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Personal selling is defined as. One important advantage of personal selling is that the selling pitch can be adjusted and individualized to the prospect. Once you determine the prospects needs, you tailor the sales pitch. In Business-to-Business (B2B) marketing companies are selling complex products such as printing presses, buses, jets, computer systems, power plants, and other expensive "installations" usually salespeople sell these products. Customers put salespeoples subject matter and solution expertise at the top of their list while taking decision to buy the product. Personal selling is divided into three tasks: a. Order Getting Order getters attempt to increase their firms sales by selling to new customers or by convincing current customers to buy more of a companys products. They develop new business by convincing the customer to purchase an expensive item. They need to have persuasive abilities, takes talent to convert prospects into customers and companies are willing to pay people who have this ability. Order getters understand the importance of focusing on benefits and not simply describing features of products. b. Order Taking Order takers are involved in the routine completion of a sales. They complete the sales transaction and mainly deal with the same or similar customers. c. Support Personnel Do not make any sales but help facilitate the selling function. There are two major types of support personnel: missionary salespeople and technical specialists. A missionary salesperson for a drug company (i.e., a detailer) will visit doctors and try to


convince them to use various drugs manufactured by her company. They do not sell anything and often leave many free samples with the doctors. Technical specialists are necessary when very technical products are sold (e.g., advanced computers). They have the ability to explain how to use the product and its limitations. Some support personnel are sent to retailers to help them with displays and provide advice about promoting the product.

Personal Selling Process

Step 1: Prospecting and Qualifying (1) Prospecting The first step in the personal selling process, focuses on developing a list of potential customers (prospects). Both internal (a companys own records) and external sources can be used to prospect. Many salespeople use the telephone to prospect. Some firms get names of prospects from list brokers. One good way of getting leads is by running a direct response ad in a magazine. For instance, Xerox might run an ad in a trade publication describing a new copying machine that can make one million color copies a month at a price of a few cents per copy. The ad will provide a toll-free number and offer a free brochure describing this machine. Anyone who calls will be asked a few critical questions (e.g., when do you expect to make a purchasing decision) and their name and the company name will be entered into a database. (2) Qualifying Deals with determining which prospects are most likely to purchase the product. In some firms, prospects are rated A, B, C, D, and F depending on the chance that they will purchase and the amount they might spend. In many firms, prospects who plan on buying the product within 3 months are classified as "hot leads." Step 2: Pre-approach


A good salesperson attempts to know his/her prospect well. You want to know something about the buyers company, the buyers specific product needs, and what brands are currently being used. The more you know about your prospects, the easier it is to sell to them. Knowing about a prospects needs also makes the salesperson more credible in the eyes of the buyer. Step 3: Approaching the Customer Cold calls are not the most effective way of approaching customers. Some salespeople spend a great deal of time canvassing an area trying to find prospects willing to listen to their spiel without a prior appointment. This wastes a great deal of time since it may take hours to find an individual with the authority to make the purchase willing to listen to the sales pitch. Referrals (referred leads) are usually more effective than cold calls. Step 4: Presentation Step - Making the Sales Presentation During the presentation step, the salesperson has a vital job. The sales person has to convert prospects into customers by creating a need and desire for the product or service. S/he has to tell the prospect the "product story" and highlight the benefits of the product. You are familiar with the term USP (unique selling proposition) that is used in advertising. A good salesperson has to convince prospects that the product is special and will provide important benefits. Did you get a call from the college when you were a high school senior? If you did, what were you told that made you choose this college? Research indicates that students selecting a college are concerned with reputation and variety of programs to choose from. A good salesperson knows which attributes/benefits to stress in trying to convert the prospect into a customer. The attributes or benefits that should be stressed should be important to prospects. Step 5: Closing the Sale


Here is where you are trying to get the order. The salesperson asks the prospect to buy the product. One common approach is to assume that the prospect does want to buy the product and to ask "when you do want delivery?" or "how many do you want?" Step 6: Follow-up A good salesperson follows up and ensures that everything went well. Was the product delivered on time? Is the customer satisfied? Any problems? By demonstrating that you care about your customers, you will increase the chances that customers will continue to buy from you and recommend you to others. Marketing is all about customer satisfaction and following up is necessary to determine whether or not your customers are satisfied.

Company profile
Sabro Technologies (Pvt) Ltd is a subsidiary of SABRO Group of Companies. The S.a. Brothers (Pvt) Ltd, popularly known by its brand name SABRO is an ISO-9001 certified Air Conditioning manufacturing company, located at I-9, Industrial area Islamabad, Pakistan. The company was established back in 1968.It was the mix of superior management skill, experience, technical know-how and decision for offering the right products at the right time, which made SABRO a successful name in the history of air conditioning. The technical knowledge of its founding officials and hardship of their loyal co-workers remarkably helped to win the customers willingness by making the air conditioners in accordance to their specialized requirements. Today in Pakistan, SABRO is considered to be a pioneer in Airconditioning field and known as the largest manufacturer of residential and commercial units of all kinds. Since its establishment, all the manufacturing facilities were located at I-9 plant which was time to time expanded in terms of covered area. However keeping in view, the increased manufacturing requirements due to enhanced market demand, subsequently the management decided to establish a new plant for the manufacturing of commercial and industrial products! The result is the establishment of SABRO Technologies (Pvt) Ltd., which is located at Industrial triangle Islamabad, Pakistan. Sabro on trot is Celebrating its thirty eighth year of ever inclining efficiency in the field of domestic as well commercial Air-Conditioning.


SABROS brand name is reliable, efficient and well known in commercial airconditioning. The secret of SABROS success is rather general to a management student but the two slogans under sabros flag made SABRO an organization of its kind in Pakistan, i.e. total quality management and the network of after sales services. SABRO is very conscious in having long term commitments with its customer. Sabro Technologies (Pvt) Ltd is a subsidiary of SABRO Group of Companies. The S.a. Brothers (Pvt SABROS brand name is reliable, efficient and well known in commercial air-conditioning. The secret of SABROS success is rather general to a management student but the two slogans under sabros flag) Ltd, popularly known by its brand name SABRO is an ISO-9001 certified Air Conditioning manufacturing company, located at I-9, Industrial area Islamabad, Pakistan.

Company synopsis
Sabro Technologies (Pvt) Ltd is considered to be the biggest manufacturing company in all kinds of commercial & Industrial air conditioners in Pakistan. Sabro Technologies (Pvt) Ltd, an innovative company with best available resources, continues to create impressions to provide the best possible products to its all customers.

Corporate Profile
Sabro Corporation was established in 1968 as the pioneer in Air conditioning market, with specialization in advanced technology, excellent services and good reputation in the market. Sabro is dedicated to the design and production of high quality products with emphasis on energy efficiency, keeping in view the climatic conditions prevailing at the area, where the equipment is to be installed and it is done by highly qualified, capable and most experienced engineers. At Sabro, every business segment is refashioned with intend to dominate the generic market of the future. The company would like to retain its image even as it ventures the other markets. Presently, Sabro is manufacturing different types of air conditioners (split/package), chillers; air handling units, air curtains, humidifier, dehumidifier, hot water generators etc. Now Sabro has entered into new millennium, with new product range of DVDs-microwavestelevisions and Instant water geysers (electric/gas), as a dynamic and growing company with


the resolve to define levels of excellence. The company has attained multi- dimensional growth in terms of :

Development and production capacity

Since its establishment, all the manufacturing facilities were located at I-9 plant which was time to time expanded in terms of covered area. However keeping in view, the increased manufacturing requirements due to enhanced market demand, subsequently the management decided to establish a new plant for the manufacturing of commercial and industrial products! The result is the establishment of SABRO Technologies (Pvt) Ltd., which is located at Industrial triangle Islamabad, Pakistan. Sabro is considered the largest selling brand in HVAC domestic as well commercial appliances. At present its on trot production capability is as under y y Domestic units (1 hp to 3 hp) 10,000 Units/month (produced at S.a brothers Islamabad). Commercial units (1 hp to 240 hp) 5000 HP per month (produced at sabro technologies sihala , Islamabad)

Company Philosophy
Our management philosophy is based on our mission :

To serve the society with fervor along with acting as a model for its uplift and to contribute in the development and promotion of hi-tech in the country


Sabro has been the market leader in areas of its activity, its primary role has been to design, manufacture, supply, install and maintain the air conditioning systems. In offering solutions to our clients, we keep the required international standards in focus. In todays fast moving world, international standards, environmental regulations and cross border agreements need to be coupled with local market needs, climatic conditions and customer requirements. Our management philosophy represents our strong determination to contribute in the development of society and prosperity of its people, whose talent and creativity are dedicated in doing their best at all times.

Company name : Sabro technologies private limited. Established Year : 2005 (As a subsidiary of Sabro group of companies) Head office : Plot # 270, Industrial triangle, Kahuta road, Islamabad. PAKISTAN. Export Market Afghanistan Bahrain Bangladesh Kuwait Qatar Saudi Arabia UAE

Vision Statement:
To be standard as a company that provides its product & service quality, integrity and commitment to all of its clientele and a mainstay in the business community.


Personal Selling Techniques

Relationship marketing refers to a philosophy that a company that wishes to succeed should maintain a strong, continuous, long-term relationship with its customers, suppliers, and distributors. Companies that follow this philosophy understand the importance of communicating with their customers, suppliers, and distributors on a regular basis. In order to have this kind of relationship customers and intermediaries have to feel good about doing business with the company. Also, customers and intermediaries should find it easy to contact the company and feel welcome when communicating with it. They should feel that they are part of a big family and that the company is upset if the product or service fails to perform properly. Obviously, it is much easier to make customers and intermediaries feel this way if you strive to understand their needs.

One of the strongest ways to persuade prospects to buy your service is the use of testimonials in your marketing materials. A testimonial -- an endorsement from an individual that is similar to the kind of prospects you want to attract as clients -- can have a tremendous impact on the effectiveness of all your marketing materials, including:
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brochures website emails sales letters telephone sales calls sales presentations advertisements trade show booths annual reports service upgrade & renewal notices invoices


Good Testimonials Do Two Things:

1. They directly appeal to a prospect's "trigger points" (their specific pains or problems they need solved) and demonstrate specifically how your service has benefited (solved the pain or problem) for real people that are just like your prospect. 2. Reduces the fears, anxieties and perceived risks the prospect may have before making a purchase decision. The testimonial illustrates that your company helps people just like your prospect to successfully solve a pain or problem the prospect has. Two baseline requirements before you start a testimonial program So having a lot of good testimonials sounds great, doesn't it? The reality is that implementing a testimonial program is a challenge. But it can be done successfully if you have these two requirements in place: 1. Like all good marketing, it requires you to purposefully focus your attention on your clients, and not your business or yourself. Good testimonials are focused on satisfied clients expressing benefits about your service, not generically praising how great your company is. Recognizing this is key to be able to develop the most effective testimonials. 2. Second, a testimonial requires a commitment to an ongoing effort and strategy. You

must be in contact with your satisfied clients -- always keeping in touch and "in the know" on any specific and measurable results they've had by using your service. And in that process, you must be willing to ask for testimonials from these clients -- and know how to ask the right questions.

So let's get started on developing your testimonial program...

Two must-have elements of a strong testimonial Generic accolades about you or your company are not effective. Things like: "We love your work. Keep it up!"

"I'm so glad I signed up for this. I recommend it to everyone." The above testimonials will have very little impact on a prospect's decision to buy from you.


Instead, strong testimonials should have these two key elements: 1. The testimonial must reinforce specific and concrete benefits that the satisfied client received as a result from your service. For a prospect to find the testimonial meaningful, he or she must be able to relate to a specific pain or problem the endorser had, and get understand specifically how the problem was solved by your service. 2. The testimonial must be attributed. Blind testimonials are rarely effective. For a

testimonial to have credibility to a prospect, they must be able to identify with the type of person who is endorsing the product. A name is the most critical attribute, but here are some other attributes that can have a very positive impact on your testimonials:

title company industry / type of business awards or honors length of experience in industry published articles, books, research leadership positions memberships what media outlets they have been interviewed (and sourced) by

How many testimonials should you have? There's no magic number, but ideally you should ask for testimonials from as many clients as possible.

Here are some guidelines:


Have a least one testimonial that represents each market segment (or type of customer or business) you target.

Have at least one testimonial for each feature (and its corresponding benefit) of your service. Obviously the more you have, the better.



Be willing to ask for them. But what do you ask? Often a satisfied client is willing to give a testimonial, but they might ask for assistance on what to say. This is good. Don't be afraid to direct them. In fact, being prepared to "lead" them a bit with certain types of questions will help you capture a stronger testimonial. With some nudging, you will normally find that most clients like to talk about how well things are going.

How do you find testimonials? 1) Contact satisfied clients directly -- by phone or in person. Be direct and ask them the results they are getting from your service. Then ask "may I quote you?" If they agree, write down their statement. Then send it to

them by mail or email with a note stating that you'd like their permission to use the testimonial in your marketing materials.

2) Survey your clients.

A good way to solicit testimonials is to conduct a survey of your clients. While every response may not be useful for a testimonial, you'll probably get some (and any other comments can probably be used to help you improve your service).

How to identify the most qualified sales leads Carefully using your limited resources both time and money for sales lead

generation and follow-up on prospective clients is key to building a profitable small business. Developing a simple process -- a "sales lead qualification process" -- is essential. A qualification process helps you systematically evaluate every new client business opportunity, and prioritize how you handle each one.



Specifically, this process helps us:


Identify the potential clients that are the best fit for your service These are the businesses that have a pain or problem that you have the experience and credentials to solve, and ones that match the criteria of your "ideal client profile" and target market. There's nothing worse than investing lots of effort on proposing a solution for a prospect, only to later realize that it isn't a good fit for you (or them).

Saves time and money in following-up with prospects You can avoid allocating limited resources following-up with tire-kickers, people that don't have the funds to pay you, or don't have the authority to make a buying decision.

Understand what you know, don't know, and need to know In order to adequately follow-up with the prospect, increasing your probability to gain them as a new client.

Determine who are the key players (influencers and decision makers) to make the deal happen.

Understand where the prospect is in the buying process Have they just started doing research? Have they identified other options (like your competitors)? Are they ready to buy now, or do they need more nurturing before they can commit?

Identify the strengths and weaknesses of your service (which can help you be more competitive in your marketplace).



Track and measure Overtime -- the best approaches for each type of sales lead you get. A key to profitable growth is to duplicate a process that has worked in the past to convert prospects into paying clients.

How do you qualify a sales lead? The easiest way is to create a simple internal checklist, and rate or score the new client opportunity based on several criteria, such as:

Needs analysis of the prospect (what pain or problem do they have that needs to be solved?)

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The best-fit solution for the prospect The time frame and urgency the prospect has to solve the problem The value or return on investment (ROI) the solution will provide the prospect (does the solution save them time/money? increase sales? etc.)

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The budget and other resources the prospect has available. What relationships do you have with the key players that have authority to buy your service?

A sample sales lead qualification scoring form is available for you to use as a model in developing your own process of evaluating and prioritizing your new client opportunities. Sales Lead Qualification Scoring Form Score Qualification Criteria Needs Analysis and Current Situation Has the problem or pain of the prospect been identified? Has the prospect acknowledged the impact of this pain or problem? Has the prospect indicated they want to change/improve the situation? (1-5)



Solution and Future Vision Have you discussed with the prospect how things could be improved and/or what the impact of those improvements would have? Has the prospect indicated other options they have taken or are considering to change the situation? Has the prospect described what happens if they don't do anything to solve the pain or problem? Time frame / urgency Has the prospect expressed why this problem is a priority to solve? Has the prospect indicated when the problem needs to be solved? Value / Return on Investment (ROI) Does the prospect understand the outcome/value to the organization of solving the problem (i.e. saving time/money, increasing sales, etc.). Do the key players (decision makers / influencers) know their own personal/professional benefits/outcomes of solving the problem? Budget & Resources How strong is the financial position of the company? Does the prospect have a budget for this? Are there other projects, concerns or priorities that may compete with this project? Authority and Relationships Do you know who the key influencers and decision makers are? Do you know who the ultimate approving authority is? Do you know what their individual roles will be? Do you have a rapport/connection with these key players? Do you have an influential sponsor or champion inside the organization that supports the solution?




What Makes Business-to-Business Marketing Different?

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B2B Marketers Experience Longer Sales Cycles. The B2B purchase cycle is an extended process, often lasting several months or longer. Marketing to B2B prospects requires different actions, depending on what stage of the buying cycle your prospect is in.

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B2B Products and Services are More Complex. B2B products and services are typically complex and sophisticated, with many of the benefits or detriments not readily apparent. B2B marketing needs to take the technical, the subtle, the intricate, and make it clear, understandable, and persuasive.

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B2B Selling Propositions are More Complex. B2B selling propositions are complex propositions that must present value-based differentiated solutions that support rational buying decisions. Fluff may get attention, but its not going to sway the purchasing decision. Complex differences must be articulated and delivered through intelligent and compelling communication strategies.

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There are Fewer Identifiable Buyers. B2C marketers know they can put their product in front of millions and that a sizeable percentage of that market are potential purchasers of that product. There are far fewer potential buyers of B2B productsand theyre harder to find. Sure, you may find a company you think needs your product or service, but you may spend the better part of a year trying to find the right people to influence within that company.

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B2B Pricing is Different. The pricing of B2C products doesnt change very much from store to store. Pricing of B2B products, however, are often different for every buyer and every sale. Products in the B2B world are less standardized, and pricing can be very dependent on just who the buyer is. The price is determined on the basis of numerous factors and specifications, all of which take significant time to calculate and add greatly to selling costs.

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B2B Marketing Must Speak to a Different Set of Buying Emotions. B2B marketing is not emotionless. While B2B prospects are generally not moved by common B2C motivators, like impulse or status, different individual emotional motivators



apply. For example, the fear of making the wrong decision, the level of confidence in the forecasted ROI, the level of trust established in the sellers peopleall of these are very real emotional motivators in the B2B world. Nikes Just do it wouldnt play too well in the B2B world.
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Corporate Brands are Usually More Important. Corporate brands are usually more important to B2B buyers than product brands. While practical purchase criteria drive product selection, (i.e. product performance, capabilities, price), the value B2B buyers place on the corporate brand drives and completes the actual purchase decision. Can I believe in this company? Can I trust them? Will they deliver what they promise?

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B2B Prospects Conduct More Research. The risks and implications of making or failing to make the appropriate purchase decision are usually high for B2B buyers. Therefore, B2B prospects conduct more research, seek more information, evaluate references, and research alternative products, manufacturers, solutions, and providers. They do this not only for personal benefit, but because they also need to sell the recommended purchase to others.

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B2B Marketers Have Less Research Data. If youre Proctor & Gamble, you dont put a product on the shelf until youve spent millions to know that it will be successful. Few B2B companies have that luxury. Sure, a lot of money may go into product research and development, but little gets spent on market research. This makes success a lot more dependent on the experience and savvy of the B2B marketer.

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More People are Involved in the B2B Purchase-Decision Process. Most business purchases have multiple parties in the purchasing organization influencing the decision-making process. Therefore, you must identify and reach multiple parties in multiple tiers within the prospects organization with messaging that resonates to each individuals interests and concernsfor example, the "economic buyer" concerned with ROI, the "technology buyer" concerned with performance, and the end-user concerned with ease of operation.

B2B Requires Different Channel Strategies.



For many B2B organizations, the seller-to-end-user relationship is not exclusive or direct. Complex networks of key publics require different channel strategies relevant and appropriate to each channel members level of involvement. In addition to end-users, many B2B companies must also market to distributors, dealers, independent representatives, outside consultants, specifies, and supply-chain partners, to name just a few.

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B2B Sales Rely Heavily on Personal Interactions. Unlike sales to consumers, B2B marketing doesnt happen through tightly controlled, highly crafted communications vehicles like television commercials or other mass media. One-to-one customer relationship building, through personal interaction, demands sophisticated sales management and an educated, knowledgeable, trained staff whose words and actions are aligned with corporate brand objectives.

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B2B Marketing Starts on the Inside. Most people working within a B2C company have little, if any, actual contact with the customer. In B2B, countless people within the company, not just marketing folks, have access to and interact with the customer. All of those people need to understand the brand, live the brand, and deliver the brand every day. Therefore, the B2B marketers first job is to market internally and align others in order to create brand ambassadors.

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Multiple People from the Sellers Organization are Typically Involved. Sales of complex, technical, or sophisticated B2B products and services often include the expertise and involvement of multiple people from the selling organization. Sales and marketing may be joined by representatives from executive management, design, engineering, manufacturing, customer serviceall of whom have the ability to influence the sale. All of these people need to be aligned with the brand to maximize selling success.

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Third Parties have Greater Influence in the Buying Process. B2B purchasers often look to third party influencers for opinions, insight, consultation, or referrals. B2B sellers must market to and through industry experts, trade organizations, trade shows, trade publications, peer organizations, and other third party channels. B2B purchasers use information from these sources to support and help sell their purchase recommendations.



Sabro Chiller Plant :

Analysis of Project Report Effectiveness of Personal Selling in b2b Selling 1. Which company you most prefer?

Most Prefer Company

Sabro Hier Waves Pel

2. Which method of contact is used by between you and your company? Direct - 40, Telephone - 60, Email - None, Fax None



Methods of contacts

Direct 40% Telephone 60% email 0% fax 0%