Sie sind auf Seite 1von 119

Rvisez vos bases en anglais

I.

Alphabet anglais et prononciation A a /e / B /bi / C cee /si D dee /di / E e /i / F E-F H aitch /e t /, parfois / f/ (crit EFF comme verbe) G / gee /d i/ haitch /he t I /a / J geai /d /; parfois jy /d a / K kay /ke / L EL / l/ M fin de support / m/ N en / n/ O o /o / P pipi /pi / Q slection /kju / R ar / r/ S ess / s/ T pice en t /ti / U u /ju / V v /vi / W double-u /d b l ju/ (lisez dabol you) X ex / ks/ Y wy /wa / Z zed /z d/; zee /zi / dans L'anglais amricain

II. 1. a AFFIRMATION
SUJET-VERBE-COMPLEMENT

STRUCTURES DE PHRASES

He gets up at 5 o'clock every morning. (prsent simple) Il se lve 5 heures tous les matins. He is reading a book. (prsent continu) Il lit un livre. He played tennis. (prtrit simple) Il jouait au tennis. He was playing tennis. (prtrit continu) Il jouait au tennis. He will play cards. (futur) Il jouera aux cartes.

b. NEGATION
SUJET-AUXILIAIRE-NOT-VERBE-COMPLEMENT He does not get up at 5 o'clock. He is not reading a book. He did not play tennis. He was not playing tennis. He won't play tennis.

c. INTERROGATION
AUXILIAIRE-SUJET-VERBE-COMPLEMENT ? Does he get up at 5 o'clock? Is he reading a book? Did he play tennis? Was he playing tennis? Will he play cards?

*. Liste des auxiliaires:


* be (tre) * do * have + participe pass (lorsque have (avoir) n'est pas suivi d'un participe pass, il n'est pas auxiliaire!) * auxiliaires de modalit: will, may, must, can...

EXERCICE 1

1) Poser la question sur llment soulign : 1. She is in her bedroom. 2. Matt and his sister like dancing. 3. Dan was born in 1990. 4. He is 5 feet 4 inches. 5. He left the office because he was upset. 6. Sue bought five books. 7. Peter went to Italy last month. 8. The school is 2 miles from here. 9. This CD costs 10. 10. Walter is sixteen years old.

Corrig (exo 1) Poser la question sur llment soulign : 1. She is in her bedroom. ------> Where is she? 2. Matt and his sister like dancing. ------> What do they like doing? 3. Dan was born in 1990. ------> When was he born? 4. He is 5 feet 4 inches . ------> How tall is he?

5. He left the office because he was upset. ------> Why did he leave his office? 6. Sue bought five books. ------> What did she buy? 7. Peter went to Italy last month. ------> Who went to Italy last month? 8. The school is 2 miles from here. ------> How far is the school? 9. This CD costs 10. ------> How much does this CD cost? 10. Walter is sixteen years old. ------> How old is Walter?

2. LE PRESENT SIMPLE

2.1 Conjugaison To like (aimer)

Phrases affirmatives

Phrases ngatives

Phrases interrogatives

I You

like like

I You He / She / It We You They

do not like do not like does not like do not like do not like do not like

Do Do

I you

like...? like...?

He / She/ It likes We You They like like like

Does he/ she/ it like...? Do Do Do we you they like...? like...? like...?

Remarque: Il y a un "s" la 3e personne du singulier. Aprs -ss, -sh, -ch, -x, on ajoute -es: she watches it brushes he watches he mixes Noter les verbes "do" et "go": he does / goes Pour les verbes finissant en -y, le y se transforme en i. Ex: to fly----> he flies. NB: Contraction de l'auxiliaire et la ngation "not": I do not like this book----------------> I don't like this book He does not like this book---------> He doesn't like this book.

Le "n" est coll l'auxiliaire et l'apostrophe remplace le "o" de "not".

2.2 Auxiliaires tre (to be) et avoir (to have):

TO BE
I You am (I'm) I You

TO HAVE
have have (I've) (You've) (He's) (We've) (You've) (They've)

are (You're) (He's)

He / She / It is We You They

He / She / It has We You They have have have

are (We're) are (You're) are (They're)

j Emploi

Le Present Simple ne correspond pas exactement au prsent franais. On dit souvent qu'il a une valeur atemporelle, car il peut renvoyer au pass ou lavenir. Il s'utilise pour parler:

* de vrits permanentes :
The sun rises in the East. Le soleil se lve lEst. Water boils at 100C. L'eau bout 100C * de proprits du sujet (tat, gots, apparence, perceptions):

Deb thinks that it is too late. Deb pense qu'il est trop tard. Kate likes playing tennis. Kate aime jouer au tennis. She wants to become a nurse.

Elle veut devenir infirmire. It sounds strange. Cela semble trange. She looks tired. Elle semble fatigue.

* d'une action habituelle:


They usually play football on Sundays. Ils jouent habituellement au football le dimanche. She often goes to the theatre. Elle va souvent au thtre.

* d'indications scniques, de romans, d'vnements sportifs en direct...:


She suddenly looks at him and says : " I won't!". Elle le regarde soudain et dit : " je ne veux pas! ".

* d'un vnement futur programm:


The president leaves for Paris at 10 tomorrow. Le prsident part pour Paris demain 10 heures.

2.3 LE PRESENT CONTINU

Conjugaison To work ( travailler) BE + V-ing

Phrases affirmatives

Phrases ngatives

Phrases interrogatives

I You

am working are working

I You He / She / It We You They

am not working are not working is not working are not working are not working are not working

Am Are Is Are Are Are

I you

working...? working...?

He / She/ It is working We You They are working are working are working

he/ she/ it working...? we you they working...? working...? working...?

Le prsent continu est galement appel prsent en BE + ING, ce qui est plus explicite quant la formation de ce temps. Notez bien qu'avec ce temps, on utilise l'auxiliaire tre, donc on n'a pas besoin de prendre l'auxiliaire "do"( contrairement au prsent simple).

Emploi * On utilise le prsent continu (ou progressif) pour une action en cours de droulement. C'est--dire que lorsqu'on peut traduire par "est en train de", on doit utiliser ce temps. Ex: Elle lit un livre (sous-entendu en ce moment), on peut galement dire: elle est en train de lire un livre-------------> She is reading a book. A chaque fois que l'on ne peut dire "en train de", on utilisera le prsent simple. D'autre part, certains verbes sont incompatibles avec la forme en -ing. Les plus importants sont: be (dans la plupart des cas), believe, like, know, hate, hear, prefer, want. * On utilise galement la forme progressive pour faire un commentaire: Ex: Il pose toujours des questions stupides! He's always asking silly questions!

3. LE PRETERIT SIMPLE

Conjugaison To play (jouer) V+ed

Phrases affirmatives

Phrases ngatives

Phrases interrogatives

I You

played played

I You He / She / It We You They

did not play did not play did not play did not play did not play did not play

Did Did Did Did Did Did

I you

play...? play...?

He / She/ It played We You They played played played

he/ she/ it play...? we you they play...? play...? play...?

On ajoute -ed au verbe. Did est le prtrit de l'auxiliaire do. Le prtrit est le temps du pass. En franais, il existe 3 principaux temps du pass (le pass compos, l'imparfait et le pass simple). Ce qui signifie que la phrase "she played tennis" peut se traduire par: "elle a jou au tennis", "elle jouait au tennis" ou "elle joua au tennis".

TO BE
I You He / She / It We You They was were was were were were I You He / She / It We You They

TO HAVE
had had had had had had

3.1 LE PRETERIT CONTINU

Conjugaison To work (travailler) BE (prtrit) + V-ing

Phrases affirmatives

Phrases ngatives

Phrases interrogatives

I You

was working were working

I You He / She / It We You They

was not working were not working was not working were not working were not working were not working

Was

working...? working...?

Were you Was

He / She/ It was working We You They were working were working were working

he/ she/ it working...? working...? working...? working...?

Were we Were you Were they

Il se forme comme le prsent continu, mais l'auxiliaire tre est conjugu au prtrit. Emploi Ce temps s'emploie pour indiquer qu'une action ou un vnement tait en cours au moment donn du pass. Il correspond gnralement un imparfait franais. While I was having a bath the phone rang. Pendant que je prenais un bain le tlphone sonna. What were you doing at 9 last night? Que faisiez-vous hier soir 9 heures? Le prtrit continu s'emploie frquemment en contraste avec le prtrit simple. Le prtrit continu dsigne alors une action qui tait en cours, et le prtrit simple un fait qui s'est produit (qui gnralement interrompt l'autre action). She was walking, when suddenly she heard a strange noise. Elle marchait, quand soudainement elle entendit un bruit trange.

3.2 VERBES IRREGULIERS : IRREGULAR VERBS NB : apprenez au moins 5 verbes par jour

Base verbale
Arise Awake Be Bear Beat Become Beget Begin Behold Bend Beseech Beset Bespeak Bestride Bet Bid Bid Bind Bite Bleed Blow Break Breed Bring Build Burn Burst Buy Cast Catch Chide

Prtrit
Arose Awake Was, Were Bore Beat Became Begot Began Beheld Bent Besought Beset Bespoke Bestrode Bet Bid Bade Bound Bit Bled Blew Broke Bred Brought Built Burnt, Burned Burst Bought Cast Caught Chid

Participe pass
Arisen Awoken Been Borne Beaten Become Begotten Begun Beheld Bent Besought Beset Bespoken Bestridden Bet Bid Bidden Bound Bitten Bled Blown Broken Bred Brought Built Burnt, Burned Burst Bought Cast Caught Chid, Chidden

Traduction
Se lever S'veiller tre Supporter Battre Devenir Engendrer Commencer Contempler Courber Implorer Cerner Annoncer Enjamber Parier Enchrir Commander Lier Mordre Saigner Souffler Casser lever Apporter Btir Brler clater Acheter Lancer Attraper Gronder

Choose Cleave Cling Clothe Come Cost Creep Crow Cut Dare Deal Dig Do Draw Dream Drink Drive Dwell Eat Fall Feed Feel Fight Find Flee Fling Fly Forbear Forbid Forecast Forget Forgive Forsake Freeze Get Gild Gird Give Go

Chose Cleft, Clove Clung Clad, Clothed Came Cost Crept Crew, Crowed Cut Durst, Dared Dealt Dug Did Drew Dreamt, Dreamed Drank Drove Dwelt Ate Fell Fed Felt Fought Found Fled Flung Flew Forbore Forbade Forecast Forgot Forgave Forsook Froze Got Gilt Girt Gave Went

Chosen Cleft, Cloven Clung Clad, Clothed Come Cost Crept Crowed Cut Durst, Dared Dealt Dug Done Drawn Dreamt, Dreamed Drunk Driven Dwelt Eaten Fallen Fed Felt Fought Found Fled Flung Flown Forborne Forbidden Forecast Forgotten Forgiven Forsaken Frozen Got Gilt Girt Given Gone

Choisir Cliver S'accrocher Vtir Venir Coter Ramper Se vanter Couper Oser Distribuer Creuser Faire Dessiner Rver Boire Conduire Habiter Manger Tomber Nourrir Sentir Combattre Trouver Fuir Lancer Voler S'abstenir Dfendre Prdire Oublier Pardonner Abandonner Geler Obtenir Dorer Ceindre Donner Aller

10

Grind Grow Hang Hang Have Hear Heave Hew Hide Hit Hold Hurt Keep Kneel Knit Know Lade Lay Lead Lean Leap Learn Leave Lend Let Lie Light Lose Make Mean Meet Melt Mistake Mow Pay Put Quit Read Rend Rid

Ground Grew Hung Hanged Had Heard Hove Hewed Hid Hit Held Hurt Kept Knelt Knit Knew Laded Laid Led Leant Leapt Learnt Left Lent Let Lay Lit Lost Made Meant Met Melted Mistook Mowed Paid Put Quit Read Rent Rid

Ground Grown Hung Hanged Had Heard Hove Hewn Hid, hidden Hit Held Hurt Kept Knelt Knit Known Laden Laid Led Leant Leapt Learnt Left Lent Let Lain Lit Lost Made Meant Met Melted, Molten Mistaken Mown Paid Put Quit Read Rent Rid

Moudre Crotre Suspendre Pendre (supplice) Avoir Entendre Se soulever Tailler Cacher Frapper, atteindre Tenir Blesser Garder S'agenouiller Tricoter Connatre Charger Poser Conduire Se pencher Bondir Apprendre Laisser Prter Laisser tre couch Allumer Perdre Faire Signifier Rencontrer Fondre Se tromper Faucher Payer Mettre Quitter Lire Dchirer Dbarrasser

11

Ride Ring Rise Run saw say see seek seethe sell send set sew shake shear shed shine shoe shoot show shred shrink shrive shut sing sink sit slay sleep slide sling slink slit smell smite sow speak speed spell spend

Rode Rang Rose Ran sawed said saw sought sod sold sent set sewed shook shore shed shone shod shot showed shred shrank shrove shut sang sank sat slew slept slid slung slunk slit smelt smote sowed spoke sped spelt spent

Ridden Rung Risen Run sawn said seen sought sodden sold sent set sewn shaken shorn shed shone shod shot shown shred shrunk, shrunken shriven shut sung sunk sat slain slept slid slung slunk slit smelt smitten sown spoken sped spelt spent

Chevaucher Sonner Se lever Courir scier dire voir chercher bouillir vendre envoyer placer coudre secouer tondre verser briller chausser tirer montrer lacrer se rtrcir confesser fermer chanter enfoncer tre assis tuer dormir glisser lancer se glisser fendre sentir frapper semer parler se hter peler dpenser

12

spill spin spit split spoil spread spring stand steal stick sting stink strew stride strike string strive swear sweat sweep swell swim swing take teach tear tell think thrive throw thrust tread understand undo upset wake wear weave weep win

spilt spun, span spat split spoilt spread sprang stood stole stuck stung stank,stunk strewed strode struck strung strove swore sweat swept swelled swam swung took taught tore told thought throve threw thrust trod understood undid upset woke wore wove wept won

spilt spun spat split spoilt spread sprung stood stolen stuck stung stunk strewn stridden struck strung striven sworn sweat swept swollen swum swung taken taught torn told thought thriven thrown thrust trodden understood undone upset woken, woke worn woven wept won

rpandre filer, tourner cracher fendre (en clat) gter etendre s'lancer se tenir debout voler(drober) coller piquer puer joncher marcher grands pas frapper enfiler s'efforcer jurer suer balayer enfler nager balancer prendre enseigner dchirer dire penser prosprer jeter lancer fouler (aux pieds) comprendre dfaire renverser veiller porter, user tisser pleurer gagner

13

wind withdraw withstand work wring write

wound withdrew withstood worked wrung wrote

wound withdrawn withstood worked wrung written

enrouler retirer rsister travailler tordre crire

3.3 LE PRESENT PERFECT (le plus que parfait)

Conjugaison To live (vivre) HAVE + Participe pass

Phrases affirmatives

Phrases ngatives

Phrases interrogatives

14

I You

have lived have lived

I You He / She / It We You They

have not lived have not lived has not lived have not lived have not lived have not lived

Have I Have Has you

lived...? lived...?

He / She/ It has lived We You They have lived have lived have lived

he/ she/ it lived...? lived...? lived...? lived...?

Have we Have you

Have they

Emploi Le present perfect n'a pas d'quivalent en franais. Il faut donc connatre ses principaux emplois (action passe ayant un lien avec le prsent): * action qui a commenc dans le pass et qui est toujours valable dans le prsent: Ex: He has lived in Canada for 5 years.-------> Il habite au Canada depuis 5 ans. She has worked for this company since 1990.---------> Elle travaille pour cette socit depuis 1990. Voir diffrence entre for et since * "bilan du vcu": phrases qui expriment l'ide de jusqu' prse nt, souvent associes des adverbes tels que ever, never, already, yet. Ex: Have you ever read Hamlet? ---------> As-tu dj lu Hamlet? Have you ever been to Japan? ----------> Es-tu dj all au Japon? I have never seen that film. ----------> Je n'ai jamais vu ce film. I have already been to Canada. ---------> Je suis dj all au Canada. * actions passes qui ont des rpercussions dans le prsent. On met en relation un vnement pass avec la situation prsente: Ex: I can't come because I have broken my leg.--------> Je ne peux pas venir parce que je me suis cass une jambe. I have lost my keys---------> J'ai perdu mes cls (sous-entendu: je ne les ai toujours pas retrouves) Lorsqu'il n'y a pas de rapport entre l'vnement pass et la situation prsente, il faut employer le prtrit.

Remarque: Present perfect en BE+ING: On insiste alors sur l'activit du sujet. Ex: He has painted the door (present perfect simple) ---> La porte est peinte (rsultat) He has been painting the door (present perfect en BE+ING) ---> Il a fait de la peinture (activit du sujet)

15

3.4 LE FUTUR
Conjugaison To run (courir) WILL + Base verbale

Phrases affirmatives

Phrases ngatives

Phrases interrogatives

I You

will run will run

I You He / She / It We You They

won't run won't run won't run won't run won't run won't run

Will Will Will Will Will Will

I you

run...? run...?

He / She/ It will run We You They will run will run will run

he/ she/ it run...? we you they run...? run...? run...?

ATTENTION: will la ngation devient won't (will not) Contraction de will: I will-----> I'll; He will-----> He'll Il existe principalement trois structures pour exprimer le futur: * "the plain future" avec will Ex: I'll be in Paris tomorrow.--------> Je serai Paris demain. He'll come with us.--------> Il viendra avec nous. * le prsent continu (qui se traduit galement par un prsent) Ex: We're (we are) moving next week.--------> Nous dmnageons la semaine prochaine. * la structure "be going to" (qui se traduit aussi par "aller") Ex: I'm going to tell him.---------> Je vais lui dire. She's going to work next week.---------> Elle va travailler la semaine prochaine.

Subordonnes de temps On n'emploie pas WILL dans une subordonne de temps (introduite par "when", "as soon as", "while", "as long as"...) lorsque la proposition principale est au futur. I will call you when I am ready.--------> Je t'appelerai quand je serai prte. I will buy a big car when I am eighteen years old.--------> J'achterai une grosse voiture quand j'aurai dixhuit ans. I will go downstairs as soon as he wakes up.--------> Je descendrai ds qu'il se rveillera. When Dan comes, we will go to the theatre.--------> Lorsque Dan viendra, nous irons au thtre.

16

3.5 LE PLUPERFECT / PAST PERFECT


Conjugaison To play (jouer) HAD + Participe Pass (V -ed)

Phrases affirmatives

Phrases ngatives

Phrases interrogatives

I You

had played had played

I You He / She / It We You They

had not played had not played had not played had not played had not played had not played

Had I Had you

played...? played...?

He / She/ It had played We You They had played had played had played

Had he/ she/ it played...? Had we Had you Had they played...? played...? played...?

Le pluperfect se forme comme le present perfect avec l'auxiliaire HAVE et le participe pass du verbe, mais l'auxiliaire est au pass (HAD). Pour symboliser le pluperfect on utilise parfois "HAD - EN". Il existe un pluperfect en BE+ING: HAD BEEN V-ING. Il correspond alors au present perfect en BE+ING dans un contexte pass. Emploi * Il s'utilise pour une action accomplie antrieurement un moment du pass. Il correspond notre plus-que-parfait franais: She broke her leg. She went to the hospital. (Succession d'vnements au prtrit) She went to the hospital because she had broken her leg. (Pluperfect car antrieur l'action "she went to the hospital") * Il peut sinon correspondre au present perfect dans un contexte pass: When he got married he had been living in Paris for three years. Lorsqu'il s'est marri il vivait Paris depuis trois ans. They had just gone out. Ils venaient juste de sortir.

17

3.6 LE PRETERIT MODAL

La conjugaison est la mme que celle du prtrit simple (sauf pour l'auxiliaire to be---> were toutes les personnes).Le prtrit modal nexprime pas un pass mais sert marquer une modalit (souhait...) concernant des faits irrels. L'vnement a un caractre imaginaire, hypothtique. If he came, I would tell him. S'il venait, je le lui dirais.

On utilisera le prtrit modal aprs: 1/ IF ONLY: If only he were here! Si seulement il tait l!
Remarque: were s'emploie toutes les personnes au prtrit modal, cependant "If only he was here!" est possible galement, mais est ressenti comme plus familier.

2/ I'D RATHER: I'd rather you came. Je prfrerais que tu viennes. 3/ WISH: I wish he called me. J'aimerais qu'il m'appelle. He wishes I were older. Il aimerait que je sois plus g. 4/ IT'S (HIGH) TIME: It's time you tell her the truth. Il est temps que tu lui dises la vrit. It's high time she took a decision. Il est grand temps qu'elle prenne une dcision. 5/ IF (HYPOTHESES): If she came, I would ask her a few questions. Si elle venait, je lui poserais quelques questions.

18

Exercice 2

1) Conjuguer au temps qui convient He often (to go)__________ to the cinema with his friends. ______ you (to smoke)_______? No, I _______. Listen! He (to have)_________ a bath. She (to play)________ tennis with her brother now. In 1970, he (to live)__________ in New York. She (to drink)__________ a glass of wine ten minutes ago. When the phone (to ring)__________, my mother (to cook)__________. On Sundays, he (to wash)___________ his car. Look! Vanessa and Dave (to quarrel)__________. Every morning I (to get up)___________ at 6 o'clock. Yesterday Walter (to do)__________ his homework. Yesterday while I (to have)__________a shower, my father (to repair)_________my radio. Tomorrow we (to go)_________ to London. I (to read, already)____________ Othello. She (to live)___________ in Paris since 1988. What ______ you (to do) _______ at the moment? Peter never (to work) _________ on Sundays. When ______ he (to buy) _______ this car? _________ you ever (to meet) _________ my sister? Yesterday she (to buy) ___________ the books that she (to see) ______________ the day before. He (to leave) _________ last Thursday. She (just / to call) ______________ him. We (to have) _________ an accident while we (to drive) _________ to Paris. He (to call) _____________ her before he (to come) ___________ to see her. As soon as everybody (to arrive) ____________, the concert will begin.

CORRECTION (exo 2)

1) Conjuguer au temps qui convient He often GOES to the cinema with his friends. (Prsent simple) Do you SMOKE ? No, I DON'T. (Prsent simple) Listen! He IS HAVING a bath. (Prsent continu) She IS PLAYING tennis with her brother now. (Prsent continu) In 1970, he LIVED in New York. (Prtrit simple) She DRANK a glass of wine ten minutes ago. (Prtrit simple) When the phone RANG, my mother WAS COOKING. (Prtrit simple, Prtrit continu) On Sundays, he WASHES his car. (Prsent simple) Look! Vanessa and Dave ARE QUARRELLING. (Prsent continu) Every morning I GET UP at 6 o'clock. (Prsent simple) Yesterday Walter DID his homework. (Prtrit simple) Yesterday while I WAS HAVING a shower, my father WAS REPAIRING my radio. (Prtrit continu) Tomorrow we WILL GO to London. (Futur) I HAVE ALREADY READ Othello. (Present perfect) She HAS LIVED in Paris since 1988. (Present perfect)

19

What ARE you DOING at the moment? (Prsent continu) Peter never WORKS on Sundays. (Prsent simple) When DID he BUY this car? (Prterit simple) HAVE you ever MET my sister? (Present perfect) Yesterday she BOUGHT the books that she HAD SEEN the day before. (Prtrit simple, Pluperfect) He LEFT last Thursday. (Prterit simple) She HAS just CALLED him. (Present perfect) We HAD an accident while we WERE DRIVING to Paris. (Prtrit simple, Prtrit continu) He HAD CALLED her before he CAME to see her. (Pluperfect, Prtrit simple) As soon as everybody ARRIVES, the concert will begin. (Prsent simple)

Exercice 3 PRESENT SIMPLE OU CONTINU ?

1) Conjuguer au prsent simple ou au prsent continu Look! It (to rain) ___________. My father (to enjoy) ___________ watching gangster films. _____ you (to like) ________ surfing on the internet? Walter and his sister (to play) ___________ chess in their bedroom. I (not, to want) ____________ to go to that party. I can't help you now, I (to garden) ___________. Dan (to wake up) ___________ at 7 everyday. She is in her bedroom. She (to read) ___________. How often _______ she (to go) __________ to the doctor's?

CORRECTION (exo 3)

Look! It IS RAINING. My father ENJOYS watching gangster films. DO you LIKE surfing on the internet? Walter and his sister ARE PLAYING chess in their bedroom. I DON'T WANT to go to that party. I can't help you now, I AM GARDENING. Dan WAKES UP at 7 everyday. She is in her bedroom. She IS READING. How often DOES she GO to the doctor's?

Exercice (4) PRETERIT

20

1) Transformez ces phrases affirmatives en phrases ngatives et interrogatives: Affirmation Ngation Interrogation

She slept well last night.


They were ill yesterday. He bought a camera. You left quite early. Walter made a cake last week.

2)Conjuguer au prtrit simple: 1. He (to build) ________ this house in 1990. 2. He (to tell) ________ her that he (to be) ________ young. 3. I (to watch, not) ___________ TV last night. 4. She (to go) _________ to the United States last summer. 5. When I (to be) ________ a child, I (to want) __________ to be a policeman.

3) Traduire les phrases suivantes: 1. Je les ai vus lundi dernier. 2. J'ai achet ce livre il y a deux ans. 3. Il m'a attendu pendant vingt minutes. 4. Je ne l'ai pas vu hier. 5. As tu aim le film?

21

6. Quand a-t-il achet cette voiture? 7. Nous avons beaucoup mang et bu la nuit dernire!

4) Conjuguer au prtrit simple ou au prtrit continu: 1. The driver (to phone) ____________ when he (to lose) _____________ control. 2.What (to do) _________ you ___________ when you (to hear) _____________ something. 3. I (to see, not) ______________ the accident because I (to read) _________________ the paper when it (to happen) ____________. 4. Paul (to break) _____________ the window while he (to play) _______________ football.

22

CORRECTION (exo 4)

1) Transformez ces phrases affirmatives en phrases ngatives et interrogatives: Affirmation Ngation Interrogation

She slept well last night.


They were ill yesterday. He bought a camera. You left quite early. Walter made a cake last week.

She didn't sleep well last night. They weren't ill yesterday. He didn't buy a camera. You didn't leave quite early. Walter didn't make a cake last week.

Did she sleep well last night? Were they ill yesterday? Did he buy a camera? Did you leave quite early? Did Walter make a cake last week?

2)Conjuguer au prtrit simple: 1. He BUILT this house in 1990. 2. He TOLD her that he WAS young. 3. I DIDN'T WATCH TV last night. 4. She WENT to the United States last summer. 5. When I WAS a child, I WANTED to be a policeman.

3) Traduire les phrases suivantes: 1. Je les ai vus lundi dernier.-----> I saw them last Monday. 2. J'ai achet ce livre il y a deux ans.------> I bought this book two years ago. 3. Il m'a attendu pendant vingt minutes.------> He waited for me for twenty minutes.

23

4. Je ne l'ai pas vu hier.------> I didn't see him yesterday. 5. As tu aim le film?------> Did you like the film? 6. Quand a-t-il achet cette voiture?------> When did you buy this car? 7. Nous avons beaucoup mang et bu la nuit dernire!------> We ate and drank a lot last night!

4) Conjuguer au prtrit simple ou au prtrit continu: 1. The driver WAS PHONING when he LOST control. 2.What WERE you DOING when you HEARD something. 3. I DIDN'T SEE the accident because I WAS READING the paper when it HAPPENED. 4. Paul BROKE the window while he WAS PLAYING football.

Exercice (5) PRESENT PERFECT


1) Reconstituer ces phrases au present perfect: 1. I / lose / my keys. 2. I / not / eat / yet. 3. She / never / live / in Italy. 4. I / just / meet / your friend.

2) Traduire les phrases suivantes: 1. Depuis combien de temps est-il malade? 2. Il est malade depuis lundi / depuis une semaine. 3. Elle vit Londres depuis un an. 4. J'ai dj vu ce film. 5. Je n'ai jamais rencontr ton frre.

24

6. As-tu dj jou aux checs? 7. Elle n'est pas encore arrive. 8. Je viens d'crire quelques lettres. 9. Je ne suis jamais alle en Australie jusqu' prsent. 10. Es-tu dj all Los Angeles?

3) Conjuguer au prtrit ou au present perfect: 1. I (to meet) ___________ her two years ago. 2. I (to be) ___________ very lucky lately. 3. _______ you ever (to be) ________ to Africa? 4. I (to live) _____________ here since 2000. 5. I (to go) ___________ to Mexico last year. 6. Mary (to love) ___________ chocolate since she was a little girl. 7. I (to see / never ) _______________ that movie. 8. He (to arrive / just) _______________. 9. James (to finish / not) _______________ his homework yet. 10. He (to tidy) ____________ his room, that's why he can go out with his friends. Correction exercice (5) PRESENT PERFECT 1) Reconstituer ces phrases au present perfect: 1. I / lose / my keys. I have lost my keys. 2. I / not / eat / yet. I have not eaten yet. 3. She / never / live / in Italy. She has never lived in Italy. 4. I / just / meet / your friend. I have just met your friend. 2) Traduire les phrases suivantes: 1. Depuis combien de temps est-il malade? ------> How long has he been ill? 2. Il est malade depuis lundi / depuis une semaine.------> He has been ill since Monday / for a week.

25

3. Elle vit Londres depuis un an.------> She has lived in London for a year. 4. J'ai dj vu ce film.------> I have already seen this film. 5. Je n'ai jamais rencontr ton frre.------> I have never met your brother. 6. As-tu dj jou aux checs?------> Have you ever played chess? 7. Elle n'est pas encore arrive.------> She has not arrived yet. 8. Je viens d'crire quelques lettres.------> I have just written a few letters. 9. Je ne suis jamais alle en Australie jusqu' prsent.------> I have never been to Australia so far. 10. Es-tu dj all Los Angeles?------> Have you ever been to Los Angeles? 3) Conjuguer au prtrit ou au present perfect: 1. I MET her two years ago. (Je l'ai rencontre il y a deux ans) 2. I HAVE BEEN very lucky lately. (J'ai eu beaucoup de chance dernirement) 3. HAVE you ever BEEN to Africa? (Es-tu dj all en Afrique?) 4. I HAVE LIVED here since 2000. (Je vis ici depuis 2000) 5. I WENT to Mexico last year. (Je suis all Mexico l'anne dernire) 6. Mary HAS LOVED chocolate since she was a little girl. (Mary adore le chocolat depuis qu'elle est petite) 7. I HAVE NEVER SEEN that movie. (Je n'ai jamais vu ce film) 8. He HAS JUST ARRIVED. (Il vient juste d'arriver) 9. James HAS NOT FINISHED his homework yet. (James n'a pas encore fini ses devoirs) 10. He HAS TIDIED his room, that's why he can go out with his friends. (Il a rang sa chambre, c'est pourquoi il peut sortir avec ses amis)

Exercice (6) PRETERIT MODAL 1) Conjuguer au preterit modal 1. If I (to have) ________ enough money, I'd buy this house. 2. If I (to be) ________ you, I'd refuse. 3. If only I (can) ________ trust you!

26

4. He behaves as if he (to be) __________ the boss. 5. I wish I (to have) ___________ more money.

2) Transformer en utilisant "I wish": 1. I'd like to have more friends! 2. I'd like you to be more talkative. 3. It's a pity that it is so cold. 4. I can't play the piano! 5. Don't be so secretive! 6. You're far too jealous! 7. It's a pity that I am so shy. 8. It's a pity that the holidays are so short.

3) Traduire les phrases suivantes: 1. J'aimerais qu'il soit l! (utiliser "wish") 2. J'aimerais qu'elle vienne. 3. Elle aimerait savoir nager. 4. Si seulement je pouvais venir! 5. Si j'tais toi, je l'appellerais.

CORRECTION (exo 6) preterit modal 1) Conjuguer au preterit modal 1. If I HAD enough money, I'd buy this house. 2. If I WERE you, I'd refuse. 3. If only I COULD trust you!

27

4. He behaves as if he WERE the boss. 5. I wish I HAD more money. 2) Transformer en utilisant "I wish": 1. I'd like to have more friends!-----> I wish I had more friends. 2. I'd like you to be more talkative.-----> I wish you were more talkative. 3. It's a pity that it is so cold.-----> I wish it were not so cold. 4. I can't play the piano!-----> I wish I could play the piano. 5. Don't be so secretive!-----> I wish you were not so secretive. 6. You're far too jealous!-----> I wish you were less jealous. 7. It's a pity that I am so shy.-----> I wish I were not so shy. 8. It's a pity that the holidays are so short.-----> I wish the holidays were longer. 3) Traduire les phrases suivantes: 1. J'aimerais qu'il soit l! (utiliser "wish") -----> I wish he were there! ("He were" car prtrit modal) 2. J'aimerais qu'elle vienne -----> I wish she came. 3. Elle aimerait savoir nager -----> She wishes she could swim. 4. Si seulement je pouvais venir! -----> If only I could come! 5. Si j'tais toi, je l'appellerais -----> If I were you, I would call him.

III.DISCOURS DIRECT ET INDIRECT

Pour rapporter des paroles, il est ncessaire d'effectuer la concordance des temps. Les paroles prononces (entre guillemets) sont au style direct. En revanche, on utilise le discours indirect lorsqu'on rapporte les paroles ou les penses de quelqu'un. Exemple de discours direct: "I won't come", he said. Exemple de discours indirect: He said he wouldn't come.

DISCOURS DIRECT 1. "I am tired."

DISCOURS INDIRECT He said (that) he was tired.

28

2. "We often play tennis." 3. "I have two children." 4. "It is raining outside." 5. "I bought her a present 6. "I have just cleaned the windows." 8. "I will go to Peter's." 9. "I can swim very well." 10."You may come."

He said (that) they often played tennis She said (that) she had two children. She said (that) it was raining outside. He said (that) he had bought her a present. She said (that) she had just cleaned the windows. He said (that) he would go to Peter's. She said (that) she could swim very well. She said (that) he might come.

Lorsqu'on passe du discours direct au discours indirect, il faut penser modifier les expressions de temps telles que: Yesterday ---> the day before Three years ago ---> three years before Last year ---> the year before Tomorrow ---> the following day Next month ---> the following month De plus, on maintient le prtrit au discours indirect lorsqu'il exprime une habitude dans le pass: Ex: "I used to go to that cinema", he said. ---> He said that he used to go to that cinema. "I often told her", he said. ---> He said that he often told her. Quant l impratif, il devient au discours indirect une phrase infinitive (TO + Verbe): Ex: "Don't worry, Pamela", he said. ---> He told Pamela not to worry.

29

IV. LE PASSIF

**FORMATION Pour passer de la voie active la voie passive, il suffit d'insrer l'auxiliaire to be (conjugu au temps de la phrase active) et d'ajouter le participe pass du verbe (conjugu la voie active).

Temps Prsent simple


Prsent continu Prtrit simple Prtrit continu Prsent perfect Pluperfect Futur Conditionnel Conditionnel pass

Actif They help me


They are helping me They helped me They were helping me They have helped me They had helped me They will help me They would help me They would have helped me

Passif I am helped
I am being helped I was helped I was being helped I have been helped I had been helped I will be helped I would be helped I would have been helped

* EMPLOI Le passif s'emploie d'une manire gnrale lorsque lexpression de lagent de laction n'est pas ressentie comme ncessaire: when it is not so important (who or what) did the action She was arrested.---------> No matter who arrested her / Peu importe qui l'a arrte. She was arrested by him. " Him " tant vague, on vite gnralement de nommer le complment d'agent. Le passif s'emploie beaucoup plus en anglais qu'en franais. Un passif anglais correspond souvent en franais une structure avec "on" ou un verbe pronominal. English is spoken here ---------> On parle anglais ici.

30

She's being interviewed --------> On est en train de l'interviewer. You'll be called ----------------> On vous appellera. He's called John ---------------> Il s'appelle John. She was told the truth----------> On lui a dit la vrit

Lorsque le complment d'agent est ncessaire, on l'introduit par by: The novel was written by Henry James. Le roman a t crit par Henry James. He was knocked down by a car. Il a t renvers par une voiture. Les verbes du type 'give, ask, tell, send, show, teach, pay, offer' , susceptibles d'tre suivis ( la forme active) de deux complments d'objet, peuvent tre utiliss par le biais de deux constructions passives, selon que l'on choisit l'un ou l'autre des deux objets comme sujet du passif. She gave me a watch (Actif) Deux COD: "me" et "a watch" Passif: --- I was given a watch --- A watch was given to me

V.LES RELATIVES
Il existe deux sortes de relatives: * les relatives dterminatives (ou restrictives)/ "defining relative clauses": The letter that Peter sent me was very long. Ici la relative permet d'identifier l'antcdent du pronom "that" (letter). * les relatives non dterminatives / "non defining relative clauses": His letter, which was very long , was very funny. Ici la relative n'apporte qu'un dtail sur l'antcdent, on pourrait trs bien la supprimer sans changer le sens de la phrase.  CHOIX DU PRONOM: Pronom sujet: Cardiff. * antcdent humain: WHO The man who works here lives in

* antcdent non-humain: WHICH tasty. Pronom complment: was very kind.

The butter which is on the table is very

* antcdent humain: WHOM / WHO The man whom (who) I met yesterday

* antcdent non-humain: WHICH is very interesting.

That book, which Agatha Christie wrote,

Dans le cas d'une relative dterminative (qui prcise l'objet du discours) on peut remplacer le pronom relatif who, which, whom par le pronom "that": The man that works here lives in Cardiff : lhomme qui travaille ici vit en Cardiff

31

The butter that is on the table is very tasty. The man that I met yesterday was very kind. Cependant pour le 4me exemple il est impossible d'utiliser "that" car ce n'est pas une relative dterminative (la relative "which was written by Agatha Christie" n'est ici qu'un dtail, on peut d'ailleurs remarquer la prsence des virgules qui isolent la relative de la proposition principale). On peut supprimer that, who, whom, which uniquement lorsque le pronom est complment du verbe. On peut alors parler du relatif zro: The man who I met is a doctor. The man whom I met is a doctor. The man that I met is a doctor. The man I met is a doctor.  TRADUCTION DE CE QUI / CE QUE:

"What" permet d'annoncer ce qui va tre prcis ensuite: What I think is that he is very generous. Ce que je pense est qu'il est trs gnreux. "Which" reprend la proposition qui prcde: He got angry, which did not surprise me. Il s'est nerv, ce qui ne m'a pas tonn.
 TRADUCTION DE DONT: Possession: WHOSE avocate. This is the man whose daughter is a lawyer. C'est l'homme dont la fille est

VI.L'EXCLAMATION
y

EXCLAMATION PORTANT SUR UN NOM:

What / such

What a beautiful woman! Quelle jolie femme! What beautiful women! Quelles jolies femmes! She is such a beautiful woman! C'est une femme si jolie! They are such beautiful women! Ce sont des femmes si jolies!
A noter: "What" correspond quel en franais, et "such" correspond si. On utilise l'article indfini "a" contrairement au franais avec des noms dnombrables singuliers. Avec un nom indnombrable on n'utilise pas l'article: What courage! Quel courage! What beautiful weather! Quel beau temps!
y

EXCLAMATION PORTANT SUR UN ADJECTIF / ADVERBE:

How / so

How tall she is! Comme elle est grande! 32

She is so happy! Elle est si heureuse! How much I hate him! Comme je le dteste! I hate him so much! Je le dteste tellement!

VII.Limpratif

L'impratif permet de donner un ordre (ou une directive). A la deuxime personne (singulier ou pluriel), l'impratif se construit avec la base verbale : Give me your book! Donne moi ton livre! Come here! Viens ici! / Venez ici! Ngation: Don't + Base verbale Don't cry! Ne pleure pas! / Ne pleurez pas! Don't wait for me! Ne m'attends pas! / Ne m'attendez pas Aux autres personnes, il se construit avec "let" suivi du complment et de la base verbale : Let's go to the cinema! Allons au cinma! Let's have a cup of tea! Prenons une tasse de th! Let's go! Allons-y! A noter: "let's" est en fait la contraction de "let us". Ngation: Let's not + Base verbale ou Don't let's + Base Verbale (moins soutenu) Let's not go! Don't let's go! N'y allons pas Let me see! Voyons! Let him come! Qu'il vienne! Let them work a little! Qu'ils travaillent un peu!

VIII. LE CONDITIONNEL

FORMATION

1) Conditionnel prsent
Le conditionnel prsent se construit avec "would + base verbale". Would est un auxiliaire. He would be Il serait She would drive : elle conduirait

33

They would not listen Ils n'couteraient pas Contract would devient 'd: She would go ---> She'd go. Ngation contracte wouldn't: She would not do that ---> She wouldn't do that.

2) Conditionnel pass
Le conditionnel pass se forme comme en franais avec "avoir". Would + Have + Participe pass I would have told him. Je lui aurais dit. He would have come. Il serait venu. They wouldn't have cried. Ils n'auraient pas pleur.

EMPLOI

En gnral, le conditionnel anglais s'emploie comme le conditionnel franais.

a. Subordonne avec "if"


On emploie le conditionnel prsent dans la proposition principale quand la subordonne est introduite par "if + prtrit". If I had more money, I would buy a new car. Si j'avais plus d'argent, j'achterais une nouvelle voiture. If I had enough time, I would go with you. Si j'avais assez de temps, j'irais avec toi. On emploie le conditionnel pass dans la proposition principale quand la subordonne est introduite par "if + pluperfect". If I had known, I wouldn't have come. Si j'avais su, je ne serais pas venu.

b. Formules de politesse
Would you like a cup of tea? Voudriez-vous une tasse de th? I would like a piece of cake. J'aimerais avoir un mrceau de gteau. c. Futur dans le pass (style indirect) She said she would help me (style direct: She said: "I will help you")

34

Elle a dit qu'elle m'aiderait. He said he would come (style direct: He said: "I will come") Il a dit qu'il viendrait.

IX. Les structures Causatives


Les structures causatives sont des structures dans lesquelles le sujet est l'origine de l'action mais ce n'est pas lui qui l'accomplit pour autant. Il la fait faire (cas sens actif) ou la fait subir (cas sens passif).

Ma mre m'a fait ranger ma chambre. (Ma mre est l'origine de l'action, mais c'est moi ("m'") qui l'accomplit) Sens Actif Je ferai rparer ma voiture. (Je suis l'origine de l'action, mais c'est "ma voiture" qui subira l'action) Sens Passif
I. Auxiliaire + Objet + Verbe (Sens A ctif): le complment accomplit l'action * Make + Objet + Base Verbale

They made him wash their car. Ils lui ont fait laver leur voiture. She always makes them repeat. Elle leur fait toujours rpter. A noter: On peut mettre ces phrases la voie passive. "They made him wash their car." deviendrait alors "He was made to wash their car." L'oprateur "to" apparat alors.
* Have + Objet + Base Verbale

We had him tidy his room. = We made him tidy his room. Nous lui avons fait ranger sa chambre. I had her admit she was wrong. Je lui ai fait admettre qu'elle avait tort.
II. Auxiliaire + Objet + Participe Pass (Sens Passif): le complment subit l'action * Have + Objet + Participe Pass

I had my hair cut. Je me suis fait couper les cheveux. They had their house built. Ils ont fait construire leur maison.
* Get + Objet + Participe Pass

I got my hair cut. Je me suis fait couper les cheveux. She got her car washed. Elle a fait laver sa voiture.
"Get", contrairement "Have", insiste davantage sur un rsultat obtenir.

35

X.IF CLAUSES

1. Hypothse simple:
If + prsent / will + BV (futur) If you work hard, you will pass your exam.

2. Hypothse incertaine:
If + prtrit modal / would + BV (conditionnel prsent) If you worked hard, you would pass your exam.

3. Hypothse non ralise:


If + pluperfect modal / would + Have + Participe Pass (conditionnel pass) If you had worked hard, you would have passed your exam

o L'

INFINITIF

linfinitif correspond la base verbale prcde de l'oprateur TO. Cet oprateur permet de poser une relation prdicative et signale que la validation est recherche. TO est donc prospectif. Exemples: I'm going to be sick. Je vais tre malade. You have to sell your guitar. Il faut que tu vendes ta guitare. La forme en ING rsulte de la nominalisation d'un verbe. Elle prsuppose l'existence d'un procs et pose la relation prdicative comme acquise. Exemples: He stopped laughing.Il s'arrta de rire. La relation prdicative "He/laugh" est considre comme acquise, prexistente. Certains verbes admettent les deux formes selon le sens que lon recherche. En effet ING vise le pass alors que linfinitif vise plutt le futur.

36

Exemples: I remember calling him. Je me souviens lavoir appel. Remember to call him. N'oublie pas de lappeler. He has stopped smoking. Il s est arrt de fumer. He stopped to smoke. Il s'est arrt pour fumer.

verbes suivis de BV+ING


admit (admettre) anticipate (s'attendre ) avoid (viter) be fed up with (en avoir assez de) be worth (valoir la peine) consider (envisager) defer (diffrer) delay (retarder) deny (nier) detest (dtester) dislike (ne pas aimer) dread (redouter) enjoy (apprcier) entail (supposer) fancy (avoir envie de) finish (finir) forgive for (pardonner)

Verbes suivis de l'infinitif


afford (se permettre) agree (reconnatre) aim (viser) arrange (arranger) ask (demander) claim (prtendre) consent (consentir) decide (dcider) demand (exiger) determine (dcider de) endeavour (s'efforcer de) expect (s'attendre ) fail (chouer) forget (oublier de) hesitate (hsiter ) hope (esprer) learn (apprendre) long (avoir trs envie de)

37

give up (renoncer ) imagine (imaginer) involve (impliquer) keep (continuer ) loathe (dtester) mention (mentionner) mind (dranger) miss (manquer) postpone (reporter) prevent from (empcher) regret (regretter) resist (rsister ) risk (risquer de) stop (arrter de) succeed in (russir ) suggest (suggrer)

manage (parvenir) offer (offrir) prepare (prparer) pretend (faire semblant) proceed (entreprendre de) promise (promettre) prove (se rvler) refuse (refuser) resolve (se dcider ) seem (sembler) strive (s'efforcer de) swear (jurer) tend (avoir tendance ) threaten (menacer) undertake (s'engager ) vow (jurer) want (vouloir)

EXERCICES (7) SUR LE PASSIF

1) Mettre au passif les phrases suivantes: 1. The policeman arrested him yesterday. 2. She will give him another chance. 3. They have just discovered it. 4. You should not take these books away. 5. She sends him a letter everyday. 6. We helped them. 7. The passers-by stared at her. 8. They are building a new house. 9. Somebody will tell her. 10. The police is questioning her.

2) Mettre ces phrases au passif comme dans l'exemple: ex: They told us to go away. ---> We were told to go away. 1. They sent me a letter. 2. They allowed us to go. 3. He asked her to sing. 4. She told me to shut up. 5. They believed she was a thief.

3) Mettre les verbes suivants au passif: 1. The house (to clean) ______________ every day. 2. My car (to steal) _______________ last week. 3. I (to invite) ______________ to a party last month. 4. The film (to make) ____________ in 1990. 5. The building (to build) _____________ next year.

38

Correction exo 7 sur le passif 1) 1. He was arrested by the policeman yesterday. 2. He will be given another chance (by her). 3. It has just been discovered (by them). 4. These books should not be taken away (by you). 5. He is sent a letter everyday (by her). / A letter is sent to him everyday (by her). 6. They were helped (by us). 7. She was stared at by the passers-by. 8. A new house is being built (by them). 9. She will be told (by somebody). 10. She is being questioned by the police. 2) 1. I was sent a letter. 2. We were allowed to go. 3. She was asked to sing 4. I was told to shut up. 5. She was believed to be a thief. 3) 1. The house IS CLEANED every day. 2. My car WAS STOLEN last week. 3. I WAS INVITED to a party last month. 4. The film WAS MADE in 1990. 5. The building WILL BE BUILT next year. o

EXERCICES (8) SUR LE DISCOURS INDIRECT

1) Mettre les phrases au style indirect: 1. "She's watching TV", he said. 2. "I don't like it", he said. 3. "She has never been there", he said. 4. "I wrote a few letters yesterday", he said. 5. "I usually met her at seven", he said. 6. "I can tell you", he said. 7. "They will come tomorrow", he said. 8. "May I come in?", he asked.

39

9. "Do you speak Russian?", he asked. 10. "Did you tell her?", he asked.

Correction exo (8) sur le discours indirect


1) Mettre les phrases au style indirect: 1. "She's watching TV", he said.------> He said (that) she was watching TV. 2. "I don't like it", he said.------> He said (that) he didn't like it. 3. "She has never been there", he said.------>He said (that) she had never been there. 4. "I wrote a few letters yesterday", he said.------>He said (that) he had written a few letters the day before. 5. "I usually met her at seven", he said.------>He said (that) he usually met her at seven. (on garde le prtrit car c'est une habitude!) 6. "I can tell you", he said.------> He said (that) he could tell him. 7. "They will come tomorrow", he said.------> He said (that) they would come the following day. 8. "May I come in?", he asked.------>He asked if he might come in. 9. "Do you speak Russian?", he asked.------>He asked if she spoke Russian. 10. "Did you tell her?", he asked.------> He asked if I had told her.

o 1) Complter par who ou which

EXERCICES (9) SUR LES RELATIVES

1. Bring me the book ________ is on the table. 2. The hotel at ________ we stayed was very comfortable. 3. The man _________ phoned was Brandon. 4. She said she was happy, _________ was not true. 5. Mary Smith, _________ came yesterday, is a friend of mine.

40

2) Complter par le pronom qui convient: 1. His father, ______ is successful, is very handsome. 2. Their house, _______ is not far away from here, is white. 3. My brother, _______ you met yesterday, is a teacher. 4. Peter's letter, _______ I received this morning, was very short. 5. Paul did not come, ______ pleased me. 6. Her friend, ______ father is an architect, is quite good-tempered.

Corrections (exo 9) sur les relatives


1) Complter par who ou which 1. Bring me the book WHICH is on the table. 2. The hotel at WHICH we stayed was very comfortable. 3. The man WHO phoned was Brandon. 4. She said she was happy, WHICH was not true. 5. Mary Smith, WHO came yesterday, is a friend of mine. 2) Complter par le pronom qui convient: 1. His father, WHO is successful, is very handsome. 2. Their house, WHICH is not far away from here, is white. 3. My brother, WHO(M) you met yesterday, is a teacher. 4. Peter's letter, WHICH I received this morning, was very short. 5. Paul did not come, WHICH pleased me. 6. Her friend, WHOSE father is an architect, is quite good-tempered.

Attention: Ces relatives ne sont pas dterminatives (prsence des virgules), "that" ici est donc impossible.

 LES MODAUX

1 LA MODALITE
La modalit est l'expression d'un point de vue. Ex: Jean doit partir immdiatement. La modalit est exprime par "doit".

41

John must leave immediately. "Must" exprime la modalit, c'est--dire qu'il exprime le point de vue de la personne qui parle (l'nonciateur) par rapport la relation tablie entre le sujet de l'nonc "Jean" et le prdicat "leave immediately". Les mots permettant d'exprimer cette modalit sont: may, must, can, will, could, should, shall...(les modaux). La modalit peut tre exprime autrement que par des modaux: John is likely to leave immediately Il est vraissemblable que John parte immdiatement.

2 LES MODAUX
y y y

Les modaux sont invariables (ils ne se conjuguent pas). C'est pourquoi on ne met pas de s can dans: he can swim. Les modaux sont immdiatement suivis de l infinitif sans to (base verbale) Dans les questions et les ngations, on n'utilise pas l'auxiliaire "do", car les modaux sont des auxiliaires eux-mmes. On peut donc les utiliser en dbut de question et juste avant la ngation.

Can you speak English? I can't speak English at all. May you open the door? You mustn't talk to him!

3 VALEURS
Chaque modal a deux valeurs diffrentes :  / Une valeur qui porte sur le sujet de la phrase (capacit, obligation, permission... impliquant le sujet): valeur radicale EQUIVALENTS: pour exprimer les mmes notions au pass, futur, infinitif ...car certains modaux sont incompatibles avec certains temps.

Can Must May Should

to be able to to have to to be allowed to to ought to

He can play the piano-----> He is able to play the piano. (Il sait jouer du piano.) He must do the washing up------> He has to do the washing up. (Il doit faire la vaisselle.) You may go out tonight------> You are allowed to go out tonight. (Tu peux sortir ce soir.) You should tell him-------> You ought to tell him. (Tu devrais lui dire.)

42

Les quivalents permettent d'exprimer peu prs la mme chose, sauf que le point de vue de l'nonciateur (la personne qui parle) disparait dans ce cas. Ex: You must call him -----> L'nonciateur dit qu'il doit l'appeler, il l'oblige en quelque sorte l'appeler, c'est lui qui estime que l'appeler est d'une grande importance. You have to call him -----> L'nonciateur dit juste qu'il faut qu'il l'appelle, l'nonciateur ne prend pas de relle position, il donne juste un fait. WILL, SHALL CAN'T MIGHT MAY MUST He can't be at home (c'est impossible) He might be at home (il se pourrait que) He may be at home (il se peut que) He must be at home (il doit tre) He will be at home (certitude)

AU PASSE: MODAL + INFINITIF PASSE (= have + participe pass) It must have rained. Il a d pleuvoir. He may have washed his car. Il se peut qu'il ait lav sa voiture. He can't have done his homework. Il ne peut pas avoir fait ses devoirs.

A/ MUST Sens de base: Ncessit de type logique

1 Valeur radicale: obligation ( Equivalent : to have to / to be obliged to ) You must do your homework!
y

Interdiction (mustn't)

You mustnt do it Tu ne dois pas faire a. Attention: labsence dobligation : dont have to / neednt / dont need to You dont have to come / You needn't come Tu n'as pas besoin de venir = tu n'es pas oblig de venir.

43

Must n'existe qu'au prsent. A l'infinitif et aux autres temps, on utilise son quivalent: have to pour exprimer la notion d'obligation. I had to read many books. J'ai d lire beaucoup de livres. I'll have to come back. Je serai oblig de revenir.

D'autre part, must est un modal, il exprime donc l'opinion, le jugement de l'nonciateur. L'obligation ou l'interdiction doit donc maner de celui-ci. Sinon, on utilisera son quivalent have to (on traduira alors souvent par "il faut que") You must listen to me! Tu dois m'couter! (l'obligation vient de l'nonciateur) She has to listen to her teacher more carefully if she wants to improve her English. Il faut qu'elle coute plus attentivement son professeur si elle veut amliorer son anglais. (l'obligation ne vient pas de l'nonciateur) 2 Valeur pistmique: forte probabilit / quasi -certitude He isn't there ----> he must be ill. Il n'est pas l : il doit tre malade

Au pass:
You must have been surprised Tu as d tre surpris.

Attention : A la forme ngative : CANT exprime limpossibilit quun vnement ait lieu.
She cant be at home ( = she must be out) Elle ne peut pas tre chez elle = il est impossible qu'elle soit chez elle..

B/ MAY / MIGHT

Sens de base: Il n'y a pas d'obstacles (possibilit procdant de l'nonciateur, constate de faon subjective).

1 Valeur radicale: permission / autorisation ( Equivalent BE ALLOWED TO )

May I open the window? (Yes you may { No you cant ) Puis-je ouvrir la fentre? NB: Can I open the window? existe aussi, mais can dans ce cas est moins soutenu ou "poli" que may.
Passengers may not smoke (= mustnt) Les passagers ne peuvent pas fumer.

44

2 Valeur pistmique: possibilit He may come with us tomorrow. Il se peut qu'il vienne avec nous demain. They may not be very rich. Ils ne sont peut-tre pas trs riches. MIGHT: He might come with us tomorrow Il se pourrait qu'il vienne avec nous demain. Might exprime donc une possibilit moins forte que may. Au Pass : MAY + Have + Participe pass MIGHT + Have + Participe pass She may have called him. Il se peut qu'elle l'ait appel. You might have told me. Tu aurais pu me le dire. (notion de reproche)

3 Souhaits ( registre soutenu )

May God be with you. Que Dieu soit avec vous.


C/ CAN

Sens de base: Il y a des lments qui permettent...(indpendant de l'nonciateur, constat de faon objective).

1 Valeur radicale: capacit physique et intellectuelle (Equivalent : to be able to ) Can you speak English? -------> Are you able to speak English? Savez-vous parler anglais?

Can you lift this trunk? Peux-tu soulever cette malle?


Au PASSE : CAN peut avoir 2 formes selon quil sagit dun vnement prcis ou au contraire dune facult permanente. I was able to speak to the minister. ----> Action ponctuelle dans le pass = Was / Were able to (ou to MANAGE TO DO / to SUCCEED IN DOING) On traduira plutt dans ce cas l par du pass compos: J'ai pu parler au ministre. I could speak German fluently when I was a girl.

45

----> Facult permanente dans le pass. On traduira alors plutt par de l'imparfait: Je parlais allemand couramment quand j'tais petite.

2 La permission (voir may):quivalent to be allowed to Can I use your pen? Je peux me servir de ton stylo? "Could I" est plus poli et "May I" encore plus poli---> "Puis-je" You can smoke if you like. Vous pouvez fumer si vous le voulez. La ngation (can't) se rapproche de must: l'interdiction You can't smoke here. Vous ne pouvez pas fumer ici.

3 Valeur pistmique: possibilit Can exprime la connaissance qu'a l'nonciateur des caractristiques du sujet de l'nonc. The pound can be devalued Il se peut fortement que la livre soit dvalue. D'aprs ce que l'nonciateur sait (la conjoncture conomique et politique), tout indique que la dvaluation peut avoir lieu. L'nonciateur se base sur des lments. CAN / MAY a/ This dog may be dangerous. b/ This dog can be dangerous. Avec may, on n'exclut aucune possibilit, il est possible qu'il soit dangereux, le contraire l'est galement. Avec can, la personne connait ce chien, et partir de ce qu'il sait propos de ce chien, il en conclut qu'il peut tre parfois dangereux. A la forme ngative, Can't ou cannot exprime limpossibilit dune action. She can't be at school. Elle ne peut pas tre l'cole.

 WILL Sens de base: il y a compatibilit entre le sujet et le prdicat (indpendante de l'nonciateur, constate de faon objective). Attention: ngation de will ----> won't

a. Caractristique du sujet (valeur frquentative)

46

He will sit for hours doing nothing Il reste assis pendant des heures ne rien faire Boys will be boys Les garons, on ne les changera jamais!
2 / Futur (valeur de vise, prdiction) La construction avec 'will' s'emploie pour prdire l'avenir, pour annoncer simplement ce qui va se passer.

They will go to the swimming-pool next month Ils iront la piscine le mois prochain
La construction avec l'auxiliaire 'shall' se rencontre la premire personne (singulier et pluriel), et essentiellement la forme interrogative, avec un effet de sens particulier : demander ce que l'on doit faire, ou proposer de faire quelque chose (tout en demandant un avis), ou faire une suggestion, inciter les interlocuteurs faire quelque chose: Shall we go now? Cependant mme la premire personne, pour une simple prdiction sur son propre avenir, on emploie will (ou 'won't' la forme ngative) : Will I be rich? Will I be successful? The future will tell. 3 / Volont

"Will you marry me?" "Yes, I will." Veux-tu m'pouser? _ Oui, je le veux. Open the door for me, will you? Ouvrez-moi la porte, voulez-vous? I won't tell you! (Remarque: won't -----> refus) Je refuse de vous le dire!

EXERCICES (10) SUR LES MODAUX

1) Transformer les phrases suivantes: Ex: Perhaps she is happy -----> She may be happy I'm sure he is angry -----> He must be angry 1.Perhaps the children are in bed. 2.I'm sure they're having breakfast. 3.Perhaps he loves his wife. 4.I'm sure she hates cooking. 5.Perhaps they were hungry. 6.I'm sure you helped her.

47

2) Utiliser un auxiliaire de modalit: 1. You _______ tell her! (interdiction) 2. She _______ come in. (autorisation) 3. You _______ be quiet now! (obligation) 4. They _______ help you. (capacit) 5. I _______ give you that book! (refus)

3) Traduire: 1. Elle doit tre dans sa chambre. 2. Il doit tre en train de travailler. 3. Il se peut qu'elle soit ttue. 4. Il se pourrait qu'ils soient en train de discuter. 5. Il est impossible qu'il soit en train de faire la vaisselle.

4) Remplacer les quivalents par les auxiliaires modaux correspondants: 1. She has to go. 2. You are allowed to park here. 3. He isn't able to read. 4. She ought not to smoke. 5. She was able to run faster when she was younger.

Correction (exo10) sur les modaux


1) Transformer les phrases suivantes: 1.Perhaps the children are in bed -----> The children may be in bed 2.I'm sure they're having breakfast -----> They must be having breakfast

48

3.Perhaps he loves his wife -----> He may love his wife 4.I'm sure she hates cooking -----> She must hate cooking 5.Perhaps they were hungry -----> They may have been hungry 6.I'm sure you helped her -----> You must have helped her 2) Utiliser un auxiliaire de modalit: 1. You MUSTN'T tell her! (interdiction) 2. She MAY / CAN come in. (autorisation) 3. You MUST be quiet now! (obligation) 4. They CAN help you. (capacit) 5. I WON'T give you that book! (refus) 3) Traduire: 1. Elle doit tre dans sa chambre.------> She must be in her room. 2. Il doit tre en train de travailler.------> He must be working. 3. Il se peut qu'elle soit ttue.------> She may be stubborn. 4. Il se pourrait qu'ils soient en train de discuter.------> They might be talking. 5. Il est impossible qu'il soit en train de faire la vaisselle.------> He can't be doing the washing up. 4) Remplacer les quivalents par les auxiliaires modaux correspondants: 1. She has to go.------> She must go. 2. You are allowed to park here.------> You may park here. 3. He isn't able to read.------> He can't read. 4. She ought not to smoke.------> She shouldn't smoke. 5. She was able to run faster when she was younger.------> She could run faster when she was younger. MAY tant plus soutenu que CAN

49

 Le groupe nominal

ARTICLES A / THE /

I. L'ARTICLE INDEFINI A / AN
Il correspond "un/une" en franais. Cependant "a" ne correspond pas "un" et "an" "une", mais on utilise an devant une voyelle phontique, et a devant une consonne phontique: an euro [ju:] un euro a year une anne a guitar une guitare a mouse une souris an arm [a:m] un bras an apple [pl] une pomme an MP [em pi] un dput Attention: lorsque le "h" n'est pas aspir on utilise "an": an hour une heure an honour un honneur an honest man un homme honnte an heir un hritier On emploie cet article lorsqu'on extrait (au hasard) un lment quelconque d'un ensemble. Il sutilise devant un nom singulier, dnombrable . Ex: He has got a cat (un chat quelconque pris dans la classe des chats) Au pluriel, on ne met pas d'article: He has got cats. A la diffrence du franais, on emploie A / AN:

* lorsqu'on dfinit une personne l'aide d'un nom et donc par exemple avec les noms de mtier: My father is a doctor. Mon pre est mdecin * aprs une prposition: He went out without an umbrella. Il est sorti sans parapluie * aprs such, quite, half, what pour introduire un nom dnombrable singulier: I have never seen such a wonderful woman. Je n'ai jamais vu une femme si merveilleuse What a pity Quel dommage * devant les expressions de mesure ou de temps pour traduire par: Once a month 50 miles an hour 50 a kilo Une fois par mois 80 km l'heure 50 livres le kilo Larticle indfini ne semploie pas devant: * un nom pluriel. On a alors recours l'article : I like cars. Jaime les voitures * un nom appartenant la catgorie des indnombrables (Advice, News, Furniture, Information...). Sinon il faut utiliser un dnombreur (a piece of, a speck of...) A piece of news Une nouvelle I have coffee for breakfast Je prends du caf au petit-djeuner

50

II. L'ARTICLE DEFINI THE


Il correspond "le/la/les" en franais. Cependant l'article "the" est un ancien dmonstratif (forme attnue de that) et sert dsigner une chose dj connue des interlocuteurs dans un contexte donn. L'article the correspond une opration de "flchage". Larticle dfini the (invariable) se prononce [ ] lisez [se] ou [ ve ] devant une consonne phontique et [i] devant une voyelle phontique. the moon [ ] the earth [i]

On emploiera larticle dfini : devant des noms singuliers ou pluriels dtermins par:
* une proposition qui en prcise le sens: The cake (that) she made was excellent. * un complment introduit par une prposition (of, at in...): Do you appreciate the humour of this novel ? the progress of science the people in the village * le contexte: Tell him the truth. * un adjectif qui fait du nom un nom propre: The Civil War

devant des noms uniques ne ncessitant pas de prcision : les lments, les plantes: the sky, the rain, the wind, the weather, the sea, the moon, the earth, the sun... avant les superlatifs : She is the most beautiful woman in the world. devant les adjectifs substantivs sens collectif:
the poor (les pauvres), the rich (les riches), the blind (les aveugles), the deaf (les sourds), the disabled (les handicapps), the French (les franais), the English (les anglais).

51

A noter:
On n'utilisera pas l'article indfini "the" devant un nom de titre suivi dun nom propre qui le dtermine. Cependant il sera utilis si le nom de la personne n'est pas prcis:

Queen Elizabeth, President Bush, King James, Captain Russell, Doctor Turner... The queen, the king, the president...
Les noms de pays singuliers ne prennent pas l'article dfini "the":

France, England, India, Spain...


Les noms de pays pluriels prennent l'article dfini "the":

The United States, the Netherlands...


Larticle dfini "the" est employ devant les noms de pays composs de plusieurs tats:

The United Kingdom, The USSR...


Larticle dfini "the" est employ devant les instruments de musique, mais pas devant les noms de sports:

He plays the piano He plays football

III. L'ARTICLE OU L'ABSENCE D'ARTICLE Devant des noms abstraits ou des gnralits: I like coffee. Truth is the highest good.:la verit est la plus bonne Life can be wonderful: la vie peut etre merveilleuse Dogs are clever animals: les chins sont des animaux intelligents Look at the dog over there! Ici on parle d'un chien bien prcis, ce qui explique la prsence de "the". Devant des divisions de temps: (saisons, jours, mois...): I don't like winter. I don't work on Saturdays. A noter: Peter goes to school. ( ici "school" renvoie l'institution en gnral) The school was built ten years ago. ( mais ici "the school" renvoie au btiment )

52

Peter's car (il n'y a pas de dterminant aprs un cas possessif / gnitif, car celui-ci est dj un dterminant. Peter's ici est un dterminant

 PRONOMS / PRONOUNS

I. PRONOMS PERSONNELS Pronom sujet I you he she it we you they je tu il elle il / elle nous vous ils / elles Pronom complment me you him her it us you them moi toi le la le / la nous vous les

II. PRONOMS REFLECHIS Pronom personnel I you he she it we Pronom rflchi myself yourself himself herself itself ourselves

53

you they

yourselves themselves

III. PRONOMS POSSESSIFS mine yours his le sien, la sienne, les siens, les siennes, lui, elle hers ours yours theirs le ntre, la ntre, les ntres, nous le vtre, la vtre, les vtres, vous le leur, la leur, les leurs, eux, elles le mien, la mienne, les miens, les miennes, moi le tien, la tienne, les tiens, les tiennes, toi

IV. PRONOMS INTERROGATIFS

Pronoms interrogatifs:

On souhaite s'informer sur:

Traduction:

Exemples:

WHAT

une chose, une activit

Quoi? que?

What are you doing? I'm watching TV. Que fais-tu? Je regarde la tl. Who came with you? Peter did. Qui es-venu avec toi? Peter. Where did you go yesterday? I went to the theatre. O es-tu all hier? Je suis all au thtre.

WHO

une personne

Qui?

WHERE

un endroit

O?

54

WHEN

un moment

Quand?

When did you go to Italy? In 2000. Quand es-tu all en Italie? En 2000. Why didn't you come? Because I was tired. Pourquoi n'es-tu pas venu? Parce que j'tais fatigu. Whose book is it? It is Peter's book. A qui appartient ce livre? C'est le livre de Peter.

WHY

la cause

Pourquoi?

WHOSE

le possesseur

A qui (appartient)?

WHAT TIME

une heure

(A) quelle heure?

What time do you go to school? A quelle heure vas-tu l'cole? Which of these cakes do you want? Lesquels de ces gteaux veux-tu? How long did you work? Pendant combien de temps as-tu travaill? How often do you go to the cinema? Tous les combien vas-tu au cinma? How far is the pub? A quelle distance se situe le bar? How many books did you buy? Combien de livres as-tu achet? How is she? Comment va t-elle?

WHICH

un choix

Lequel?

HOW LONG

une dure

Combien de temps?

HOW OFTEN

la frquence

Tous les combiens?

HOW FAR

une distance

A quelle distance?

HOW MUCH / MANY

une quantit

Combien?

HOW

la manire, le moyen

Comment?

55

This/that

This (pl.these) et That (pl. those) sont des dmonstratifs (ou dictiques): ils permettent l'nonciateur de montrer un objet, une personne ou une ralit. Il y a monstration lorsqu'il y a exophore (renvoi la ralit extrieure), sinon lorsqu'il y a renvoi au discours, il y a endophore.
Exemples: Take that book. (renvoi la ralit extrieure: exophore) He said he was shy. That is not true. (renvoi au discours: endophore)

I. Trois types d'emplois:


1. dterminant Ils sont alors suivis d'un nom. Ex: Who's that girl? This man is an architect. 2. proforme Ce sont alors des substituts et permettent une reprise. Ex: I'll never forget this. Je n'oublierai jamais cela. Give me that rightaway! Donne moi a tout de suite. 3. adverbe de manire ou de degr Ils n'apparaissent alors qu'au singulier et se placent avant un adjectif. Ils s'apparentent l'adverbe so. Ex: He is about this tall. Il est peu prs de cette taille. Was he really that mean? Etait-il vraiment si mchant?

II. Valeur: Proximit (this), non-proximit (that) Il y a une notion de distance, que ce soit dans l'espace, dans le temps ou dans l'affectivit. Ex: This morning I have finished my homework. Ce matin j'ai fini mes devoirs. In those days he used to go there. A cette poque il avait l'habitude d'aller l-bas. I hate that man! Je dteste cet homme! I love this book! J'adore ce livre!

56

j ADJECTIFS COMPOSES

COMPOUND ADJECTIVES
Ladjectif compos comporte gnralement deux termes: le deuxime tant le plus important et le premier terme dterminant le second.

adjectif + adjectif nom + adjectif adjectif + V-ing adverbe + V-ing nom + V-ing adjectif + V-ed adverbe + V-ed nom + V-ed adjectif + nom + ed adverbe + nom + ed nom + nom + ed

light-blue sea-sick good-looking hard-working heart-breaking short-lived well-known snow-covered blue-eyed well-dressed baby-faced

bleu clair qui a le mal de mer beau travailleur dchirant phmre bien connu couvert de neige aux yeux bleus bien habill au visage de bb

 QUANTIFIEURS / QUANTIFIERS Some, any Some et any expriment des quantits indfinies. Ils correspondent aux articles partitifs franais "du, de la, des". Ils peuvent tre utiliss aussi bien avec des noms dnombrables que des noms indnombrables. a / Some Some exprime l'actuel: il implique l'existence de ce dont on parle. Il est utilis la forme affirmative devant des noms indnombrables singuliers ou des dnombrables pluriels: I'll have some milk, please. He has bought some books. On emploie some la forme interrogative lorsque lon sattend une rponse positive (proposition):

57

Do you want some coffee? b / Any Any exprime le virtuel: * On ne sait pas si une certaine quantit existe: Is there any milk in the fridge? Has she got any children? * On explique que le choix nous est indiffrent (n'importe quel): Any man can do it. You can't do any exercise. Can I take any of these cakes? c / No - Not Any "No" et "Not any" permettent de nier l'existence de ce dont on parle ("No" est ressenti comme tant plus catgorique que "Not Any"): There is no milk in the fridge. There isn't any milk in the fridge. There are no books in his room. There aren't any books in his room.

 Les composs de some et any Do you want something to drink? There is somebody / someone in the street. I left my glasses somewhere. Is there anything in this cupboard? Is there anybody / anyone in this room? Did you see her anywhere? There is nothing in that box. There is nobody / no one here. I can see her nowhere.

 Autres quantifieurs a / suivis d'un nom indnombrable au singulier:

little: peu de a little: un peu de less: moins de (not) much: (pas) beaucoup de too much: trop de a lot of / plenty of: beaucoup de enough: assez de
I've got little money. J'ai peu d'argent. I haven't got much money. Je n'ai pas beaucoup d'argent. b / suivis d'un nom dnombrable au pluriel:

few: peu de a few: quelques 58

fewer: moins de (not) many: (pas) beaucoup de too many: trop de a lot of / lots of / plenty of : beaucoup de enough: assez de several: plusieurs
I've got few books. J'ai peu de livres. I haven't got many books. Je n'ai pas beaucoup de livres.

GENITIF
Le gnitif s'utilise surtout pour exprimer un rapport de possession, c'est pourquoi on l'appelle souvent cas possessif. Pour former un gnitif, l'ordre des mots doit tre invers par rapport au franais: le possesseur prcde le possd. La voiture de Stanley -----> Stanley's car.

I. Emploi

Le gnitif peut exprimer la possession (si le possesseur est un tre anim): Le pied de Peter ------> Peters foot. Le pied de la table ------> The leg of the table. Cependant les noms de pays, continents, villes ou institutions acceptent le gnitif car ils peuvent tre personnifis: L'histoire d'Angleterre ------> England's history. Les pubs de Londres ------> London's pubs. La politique du gouvernement ------> The government's policy. Le gnitif peut ne pas exprimer la possession mais une dure ou une distance : Une journe de travail ------> A days work. Une marche dun kilomtre ------> A one kilometers walk. Remarque: Lorsque le possesseur est au pluriel, on ne met que l'apostrophe. My parents' room ------> La chambre de mes parents.

59

Sauf pour les pluriels irrguliers: The children's toys ------> Les jouets des enfants. The women's legs ------> Les jambes des femmes.

II. Deux types de gnitif

Le gnitif dterminatif (specifying genitive) dtermine le nom qui suit : My sister's husband. Stanley's car. Le gnitif gnrique (classifying genitive) ressemble un nom compos, les deux noms forment alors un bloc: A man's job ------> Un mtier d'homme A master's degree ------> Une matrise A farmer's wife ------> Une fermire (et non la femme d'un fermier) A dog's life ------> Une vie de chien L'article alors porte sur l'ensemble des deux termes, contrairement au gnitif dterminatif o l'article porte sur le premier terme.

III. Gnitif elliptique

Pour viter une rptition, on peut omettre le deuxime nom: This isn't your book, this is Peter's. Ce n'est pas ton livre, c'est celui de Peter. En franais, pour viter la rptition on utilise celui ou celle. Des mots comme shop, house, church, cathedral, school, hospital sont trs souvent omis, mme s'ils n'ont pas t mentionns auparavant: Deb often goes to the butcher's. (the butcher's shop) Deb va souvent chez le boucher. Stella went to Peter's. (Peter's house) Stella est alle chez Peter. A NOTER: CELA PERMET DE TRADUIRE CHEZ St Paul's (St Paul's cathedral)

60

COMPARATIF / SUPERLATIF
I. Le comparatif
1) le comparatif d'infriorit (moins...que) Schma: less adjectif than He is less happy than he used to be. Il est moins heureux que jadis.

2) le comparatif d'galit (aussi...que) Schma: as adjectif as He's not as clever as you. Il n'est pas aussi intelligent que toi.

3) le comparatif de supriorit (plus...que) Schma: adjectif (court) + er than more adjectif (long) than Avec le comparatif de supriorit, il faut se demander si l'adjectif est court ou long. Un adjectif est court lorsqu'il comporte une ou deux syllabes, un adjectif est long lorsqu'il comporte plus de deux syllabes. a / adjectif court He's taller than you. Il est plus grand que toi. She's prettier than her. Elle est plus jolie qu'elle.

NB: Lorsqu'un adjectif court se termine par un -y, la terminaison est alors -ier. b / adjectif long He's more enthusiastic than you. Il est plus enthousiaste que toi.

II. Le superlatif
1) Le superlatif de supriorit (le plus...) Schma: the adjectif (court)+est
61

the most adjectif a / adjectif court He's the tallest boy in the class. Il est le plus grand garon de la classe. She's the prettiest girl in the class. Elle est la plus jolie fille de la classe.

NB: Lorsqu'un adjectif court se termine par -y, la terminaison est alors -iest. b / adjectif long He's the most intelligent boy I've ever met. C'est le garon le plus intelligent que j'aie jamais rencontr. 2) Le superlatif d'infriorit (le moins...) Schma: the least adjectif I'm the least tall. Je suis la moins grande. It was the least expensive of all. C'tait le moins cher de tous.

LES IRREGULIERS: Adjectif Good (Bon, bien) Bad (Mauvais) Far (Loin) Comparatif de supriorit Better (Meilleur) Worse (Pire) Farther ou Further (Plus loin) Superlatif de supriorit The Best (Le meilleur, la meilleure) The Worst (Le / La pire) The Farthest ou Furthest (Le / La plus loin)

III. Laccroissement parallle (plus..., plus...)


The + comparatif (...), the + comparatif (...)
62

The more he eats, the happier he is. Plus il mange, plus il est heureux. The more we get to know him, the sillier we find him. Plus on apprend le connatre, plus on le trouve stupide. The farther they went, the darker it became. Plus ils allaient loin, plus a devenait sombre. The more, the merrier. (expression fige) Plus on est de fous, plus on rit

EXERCICES SUR LES ARTICLES


1) Complter par l'article: the / 1. She likes..... Cakes. 2. I like ..... cakes that your mother made. 3. ..... president went to ..... Italy ...... last week. 4. I'm fond of ..... meat. 5. I didn't like ..... meat we ate yesterday. 6. ..... queen Elizabeth is very rich! 7. ..... Irish speak ...... English.

CORRECTION
1) Complter par l'article: the / 1. She likes cakes. (les gteaux en gnral) (on parle ici de gteaux bien prcis, ceux que ta mre

2. I like the cakes that your mother made. a fait)

3. The president went to Italy last week. 4. I'm fond of meat. (la viande en gnral) (la viande qu'on a mange hier)

5. I didn't like the meat we ate yesterday. 6. Queen Elizabeth is very rich! 7. The Irish speak English.

(The Irish--->les Irlandais / English--->l'anglais, la langue)


63

EXERCICES SUR LES QUANTIFIEURS


1) Complter par some ou any: 1. Give me ________ milk please. 2. Do you have _______ sugar? 3. Would you like ________ tea? 4. Are there _________ bottles of milk? _ Yes, there are _________. 5. They haven't got ________ children.

CORRECTION 1) Complter par some ou any: 1. Give me SOME milk please. 2. Do you have ANY sugar? 3. Would you like SOME tea? 4. Are there ANY bottles of milk? _ Yes, there are SOME. 5. They haven't got ANY children.

2) Complter par "few / a few, little / a little": 1. _______ people liked the film. (peu de) 2. There is _________ milk left.(peu de) 3. There is _________ milk left. (un peu de) 4. There are _________ books on the table. (quelques) 5. He's not very popular, he's got _________ friends. (peu de) 6. There is ________ hope. (peu de) 7. I've got _________ money. (un peu de)
64

8. I've got _________ coins. (quelques) CORRECTION 2) Complter par "few / a few, little / a little": 1. FEW people liked the film. (peu de) 2. There is LITTLE milk left.(peu de) 3. There is A LITTLE milk left. (un peu de) 4. There are A FEW books on the table. (quelques) 5. He's not very popular, he's got FEW friends. (peu de) 6. There is LITTLE hope. (peu de) 7. I've got A LITTLE money. (un peu de) 8. I've got A FEW coins. (Quelques)

3) Complter par some, any, no et leurs composs: 1. Do you have ________ money? No, I haven't got _________. 2. I have _______ time for this right now, I'll look at it later. 3. ____________ has taken my purse. I can't find it. 4. ____________ can do such an easy thing. 5. I can't find my book ____________, yet it must be ______________. 3) Complter par some, any, no et leurs composs: 1. Do you have SOME money? No, I haven't got ANY. 2. I have NO time for this right now; I'll look at it later. 3. SOMEBODY has taken my purse. I can't find it. 4. ANYBODY can do such an easy thing. 5. I can't find my book ANYWHERE, yet it must be SOMEWHERE.

65

EXERCICES SUR LE COMPARATIF / SUPERLATIF


1) Mettre les adjectifs au comparatif de supriorit: 1. She is __________ (tall) than you are. 2. I am ___________ (exhausted) than her. 3. She is ___________ (happy) than him. 4. He is ___________ (good) at maths than me. 5. That film is __________ (bad) than this one.

Correction
1) Mettre les adjectifs au comparatif de supriorit: 1. She is TALLER than you are. 2. I am MORE EXHAUSTED than her. 3. She is HAPPIER than him. 4. He is BETTER at maths than me. 5. That film is WORSE than this one.

2) Construire des phrases l'aide de comparatifs ou superlatifs de supriorit: 1. She is far / sick / I thought she would be. 2. He is much / enthusiastic / you are. 3. He is / good / living dancer on earth. 4. She drives much / slow / you do.
66

5. This is / bad / film I have ever seen. 2) Construire des phrases l'aide de comparatifs ou superlatifs de supriorit: 1. She is far SICKER THAN I thought she would be. 2. He is much MORE ENTHUSIASTIC THAN you are. 3. He is THE BEST living dancer on earth. 4. She drives much SLOWER THAN you do. 5. This is THE WORST film I have ever seen.

EXERCICES SUR LES COMPOSES

1) Former des adjectifs composs: 1. A girl who has got blue eyes is a ________________ girl. 2. A man who has got dark hair is a _______________ man. 3. A horse that runs fast is a ________________ horse. 4. A man who works hard is a _______________ man. 5. A man who has got one leg is a __________________ man. 6. A house which has five storeys is a _______________ house. 7. A man who looks happy is a _________________ man. 8. A cake which is made at home is a ________________ cake. 9. A shirt with green stripes is a _________________ shirt. 10. A rabbit which has got long ears is a _________________ rabbit.
67

CORRECTION
1) Former des adjectifs composs: 1. A girl who has got blue eyes is a BLUE-EYED girl. 2. A man who has got dark hair is a DARK-HAIRED man. 3. A horse that runs fast is a FAST-RUNNING horse. 4. A man who works hard is a HARD-WORKING man. 5. A man who has got one leg is a ONE-LEGGED man. 6. A house which has five storeys is a FIVE-STOREYED house. 7. A man who looks happy is a HAPPY-LOOKING man. 8. A cake which is made at home is a HOME-MADE cake. 9. A shirt with green stripes is a GREEN-STRIPED shirt. 10. A rabbit which has got long ears is a LONG-EARED rabbit.

68

LE CORPS HUMAIN THE HUMAN BODY


franais visage anglais face franais cou anglais neck

tte peau nez joues oreilles yeux front sourcils cils paupires bouche lvre dent langue moustache menton barbe cheveux

head skin nose cheeks ears eyes forehead eyebrows eyelashes eyelids mouth lip tooth (pl. teeth) tongue moustache chin beard hair

dos poitrine ctes poumon coeur sang hanche bras paule coude poignet main doigt pouce ongles jambe cuisse genou

back breast ribs lung heart blood hip arm shoulder elbow wrist hand finger thumb nails leg thigh knee

69

ride cerveau os

wrinkle brain bone

cheville pied orteil

ankle foot (pl. feet) toe

L'HABILLEMENT CLOTHES
franais anglais

vtements s'habiller porter mettre un vtement enlever, ter

clothes to dress to wear to put on a garment to take off

70

veste manteau charpe ceinture gants pantoufles lacets survtement

jacket coat scarf belt gloves slippers laces tracksuit

MEN'S CLOTHES

franais

anglais

sous-vtements caleon slip slip de bain chemise col cravate pantalon short smoking

underwear pants trunks swimming trunks shirt collar tie trousers shorts dinner jacket

71

pyjama

pyjamas

LADIES' WEAR

franais

anglais

soutien-gorge culotte chemise de nuit collants jupe chemisier robe tailleur sac main

bra

panties nightdress tights skirt blouse dress suit handbag

72

LA NOURRITURE FOOD
Eating and drinking
franais
manger

anglais to eat to drink to be hungry to be thirsty to have an appetite greedy to swallow to chew to cook to lay the table (table) cloth plate dish Cutlery (sing.) tray fork spoon knife (pl. knives) ladle salad bowl

boire avoir faim avoir soif avoir de l'apptit gourmand avaler mcher (faire) cuire mettre la table nappe assiette plat les couverts plateau fourchette cuillre couteau louche saladier

73

serviette pain verser verre vin bouteille bouchon tire-bouchon

napkin bread to pour glass wine bottle cork corkscrew

The meals

franais petit-djeuner djeuner viande b uf porc agneau mouton veau jambon (faire) rtir

anglais breakfast lunch meat beef pork lamb mutton veal ham to roast

74

(faire) bouillir (faire) griller produits surgels cru tendre gras saignant point bien cuit trop cuit relever, assaisonner sel poivre moutarde lgumes pomme de terre tomate lgumes verts frites chips vinaigre huile dessert fromage

to boil to grill frozen foodstuffs raw tender fat underdone medium well-done overdone to season salt pepper mustard vegetables potato tomato greens chips, French fries crisps vinegar oil dessert cheese

75

gteau tarte crpe dbarrasser

cake pie pancake to clear away

LA FAMILLE / THE FAMILY


franais pre mre enfant enfants frre soeur grands-parents oncle tante neveu cousin(e) nice mari pouse beau-pre anglais father mother child children brother sister grandparents uncle aunt nephew cousin niece husband wife father-in-law

76

belle-mre fils fille orphelin veuf veuve clibataire (adj) fianc (adj)

mother-in-law son daughter orphan widower widow single engaged

LES CINQ SENS THE FIVE SENSES


LA VUE / SIGHT
franais anglais to see to squint to look at to look + adjectif to keep a look-out to look like someone to watch to catch a glimpse of sth

voir loucher

regarder sembler, paratre tre aux aguets ressembler quelqu'un observer apercevoir

77

scruter du regard jeter un coup d' il contempler regarder bouche be regarder la drobe regarder fixement lancer un clin d' il presbyte myope lunettes jumelles borgne aveugle blanchir, dcolorer sombre, morne blouir terne flamboyer clatant, tapageur briller d'un clat blouissant luire scintiller se dessiner, apparatre tinceler

to peer at sth to glance to gaze at sth to gape at sth to peep at sth to stare at sth To wink at s.o. long-sighted short-sighted glasses binoculars one-eyed blind to bleach blink to dazzle dull to flare gaudy to glare to gleam, to glow to glitter, to twinkle to loom to sparkle

78

L'OUIE / HEARING
franais
entendre

anglais to hear to hear of s.o. to sound to listen to silent silence noise noisy sound audible deaf to whisper to mumble to mutter to stammer / to stutter to yell to blast to buzz

entendre parler de quelqu'un sembler ( l'oue) couter silencieux silence bruit bruyant son perceptible sourd chuchoter marmonner murmurer bredouiller hurler exploser bourdonner, vrombir

79

fracas mtallique cliqueter craquer, crpiter se fracasser, s'craser fracasser, briser faible, indistinct grincer, crisser gmir siffler vrombir, gronder pousser des cris perants aigu, perant claquer acclamer huer / siffler

clang to clatter / to jingle to crackle to crash to shatter, to smash dim / faint to grind to groan / to moan to whistle to roar to shriek sharp, shrill to slam / to slap to cheer to boo / to hiss

L'ODORAT / SMELL
franais
sentir

anglais to smell to stink to sniff smell perfume, scent

empester, puer renifler odeur parfum, senteur

80

LE GOUT / TASTE
franais goter, dguster avoir bon / mauvais got saveur amer doux insipide anglais to taste to taste nice / nasty flavour bitter sweet tasteless

LE TOUCHER / TOUCH
franais
toucher

anglais
to touch

rugueux lisse doux dur

rough smooth soft hard

81

LES SENTIMENTS / FEELINGS


franais un sentiment sensible (se) sentir prouver qch humeur boulevers bien aimer qch ne pas aimer qch dtester qch avoir horreur de aimer qq tomber amoureux en avoir marre de ne pas supporter triste douleur morale douleur physique chagrin joie fondre en larmes sangloter pleurer anglais a feeling sensitive to feel to experience sth mood upset to like sth to dislike sth to hate sth to loathe sth to love to fall in love to be fed up with can't stand / can't bear (+V-ing) sad sorrow pain grief joy to burst into tears to sob to cry / to weep

82

pleurer de joie sourire rire content soulagement tre soulag bonheur du dception se plaindre de s'inquiter surpris tonn stupfait dconcert abasourdi atterr drout avoir peur de effray effroi / peur terrifi

to cry / to weep for joy to smile to laugh glad relief to be relieved happiness disappointed disappointment to complain about to worry about surprised astonished amazed taken aback stunned astounded bewildered to be afraid of frightened fright scared

83

LE TEMPS / THE WEATHER


franais
Quel temps fait-il?

anglais
What's the weather like?

il fait chaud il fait trs chaud il fait froid climat soleil pluie pluvieux nuage nuageux averse brume brouillard neiger tempte ouragan typhon arc-en-ciel

it is warm it is hot it is cold climate sunshine rain rainy cloud cloudy shower mist fog to snow storm hurricane typhoon rainbow

84

orage sec scheresse humide couvert inondation tremblement de terre saison t automne hiver printemps

thunderstorm dry drought damp overcast flood earthquake season summer autumn winter spring

LES VOYAGES / TRAVELLING


franais
voyager

anglais
to travel

agence de voyage faire ses bagages sac dos valise quai (port) quai (gare) gare d'arrive

travel agency to pack one's luggage / one's bags back-pack suitcase quay platform station of arrival

85

gare de dpart port embarquer pont avoir le mal de mer vol avion htesse de l'air aroport piste atterrir dcoller porte d'embarquement rserver une place enregistrement des bagages

station of departure port / harbor/harbour to embark deck to be seasick flight plane stewardess / air hostess airport runway to land to take off departure gate to book a seat check-in

VOCABULAIRE COMMERCIAL
franais
changes commerciaux

anglais
trade

acheter vendre l'achat commander qch marchandises

to buy / to purchase to sell purchase to order sth goods

86

producteur consommateur stocker entrept magasin commerant rayon chef de rayon les clients prix tiquette coter les soldes caisse un reu livrer livraison gratuit libre-service supermarch chariot

producer consumer to store sth warehouse shop (GB) / store (US) shopkeeper department shopwalker customers price label to cost sales cash desk a receipt to deliver delivery free self-service supermarket trolley

87

franais
multinationale

anglais
multinational

filiale P.D.G. directeur gnral sige social diriger une socit prsider une runion socit par actions une action actionnaire le patronat les employs le personnel dmissionner dmission renvoyer comptabilit comptable

subsidiary C.E.O. (chief executive officer) general manager head office to manage a comapany to chair a meeting joint-stock company a share shareholder employers employees the staff to resign resignation to fire bookkeeping accountant

88

VOCABULAIRE INFORMATIQUE
franais
matriel informatique

anglais
hardware

logiciel disquette cran clavier touche donnes base de donnes pirate virus / ver imprimante imprimer copie de sauvegarde effacer mettre jour mettre en route rinitialiser rpertoire mot de passe

software floppy disk screen keyboard key data database hacker virus / worm printer to print out backup to delete / to erase to upgrade / to update to start up to reboot directory password

89

octet mmoire tampon diagnostiquer diagnostic concevoir, crer appareil, dispositif afficher ( l'cran) systme d'exploitation gestionnaire de fichiers localisation de panne ordinateur portable tomber en panne

byte buffer to diagnose diagnostics (pl) to devise device to display disk operating system file manager fault finding handheld computer to fail

MOTS DE LIAISON / LINKING WORDS


Ajouter une ide: Moreover / Furthermore / Besides / In addition (De plus, en outre...) Cause: Because (Parce que) Since (Puisque) As (Comme) Because of (A cause de) Thanks to (Grce ) Consquence: So / Thus / Therefore (Ainsi, donc) That's why (C'est pourquoi) Consequently / as a result (Par consquent) Concession: However / Still / Yet (Cependant) Although (Bien que) Nevertheless (Nanmoins) Despite / In spite of (Malgr) But:
90

To (Pour) In order to / so as to (Afin de) in a view to (V+ing)


Contraste, opposition: On the one hand..., on the other hand... On the contrary / Unlike (Contrairement ) While (Tandis que) / Whereas (Alors que) Donner son opinion: As far as I can judge, ... As far as I am concerned, ... It seems to me that... I am convinced that ... In my opinion ... From where I stand, it looks as though... I feel / believe / think / reckon that ...

SERIE L 2006 LVI


Baccalaurat Gnral - Session 2006 ANGLAIS LV 1 - Srie L

Dure 3 heures - Coefficient 4


Midway through the ninth year of Irma's employment, Dr Marilyn Lattimore came down with an uncharacteristic cold and was home for two days. It was in the breakfast room that the conversation took place. Dr Marilyn sat reading the paper and sipping tea and dabbing at her red, drippy nose. Irma was in the adjoining kitchen, had removed the covers of the stove-burners and was scrubbing them single-mindedly. "Do you believe this, Irma? A week of surgeries and I come down with this arrogant little virus." Dr Marilyn's voice, normally husky, now bordered on masculine. "Back in medical school, Irma, when I rotated through pediatrics, I caught every virus known to mankind. And later, of course, when I had the children. But it's been years since I've been sick and I find this positively insulting. I'm sure some patient gave it to me. I'd just like to know who so I could thank them personally." Dr Marilyn was a pretty woman, small, with honey-colored hair, who looked much younger than her age. She walked two miles every morning at six a.m. Irma said, "You strong, you get better soon." "I certainly hope so ... thank you for that bit of optimism, Irma ... would you be a dear and get me some of

91

the fig preserve for my toast?" Irma fetched the jar and brought it over. "Thank you, dear." "Something else, Doctor Em?" "No, thank you, dear. Are you all right, Irma?" Irma forced a smile. "Yes." "You're sure?" "Sure, yes, Doctor Em." "Hmm ... don't spare me because of my cold. If there's something on your mind, get it out." Irma started to head back to the kitchen. "Dear," Dr Marilyn called after her, "I know you well, and it's obvious something's on your mind. You wore that exact same look until we had your papers taken care of. Then you did it again, worrying abou whether t or not the amnesty would take effect. Something's definitely on your mind" "I fine, Doctor Em." "Irma" "I worry about Isaac." "Isaac? Is he all right?" "Yes, he very good. Very smart." Irma broke down in tears. "He's smart and you're crying?" said Dr Marilyn. "Am I missing something?" They had tea and fig jam on thin toast and Irma told Dr Marilyn all of it. How Isaac kept cominghome from school crying with frustration and boredom. How he'd finished all of his sixth-grade(1) work in two months, taken it upon himself to "borrow" seventh- and eighth- and even some ninth- grade books and had sped through them as well. Finally, he was caught reading a pre-algebra workbook slipped out of a supply room and was sent to the principal's office for "unauthorized study and irregular behavior". Irma visited the school, tried to handle it on her own. The principal had nothing but disdain for Irma's simple clothes and thick accent; her firm suggestion was that Isaac stop being "precocious" and concentrate on conforming to "class standards". When Irma tried to point out that the boy was well ahead of class standards, the principal cut her off and informed her that Isaac was just going to have to be content repeating everything. "That's outrageous," said Dr Marilyn. "Absolutely outrageous. There, there, dry your eyes ... three years ahead? On his own?"

92

"Two, some three." "My eldest, John, was somewhat like that. Not quite as smart as your Isaac seems to be, but school was always tedious for him because he moved too fast. Oh, dear, we had some dustups with him ... Now John's the chief resident (2) in psychiatry at Stanford (3)." Dr Marilyn brightened. "Perhaps your Isaac could be a physician. Wouldn't that be fabulous, Irma?" Irma nodded, half listening as Dr Marilyn prattled. "A child that bright, Irma, there's no limit .... Give me that principal's number and I'Il have a little chat with her." She sneezed, coughed, wiped her nose. Laughed. "With this baritone, I'II sound positively authoritative."

Irma didn't speak.


"What's the number, dear?"

Silence. "Irma?" "I don' wan' no trouble, Dr Em."


"You've already got trouble, Irma. Now we have to find a solution." Adapted from Jonathan Kellerman, Twisted, 2005 (1) sixth-grade: correspond la classe de 6me (2) resident: interne (3) Stanford (University): universit prestigieuse de Californie Comprhension et expression - 14 points . 1. There are five characters in this passage. . a. Identify them, saying whether they are present or mentioned. . b. Who does Doctor Em (lines 19, 23, 29, 62) refer to? . c. Say how the five characters are connected or related.

PART 1 (lines 1 to 35) . 2. a. Why is Doctor Lattimore at home on that particular day? b. Pick out two expressions used by Doctor Lattimore, showing how she feels about her condition. c. Say why she uses these expressions.

3.

3. a. Quote Doctor Lattimore's words when she suddenly realizes that there is something wrong
93

with Irma. b. Analyse Irma's reaction, focusing on lines 21 ("Irma forced a smile.") and 25 ("Irma started to head back to the kitchen.") 20/30 words
. 4. a. Lines 26 to 30. Analyse Doctor Lattimore's reaction at that point and comment on the use of italics. 20/30 words

. b. Lines 31 to 35. Is Doctor Lattimore satisfied with Irma's reaction? 20/30 words

PART 2 (lines 36 to the end)

5. a. In your own words, explain why Isaac comes home from school "crying with frustration and boredom"? (Line 37). 30 words b. The principal reproaches Isaac for "unauthorized study and irregular behavior" (lines 40 ). What -41 exactly does she refer to?

. 6. Describe the way the principal behaved towards Irma when they met. 2 elements
.

a. 7. a. How does Dr Lattimore react to the principal's attitude towards Isaac? . b. Why does Dr Lattimore mention her son John in line 50? 20/30 words c. c. What solution does Doctor Lattimore propose? . 8. Describe and analyse the contrasting attitudes of Irma and Dr Lattimore at the end of the passage. 30/40 words 9. 9. Choose one of the following subjects. 250 words approximately. Give the number of words.
Subject 1

Doctor Lattimore finally decides to pay a visit to the principal. Imagine what happens.

94

Subject 2

Some parents prefer their children to be taught at home. In your opinion, what are their motivations? Give your point of view.
Traduction - 6 points

Translate into French from line 12 (Dr Marilyn was a pretty woman ...) to line 18 ("Thank you, dear.") and from line 36 (They had tea ...) to line 39 (...them as well.).

SERIE L 2005 LVI


Shortly after the riots, like many other white Detroiters, my parents began looking for a house in the suburbs. The suburb they had their sights on was the affluent lakefront district of the automagnates : Grosse Pointe. It was much harder than they ever expected. In the Cadillac, scouting the five Grosse Pointe (the Park, the City, the Farms, the Woods, the Shores), my parents saw FOR SALE signs on many lawns. But when they stopped in at the realty offices and filled out applications, they found that the houses suddenly went off the market, or were sold, or doubled in price. After two months of searching, Milton was down to his last real estate agent, a Miss Jane Marsh of Great Lakes Realty. He had growing suspicions. "This property is rather eccentric," Miss Marsh is telling Milton one September afternoon as she leads him up the driveway. "It takes a buyer with a little vision." She opens the front door and leads him inside. "But it does have quite a pedigree. It was designed by Hudson Clark." She waits for recognition. "Of the Prairie School (1)". Milton nods, dubiously (2). He swivels his head, looking over the place. He hadn't much cared for the picture Miss Marsh had shown him over at the office. Too boxy-looking. Too modern. "I'm not sure my wife would go for this kind of thing, Miss Marsh." "I'm afraid we don't have anything more traditional to show at the moment." She leads him along a spare white hallway and down a small flight of open stairs. And now, as they step into the sunken living room, Miss Marsh's head begins to swivel, too. Smiling a polite smile that reveals a rabbity expanse of upper gum (3), she examines Milton's complexion, his hair, his shoes. She glances at his real estate application again. "Stephanides. What kind of name is that?" "It's Greek." "Greek. How interesting." More upper gum flashes as Miss Marsh makes a notation on her pad. Then she resumes the tour : "Sunken living room. Greenhouse adjoining the dining area. And, as you can see, the house is well supplied with windows." "It pretty much is a window, Miss Marsh." Milton moves closer to the glass and examines the backyard. Meanwhile, a few feet behind, Miss Marsh examines Milton. "May l ask what business you're in, Mr. Stephanides?" "The restaurant business." Another mark of pen on pad. "Can I tell you what churches we have in the area? What denomination are you?"
95

"I don't go in for that sort of thing. My wife takes the kids to the Greek church." "She's a Grecian, too?" "She's a Detroiter. We're both East Siders." "And you need space for your two children, is that right?" "Yes, ma'am. Plus we have my folks living with us, too." "Oh, I see." And now pink gums disappear as Miss Marsh begins to add it all up. Let's see. Southern Mediterranean. One point. Not in one of the professions. One point. Religion? Greek church. That's some kind of Catholic, isn't it? So there's another point there. And he has his parents living with him! Two more points! Which makes - five? Oh, that won't do. That won't do at all. Discreetly, Miss Marsh now draws a tiny "5" next to "Stephanides" and circles it. As she does so, however, she feels something. A kind of regret. The point system isn't her idea, after all. It was in place long before she came to Grosse Pointe. "Tell me more about this Hudson Clark fella," he now asks. "Clark? Well, to be honest, he's a minor figure." "Prairie School, eh?" "Hudson Clark was no Frank Lloyd Wright, if that's what you mean." "What are these outbuildings I see here?" "I wouldn't call them outbuildings, Mr. Stephanides. That's making it a bit grand. One's a bathhouse. Rather decrepit, I'm afraid. I'm not sure it even works. Behind that is the guest house. Which also needs a lot of work ? "Bathhouse? That's different. You don't have to show me anymore. Decrepit outbuildings or not, I'll take it." There is a pause. Miss Marsh smiles with her double-decker gums. "That's wonderful, Mr. Stephanides," she says without enthusiasm. "Of course, it's all contingent on (4) the approval of the loan." But now it is Milton's turn to smile. "You don't have to bother with that," my father said, relishing the moment. "I'll pay cash." Over the barrier of the Point System, my father managed to get us a house in Grosse Pointe. adapted from Jeffrey Eugenides, Middlesex, 2002 (1) : Prairie School (l.13): 20 th century school of architecture made famous by Frank Lloyd Wright (l.50) (2) : dubious (l.14) : uncertain (3) : upper gum (l.20) : pink flesh inside the mouth above the teeth (4) : contingent on (l.58) : dependent on I. Read from "Shortly after..." to "...growing suspicions". 1.a. In what country and what region does the story take place? b. In your own words, say where Grosse Pointe is situated and what sort of people live there. c. What is the name of the narrator's father? 2.a. What do the narrator's parents want to do in Grosse Pointe?

96

b. In your words, explain why the narrator's father is becoming suspicious. (20-30 words) Read from "This property..." to "...living with us, too." 3. Explain what Miss Marsh's job consists in. 4. What is Milton's opinion of the house? Pick out four elements to justify your answer. 5.a. "It takes a buyer with a little vision." what does Miss Marsh mean? (20-30 words) b. "it was designed by Hudson Clark." What effects does she think that name will have on Milton? c. What does Milton nod "dubiously"? 6. Focus on Milton's answers to Miss Marsh's questions. What exactly do we learn about Milton and his family? (Origin, religion, job, household). (3040 words) 7. a. Focus on "Let's see..." to "won't do at all. Why is this passage in italics? b. "Oh, that won't do. That won't do at all. " Explain what Miss Marsh means. 8. a. In your own words, explain how the "Point System" works. (30-40 words) b. What does it reveal about the community of Grosse Pointe? (20 words) Read the whole text again. 10. Focus on the expressions on Miss Marsh's face. How can these expressions be interpreted? (30-40 words) 11. a. From line 47 onwards, what shows that Milton is gaining control of the situation? (3040 words). b. "But now it is Milton's turn to smile". Explain this sentence. (30-40 words)

II. Translate into French from "This property is rather eccentric..." to "... to show at the moment."

III. Choose one of the following subjects (250 words approximately. Write down the number of words.) Subject 1 - The Stephanides have moved into the house. A few months later, Milton sends a
97

letter to a friend telling him about their life in Grosse Pointe. Write the letter. Subject 2 - Can money always buy everything you want?

SERIE L 2004 LVI


(Dure 3 heures - Coefficient 4) Comprhension et expression - 14 points Traduction - 6 points
Nobody spoke. Betty said, 'Good morning, everyone! Y'all waiting to see the royal train go by?' Still nobody spoke. I felt her pressing closer to me. 'Peggy,' she whispered, 'let's hand round some gum or something, show them we're friendly.' Audrey roared. 'Jeez, Betty,' she said, 'anybody'd think we were in Sioux territory.' There were people there wearing black armbands, and a woman carrying a Union flag, no stockings on, just zip-front boots, and her hair rolled up in a scarf, and her legs all wind-burned behind her knees. She kept looking our way. I smiled and nodded and next time I looked she'd moved a bit nearer. Audrey and Lois smiled and nodded, and she moved nearer still. It was Lois made the breakthrough. 'Hi,' she said, 'I'm Lois Moon. You care for a stick of Juicy Fruit?' Close up she was younger than she'd seemed. Thirty, maybe not even that. She just wasn't making the best of herself. Matter of fact, sometimes she still don't. Over the years, I have learned the average Englishwoman has scant interest in good grooming (1). She's more likely to buy herself a new garden tool than get her nails done. But I'm running ahead of myself. That morning, back in '52, she was plain shabby. And she couldn't take her eyes off Lois in her red jacket. She came and stood right next to her. 98

Betty found her voice again. She said, 'Do you happen to know the estimated time of arrival?' She took a while to answer. Or maybe just took a while to understand the question. 'That won't be long now,' she said. 'That's only got to come from Wolverton.' Betty said, 'The funeral train? But I understood it was coming from Sandring Ham?' She looked at Betty for the longest time. 'That's right,' she said. 'They're bringing him from the house up to Wolverton, put him aboard the train and that's a fair old step, along that lane. That must be three miles, Jim?' She called across to a man in an armband. Looked like he didn't have a tooth in his head. 'Jim?' she said. That must be three miles from Sandringham to the siding?' He didn't answer. Just blew his nose and turned his back on us. Didn't like her fraternising. Lois whispered to me, 'How come we're getting the evil eye? I thought we were on the same side as these guys?' Me too. In fact, my understanding was we were owed a little gratitude. Betty said, 'Well, we're very sorry for your sad loss.' She said it loud, kinda addressing the assembled throng. 'Your royal family is the envy of the world. And the folks back home are just gonna die when they hear about us being here, so close to it all.' Audrey said, 'Well, I don't know that die was the happiest choice of words.' Lois said, 'You guys see them around much? The King and Queen? They drive around in their carriage, waving and be-knighting(2) people and stuff ?' I heard somebody say, 'Bloody Yanks.' Then things started to happen. First there was a humming in the rails, and then the ground started to rumble and people were pushing forward, craning and looking left. We could feel that something big was heading our way, bearing down on us, but we couldn't see it. And then, out of the mist it came, real slow and heavy, a Standard Pacific engine and nine cars, dressed overall in black silk. Someone called out 'God save the King!' and every man there held his cap in his hand and bowed his head. 'And the Queen,' Lois's new friend shouted. 'Don't forget her!' I didn't bow my head. I didn't intend any disrespect, but we had driven there to see a princess at the very least. I looked long and hard as it passed us, but what with the steam and the mist, I couldn't even pick out which car the casket(3) was in. Audrey nudged me to look at Betty. She was standing to attention, eyes closed, with a kinda ecstatic look on her face. Then the train slid away, back into the mist, and the ground stopped rumbling and the rails stopped humming and Lois said, 'Well, I didn't see a darned thing.' To her dying day Betty claimed she'd had the best view ever. The Queen, all veiled in black, and the princess very pale and strained, in a little velour hat and a mink collared coat, who had actually given her a sad wave of thanks.

Laurie Graham, The Future Homemakers of America, 2001 Comprehension 1. Give the narrator's name. ______________________________________________________________________________ 2. a) When does the scene take place ? ______________________________________________________________________________

99

b) What do the underlined pronouns refer to?


'That's only got to come from Wolverton.' (line 23) : ________________________________

'They're bringing him from the house' (lines 25-26) : _________________________________ c) In your own words, explain why the characters have gathered on that day. ______________________________________________________________________________ d) Describe the mood that prevails among the British people there. Justify your answer with four quotations from the text. ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 3. In the crowd, there are also American people. Give their names. ______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________________________ 4. Describe the Americans' behaviour towards the group of British people. (40-50 words) ______________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________ _____________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ __________________ 5. a) What is the general feeling towards the Americans ? How does that feeling show? Use your own words. (40-50 words) ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________ ________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _____________________ b) Focus on lines 31 to 33 and say how the protagonists react to that feeling. ______________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ __ c) What in the historical context makes them think that they 'were on the same side as these guys' and that they 'were owed a little gratitude.? ______________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________ __________________________________________________ 6. One British character doesn't have the same attitude towards the Americans as the others. a) What relationship does the character try to establish with them and how ? (30 words) ________________________ ______________________________________________________
100

______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ b) How does that character feel about the Americans? Pick out the sentence that best exemplifies that feeling. ______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

7. a) Focus on Betty's words and reactions throughout the text. What do they reveal about her personality? (50 words) ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ b) What words spoken by another person reveal a similar reaction? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ __________________ c) Comment on Audrey's reaction to Betty's words. ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 8. Focus on the passage from line 41 to the end. a) What is the climax of the passage? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ b) How do the protagonists gradually perceive the scene? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ c) Is the event up the expectations of all the characters? ______________________ ________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________ _____________________________________ Expression Choose one of these subjects (300 words approximately. Write down the number of words.) Subject 1: Some people develop a fascination for royalties or celebrities. How do you account for that? Subject 2: Imagine you can travel back to the past. Write a story describing your arrival in the period of your choice.

101

______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ________ ______________________________________________________________________________


_____________________________________________________________________________________ ____ _____________________________________________________________________________________ ____ _____________________________________________________________________________________ ____ _____________________________________________________________________________________ ____ _____________________________________________________________________________________ ____

Translation Translate from line 14 ("Close up she was younger ...") to line 23 ("... won't be long now, she said.") ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ______________________ ______________________________________________________________________________

102

SERIE L 2004 LVI CORRECTION


Comprehension 1. Give the narrator's name. The narrator's name is Peggy. 2. a) When does the scene take place ? The scene takes place after the death of King George VI. b) What do the underlined pronouns refer to ?
'That's only got to come from Wolverton.' (line 23) : The funeral train

'They're bringing him from the house' (lines 25-26) : The king's body c) In your own words, explain why the characters have gathered on that day. They have gathered on that day so as to see the train transporting the Royal family. d) Describe the mood that prevails among the British people there. Justify your answer with four quotations from the text. They are in mourning for the king, respectful and patriotist.
"nobody spoke"

"There were people there wearing black armbands"


"a woman carrying a Union flag"

"Every man there held his cap in his hand bowed his head". 3. In the crowd, there are also American people. Give their names. Betty, Audrey, Lois and Peggy. 4. Describe the Americans' behaviour towards the group of British people. (40-50 words) The Americans would like to talk to them and prove that they feel concerned with the event. They act friendly, by offering them gum. In spite of the British people's reaction, they endeavour to show that they share their grief. 5. a) What is the general feeling towards the Americans ? How does that feeling show ? Use your own words. (40-50 words) The general feeling that prevails towards the Americans is a feeling of disdain and enmity, since the British feel that they are quite out of place. They do not have anything to do with the Royal Family.
103

b) Focus on lines 31 to 33 and say how the protagonists react to that feeling. They are amazed at that rejection. c) What in the historical context makes them think that they 'were on the same side as these guys' and that they 'were owed a little gratitude.? The Americans helped the British troops during World War II. Therefore they feel they deserve some kind of thankfulness. 6. One British character doesn't have the same attitude towards the Americans as the others. a) What relationship does the character try to establish with them and how? (30 words) She behaves kindly towards the Americans. Firstly she draws nearer to them and then she answers their question. b) How does that character feel about the Americans? Pick out the sentence that best exemplifies that feeling. She seems to be enticed/captivated/fascinated by them. "She couldn't take her eyes off Lois in her red jacket". 7. a) Focus on Betty's words and reactions throughout the text. What do they reveal about her personality? (50 words) Considering Betty's words and reactions, one can easily perceive that she is spain-spoken and quite superficial. She does not seem very concerned with the event but just happy to be able to see the Queen and the Princess. b) What words spoken by another person reveal a similar reaction? "Lois said "You guys see them around much? The King and the Queen? They drive around in their carriage, waving and be-knighting people and stuff? " c) Comment on Audrey's reaction to Betty's words. Audrey seems more considerate since she is aware that Betty's words might hurt. 8. Focus on the passage from line 41 to the end. a) What is the climax of the passage? The passage reaches a climax when the train goes by in front of them: they all have been waiting for that moment. b) How do the protagonists gradually perceive the scene? They gradually perceive the solemnity of the moment. c) Is the event up the expectations of all the characters? No, it isn't. They feel frustrated, since they had expected to see more. Translation Translate from line 14 ("Close up she was younger ...") to line 23 ("... won't be long now, she said.") De prs elle tait plus jeune qu'elle n'en avait eu l'air. Trente ans, peut-tre mme pas. C'est juste qu'elle ne s'arrangeait pas. En ralit parfois elle ne le fait toujours pas. Au fil
104

des annes, j'ai appris que l'anglaise moyenne ne prte gure attention son apparence. Il est plus probable qu'elle s'achte un nouvel outil de jardin plutt qu'elle se fasse faire les ongles. Mais l, j'anticipe. Ce matin l, en 52, elle tait tout simplement pauvrement vtue. Et elle ne pouvait pas dtacher ses yeux de Lois et sa veste rouge. Elle vint se tenir juste ct d'elle. Betty retrouva sa voix. Elle dit : "Est-ce que par hasard vous connatriez l'heure prvue pour l'arrive ?" Elle mit un moment rpondre. Ou peut-tre mit-elle un moment comprendre la question. "Ca ne sera plus long maintenant", dit-elle.

SERIE L 2003 LVI


(Dure 3 heures - Coefficient 4) Comprhension et expression - 14 points Traduction - 6 points

I knew something was odd at home when, after we had eaten our dinner; my dad followed my mum, Carl and me into the living room to sit down. This usually did not happen. Dinner was just an interruption from my dad's jobs around the house. On Sundays after church Dad was always fixing, painting, adjusting or mending. He was always, "in the middle of a job", that required his full, silent concentration and a monkey wrench (1). If I ever asked him what he was doing he'd say, "Fixing something, so don't come bothering me now."[...]

But this was not the only strange thing. It used to be strange for us to go into the living room at all. It was always kept for the best with Mum's carefully embroidered runners on the sideboard and school photographs of Carl and me smiling and showing our teeth in various stages of hideous development. [...] Now we were adults, however, we could go in the room any time we pleased, our parents convinced that we would no longer damage one of the glass ornaments or spill out tea on the furry fireside rug. But as I walked into the room I saw six, maybe seven of my mum and dad's boxes piled up in a corner. My eye was drawn to them because they were out of place and nothing was ever out of place in that room. The boxes were also full, sealed across the top, bottom and sides with wide brown tape. "What are these doing here?" I asked, going over to them. I turned round and watched as Dad looked at Mum, Mum looked at Carl, Carl looked at Dad and then back at Mum. But nobody
105

looked at me. "What's going on?" I looked at them all one by one. Then another strange thing happened: my dad spoke first. "Sit down, Faith" he said. He began to finger the knuckles on his hand, feeling each one in turn. He used to do this when it was time to discuss the "could do better" bits in my school report. I began to get scared. "No, I won't sit down." I wasn't sure why I said that but I felt like someone in a film who was about to be told something that would make them scream and pull at their hair. Unfortunately everyone else sat down and I had to stay standing. Nobody spoke so I placed my hands on my hips. Dad started, "Your mum and me", then faltered. He began again, "Me and your mum", and stopped. He went back to, "Your mum and me." I looked at my mum who was looking at her knees and pulling imaginary hairs off her skirt, while Dad continued to stutter his various permutations. He was onto, "We", when I said, "What?" [...]. "Come, Wade", Mum said, looking impatiently at my dad who had still not completed a sentence. "Your mum and me are thinking of going back home", Dad said finally. I thought of our old council flat where Carl and I had grown up. Although we had lived in Crouch End for years, it was the crumbling flat in Stoke Newington that I thought of as home. The blue door with the silver number twenty-three and a knocker that could be heard anywhere in the flat. With the drain-pipe in the bathroom, where bath water from the flats above could be heard rushing through. My bedroom with its council-pink walls and tiny bed where I put my discarded teeth under the pillow and the tooth fairy would replace them with a sixpence. I thought in that moment that my parents had somehow lost all their money. That Mum was having to leave her job as a district nurse; the old folk cured, the district cutting back. That Dad's business - which he had built up so carefully with sixteen-hour days, including Saturdays and Sundays, and evenings spent writing invoices in his best handwriting in a little blue book - had after all gone bust. I thought they were having to move out of the house. The house in a proper street that they were so proud of they sent pictures of it to relatives with invitations to come and stay. "You are going back to the flat?" I asked. Carl sniggered and I knew I was wrong. "No, Faith," Mum said. "We're thinking of going home to Jamaica". And my reaction was, "For a holiday. Fantastic! How long for?" "Not for a holiday, Faith," Dad said hesitantly. "Your mum and I are thinking..." He held up his hand, "Only thinking, mind, of going back there to live. To get a little place and live."

106

Andrea LEVY, Fruit of the Lemon, 2000 Vocabulary : (1) Monkey wrench = clef anglaise

I. COMPREHENSION - EXPRESSION
Read the whole text 1. a) What sort of narrative is it? b) Give the narrator's name.

2. Who are the other characters? Give their names and occupations when possible. Say how they are related to the narrator.

3. Pick out three elements showing that the narrator is no longer a child.

4. a) What makes it an unusual day ? Pick out three different details. b) In your own words, contrast that particular day with the family routine. (30/40 words)

Read the text again from "What are these..." to "... complete a sentence." 5. a) Pick out three elements describing the father's attitude. b) In your own words, analyze his attitude. c) To what extent can this analysis be applied to the mother? Justify your answer with one quotation.

Focus on the narrator.

107

6. a) Select words from the list below to characterize the narrator's attitude and feelings : absent-minded - carefree - excluded - frightened - puzzled - relaxed - theatrical - trustful Illustrate your choice by quoting from the text. words selected 1 . 2 . 3 . 4 . quotations . . . .

b) "No, I won't sit down... Comment on this answer.

Read from "Your mum and me..." to the end. 7. a) What do the parents want to tell the narrator ? b) What does the word "home" mean for the narrator? c) What does the narrator imagine has happened to her parents? Use your own words (40 words). d) Is she right? Justify your answer with a quote.

8. Why doesn't "home" correspond to the same place for the narrator and her parents? (40 words).

9. Taking into account the different places mentioned, retrace the family's history. What can you deduce about the evolut ion of their standard of living? (60 words).

II. TRADUCTION
Translate from "I knew something was odd ..." to "... don't come bothering me now".

108

SERIE L 2003 LVII


CORRECTION ( venir) (Dure 3 heures - Coefficient 4) Comprhension - 10 points Expression - 10 points

The classroom was in a muddle. Miss Moriarty was bent over a book and Baba was arranging the lilac (my lilac) on the little May altar at the top of the classroom. The smaller children were sitting on the floor mixing all the separate colours of plasticine together; and the big girls were chatting in groups of three or four.

Delia Sheehy was taking cobwebs out of the corners of the ceiling. She had a cloth tied to the end of the window pole and as she moved from one corner to another she dragged the pole along the whitewashed walls and the dusty, faded grey maps. Maps of Ireland and Europe and America. Delia was a poor girl who lived in a cottage with her grandmother. She got all the dirty jobs at school. In winter she lit the fire and cleaned the ashes every morning before the rest of us, came in; and every Friday she cleaned the closets with a yard brush and a bucket of Jeyes Fluid water. She had two summer dresses and she washed one every second evening, so that she was always clean and neat and scrubbed looking. She told me that she would be a nun when she grew up. 'You're late, you're going to be killed, murdered, slaughtered,' Baba said to me as I came in. So I went over to apologize to Miss Moriarty. 'What? What's this?' she asked impatiently, as she lifted her head from her book. It was an Italian book. She learnt Italian by post and went to Rome in the summertime. She had seen the Pope and she was a very clever woman. She told me to go to my seat ; she was annoyed that I had found her reading an Italian book. On my way down Delia Sheehy whispered to me, 'She never missed you'. So Baba had sent me to apologize for nothing. I could have gone to my desk unnoticed. I took out an English book and read Thoreau's 'A Winter Morning' - 'Silently we unlatch the door, letting the drift fall in, and step abroad to face the cutting air. Already the stars have lost some of their sparkle, and a dull leaden mist skirts the horizon' - and I was just there when Miss Moriarty called for silence. 'We have great news today,' she said and she was looking at me. Her eyes were small and blue and piercing. You would think she was cross but it was just that she had bad sight from over-reading.. 'Our school is honoured,' she said and I felt myself beginning to blush. 'You, Caithleen,' she said, looking directly at me, 'have won a scholarship.' I stood up and thanked her and all the girls clapped. She said that we wouldn't do much work that day as a

109

celebration. 'Where will she be going?' Baba asked. She had put all the lilac in jam-jars and placed them in a dreary half-circle around the statue of the Blessed Virgin. The teacher said the name of the convent. It was at the other end of the county and there was no bus to it. Delia Sheehy asked me to write in her autograph album and I wrote something soppy. Then a little fold of paper was thrown up from behind, on to my desk. I opened it. It was from Baba. It read : I'm going there too in September. My father has it all fixed. I have my uniform got. Of course we're paying. It's nicer when you par. You're a right-looking eejit. Baba Edna O'Brien, "The Country Girls", 1960 Edna O'Brien is an Irish writer. Vocabulary :
y y

plasticine = pte modeler eejit = idiote

I - Comprhension
1 - Where and in what season does the action take place?

2 - a) List the characters or the groups of characters that are present in the scene

Characters

Groups of characters

b) Match occupations with the main characters

Main characters

Occupations teacher
110

pupil cleaner

3 - a) Who do the underlined words refer to ? Baba was arranging the lilac (my lilac) my : 'You, Caithleen,' she said, looking directly at me, 'have won a scholarship.' I stood up and You : she : me : I: 'Where will she be going?' Baba asked. She had put all the lilac in jam-jars she : She : b) What conclusion can you draw as to the type of narrative?

4 - a) Pick out four elements showing that the classroom was "in a muddle". b) The 'muddle' in the classroom was caused by: (Circle the right answer.) the pupils' hard work anxiety before an exam the teacher's attitude Justify your choice by quoting from the text. c) How did the teacher put an end to it? (in your own words)

5 - 'You, Caithleen,' she said, looking directly at me, 'have won a scholarship.'
111

a) Find the meaning of scholarship. (Circle the right answer) money you get by buying a ticket a diploma, an exam financial help Justify your choice by quoting from the text. b) What does the winning of this scholarship reveal about th e narrator's personal qualities? Tick the right answer(s) lazy hard-working bright dumb c) "I felt myself beginning to blush." What feelings could be revealed by this reaction? (20 words)

6 - a) One of the following characters does not get on well with the narrator. (Circle the right answer.) Caithleen - Miss Moriarty - Baba - Delia Sheehy Justify your choice by quoting from the text (two examples).

7 - a) Rephrase each statement trying to reveal Baba's feelings. - I'm going there too in September. - My father has it all fixed. I have my uniform got. - Of course we're paying. - Its nicer when you pay. b) Give one adjective which would best describe the character's feelings towards the narrator.
112

8 - One character has something in common with the narrator. a) Name this character. b) Compare this character and the narrator. Give one similarity and one difference.

9 -a) What do the following elements have in common? May altar - convent - Pope b) Find two other elements in the text that belong to the same lexical field. c) Judging from these elements, what is particular about the place where the scene is set?

II- Traduction
Translate the following passage : 'Our school is honoured,' she said and I felt myself beginning to blush. 'You, Caithleen, she said, looking directly at me, 'have won a scholarship. 'l stood up and thanked her and all the girls clapped. She said that we wouldn't do much work that day as a celebration.

III- Expression crite


Choisissez l'un des deux sujets suivants (250 mots) : 1. You are the narrator and you write a letter to Miss Moriarty telling her about your first day at your new school. 2. Being about to start a new life is always very exciting. Discuss.

113

SERIE L 2002 LVI


(Dure 3 heures - Coefficient 4) Comprhension et expression - 14 points Traduction - 6 points
"Norton," Sheppard said, "I saw Rufus Johnson yesterday. Do you know what he was doing?" The child looked at him with a kind of half attention, his eyes forward but not yet engaged. They were a paler blue than his father's as if they might have faded like the shirt; one of them listed, almost imperceptibly, toward the outer rim. "He was in an alley," Sheppard said, "and he had his hand in a garbage can. He was trying to get something to eat out of it." He paused to let this soak in. "He was hungry," he finished, and tried to pierce the child's conscience with his gaze. The boy picked up the piece of chocolate cake and began to gnaw it from one corner. "Norton," Sheppard said, "do you have any idea what it means to share?" A flicker of attention. "Some of it's yours," Norton said. "Some of it's his," Sheppard said heavily. It was hopeless. Almost any fault would have been preferable to selfishness - violent temper, even a tendency to lie. The child turned the bottle of ketchup upside-down and began thumping ketchup onto the cake. Sheppard's look of pain increased. "You are ten and Rufus Johnson is fourteen," he said. "Yet, I'm sure your shirts would fit Rufus". Rufus Johnson was a boy he had been trying to help at the reformatory (1) for the past year. He had been released two months ago. "When he was in the reformatory, he looked pretty good, but when I saw him yesterday, he was skin and bones. He hasn't been eating cake with peanut butter on it for breakfast." The child paused. "It's stale," he said. "That's why I have to put stuff on it." Sheppard turned his face to the window at the end of the bar. The side lawn, green and even, sloped fifty feet or so down to a small suburban wood. When his wife was living, they had often eaten outside, even breakfast, on the grass. He had never noticed then that the child was selfish. "Listen to me," he said, turning back to him, "look at me and listen." The boy looked at him. At least his eyes were forward. "I gave Rufus a key to this house when he left the reformatory - to show my confidence in him and so he would have a place he could come to and feel welcome any time. He didn't use it, but I think he'll use it now because he's seen me and he's hungry. And if he doesn't use it, I'm going out and find him and bring him here. I can't see a child eating out of garbage cans." The boy frowned. It was dawning upon him that something of his was threatened. Sheppard's mouth stretched in disgust. "Rufus's father died before he was born", he said. "His mother is in the state penitentiary. He was raised by his grandfather in a shack without water or electricity and the old man beat him every day. How would you like to belong to a family like that?" "I don't know," the child said lamely. "Well, you might think about it sometime," Sheppard said. Sheppard was City Recreational Director. On Saturdays he worked at the reformatory as a counselor, receiving nothing for it but the satisfaction of knowing he was helping boys no one else cared about. Johnson was the most intelligent boy he had worked with and the most deprived. 114

Norton turned what was left of the cake over as if he no longer wanted it. "You started that, now finish it," Sheppard said. "Maybe he won't come," the child said and his eyes brightened slightly.

' Everything that Rises Must Converge", Flannery O'Connor (1) Reformatory: a special school for delinquents who are not sent to jail.

A - Comprehension et expression
1. Who are the main characters? Give their ages, when possible, and their relationship. 2. Where does the scene take place and at what time of day? 3. Compare the social background and family life of the two boys. (70 words) 4. Using four quotations show that Rufus doesn't have enough to eat. 5. Explain the evolution in Rufus's situation and physical condition over the past year. (30 words) 6. How did Sheppard help the boy over this period and what does he plan to do in the near future? (60 words) 7. What do we learn about the father's personality throughout the text? (50 words) 8. What weakness (es) does Sheppard notice in his son's character? 9. What is the point of this conversation between father and son? 10. "Well, you might think about it sometime" (l. 47) Rephrase the sentence and make the meaning of "might" clear. 11. Explain the evolution of Norton's reactions to what father is telling. (50 words) 12. Choose one of the following essays. (200 words) a) The following day Rufus comes to Sheppard's house. Imagine what happens. b) Confidence between adults and teenagers is a key to growing up. Discuss.

115

B - Traduction
Translate from line 6 to line 13 : "He was in an alley", Sheppard said, "and he had his hand in a garbage can. He was trying to get something to eat out of it. He paused to let this soak in. "He was hungry", he finished, and tried to pierce the child conscience with his gaze. The boy picked up the piece of chocolate cake and began to gnaw it from one corner, "Norton," Sheppard said, "do you have any idea what it means to share?" A flicker of attention "Some of it's yours," Norton said. "Some of it's his", Sheppard said heavily. It was hopel ess.

116

SERIE L 2002 LVII


(Dure 3 heures - Coefficient 4) Comprhension - 10 points Expression - 10 points
Her Leah Pires passport had proven quite reliable in the past two weeks. But the customs agent had seen the alert an hour earlier during a coffee break. He pushed an alarm button on his scanner while he slowly examined every word of the passport. The hesitation at first was annoying, then Leah realized something was wrong. The travelers at the other booths were breezing through, bare ly slowing long enough to open their passports and having the approvals nodded back at them. A supervisor in a navy jacket appeared from nowhere and huddled with the agent. "Could you step in here, Ms. Pires ? " he asked politely but with no room for discussion. He was pointing at a row of doors down the wide corridor. "Is there a problem ?" she insisted. "Not really. Just a few questions." He was waiting for her. A uniformed guard with Mace (1) and a gun on his waist was waiting too. The supervisor was holding her passport. Dozens of passengers behind her were watching. "Question about what ?" she demanded as she walked with the supervisor and the guard to the second door. "Just a few questions," he repeated, opening the door and escorting her into a squareroom with no windows. A holding room. She noticed the name of Rivera on his lapel. He didn't look to be Hispanic. "Give me the passport," she demanded as soon as they were alone and the door was closed. "Not so fast, Ms Pires. I need to ask you a few questions." "And I don't have to answer them". "Please, relax. Have a seat. Can I get you some coffee or water ?" "No." "Is this a valid address in Rio ?" "It certainly is". "Where did you arrive from ?" "Pensacola" (2) "Your flight ?" "Airlink 855." "And your destination ?" "Sao Paulo ?" "Where in Sao Paulo ?" "Maybe that's a private matter." "Business or pleasure ?" "Why does it matter ?" "It matters. Your passport lists your home in Rio. So where will you be staying in Sao Paulo ?" "A hotel." "And the name of the hotel ?" She hesitated as she struggled to grab the name of a hotel, and the little interval was deadly. "Uh, the - the - Inter-Continental," she finally said, without the slightest hint of truthfulness.

117

He wrote it down, then said. "And we can assume the room there is reserved in the name of Leah Pires ?" "Of course," she said, snapping back nicely. But one quick phone call would prove she was lying. "Where is your luggage ?" he asked. Another crack in the facade, and this one even more revealing. She hesitated, glanced away, and said : "I'm travelling light". Someone knocked on the door. Rivera opened it slightly, took a sheet of paper, and whispered to this unseen colleague, Leah sat down and tried to relax. The door closed and Rivera studied this e vidence. "According to our records, you entered the country eight days ago, here in Miami, on a flight from London which originated in Zurich. Eight days and no luggage. Seems odd, doesn't it ?" "Is it a crime to travel light ?" she asked. "No, but it is a crime to use a false passport. At least here, in the US." She looked at the passport lying on the table near him, and she knew it was as phony as could be. "It's not a false passport," she said indignantly. "Do you know a person by the name of Eva Miranda ?" Rivera asked, and Leah couldn't keep here chin up. Her heart stopped and her face fell, and she knew the chase was over.

"The Partner", John Grisham, (BCA Books, 1997) (1) Mace : a weapon with paralysing gas (2) Pensacola : a town in Florida

I - Comprhension
I) 1. Where does the scene take place ? 2. What is happening to the main character and why ? II) 1. Read from line 1 down to line 10. Pick out four elements showing that the main character is going to be in trouble. 2. Read from line 11 down to line 40. a) Pick out one sentence showing that the supervisor is trying to reassure the woman. b) Read the supervisor's questions : comment on his tone. 3. a) (l. 49) "Another crack in the facade." What does this expression imply ? b) (l. 52) The supervisor "whispered to his unseen colleague". Why did he whisper ? III) 1. Find three lies the woman tells the supervisor during her interview with him. 2. Read the text again from line 19 down to the end.
118

a) Find four quotations showing that the woman tries to avoid answering the supervisor's questions.b) Find four quotations showing how embarrassed she is. IV) Translate from line 51 "Someone knocked at the door..." to line 56 "...doesn't it?"

II - Expression crite
Choose one of the following questions and answer it in 250 words. 1) Can you imagine what may have happened to the woman before this episode ? 2) Have you ever lied ? Explain what your lie consisted in, why you did not tell the truth and what the consequences were.

Vous remarquerez que certaines phrases ne sont pas traduites, c est a vous de le faire. Il n y a rien de normal et librateur que l apprentissage

119