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DESIGN OF MAT (RAFT) FOUNDATIONS

Design Steps and Equations

For an example on Design of Mat Foundations click here

3D View of Mat (Raft) Foundation

Mat Foundations click here 3D View of Mat (Raft) Foundation y L 1 L 2 B

y

L 1 L 2 B A C P P P u1 u2 u3 e x
L
1
L
2
B
A
C
P
P
P
u1
u2
u3
e
x
Column dimensions l i x b i
B
P
1
u
e
y
B
x
D
E
F
P
P
P
u4
u5
u6
B
2
P
P
P
u8
u7
u9
G
I
H
L

Top View of Mat (Raft) Foundation

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Foundation Engineering 2 Design of Mat (Raft) Footings Dr. Adnan A. Basma

STEP 1 CHECK SOIL PRESSURE FOR SELECTED DIMENTION

Allowable load

Ultimate load

Ultimate ratio

P = !P i

P iu = ! [1.4DL i + 1.7LL i ]

P

u

r u = P

, Ultimate pressure q u = q a x r u

Locate the resultant load P u

In x- direction:

In y- direction:

!M y-axis = 0,

!M x-axis = 0,

e

e

x

y

Applied ultimate pressure, q u,applied =

Where

A = Area = BL

&

"

P

u3

$ "

P

u9

#

L

2

%

P

u1

$

P

u7

#

L

1

 

&

"

P

u1

P

u

#

$ %

u3

1

P

B

"

P

u7

$

P

u9

#

B

2

 

P

u

,
*

 

-

M

y

x

-

M

 

)

P

u

x

y

'

* A

+

I

y

I

x

'

(

M x = P u e y

and

M y = P u e x

I x = ! B L 3

and

I y = ! L B 3

For the mat shown in Top View, the following sign convention

is used to estimate q u,applied

x (% ) x (+) AB C y (+) D E F y (% )
x (% )
x (+)
AB
C
y
(+)
D
E
F
y
(% )
G
H
I

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Foundation Engineering 2 Design of Mat (Raft) Footings Dr. Adnan A. Basma

The following values for x and y along with the sign conventions are

used to estimate q u,applied

   

Point

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

x

L

1

0

L

2

L

1

0

L

2

L

1

0

L

2

y

B

1

B

1

B

1

0

0

 

0B 2

B

2

B

2

For the dimensions L and B to be adequate,

q u,max . q u

and

q u,min / 0

STEP 2 DRAW SHEAR AND MOMENT DIAGRAMS (L - DIRECTION)

The mat is divided into several strips in L-direction as shown below where B' = B/4.

y

L L 1 2 B A C B' I J K B 1 B' B
L
L
1
2
B
A
C
B'
I
J
K
B
1
B'
B
II
D
E
F
B'
B
2
L
M
B'
III
I
G
H
L

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Foundation Engineering 2 Design of Mat (Raft) Footings Dr. Adnan A. Basma

x

Calculations for Strip ABC:

a) The average uniform soil reaction, q uI

=

q

uA

$

q

uC

2

b) Total soil reaction Q = q uI x (B 1 x L) where B 1 = B'

c) Total Column loads P u, ABC = P u1 + P u2 + P u3

d) Average load P u, avg(ABC) =

Q $

P u, ABC

2

e) Load multiplying factor F ABC =

P u, avg(ABC)

P u, ABC

f) The modified loads on this strip P' ui = (F ABC ) x (P ui )

,

+

g) Modified Average soil pressure q u, modified = q uI x *

*

P u, avg(ABC)

Q

)

'

'

(

h) The pressure distribution along the length of the strip

q u, L (ABC) =

0 P' ui

L

Note that the same can be done for strips DEF (B 2 = 2B') and GHI (B 3 =

B') where:

q uII

=

q uIII =

q

uD

$

q

uF

q

uG

2

$

q

uI

2

Steps (b) to (h) are repeated as above

The shear and bending moment diagrams for strip ABC is shown below.

Other strips will have similar plots.

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Foundation Engineering 2 Design of Mat (Raft) Footings Dr. Adnan A. Basma

A

P' u1 P' u2 P' u3 L L 1 2 B C q u, L
P' u1
P' u2
P' u3
L
L
1
2
B
C
q u, L (ABC)
+ V(kN) % Top Steel between Column 2 and 3 Top Steel between Column 1
+
V(kN)
%
Top Steel between
Column 2
and 3
Top Steel between
Column 1
and 2
%
M(kN.m)
+
Bottom Steel
under Column 2

Moment drawn on tension side

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Foundation Engineering 2 Design of Mat (Raft) Footings Dr. Adnan A. Basma

Similar plots should be made for strips in B-direction as shown below

A B C I II III D E F G H I
A
B
C
I
II
III
D
E
F
G
H
I

STEP 3 DEPTH OF CONCRETE, d'

Estimate d' for:

a) Column 1, 3, 7 and 9 by 2-way punching shear (p' = l + w).

b) Column 2, 4, 6 and 8 by 3-way punching shear (p' = 2l + w).

c) Column 5 by 4-way punching shear (p' = 2l + 2w). (Use Equations For Punching Shear or approximate d' by Structural

Depth of Concrete table for punching shear failure).

Select the largest d' from (a), (b) or (c)

STEP 4 REINFORCEMENT

The calculations below are repeated for every strip in L and B direction.

a) Select the appropriate moments for each strip (refer to moment diagram) and estimate the moment per meter by M ui /m = M u /B i or L i

b) Using M ui /m, d', f c ' and f y estimate the reinforcement A s (refer to Equations for Reinforcement or the percent reinforcement can be obtained directly from Percent Steel Tables).

For an example on Design of Mat Footings click here

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Foundation Engineering 2 Design of Mat (Raft) Footings Dr. Adnan A. Basma