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David Gorden, "Indicators of Poverty and Hunger" Expert Group Meeting on Youth Development Indicators (New York: United Nations, December
2005). Tef;udef; 7ckwGif Tef;udef;tpk 2-ck&Sdonf/ tpkwpfckpDwGif csKdUwJhrI (Deprivation) ESihf tvGeftrif;csKdUwJhrI (Severe Deprivation) [l

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6

US Census Bureau, Poverty Thresholds for 2009 by Size of Family and Number of Related Children Under 18 Years.[http://www.census.gov/hhes/ www/
poverty/data/threshld/thresh09.html]
7
USA Today,''Number of people in poverty reaches highest level in 51 Years, ''16 September 2010. [http://www.usatoday.com/nwes/nation/
census/2010-09-16- poverty-rate- income-numbers-N.htm]

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8

Joseph Stiglitz, ''Inequality: of the 1%, by the 1%, for the 1%,'' Vanity Fair, May 2011. [http://www.vanityfair.com/society/ features/ 2011/
05/top-one-percent]
9
China Daily News, ''Official: China's poverty line too low,'' 23 August 2006 [http://www.chinadaily. com. cn/china / 2006- 08/23/content672510.htm]

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10

Global Times, ''Poverty line seen as too low''[http://english. sina. com/china/ p/2011/0303/362572. html]
[http://www.thanhnienews.com/2010/Pages/20110204174748.aspx]
[http://www.ngocentre. org. vn/news/vietnan-hanoi-announces-new-poverty-line-2011-2015]
13
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- 13 47/ zGUH NzdK;rIEiS q


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17
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16

if;EdkifiHrsm;rSm tm&S\pufrIxGef;opfpEkdifiHrsm; odkYr[kwf tm&Susm;EdkifiHrsm;jzpfNyD; a[mifaumif? pifumyl? awmifudk&D;,m;ESifh xkdif0rfwdkY yg0ifygonf/

17

Asian Development Bank, Fighting Poverty in Asia and the Pacific: The Poverty Reduction Strategy,
[http://www.adb.org/Documents/Policies/Poverty-Reduction/Poverty-Policy.pdf]

- 14 wnfaxmifay;Ekid f rHk Qomru xdrk 0l g'rsm;udk taumiftxnfazmfay;&efvnf; tmrcHcsurf sm;ay;yg


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18

Ibid;.

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19

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OECD, Development Assistance Committee (DAC), "Guidelines on poverty reduction" (Paris; OECD, April, 2001)

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21
The World Bank has undertaken PRSP related activities in 67 countries. See World Bank, Board Presentations of PRSP Documents (as of June 2, 2010).
[http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTPRS1/Resources/boardlist.pdf]
See also David Craig and Doung Porter, "Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers: A new convergence. What does it miss, and what can be done about
it?" Regional Conference on National Poverty Reduction Strategies, Organised by World Bank, UNDP, IMF and ADB. Hanoi, Vietnam, 4-6th December 2001).

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22

Central Statistical Organization, Statistical Yearbook 2002 (Yangon: CSO, 2002) table 22.04, p. 423.
Ibid.; table 22.05; p. 431.
For the latter half of the 1990s, the share of food and beverages in the household consumption expenditure of countries in the Asia
and Pacific region were as follows: Singapore (14%), Japan (23%), Taiwan (24%), Hong Kong (26%), Republic of Korea (27%), Thailand
(32%), Malaysia (37%), Sri Lanka (41%), China (44%), Mongolia (45%), Philippines (47%), Bangladesh (52%), India (54%), Pakistan (55%),
Cambodia (57%), Indonesia (59%), Nepal (61%), Laos (61%), Viet Nam (62%), North Korea (65%), and Myanmar (71%) [Source: SSII, Asian
Agrifood Demand Trends to 2010].
23

24

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25
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d m zlvakH &; pd;k &dryf yl efrrI sm; avsmyh g;oGm;
apEdik yf gonf/

25

U Myint, "Professor Stiglitz and Roundtable and Development Forum Meeting, held at Naypyitaw, 15 December 2009: Comments and
Follow-up Action". This paper was presented at a press briefing at Myanmar Egress Capacity Development Centre, Thamada Hotel,
Yangon, on 9 January 2010. Sixty-five representatives from 28 domestic and foreign media agencies and organizations attended the briefing.
The paper is available at [http://www.irrawaddy.org/web-images/U-Myint-Stiglitz.pdf]

- 20 tcsKyt
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rsm;t& 2006-2007 b@mESpw
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k m wifyEYkd idk cf yhJ gonf/

26
United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Economic Research Service, Rice Situation and Outlook Yearbook/RCS-2007/November,
2008; Appendix table 25, p.88.

- 21 68/ jynfwiG ;f pm;oH;k rItwGuf qeftvHt


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U Myint, "The rice issue", (Unpublished paper, Yangon, 19 September 2003.)

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