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Scope it is the total breadth of the activity in a subject field. This determines the extent or limits of activity or coverage. Example: 1.Economic Security 5. Food Production 2.Peace and Order 6.Recreation 3.Hygiene and Sanitation 7. Civic Life 4.Home Beautification 8. Moral Life Sequence is the placement of curriculum content or learning experience from the standpoint of time. Example:

Grades I & II III IV V VI

Home and family life and living in our schools Living in our town and province. The Filipino and their past. The Filipino nation and its resources. The Philippines in the community of Eastern and Western hemispheres and in the emerging work community

Steps in Curriculum Organization 1. Consideration of the educational aims to be achieved. 2. Formulation of educational objectives. 3. Selection and organization of the content. 4. Procedures and methods to be used to accomplish aims. 5. Selection of techniques for the evaluation of outcomes. 6. The selection of references and materials to be used by the learners and by the teachers. 7. Determination of specific grade outcomes and standards of attainment.

Selection and Organization of Content and learning Experiences in Curriculum Development

Curriculum Organization is the systematic arrangement of content and educational learning experiences for the effective employment of human and material resources for the attainment of educational objectives. - refers to the structure and form of the curriculum.

Types of Curriculum Organization

1.Traditional Curriculum Patterns2.Integrative Curriculum Patterns3.Unified Program 1. Traditional Curriculum a.Subject curriculum is an organization in which the school subjects constitute the basis for organizing the school experiences of learners. b.Correlated curriculum is one that articulates and establishes relationships between two or more subjects on the basis of a topic or atheme, or teaching similar topics on two or more subjects simultaneously inan effort to help students gain a better understanding of such topics. c.Broad Fields Curriculum is essentially an effort to overcome the compartmentalization and atomization of the curriculum by combining several specific areas into larger fields. 2.Integrative Curriculum - entirely eliminates school subject division and broad fields of subject matter and organizes the learning experiences of thework of the school around the learners needs, interests, abilities, majorfunctions of social life, and normal activities of learners. a.Learner-Centered Curriculum is one that organizes its learning experiences and content around normal child activities such as exploring, listening, storytelling, playing and listening.

b.Experience Curriculum is one that places emphasis on the

immediate felt needs of learners and not on the anticipated needs and interest. c.Core Curriculum is also called the social functions or Areas of Living Curriculum. - is intended to enable the learner to study problems that demand personal and social action in the contemporary world. 3. Unified Program - According to William B. Ragan, there should be a balance between extremes in educational theory and educational practice.

Curriculum Issues, Concerns and Responses

Curriculum managers and educational experts are always looking forbetter ways to achieve better learning through teaching. However,curriculum innovations seemed to be difficult for many, issues which need tobe addressed. Certain aspects need to be clarified in order to overcome theattitude and feelings that create some concerns. Curricular Issues and Concerns

Poor academic performance of the learners. Issues on the varied implementation of the curriculum among schools and teachers seem tobe the one of the reasons for the prevailing low performance of theschools all over the country. There is perennial complaint about booksand other instructional materials. Overcrowded classrooms do notprovide a good learning environment.

Curricular innovations lack the sense of ownership from stakeholders. Sometimes the implementers lack full understanding of

the changes or modifications that they are doing. The goal is unclear,thus there are a lot of questions in the implementation as well asevaluation from concerned persons. Because of these concerns, thereis little support that comes from other stakeholders. They just leavethe school to do it their own thus, giving the classroom teacher theburden.

Some curricular innovations are results of bandwagon but are not well supported by the managers. In desire of some schools to be part of global educational scenario, changes and innovations aredrastically implemented even if the school is not ready. They jus haveto show that they are also keeping abreast of the development even iftheir equipment is insufficient.

Lack of regular monitoring and evaluation. After a new curriculum has been installed, it is left unattended. Very little means is providedto find out if the implementation is running smoothly or not. When thetime of implementation ends, sometimes there is no evaluationaspects, thus the innovation cannot be judged as failure or success forit to be continued or not.

Innovations result to teacher burn out. With so many new changes taking place in the curriculum, many teachers are getting burn out.They get so tired quickly and motivation is very low because theycannot cope up with rapid changes that take place.

Innovations are not communicated to all. Only the managers or the proponents understand the changes. Those who are directly involved merely follow hook line and sinker. This is calledregimentation. Responses to Issues and Concerns The BEC is an example of an innovation that tries to address the continuous decline in the learners performance in basic education andthe DepEd is eager to provide support for its implementation. Amongthe support that DepEd provided were the fast tracking of textbookprocurement, the retraining and upgrading of teachers, the teacherinduction program, the support of principals and more initiatives.More school buildings were constructed and computers and othertechnology related equipment are provided. In the installation of a new curriculum or innovation, all stakeholders should be involved. Even in the planning stage, consultations shouldbe held. Right at the beginning, the students, teachers, alumni,industry and other sectors involved in workshops, conferences andconsultations. There is a need to respond to the fast changing times in terms of school curriculum innovations but the steps however, should be wellplanned and well studied. Changing for the sake of change is uselessor even irrelevant if the innovation is not well studied. General practice seems to show that when anew curriculum is

introduced or implemented, it ends without report of result. However,because this issue has been raised again and again, it is noteworthy tofind new curricular programs have now embedded monitoring andevaluation in its plan. In fact, in the school-based innovations,principals have been empowered to conduct monitoring newcurricular programs. Collaboration in the implementation of a new curriculum is very necessary. In School heads or managers, teachers, and learners shouldhave adequate information about the innovation before it will beintroduced. They must even help in deciding whether such innovationshould be introduced or not.

Approaches to Curriculum Design

There are three commonly used approaches to curriculum design. Theseapproaches are subject-centered, curriculum, learner-centered curriculum,and problemcentered. Each of these approaches has several specificexamples. I. Subject-Centered Curriculum This model focuses on the content of the curriculum. This corresponds mostly to the textbook, written for the specific subject. Henry Morrison and William Harris- are the few curricularists who were firm believers of this design. a.Subject Design- is the oldest and so far the most familiar design for teachers, parents and layman. b.Discipline Design- focuses on the academic disciplines.

c.Correlation Design-

curriculum design that links, separate subject designs in order to reduce fragmentation. d.Broad-Field Design/Interdisciplinary- is a variation of the subjectcentered design. II. Learner-Centered Curriculum The philosophy underlying in this curriculum design is that the child isthe center of the educational process and the curriculum should be buildupon his interest, abilities, purposes and needs. a.Child-Centered Design- This design is often attributed to the influence of John Dewey, Rouseau, Pestallozi, and Froebel. Learners interact with the teacher and environment. b.Experience-Centered Design- believes that the interest of learners cannot be pre-planned. c.Humanistic Design- the development of self is the ultimate objective of learning. Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers- are the key lead personalities in this curriculum design. II. Problem-Centered Curriculum This design draws on social needs, problem, interest and abilities of the learners. d.Life-Situations Design- The contents are organized in ways that allow students to clearly view problem areas clearly. .

This comes from a core, correlated

e.Core Design- it

problems are based on common human activities.

is centered on general education and the

Implementing Curriculum Change

There must be an examination of the place of formative process andsummative evaluations of curriculum programs and of the practical materialsfor the actual process of installing new curricula in schools.

Change and the Curriculum Development

Before a developer can develop the skills needed to manage of theprograms of innovations, a curriculum developer must have someknowledge of the change process itself. He must plan for the consequencesthat arise from the different change strategies employed. Effectivecurriculum change program must maintain the relevance of the schools tothe current needs of the society.

Management of Change Change- is defined as any alteration of the properties of one or more system
elements; the relationship between system elements; the properties of the client system. Client System- defined as any recipient of a change element; any group of system elements characterized by natural boundaries (a school, a community, a nation). System Elements- is defined as discreet phenomena whether material (buildings, students, .people, pupils) or immaterial (ideas, attitudes,values) that are interrelated and can be considered as part of clientsystem.

Change Element- is defined as a material or immaterial phenomenon that is foreign or new to the client system, this includes new combinations of system elements. (ex. new relationship). Change Agent- is defined as the carrier of the change element. Resistance to Change- is defined efforts of the client system or of individual system elements to frustrate or slow the introduction of a change element or to alter its properties.

Persons Involved in Curriculum Design

The persons involved in curriculum design are teachers, students,administration, DepEd/CHED, alumni, parents, professionals, organizations, andbusiness organizations. These are the persons who support and give life to thecurriculum. 1.Internal- means inside a.Teachers- are the developers and implementers of the curriculum. They are the curriculum maker. The one who prepares activities for the students to do. b.Students- are the center of the curriculum. They are the reason why a curriculum is developed. They are the primary stakeholder in the curriculum. They are the ones who make the curriculum alive. c.Administration- They are the ones who provide optimum educational opportunities for all the children in school, like equipment, supplies,finance, curriculum faculty and other personnel. They are the one whoprepare the school budget and assist in curriculum construction.

d.DepEd/CHED- this are the two agencies that has mandatory and

regulatory powers over the implementation of any curricula, because all schools in thecountry are under the regulation of the national government as provided inthe Philippine Constitution, then the government has a great stake incurriculum implementation. 2.External- means outside a.Alumni- These are the graduate students, the one who are already experienced, and benefited the effectiveness of the curriculum. b.Parents- They are the supporters of the curriculum, because they are the ones paying for their childs education. They are willing to pay the cost ofeducating their child for as long as their children get the best learning orschooling experiences. They follow up the lessons of their childrenespecially in basic education. They provide curriculum materials that arenot provided in school. They provide permission for their children toparticipate in various activities outside the school campus. c.Professionals- They are engaged in an occupation as a paid job rather than as a hobby, showing a high degree of competence. They are being asked bycurriculum specialists to contribute in curriculum review because they havea voice in licensure examinations, curriculum enhancement and many more. d.Organizations- A group of people identified by shared interests or purpose. This also refers to the group of students in school. e.Business Organization- They are the company or other organization that buys and sells goods, makes products or provide services for a course ofstudy at a university, college and other education that teaches the basicprinciples of business and business practices.

Curriculum Evaluation
Every activity that has objectives needs corresponding evaluation that willdetermine the extent to which goals are being achieved. Evaluation therefore, isimportant for it serves as a way of making conclusions of the effectiveness of theactivity being conducted. What is Curriculum evaluation? Curriculum evaluation refers to a systematic process of judging the value, effectiveness, and adequacy of a curriculum: its process, product and setting. Steps in Evaluating the Curriculum 1.Identification of the instructional objectives. 2.Selection and administration of instruments. 3.Data collection. 4.Data analysis. 5.Interpretation. Techniques of evaluation 1.Formative Evaluation - is done when pupils achievement or written tests are administeredduring preliminary tryouts of an educational program in order to improve aproposed curriculum. 2. Summative Evaluation - is terminal evaluation and it involves judgment of a finished productsuch as teaching machine or a curriculum on the market and assessingwhether it is better than another or the best among others of its kind. 3. Payoff Evaluation - is the examination of the effects of the instrument or curriculum onstudent learning by comparing the results of preand post-tests ordetermining the scores of the experimental group and those of controlledgroup on specific criteria. 4. Intrinsic Evaluation

- refers to the assessment of the educational program or the curriculum itself 5. Cost-Benefit Study - is figuring out of the opportunity cost, that is, the cost of forgoing, the next best alternative. Marks of a Good Curriculum 1. A good curriculum is systematically planned and evaluated. 2. A good curriculum maintains balance among all aims of the school. 3. A good curriculum reflects adequately the aims of the school. 4. A good curriculum promotes continuity of experience. 5. A good curriculum arranges learning opportunities flexibly for adaptation to particular situations and individuals. 6. A good curriculum utilizes the most effective learning experiences and resource available. 7. A good curriculum makes maximum provision for the development of each learner.

Formulation of Objectives in Curriculum Design

An Activity which is intentional like the curriculum should be based for itseffectiveness upon the origin of intentions, that is, upon the valued objectives ofthose and participating in the activity. Intentional, deliberate, organized activitiesand pressured concentration upon some things rather than others, making ofchoices and an establishment of properties. Curriculum developers today recognize the need to translate educational aimsinto educational objectives which suggest the process of and content element oflearning. This specific objective serves as a reference for classroom selection andsome modifications. It is important that the objectives must

be sufficiently specificto guide instructional decisions in making the curriculum and since theseobjectives must be enumerated I a rational organization, it must propose somekind of organizational plan to the classroom teacher.

Educational Aims and Educational Objectives

Two Kinds of Educational Aims 1.Specialized Educational Aims- which establish criteria to be met before educational technicians who render services to others. 2.General Educational Aims- which do not impose minimum standard achievement, since this serve all men in their individual differences for adjustment and self-fulfillment. Two Kinds of Educational Objectives 1.Educational Objective is directly derived from an educational aim which is formulated for students who are identified to their level of education, for example, primary, intermediate, secondary, collegiate, or college level. 2.Instructional Objective is suggested by an educational objective and educational aims. Characteristics of Educational Objectives Rational curriculum development demands that educational objectives meet the following requirements: 1.Comprehensive. Full implications of educational aims may be returned to the objectives in the process of derivation among substantive elements andtransactions among the curriculum developers at the various curriculumplanning.

2.Consistency. Logical faithfulness of the objectives to aims as well as

that the objectives must be maintained. The different objective must relate with the other and be supportive of the educational aims. 3.Attainability. The objective must be achievable by the students educational purpose, result of studies in psychology may be used in achieving the attainability or not of objectives. 4.Feasibility. Educational objectives must be evaluated in the ways of practical considerations including teacher competence, availableinstructional materials, time allotment, expenses involved, and the prejudiceof the community served by the educational system.

Functions of Educational Objectives

Educational aims are stated in general levels in order to provide orientationto the main emphasis in education al programs. The educational objectiveshowever, are more specific which describes behaviors or programs to be attainedin a particular unit, a subject matter, course, educational level program. The function of the educational objective is to guide the making ofcurriculum decisions on what to cover, what to emphasize, what to select, andwhich learning experience to stretch.

Guidelines in the Formulation of Educational Objectives

1.Educational objectives must be clearly conceived and clearly stated. 2.A statement of objectives describes both the kind of behavior expertise and the content or the context on which the behavior is applied. 3.Complex educational objectives need to be stated analytically and specifically enough so that there is no doubt as the kind of behavior expected.

4.Educational objectives should also be so formulated that there is clear distinctions among learning experiences required to attain different behaviors. 5.Educational objectives should be developmental, representing roads to transfer rather than terminal points.

Sources of Educational Objectives

1.Objectives are derived from felt needs, social values and ideals.

Educational objectives must emerge from continuous studies ofcontemporary society, changing conditions, and trends, society, socialvalues, and ideals in the growing needs and demands. 2.It is derived from studies and researches.

Educational Objectives in the Philippines

In the Philippine Educational System, the fundamental aims of education are provided in Sec. 3 if Article XIV of the 1987 constitution which states that: 1. Educational institution shall include the study of the constitution as prescribed in the curriculum. 2.They shall inculcate patriotism and nationalism, foster love of humanity and respect for human rights. Teach the rights and duties of citizenshipstronger than ethical and spiritual values, develop moral character andpersonal discipline, encourage creative thinking and technologicalknowledge and promote vocational efficiency. Article II Sec. 17 states thatthe state shall priority to education, science and technology, arts culture andsports. Article XV also states that The state recognizes the Filipino familyas the foundation of the nation.

Points of View of the Curriculum

Curriculum - is a set of subject/ body of subject which is
prepared by the teachers for the students or learners. Robert M. Hutchins emphasized the basic education. Joseph Schwab stated that the curriculum is divided into chunk of knowledge. (English, math, etc.) And the academic discipline becomes the view of what the curriculum is.

Progressive Point of View of Curriculum (experience is given importance)

- curriculum is defined as the total learning experience of an individual. Coswell and Campbell curriculum is the all experience/ total experience of children acquired under the guidance of their teachers. Point of view on Curriculum Development it connotes changes which are systematic. It also produce positive changes, development should be purposeful, planned and progressive.

Three Interacting Process in Curriculum Development Planning Implementing Evaluation

Types of Curriculum Operating in School

Allan Glatthorn describes seven types of curriculum operating in school. 1.Recommended Curriculum proposed by scholars and professional organizations.It may come from a national agency like the Department of Education (DepEd),Commission on Higher Education (CHED) Department of Science and Technology(DOST) or professional organization. 2.Written Curriculum this includes documents, course of study or syllabi handeddown to the schools, districts, division, department or colleges for implementation.Most of the written curriculums are made by the curriculum experts with theparticipations of the teachers. Examples of these are the Basic Education Curriculum(BEC). Another example is the written lesson plan of each classroom teacher made upof objectives and planned activities of the teachers. 3.Taught Curriculum the different planned which are put into action in theclassroom composed of taught curriculum. These are varied activities that areimplemented in order to arrive at the objectives or purpose of the written curriculum. 4.Supported Curriculum this refers to the support curriculum that includesmaterials, resources such as books, computers, audio-visual materials, laboratoryequipment, playground, zoos, and other facilities. 5.Assessed Curriculum this refers to a tested or evaluated curriculum. At the end ofthe teaching episodes, series of evaluation are being done by the teachers to determinethe extent of teaching or to tell if the student is having a progress. Assessment toolslike the pencil and paper test, authentic instruments like portfolio are being utilized. 6.Learned Curriculum refers to the learning outcomes made by the students.Learning outcomes are indicated by the results of the tests and changes in betweenwhich can either be cognitive, affective and psychomotor. 7.Hidden Curriculum this is unintended curriculum which is deliberately plannedbut may modify behavior or influence learning outcomes. Examples of these are peerinfluence, school environment, physical

condition, teacher-learner interaction, moodof teachers and many other factors make up the hidden curriculum. Factors to be considered in Curriculum Development 6.Teaching-Learning Process a.Teacher b.Learner c.Learning situation 7. Teaching-Learning Process a.Teacher b.Learner c.Learning situation

8. Teaching-Learning Process a.School b.Community 9. Social Needs

Dimensions and Principles of Curriculum Design

Curriculum design provides clear relationship between and among the different elements of the curriculum: objectives, content, activities and evaluation. Considering all of these elements, as curriculum designer, one has look into the parameters or dimensions upon which a design can be crafted.

Dimensions of Curriculum Scope- (Tyler, 2004) defines curriculum as all content, topics, learning

experiences and organizing threads comprising the educational plans. Scope does not refer to the cognitive content but, but also to the affective and psychomotor. Sequence- contents and experiences are arranged in hierarchical manner. Some schools formulate curricular objectives, content and experience by grade levels and

consider the stages of thinking.

Smith, Stanley, and Shore (1957) Introduced Principles for Sequence 1. Simple to complex learning
Content and experiences are organized from simple to complex, concrete to abstract, from easy to difficult.

2. Prerequisite learning

It means that there are fundamental thing to be learned ahead. Example: 1. addition- multiplication 2. words - phrase

3. Whole to part learning

The meaning can be very well understood if everything will be taken as a whole. This principle is same as Gestalt Theory. Example: 1. forest before the trees 2. body systems to tissues/cells

4. Chronological learning

This principle is closely allied to history, political science, and world events. The sequence can be arranged from the most recent to the distant past or vice versa.

Major Principles for Organizing content in Units which can Also be Applied to a Curriculum (Posner and Rudnitsky, 1944) 1. World-Related Sequence
Relationship that exist among people, objects or events of the world;

a. Space

- Spatial relations will be the basis if the sequence. Example: 1. Closest to farthest 2. bottom to top three east to west

b. Time

- The content is based from the earliest to the more recent. - Same as Smith, Chronological Learning. Example: 1. Philippine president first to current 2. Discoveries from earliest to present

c. Physical Attributes - This principle refers to the physical characteristics of the phenomena like age, shape, size, brightness and others. Example: 1. 3 regions, Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao should be taken ahead of Panay, Negros, Cebu and Bohol. 2. Heavenly bodies like stars, comets, galaxies should be ahead of planets.

2. Concept-Related Sequence
a. Class Relation

This arrangement reflects the organization of the conceptual world, how ideas are related together in a logical manner. Class concept refers to the group or set of things that share commonpractices. Teaching the characteristics of the whole class ahead of thecharacteristics of the member of the class. Example: 1. Teach mammals before teaching specific animals. 2. Compare sound and light before teaching about wave motion.

b. Propositional Relation

Sequence is arranged so that evidence is presented ahead before proposition. Example: 1. Teaching the principle of equal protection under the laws then proceed to discuss Supreme Court decisions. 2.Study first the rules in moving decimal point before multiply, add, divide, and subtract it.

3. Inquiry-Related Sequence

This is based upon the scientific method of inquiry. Example: Scientific method- problem, hypothesis, observation, experimentation, evaluation

4. Learning-Related Sequence
a. Empirical Prerequisites

This is based on the psychology of learning and how people learn experiences. Sequence primarily requires application based on empirical studies where the basics are required before learning the next level. Example: 1. Initial consonants- complex words. 2. Teach catching and throwing the ball before batting.

b. Familiarity

What is familiar should be taken up first before the unfamiliar. Example: 1. Teach the peso before the dollar. 2. Identifying the animals in the community before those in Manila Zoo.

c. Difficulty d. Interest

Easy content is taken ahead than the difficult one. Example: 1. Rhymes before the blank words.. Use these content and experiences to whet their appetite for learning. These can arouse the curiosity of the learners. Example 1. Identify the different volcanoes before teaching about volcanism. 2. Identify the different beautiful scenery before different kinds of landforms.

e. Continuity
This process enables the learners to strengthen the permanency of learningand development of skills. Gerome Bruner calls this spiral curriculumwhere the content is organized according to the interrelationship betweenthe structure/ pattern of a basic idea of major disciplines. Example: 1. Concepts of living things in science which continuously occurs in the elementary curriculum but with different complexity from level to level

f. Integration
Everything is integrated and interconnected. Life is a series of emergingthemes. This is the essence of integration in the curriculum design.Merging or integrate the subject like math to science.

g. Articulation
This can be done either vertically or horizontally. In vertical articulation,contents are arranged from level to level or grade to grade so that thecontent in a lower level is connected to the next level. In horizontalarticulation, it happens when the association is among or betweenelements that happens at the same time. Like social studies in grade six isrelated to science in grade six.

h. Balance

Equitable assignment of content, time, experiences and other elements to

establish the balance in curriculum design..

Compilation in Curriculum
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Elesia Hutsonleft a comment this information help me prepare for my exam. thanks alot. 01 / 22 / 2011 Reply

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it helps me to solve my academic problems and definately it will conduct me towards specaialization 11 / 02 / 2010 Reply

Irene Ramosleft a comment 08 / 26 / 2010 Reply jancamilleleft a comment thank you so much for this lecture compilation. it has been really helpful especially for a working student like me. 07 / 27 / 2010 Reply

Isal Bina Nelaleft a comment it really helps me to know about curriculum it self... 05 / 19 / 2010 Reply

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Curriculum Development