Sie sind auf Seite 1von 13

Wechsler Adult Performance

Running Head: WECHSLER ADULT PERFORMANCE

Wechsler Adult Performance Intelligence Scale (WAPIS -PR)

Lakshmi Saranya M. T. Roll No.: 1024216 IIIrd MPCL Christ University, Bangalore

Wechsler Adult Performance


2

1. Introduction Intelligence is a capacity to profit from experience and to go beyond the given. Intelligence refers to cognitive ability of an individual to learn from experience, to reason well, and to cope effectively with the demands of daily living. It is the ability to acquire and apply knowledge. There are three types of intelligence in which one of the types emphasises on the adjustment of the individual to his total environment, second type defines the intelligence as the ability to learn and the third type says intelligence is an ability to carry out abstract thinking (Freeman, F. S, 1965). According to Wechsler, intelligence is a global or aggregate capacity of an individual to think rationally, act purposefully and to deal effectively to the environment (Baron, R, 2001).The concept of intelligence was brought by Alfred Binet in 1904, to detect those children who were too dull to profit from the ordinary schooling. In 1905, another psychologist named Simon collaborated to develop BinetSimon scale. Though they again revised their intelligence scale in 1911, in 1916, StanfordBinet version developed under the direction of L. M. Terman which served as the dominant intelligence scale for the world. This scale provided the first application of the Intelligence Quotient concept recommended by Stern in the year 1912 as IQ = [MA/CA] x 100, where MA is the mental age and CA is the chronological age. There are different theories of intelligence which include factor approach and information processing approach. Spearmans two factor theory is a factorial approach in which there are both g ands factors. The g factor is the general factor ands factor is the specific factor. General factor is a mental capacity and the intelligence factor is determiner partly by this factor. It is the core of what we call intelligence. Specific types of intelligence were called as s1, s2 etc. according to spearman each s is different from others. g is fixed and permanent in each person but it varies from person to person. We cannot

Wechsler Adult Performance


3

change g but we can improves. Thurstons theory is a factorial approach theory which focused on seven distinct ability called as primary mental ability verbal, numerical, perceptual, memory, spatial, reasoning and vocabulary (Munn,N.L, 1967). Guilfords structure of intellect is another theory which describes the model of intellect which includes five contents, six operations and six products. The contents include visual, auditory, semantic, behavioural and figural concepts. The operations comprises of cognition, memory recording, memory retention, divergent production, convergent production and evaluation and the products are units, classes, relations, systems, implications and transformations. Thorndikes theory considers intelligence which comprises of comprehension skill, arithmetic skill, vocabulary skill, and ability to follow directions ability. Cattells theory of intelligence describes two types of intelligence the fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence. The fluid intelligence is the inborn ability that allows us to think, reason, and acquire new knowledge. The crystallized intelligence represents the knowledge and understanding which we have acquired in our life by the process of learning. Information processing approach includes Piagets theory, Gardners theory and Sternbergs theory (Feldman, R.S, 2002). Piaget described the cognitive development of an individual. The concept of multiple intelligence was brought by Howard Gardner in 1983. He considers intelligence which comprise of multiple intelligence skills in the areas of linguistic, logical mathematics, musical, spatial, bodily kinesthetics, interpersonal relationships, intrapersonal relationships and naturalistic. Sternberg found the triarchic theory of cognitive process of intelligence-componential intelligence, practical intelligence and experiential intelligence. Wechslers scale was first published in 1939 to measure the intelligence of individuals from age 10 to 60.the general factor theory was accepted requiring that there should be significant intercorrelations among the several subtests of the scale and that the scale as a

Wechsler Adult Performance


4

whole should provide a valid index of an individuals general intelligence. The test described six verbal and five performance tests. They are described as follows ( Kaplan, R.M., Saccuzzo,D.P,2001) : Verbal tests
y y

Information- long range retention, association and organization of experience. Comprehension- reasoning with abstractions, organization of knowledge and concept formation.

y y y y

Arithmetic- test arithmetic reasoning through verbal problem. Similarities- analysis of relationships, verbal concept formation. Vocabulary- language development and concept formation. Digit span- immediate recall, auditory imagery and visual imagery at times.

Performance tests Picture completion- visual perception: analysis visual imagery. Digit symbol- visual motor integration and visual imagery. Block design- perception of form, visual perception: analysis visual motor integration. Picture arrangement- visual perception: analysis visual imagery. Object assembly- visual perception, visual motor integration and visual imagery.

y y y y y

The test presented here is an Indian version of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales to the Indian conditions and norms set up for Indian population by Ramalinga Swami in 1974. This is the final form of the test consisting of the performance scales of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales namely picture completion, digit symbol, block design, picture arrangement and object assembly. Performance tests were first devised as a supplement to

Wechsler Adult Performance


5

or substitute for the Stanford Binet scale inorder to examine deaf, illiterate, or non English speaking people. Picture completion and picture arrangement tests have undergone extensive modifications by the author and rest all are same as in WAIS. As there were differences in the number of items Cronbachs coefficient Alpha was used to calculate the reliability of the picture completion, block design, picture arrangement and object assembly tests where Wechsler used split half technique for the same. Test retest reliability was calculated for the digit symbol test. Product moment formula was used to calculate the correlations between the subtests. In an effort to establish the validity of the test three techniques were used- construct validity, factorial validity and comparison of the results obtained by Wechsler for WAIS (WAPIS, 1974). The items of each of the tests will have to be scored as per the instructions given for each test in the manual and those scores from each of the tests are summed to calculate the raw scores. Each of the raw scores are converted to scaled scores and summed from which IQ is derived. The IQs can be determined by looking at the table given in the manual (age wise). Each of the total scaled score has an IQ value which is considered as the IQ of the subject (WAPIS, 1974). There are different applications of the test as it helps to identify individuals with learning disability. It also helps to identify the mentally challenged individuals. Mainly it is used in clinical settings. Generally one could be aware about her IQ. Thus it is also used in the educational settings

2. Administration The examiner has to organise the materials, testing room and adequate time. The room should be well lighted and ventilated. Thus the subject should feel comfortable while

Wechsler Adult Performance


6

doing the test. The intern should also be in a comfortable position in order to present the materials, observe the subjects performance and also to record the responses conveniently. A good rapport should be established with the subject .The subjects personal details should be asked and noted. The instructions are given for each of the performance tests, to the subject. The fatigue can have affect on the performance of the subject. External distractions also affect the performance of the client. The intern should make an effort to obtain cooperation and to maintain motivation of the subject. The order and the directions of administration of the tests in the scale are as follows:
y

Picture completion test- The intern has to start with card1,and ask the subject to report the important part which is missing and if she fails to report the intern has to give the answer to make her understand about the process. The subject has to respond and similarly she has to respond for 26 items with a time limit of 20 seconds each. The intern has to allot 1 point for each of correct response. The maximum score for this test is 26.

Digit symbol test- The material for this test is on the record form. The intern has to show the marks representing each of the numbers in the key. The subject is then asked to fill the empty boxes with marks which correspond to a particular number. The intern can demonstrate the first three and then ask the subject to do the sample portion of the test, consisting ten sample items. Then the intern has to give a start signal to begin the task. The time limit for this test is 90 seconds. One point is given for each square filled in correctly and half credit for any reversed symbols. The ten samples are not included in the score.

Block design- The intern has to show the blocks by explaining their nature like they are all alike with some sides red, some sides white and on some half red and on

Wechsler Adult Performance


7

other half white. The intern has to then demonstrate the first design without exposing card 1 to the subject. By leaving the model done by the intern intact, the subject has to make the same with other four blocks as trial1. Reversal of the design or inversion of the patterns of the block in design 1 is considered as an error. For the design 2 also same instructions are given. If the subject fails the intern has to demonstrate it again or else the subject has to continue the test. In 7th design, five other blocks are given to the subject. There are 10 designs and the subject is not allowed to rotate the card. For design 1-6, 60 seconds are given and for design 7-10, 120 seconds are given. The scoring of the test are as follows- 4 points each for the first trial in design 1 and 2; 2 points for second trial.3-6 designs, 4 point each. Design 7-10, 4 points for successful completion of each design and bonuses are also given if they complete within the time. Scores are based on correct solutions within the time limit, no marks are given for partially correct or incomplete designs. The test has a maximum score of 48 including the time bonuses for designs 7-10.
y

Picture arrangement- the intern presents the three cards of item 1, NEST, in the order indicated by the numbers on the back of the cards, reading from the subjects left to right. The picture tells a story which occurs in events but the events are in wrong order. The subject is then asked to tell a story by putting the cards in a correct order. If the subject arranges them correctly within the time limit, 4 points are given. Then the second sets of pictures are shown and if the subject fails to build up a story then the intern has to demonstrate the correct solution. Score 2 has to be given if the subject produces the correct arrangement within the time limit; 0 if she doesnt. In either case the subject has to go on to the next item. If the subject fails on both items 1 and 2, discontinue the test otherwise administer all the items. From item 3 to 9 no

Wechsler Adult Performance


8

demonstration is given to the subject. The exact time is recorded with the scoring of 1to 2 series: first trial 4 points, second trial: 2 points, series 3-9: 4 points for correct arrangement within time limit. The maximum score is 42.
y

Object assembly- the subject is provided with the pictures of Manikilin, profile, hand and elephant. There are pieces for each item which the subject has to arrange inorder to make the above said pictures. The subject is not allowed to see the picture of the completed figure. If the subject completes the test within the time limit bonuses are given. One point for each correct juxta position is made within the time limit. The time limit for Manikilin and profile is 120 seconds each and for hand and elephant 180 seconds each If two ear pieces are assembled outside the head, 1 point is credited but if they are correctly put 3 points are given. The bonuses are provided in the manual and the maximum score for this test is 44.

Wechsler Adult Performance


9

Reference Baron,R.A (2001) Psychology (5th ed.). New Delhi:Prentice Hall of India Feldman,R.S Hall Freeman, F.S (1965). Theory and practice of psychological testing (3rd ed.). New Delhi: Oxford & IBH Kaplan, R.M., Saccuzzo,D.P (2001). Psychological Testing(5thed.).Singapore: Thomson Learning Munn,N.L (1967). Introduction to psychology.New Delhi: Oxford & IBH Ramalingaswamy .P (1974).WAPIS Form-PR. Manual of Indian Adaptation of WAISPerformance Scale. New Delhi: Manasayan (2002). Understanding psychology (6th ed.).New Delhi: Tata Mc Graw Hill

Wechsler Adult Performance


10

Performa of the client

1. Background Information Name Age Gender Education Marital status : A.F : 21 : female : Bcom student : single

2. Referred by: The intern administered the test for an academic purpose. 3. Referred For: The subject was randomly selected based on accessibility to understand her intelligence in the performance test for an academic purpose. She was referred for assessing intelligence test so that she can understand herself better and make use of the information. 4. Presenting Complaints: The subject didnt come with any presenting symptoms. This test was carried for academic purpose to meet the course requirement. The subject was unaware about her intelligence in performance tasks. Usually she couldnt perform well in the exams even though she had studied well. She was confused about this aspect. 5. Test administered: The Wechsler Adult Performance Intelligence Scale (WAPIS-PR) was conducted to assess her intelligence. This is an Indian version of WAIS performance test found in the year 1974. 6. Date of administration: 19th June, 2011

Wechsler Adult Performance


11

7. Behavioural Observation The subject was appropriately dressed according to her cultural norms. As it was a working day she was not free during the morning hours, but she was relaxed and comfortable in the evening to do the test. She was ready to take the test which could enable her to know herself. She was motivated and co-operative while doing the test. The subject was clearing the doubts whenever required. She was feeling relaxed and comfortable while performing the test. There was no distraction in the environment so she was free to perform the test.

8. Test Result The results obtained by the subject are shown in table 1. Table 1 shows the raw scores and scaled scores of the subject obtained in different tests along with their IQ score. The subject has raw scores 11, 47, 29, 20 and 23 for picture completion, digit symbol, block design, picture arrangement and object assembly respectively. The scaled scores for these are 9, 11, 12, 10 and 10 respectively. The subject has an IQ of 100. Scoring sheet is attached at the end of the report. Table 1 Subject As raw scores and scaled scores in different tests of the WAPIS and her IQ Sl.no Test 1 2 3 4 Raw score Scaled score 9 11 12 10

Picture completion 11 Digit symbol Block design Picture assembly 47 29 20

Wechsler Adult Performance


12

Object assembly Total score

23

10 52 IQ= 100

9. Interpretation The aim of the test was to test the intelligence of the individual using Wechsler Adult Performance Intelligence Scale (WAPIS-PR). The test was conducted by the intern for the academic purpose. A good rapport was built with the subject. The subject was motivated and co-operative while doing the test. The results of the tests were scored using the instructions provided in the manual. The raw scores were obtained for each of the tests from which their scaled score were also found. The scaled scores resulted in the understanding of the IQ of the subject. This made both the intern and the subject aware of her intelligence. The test was hand scored using the instructions from the manual. The subject has a raw score of 11 in picture completion test, 47 in digit symbol, 29 in block design, 20 in picture arrangement and 23 in object assembly (refer table 1). The scaled scores are 9, 11, 12, 10 and 10 respectively. The sum of the scaled scores gives the Intelligence Quotient (IQ). The subjects IQ is 100. The subject has an average intelligence. Picture completion test-The results reveal that the subject has an average awareness of how to deal with ambiguous situations in life. She is average in her perceptual and conceptual abilities and the ability to differentiate essential from non-essential details (Freeman, F.S,1965) Digit symbol test-The result of average intelligence reveals that she has an average ability to learn an unfamiliar task, visual-motor dexterity, degree of persistence, speed of

Wechsler Adult Performance


13

performance, visual acuity and information processing as per her performance in digital symbol test (Freeman, F.S,1965) . Block design test- The subject has an average performance in reasoning, analysing integrating visual and motor functions, nonverbal concept formation, abstract thinking, and spatial relationships (Freeman, F.S,1965) Picture arrangement- The results of the subject reveal that she has an average reasoning ability and she must be average in planning and noticing cause effect relationship. She has an average ability to comprehend and evaluate a total situation without the use of language (Freeman, F.S,1965) Object assembly test- The subjects performance in this test reveals that she has an average visual analysing skill and coordination with simple assembly skills (Freeman, F.S,1965).

10. Impression The results of the subject revealed that she has an average intelligence. The IQ of the subject is 100 (refer table 1). She has an average reasoning and planning ability. She has an average skill in motor ability and conceptualizing of different concepts.

11. Recommendations The subject scored an average IQ and did not indicate disability in intelligence. This intern therapist agrees the result based on interview and clinical observation. *************