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FiO2 - fraction of inspired oxygen, which means the percent of oxygen in each breath that is inspired.

normal room air has ~21% oxygen. Tidal Volume- tidal volume is calculated in milliliters per kilogram. 6 to 8 ml/kg. PEEP- PEEP (positive end expiratory pressure) exerts pressure to oppose passive emptying of the lung and to keep the airway pressure above the atmospheric pressure. The presence of PEEP opens up collapsed or unstable alveoli. keeps a constant pressure against the lungs and helps open the alveolar pathways in situations where the lungs are failing to function normally. pirators that keeps a constant pressure against the lungs and helps open the alveolar pathways in situations where the lungs are failing to function normally. The higher the pressure, however, the greater the danger that one of these pathways may rupture, leading to further, severe complications. There are a number of other potential complications of positive pressure ventilation besides barotrauma (injury to the lung as mentioned above), hemodynamic disturbance due to a decrease in venous return associated with the increase in intrathoracic pressure (decreased cardiac output, decreased blood pressure, decreased urine output), fluid retention (due to decreased renal perfusion and increased antidiuretic hormone), respiratory alkalosis, increased intracranial pressure (due to the elevated intrathoracic pressure), nutritional disturbance (due to not being fed), and nosocomial pneumonia. Sensitivity- sensitivity" or ' inspiratory effort"; this setting determines how easily a patient can initiate a machinedelivered breath. When the sensitivity dial is turned all the way to the off position, no amount of patient effort will initiate a machine breath, and the machine is in the controlled ventilatory mode

Common Causes of Low-Pressure Alarms


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Patient disconnection Circuit leaks Airway leaks Chest tube leaks


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Common Causes of High-Pressure Alarms

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Patient coughing Secretions or mucus in the airway Patient biting tube Airway problems Reduced lung compliance (eg. pneumothorax) Increased airway resistance Patient fighting the ventilator Accumulation of water in the circuit Kinking in the circuit Problems with inspiratory or expiratory valves