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DESIGN OF MAT (RAFT) FOUNDATIONS

Design Steps and Equations

3D View of Mat (Raft) Foundation y L
1
L
2
B
A
C
P
P
P
u1
u2
u3
e
x
Column dimensions l i x b i
B
P
1
u
e
y
B
x
D
E
F
P
P
P
u4
u5
u6
B
2
P
P
P
u8
u7
u9
G
I
H
L

Top View of Mat (Raft) Foundation

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Foundation Engineering 2 Design of Mat (Raft) Footings Dr. Adnan A. Basma

STEP 1 CHECK SOIL PRESSURE FOR SELECTED DIMENTION

Ultimate ratio

P = !P i

P iu = ! [1.4DL i + 1.7LL i ]

P

u

r u = P

, Ultimate pressure q u = q a x r u

Locate the resultant load P u

In x- direction:

In y- direction:

!M y-axis = 0,

!M x-axis = 0,

e

e

x

y

Applied ultimate pressure, q u,applied =

Where

A = Area = BL

 & " P u3 \$ " P u9 # L 2 % P u1 \$ P u7 # L 1 & " P u1 P u # \$ % u3 1 P B " P u7 \$ P u9 # B 2 P u , * - M y x - M ) P u x y ' * A + I y I x ' (
 M x = P u e y and M y = P u e x I x = ! B L 3 and I y = ! L B 3

For the mat shown in Top View, the following sign convention

is used to estimate q u,applied x (% )
x (+)
AB
C
y
(+)
D
E
F
y
(% )
G
H
I

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Foundation Engineering 2 Design of Mat (Raft) Footings Dr. Adnan A. Basma

The following values for x and y along with the sign conventions are

used to estimate q u,applied

 Point A B C D E F G H I x L 1 0 L 2 L 1 0 L 2 L 1 0 L 2 y B 1 B 1 B 1 0 0 0B 2 B 2 B 2

For the dimensions L and B to be adequate,

q u,max . q u

and

q u,min / 0

STEP 2 DRAW SHEAR AND MOMENT DIAGRAMS (L - DIRECTION)

The mat is divided into several strips in L-direction as shown below where B' = B/4.

y L
L
1
2
B
A
C
B'
I
J
K
B
1
B'
B
II
D
E
F
B'
B
2
L
M
B'
III
I
G
H
L

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Foundation Engineering 2 Design of Mat (Raft) Footings Dr. Adnan A. Basma

x

Calculations for Strip ABC:

a) The average uniform soil reaction, q uI

=

q

uA

\$

q

uC

2

b) Total soil reaction Q = q uI x (B 1 x L) where B 1 = B'

c) Total Column loads P u, ABC = P u1 + P u2 + P u3

d) Average load P u, avg(ABC) =

Q \$

P u, ABC

2

e) Load multiplying factor F ABC =

P u, avg(ABC)

P u, ABC

f) The modified loads on this strip P' ui = (F ABC ) x (P ui )

,

+

g) Modified Average soil pressure q u, modified = q uI x *

*

P u, avg(ABC)

Q

)

'

'

(

h) The pressure distribution along the length of the strip

q u, L (ABC) =

0 P' ui

L

Note that the same can be done for strips DEF (B 2 = 2B') and GHI (B 3 =

B') where:

q uII

=

q uIII =

q

uD

\$

q

uF

q

uG

2

\$

q

uI

2

Steps (b) to (h) are repeated as above

The shear and bending moment diagrams for strip ABC is shown below.

Other strips will have similar plots.

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Foundation Engineering 2 Design of Mat (Raft) Footings Dr. Adnan A. Basma

A P' u1
P' u2
P' u3
L
L
1
2
B
C
q u, L (ABC) +
V(kN)
%
Top Steel between
Column 2
and 3
Top Steel between
Column 1
and 2
%
M(kN.m)
+
Bottom Steel
under Column 2

Moment drawn on tension side

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Foundation Engineering 2 Design of Mat (Raft) Footings Dr. Adnan A. Basma

Similar plots should be made for strips in B-direction as shown below A
B
C
I
II
III
D
E
F
G
H
I

STEP 3 DEPTH OF CONCRETE, d'

Estimate d' for:

a) Column 1, 3, 7 and 9 by 2-way punching shear (p' = l + w).

b) Column 2, 4, 6 and 8 by 3-way punching shear (p' = 2l + w).

c) Column 5 by 4-way punching shear (p' = 2l + 2w). (Use Equations For Punching Shear or approximate d' by Structural

Depth of Concrete table for punching shear failure).

Select the largest d' from (a), (b) or (c)

STEP 4 REINFORCEMENT

The calculations below are repeated for every strip in L and B direction.

a) Select the appropriate moments for each strip (refer to moment diagram) and estimate the moment per meter by M ui /m = M u /B i or L i

b) Using M ui /m, d', f c ' and f y estimate the reinforcement A s (refer to Equations for Reinforcement or the percent reinforcement can be obtained directly from Percent Steel Tables).