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Sheikh technical veterinary school

Field Work Report; Inspection, Vaccination, Treatment, And Certification of Export Animals in Tog Wajale, Hargeisa and Berbera)
Name of student: Mohamed Jama Idiris Registration number: 0110

Submitted on -/ 06/ 2011


Table of content:
Page number Acknowledgement i Declaration ...ii CHAPTER I 1.0 Introduction1 1.1 Back ground Information of Study areas...2 1.2 Objectives ...3 1.3 Methodologies ....3

2.1.0 Activities Carried Out In Wajale 2.1.1 Wajale Livestock Market ..4 2.1.2 Price of Wajale Livestock Market.4 2.1.3 Inspection Activities of Togwajale 5 2.1.4 Vaccination of Animals in Wajale Livestock Market..5 2.1.5 Treatment of Animals in Tog Wajale ...6 2.1.6 Veterinary Institutions of Tog Wajale..6 2.1.7 Roll of Veterinary Association of Tog Wajale .7 2.1.8 Slaughter House of TogWajale..7 2.1.9 Constraint of Slaughter House ..7 2.1.10 Certification Form 7 2.2.0 ACTIVIES CARRIED OUT IN HARGIESA 2.2.1 Mandeeq Hargiesa Slaughter House.8 2.2.2 Mandeeq Slaughter Infrastructure9 2.2.3 Transportation And Meat distribution.9 2.2.4 Meat Inspection.9


2.2.5 Demand of Livestock Fluctuation.......10 2.2.6 Organization Chart of Hargiesa Maandeeq Slaughter House..11 2.2.7 Hygiene And Sanitation of Maandeeq Slaughter House...11 2.2.8 Constraint of Maandeeq Slaughter House..12 2.2.9 Hargiesa Livestock Market .12 2.2.10 Livestock Market Actors13 2.2.11 Municipality of livestock market of Hargaisa..13 2.2.12 Hargeisa Milk Markets ..13 2.2.13 Handling of milk in the markets14 2.2.14 Sources of the Milk.14 2.2.15 Price of Milk in Hargaisa milk market.14 2.2.16 Constraint of Hargeisa Milk Market14

2.3.0 Activities carried out in Berbera

2.3.1 Gulf international Quarantine in Berbera..15 2.3.2 Berbera Quarantine Station (Gulf international quarantine)..15 2.3.3 Berbera holding ground consist three section15 2.3.4 Berbera Laboratory Quarantine.16 2.3.5 Experiences gained from the attached areas..16

2.4.0 Chapter four: Conclusions and Recommendations

2.4.1 Conclusion..17 2.4.2 Recommendation...18

2.4. 3 annex one.19



DECLARATION I hereby Mohamed jama idiris sead, declare that this field report is only my original work except reference and has been present before

Student Signature .....................................

Supervisors Signature (first screening). ..................................................... abbreviations, symbols and nomenclature NGO STVS = Nongovernmental organization

Supervisors Signature (Final Check) ........................................................List of

= Sheikh technical veterinary school

LEISOM = Livestock emergency intervation to migrated food crisis in Somaliland AU-IBAR = African union inter Africa bureau for animal resources EU FMD ELIZA PPR = European union

= Food and mouth disease = Enzyme linked immunesorbent assay = Pest dest petist ruminants



I would like to thank Allah the merciful who gave me talent to prepare for this report effectively. Secondly, I would like to thank STVS administration that helped me complete this report for their technical and financially investment. Thirdly I would like to thank my supervisors Mr Abdiqani Ahmed Farah, Mr jones and my beloved parents. Also I would like to thank my supervesors in Wajale, Hargiesa and Berbera like Dr Hassan Isahak (wajale ) Dr Yusuf Jama Adem ( Hargeisa) and Ahmed Buroa . Lastly I wish to express grateful thanks to my tutors like: 1. Dr Abdulahi Sheikh ( dean of study) 2. Dr Nuh Hajji Abdulahi 3. Dr Ibrahim osman 4. Dr Abulkadir khalif 5. Mr jones 6. Mr Thomas matinde

CHAPTER (I) 1.0 Introduction


At the end of every academic year students are sent for report writing as part of fulfilling their diploma course. In this report second year students are sent to a various locations of Somaliland, The duration allocated for this field work report was 16 days and every site or location was given 5day except Berbera with reporting days of 6 days. The locations were as fallowing: A. Tog wajasle (commercial centre of Somaliland that link Ethiopia and Somalia) B. Hargeisa (capital of Somaliland) C. Berbera (centre of export and import of Somaliland) Those location were selected the due to the prioritization of vet activities going on this location. For instance in Tog Wajale there is an on going vaccination on export animals; although last year activities were better than this year because of the vaccination programme Which not running as good as last year

Study areas




1.1 Background Information of Study area



Togwajale is a located border between Somaliland and Ethiopia, this border separate small village in two countries of Somaliland and Ethiopia the Somaliland part were the most important part where business activities were going on, particularly livestock trade and trading of goods like electronic clothes and etc. The population of togwajale was registered about 25000 according to the number of voter in Somaliland presidential election of 2011. Its temperature of togwajale range 25co

30co. Togwajale has the largest livestock cattle

market in Somaliland because of that togwajale familiar of the particular surrounding area of cattle rearing the livestock of tog wajale where the most activities of cattle livestock sector occur which is vaccination program going on the most disease vaccinate is FMD, PPR ,pox virus and contagious bovine pleuropneuminia.CCBP The vaccination is kept at cool chain to put appropriate temperature for ice box and to keep sun light

Hargeisa is a capital city of Somaliland which located in the north west of Somaliland. It was the capital city of British Somaliland protectorate from 1941 to 1960, and also serves as the capital city of Maroodijeex region. Its the largest city and mostly populated city in Somaliland, according other regions of Somaliland the population of hargaisa registered during presidential election of Somaliland is about 1.5 million Hargeisa is the largest city in the Somaliland more over it has the second largest livestock market after Burao livestock market, which sale different species of domestic animals.

Berbera is the main port of Somaliland that export livestock production of Somali ecosystem and import goods and other raw material productions berbera is a capital of sahil region located nothern of the country and its along the red sea of Gulf of aden The Coastal belt is usually cold between the months of October and January while May to September it is normally hot and windy weather condition, in the summer time (June September) temperature rises up ward 45CO which causes residents to move during that season.


The coastal belt around Berbera (Guban) is arid or semi- arid which receives rain ones or twice in the year. The economic sources of Berbera depend on the port activities which is the largest port in the country in addition to this it is income generation for the whole of the country. Thousands of livestock are exported every week from Berbera port to the Arabian countries like SAUDIARABIA, QATAR, KUWEIT, BAHREIN and EGYPT Etc. Chapter two: objectives and methodology

1.2 Objectives
To acquire practical knowledge skills and experience from field. To identify veterinary infrastructure in the study areas To improve skills of collecting and processing of data from livestock sector. To identify opportunities and challenges that faced livestock stakeholder in study areas.

1.3 Methodologies
Observation/ Examination During our field trip observation of the study areas was one of our main methodologies to collect a lot of data. Using Interview For the duration of our data collection we used oral interview for the different stakeholders in order to get enough information about the situation in the ground during this task, we were using pre tested semi structured questioner

2.1 Activities carried out in wajale


2.1.1 Wajale Livestock Market
Livestock market of tog wajale located eastern apart of togwajale district about the a distance of 1km from the town Togwajale livestock market is the place where payers and sellers meet for their exchange of their commodities it has four cattle loading ramps two of them are public institution where the other two are private cattle loading ramp . the facility of togwajale livestock market include crashes ,ramps of bulls. The crash is very importance for livestock during vaccination and bleeding (blood taken) time, the livestock market of togwajale collecting in different zone of Somalia ecosystem include Ethiopia and other part of somalia The cattle loading ramps ease loading and unloading animals from the cars and not taken more effort and forces. The public cattle loading ramps were built in January 2011 by project founded by European commission and IU IBAR implement by TERRE NOUVA international NGO

2.1.2 Price of wajale Livestock Market

the price of livestock in togwajale were classified in to three major grades but unfortuanately in last year the price of bulls in tog wajale are higher than this year Species Bulls Bulls Bulls Grade of animals Grade one Grade two Grade three young ( cajuul)
This table shows price of animals specially bulls

Rate of price (USD) 756-800 482-520 250-320

2.1.3 Inspection Activity of Tog wajale


Togwajale is where the inspection and vaccination of bulls to be exported took place. Livestock market inspection where the assessing and inspecting animals condition whether its normal and abnormal condition. Inspection normally leads vets to correct diagnosis and it is more effective when there is laboratory confirmation. In Somaliland availability of laboratories is rare, therefore livestock inspection is very affective way which is widely used in the country, and during field work it was noticed that most veterinaries in the study area were using inspection as a mean of diagnosis. In the study area while the exporting cattle are inspected there were two ways that Veterinarians were using herd level and individual level inspection to assess the health status of the cattle. In the herd level inspection, the parameters used in assessment process include; Observing the body condition of the animals, its poor or well body condition Observing general herd abnormalities like, self isolatings animals, lameness, depression, lachrymation, tiredness and salivation. skin lesion either primary and secondary skin lesion

2.1.4 Vaccination of animals in wajaale livestock Market:

The instrument used for vaccinating animals was automatic syringe as well as ear tag after animals are vaccinated. The FMD vaccine was given subcutaneously with the dosage of 3ml per animal
This figure 1 shows Equipment using for vaccination

2.1.5 Treatment of Animals in togwajale



After clinical examination tentatively it was concluded that all animals are common in helmenthiasis according to the case history and clinical signs. All the animals were administered Albendazole orally in a dosage rate of14ml/50kg since it is very effective anti-helmentic drug recommended the treatment of different Worms infections such as round worms, tape worms, lung worms and liver flukes in cattle, sheep and goats and it was shaken well before the administration. The owner was informed not to slaughter the animals for human consumption for two Weeks after treatment and not to milk the lactated ones until 5days. The severe emaciated one who had diarrhea, depression, anorexia, and decreased Temperature was treated with Pen & Strep (combination of penicillin and Streptomycin) after consultation with the field supervisor. Pen & Strep is effective against infections and agents sensitive to penicillin and Streptomycin and the recommended dosage rate is1ml/25k g body weight intramuscularly for up to one consequence day. In addition to that the two caws showed purulent nasal and ocular discharge and evidence Of fever with temperature around 39oC were used for CI LA MY C IN long acting(LA) in deep Intramuscular in a dosage rate of 1ml/10kg body weight.Each 1ml of Clamycin is contained by 100mg of oxytetracyclin e. This compound is suitable for the treatment of acute infections and the other hand it is formulated to provide a prolonged action resulting in a sustained anti-bacterial activity. The treated caws were not lactated and the owner accepted not to use their meat for 28 Days after the administration of the drug.

2.1.6 Veterinary Institutions of Togwajale:

The veterinary institution in wajale has managed a livestock activity that was going on and they ensure animals health and animal welfare. The veterinary institution in wajale consist of 2 doctors, 6 assistance and one auxiliary in all that veterinary members were ministry of livestock employees, how ever the veterinary staffs in tog wajale were decreased in their numbers because of no continue activity in livestock market of tog wajale.

2.1.7 Role of Veterinary Association (Function of Veterinarian):



They do vaccination programs They do inspection of animals before vaccination and bleeding They carry out treatment Animals are held in special pens before vaccination and after vaccination each

2.1.8 Slaughter House of Togwajale:

Towajale has one slaughter house that locates southern direction of the town in the side of Somaliland village. The slaughter house are slaughtering around 10cattle 5camels and 35of sheep and goats daily.

2.1.9 Constraint of Slaughter House

Poor hygiene condition Bad drainage system of the blood There is no enough building of slaughter house Lack of external support such as government and international NGOs

2.1.10 Certification Form : Certification is way to determine /identify and recognition

of health of animals export There are three type of certification: Inspection certification Movement permission certification Health certification A) Inspection Certification: This is certificate identify that the animals has no sing of disease and animals have good body condition



b) Movement Permission Certificate: This certificate shows that the animals can be
transport from one region to the other without suspicion of disease transmission C) Health Certification: This is certificate that make sure that the animals has qualified all necessary performance and free from disease, this certificate is final certificate that allows animals export from the berbera port and to give quarantine

2.2.0Activities carried out in Hargeisa

2.2.1Maandeeq Hargeisa Slaughter House
Mandeeq slaughter house located south eastern side of Hargaisa city, mandeeq is private ownership enterprise and based on the principle of public private partnership. Mandeq slaughter house establish on March 25th by the Somaliland citizen Mr Abdirashid Omar And Mr Mohamed Rooble , who were interested in the development of the country Mandeq is legally registered under the ministry of commerce and industry ,mandeq was first. Company with service that has been set up in hargiesa to improve health status in hargiesa Before Mandeeq Company meat sellers and consumers were used un health of animals Mandeq Company distributes meat to the market places and major hotels of the city. Mandeq uses more than 12 vehicles which is fully operating in the slaughter house and 18 local market are distribute to the well protect fresh meat with van meat The company is under extension plan for exporting but the still company lacks role international donors and investment of foreign countries. 1200 of sheep, goats, cattle and camels slaughtering per daily totally that is used by the local consumption. Mandeeq enterprise is an income generating company plays central role for Somaliland livelihood (sources of income).



2.2.2 Mandeeq Slaughter Infrastructure Hygiene sanitation of mandeeq slaughter house Operation of mandeeq slaughter house Transportation and meat distribution of mandeeq slaughter house s 2.2.3 Transportation and meat distribution: The transportation facilities are only means that enabled the company to distribute meat to market places and major hotels of the hargiasa city. Mandeeq enterprise uses more than 12 vehicles which fully operate in slaughter house and 18 local markets are supplied and distributed to well protect fresh meat with covered van and meat cases. 2.2.4 Meat Inspection About one thousand and two hundred of sheep, Goat, Cattle and camels are slayed in the slaughter house for local consumption. There are only 3 meat inspectors for this huge activity which is difficult to inspect thoroughly. On 5th and second 9th june 2011 the students participated inspection of more than 500 animals, after slaughtering and skinning of the animal; the lungs, visceral and mediastinal organs are removed then the carcass is carried in to plastic containers which is written by the symbol of its owners. Both carcass and removed organs were observed to find any gross lesions, color, consistency and texture of organs and tissues were considered, some of the removed organs like liver, lung, kidney and heart were palpated and cut sectioned, any swollen lymphanodes were inspected.



This picture shows construction of mandeeq hargaisa slaughter house

2.2.5 Demand of Livestock Fluctuation: The local consumption of animals depends on their body condition, weight and health status. Before the Ramadan up to pilgrimage months demand of the animals are very high because of the demand of pilgrimage. The veterinary code of conduct does not allow to slaughtering the following animals: Pregnant animals Lame animals Sever emaciated or sick animals



2.2.6 Organisation Chart OF Hargaisa Manadeeq Slaughter House:

2.2.7 Hygiene and Sanitation of Mandeeq Slaughter House: Hygiene sanitation of mandeeq slaughter house is very high essential in public health issues during the time of field work report student has been focusing on hygienic condition of mandeeq slaughter house and other places visited during field activities. Mandeeq locate suitable place of slaughter house which is free from air pollution. Transport vehicles were good because they were using cover van vehicles instead of uncovered donkeys carts and wheel barrows.


Mandeeq slaughter house was well fenced and this protected it from predators. it is well ventilated, they were removing and transport wastes both solid and liquid such as blood dirty used water, animals fluid abdominal content and bones to designated damps site. 2.2.8 Constraints of Mandeeq Slaughter house: More than one thousand animals are slaughtered per night; only three inspectors are Involved the examination of this large number, both inspectors and the slayers do not use gloves to protect themselves and the products from contamination. The operation area is too small compared to the capacity of the animals and no suitable cleaning solutions for The slaughterhouse, only detergents are used for hygiene instead of chlorine and other disinfectants

2.2. 9 Hargiesa Livestock Market :

Hargiasa livestock market is a second largest livestock market of Somaliland which was established by former regime of Somalia in 1984. It is located south east direction of the city and market occupied area of 1km2, livestock market of hargiasa has six shades which are built by the government and also have two modern ramps that is built in 2011 by project founded EU and AU IBAR implement by TERRA NOUVA ,although there were no real borders between the market segment but there were different site which are as fallows: Camel market Cattle market Goat and sheep market

Near the market there were private pens which have their own facilities like water feeds shades and ramps .



2.2.10 Livestock Market Actors: The main players of hargiasa livestock market are producers, brokers, butchers and consumers.





Consume rs

2.2.11 Municipality of livestock market of Hargaisa: The local government of hargeisa has office in the livestock market which was responsible for taxation and security of livestock market. The office of municipality has seven members of staffs who were responsible for the collection of taxation from livestock traders in the market.

2.2.12 Hargeisa Milk Markets

There are two common milk markets in hargaisa; one is in the center of the town and it is Kwon as Waheen , the other one is located the north of the city and is named GOBANIMO. Both of them are highly crowded and operate between 9:00AM and 5:00PM, by considering species it is understandable that there is difference between the Regions of the country, mainly camel and cattle milk are sold in Hargeisa markets, Although goat milk may be found thus they are view and are merely consumed. While the eastern regions of Somaliland camel and goat milk are the most abundant types used and cattle milk rarely consumed.



2.2.13 Handling of milk in the markets: Unlike the other towns, the milk is sold in large halls with sufficient sheds to protect it from the sun light. Unfortunately, the selling milk is stored in uncovered vessels and is exposed to the dust and the other environmental contaminants. 2.2.14 Sources of the Milk: Hundreds of plastic containers are brought to the markets per day, during the summer time an Average of 700 litters is sold by each seller and can exceed in the spring (the rainy Season). Most of the milk in the market is transported from areas away from Hargeisa; some of them are from the northwest like Geed-ballaar, Gebilay and Alla-ibaday others from the north ward such as ilmaha, Faraweyne and Balligacas. In the west it transported from Quraca abriin and Waddo miikaahiil. Balli-gubadle of the south ward and Haro-haadlay of the east them selves are taken from huge amounts 2.2.15 Price of Milk in Hargaisa milk market: Whole of the milk are consumed by Hargeisa local community and are priced according to the demand and their availability. Both cattle and camel milk are highly consumed and are sold 3000 S/L shillings per milk cup; they are measured a cup of 7500ml which means each liter is about 4000 S/L shillings. Goat milk is rarely preferred, each cup is sold about 1500 S/L shillings and sheep are not milked because of the culture of the Somali communities 2.2.16 Constraint of Hargeisa Milk Market; Lack of good market infrastructure Lack of good hygiene in milk market Dirty plastic containers of milk



2.3.0 Activities carried out in Berbera
2.3.1 Gulf international Quarantine in Berbera The quarantine of Berbera city is known as (maxjar ) was invested by Arab man called ALJABIRE to reconstructed in 2007 ,the animals of berbera quarantine comes from different on the Somali ecosystem , the majority animals comes from the Buroa and Hargiasa livestock market were animals took form of known as movement certificate that is easily pass throght the each district ckeck point. For the long distance of transportation which carry out large vehicles ,when animals reach quarantine ( holding ground )animas loaded specific farms they stay for that farms in 24 hours but that farm were present water ,grass and doctors that observe for that health of animals 2.3.2 Berbera Quarantine Station (Gulf international quarantine): Gulf international quarantine located eastern side of berbera town and estimate area about 10km2 can hold more than 467000 of animals in one time to occupied for the area of quarantine. After that were the send a group of doctors to observe and inspected any clinical examination like, skin lesion/ mouth lesion diarrhoea, posture of animals rough coat and excess of discharge. And doctors separate normal and abnormal animals .the abnormal animals immediately return back to the traders while the normal (health) animals exporting to Saudi Arabia. The main trade countries are Saudi Arabia UAE, Yemen and Middle East were exported cattle, sheep, goats and camels. 2.3.3 Berbera holding ground consist three section Inspection area Quarantine area Laboratory area



Each area has port of entry and exit of animals , the quarantine water troughs ,feeding troughs ,and sheds can occupied area of 500m2 were animals have specific holding ground such as small ruminant like goats and sheep and cattle and camels has specific pens to take vaccine and blood taken( bleeding) 2.3.4 Berbera Laboratory Quarantine: The laboratory found in quarantine station it has qualified technicians and the laboratory consist of three parts 1. serology parts : in this part to investigate test serum by using ELIZA 2. Bacteriology parts: In these parts they test and classified where the bacteria is gramm positive and gramm negative. The laboratory diagnosis FMD (foot and mouth disease) , PPR,RVF( rift valley fever) this disease take long time . FMD it takes 3 hours and 5minutes while PPR take 6 hours and also rift valley fever take 8 hour. The laboratory uses for this fallowing apparatus: Direct ELIZA Comparative ELIZA Rose Bengal test Oven heater Incubator

2.3.5 Experiences gained from the attached areas:

During the field activities in Wajaale, Hargeisa and Berbera the following experiences were gained:
The relationship between livestock stakeholders like livestock producers, traders

and veterinarians



Inspection of the exporting animals and the signs which can be observed during

the inspection.
Preparing and administering of FMD vaccine and performing of eartags. Testing of milk adulteration and viscosity of different species. Understanding the sections and functions of Berbera quarantine station and

laboratory. Analyzing of the certification procedure like inspection form, health certificate and vessel certificate.

2.4.0 Chapter four: Conclusions and Recommendations 2.4.1 Conclusion:

These field work conducted in three different areas was successful achieved by the student they practice new skills such as vaccination of animals, inspection in antemorteum and postmortem before and after slaughtering of animals in slaughter house. These were great professional field activities that students can gain knowledge and skills during 16 days of field work. Hargeisa milk market, it is easy to found several kinds of milk like camel, cattle and goat milk but they are stored in uncovered vessels which are exposed for contamination. Hundreds of animals were inspected in Hargeisa slaughter house and several gross lesions were found, there is only three meat inspectors in the slaughter house, the inspectors and the slayers do not use gloves to protect them selves and the product from contamination. The area of the slaughter house for slaying is too small and is cleaned with detergents instead of other solutions like chlorides. The animal slayers in Hargeisa slaughter house are not trained for animal welfare, they slaughter the animal in front of the others and even the camel slayers beat the animal with huge sticks on the head and neck region until it falls down. In Berbera the quarantine station, laboratory and the port were visited to analyze the infrastructures and the activities going on there. Both quarantine and laboratory are fully functional and have their essential requirements except plantations supposed to plant since they can minimize the effect of the windy and hot climate.


It was pointed all the certification procedures like inspection form, health and vessel certificates during the exporting of the animals.

2.4.2 Recommendation:
Although the objectives for this report was achieved ,there were same constraint that had been met during the field work activities such as no enough transportation facilities and the period of field attachment which was very short per report required for the students . There fore its being recommended that STVS administration solve these constraints that might arise during field attachment. On the other hand the areas visited had the same sort of constraint. After the analyses of the conditions detailed in the content and summarized in the
Conclusion, I suggested the following recommendations. I would suggest to the international organizations to built new slaughter house

and livestock market in Hargeisa city since the current ones are insufficient to the community according to the number of the animals and to improve the old infrastructures of Hargeisa and Wajaale livestock markets like sheds, ramp and the crush pen of Wajaale
The government should increase the number of meat inspectors and train the slayers

for the animal welfare

Both meat inspectors and slayers must use their protective equipments like gloves

to protect the product as well as them selves The government must bring suitable solutions for the cleaning of the slaughter houses and encourage the milk sellers to use covered vessels instead of uncovered ones. To provide building new crashes in wajale to be capable of proper vaccination of animals.



2.4. 3 Annex one: Pictures of field work report:

Hargeisa Livestock Market

Loading Ramps in Hargeisa livestock market

Carcass hangs from the hooks; ready to process

Students performing meat inspection