea, its known as COMPLETE. And when a meal completes with coffee, its known as CAF COMPLETE.






1. HORSD OEUVRES (APPETIZERS): Traditionally this course consisted of a variety of compound salads but now includes items such as pates, mousses, fruits, Charcuterie and smoked fish. 2. POTAGES (SOUP): include all soups both hot and cold

3. OEUFS (EGG DISHES): There is great number of egg dishes beyond the usual
omelettes but these have not retained its popularity in modern menus. 4. FARINEUX (PASTA AND RICE): Include all pasta and rice dishes. Can be referred to as farinaceous dishes.

4. POISSON (FISH): This course consists of fish dishes both hot and cold. E.g.
smoked salmon, smoked trout.

6. ENTRE: Entre are generally small and well-garnished dishes generally come from the kitchen ready for serve. They are usually accompanied by a rich sauce or gravy. 7. SORBET: Traditionally sorbets (now called granites) were served to give a pause within a meal, allowing the palate to be refreshed. They are lightly frozen water ices often based on unsweetened fruit juice and may be served with a spirit, liqueur or even champagne poured over. Cigars and cigarettes are offered. 8. RELEVE: This refers to main roasts or other larger joints of meat, which could be served with potatoes and vegetable. 9. ROTI: This term traditionally refers to roasted game or poultry dishes. 10. VEGETABLE: Apart from vegetables served in releve certain vegetables can be served separately in this course such as asparagus and artichokes. 11. SALAD: Often refers to a small plate of salad, which is taken after a main course. E.g. Green salad with dressing. 12. BUFFET FROID (COLD BUFFET): this course includes a variety of cold meats, fish and egg items together with a range of salads and dressings. 13. FROMAGE (CHEESE):Includes various cheese varieties and biscuits, breads, celery, grapes and apples. This course refers to dishes like souffls. 14. ENTREMETS (SWEETS): Refers to both hot and cold puddings. 15. SAVOUREUX (SAVOURY): Sometimes simple savouries such as welsh rarebit or other items on toast, or in pastries or in savoury souffls may be served at this stage. 16. DESSERT (FRUIT): Fresh fruits and nuts and sometimes-candid fruits are served. 17. CAF (BEVERAGES): Traditionally it refers to coffee but now tea, tisanes, chocolates, and proprietary beverages are also served.