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Introduction Terminologies Planning Organization Research Education

Page No


Definition Meaning Features Need Functions Philosophy Elements o Learner o Teacher / Nurse Educator


Value continuing nursing education Doctoral programme Comparison between research focussed and practice focussed doctoral education The essentials of doctoral education for


advanced nursing practice Responsibility of nurse clinicians to implement research to their practice Responsibility of nurse administrator to connect research to their practice Responsibility of nurse educators to connect research to their practice Summary Conclusion Bibliography



INTRODUCTION Continuing nursing education is a modern imperative , it must be future oriented geared to the facing of new situations and to the making of new responses appropriate for their situation . New knowledge is emerging rapidly in the physical, biological, and medical science, which constitute the foundation of nursing. Problems in nursing must be solved by rationale effort based upon systematic inquiry. Continuing nursing education programmes should be developed by nurses and conducted within nursing or in general education system in co operation with the nurses. TERMINOLOGIES : PLANNING: Planning is the process of setting formal guidelines constraints for the behaviour of the firm. ORGANIZATION : Organization is a system of co operative activities of two or more persons. RESEARCH: Research is an systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions. EDUCATION: Education is a process of development of the capacities in the individual which will enable him to control his environment and fulfil his possibilities. DEFINITION: Continuing education is defined as a systematic professional learning experiences designed to augment the knowledge , skill, attitude of nurses and therefore enrich the nurse contribution to the quality health care and the pursuit of professional career goals [ ANA 2000]

MEANING: Continuing education in nursing consists of systemic learning experiences designed to enlarge the knowledge and skills of nurses. As distinct from education toward are academic degree in preparing as a beginning professional education activity have more specific content applicable to the individuals immediate goals are generally of shorter duration are sponsored by college , universities , health agencies , health professional organisations and may be conducted in variety of settings. FEATURES: Unified approach
Relationships with other systems

Comprehensiveness Accessibility for women health workers Integration with the management process Analysis of needs as a basis for learning continuity Internally co-ordinated Relevance in planning Credibility and economic Appropriateness in implementation NEED: To ensure safe and effective nursing care , nurse need to keep abreast with interest, knowledge and technical advances To meet the needs of population and should cater to the needs of service Development of nurses will occur by updating their knowledge and prepare there for specialisation For career advancement

Professional roles are altered as society changes and as new knowledge and technologies emerge If the nursing professional is to respond effectively to the challenge of developing. Wise leadership and component practitioners, current social changes must be recognised and future ones foreseen. To acquire specialized skills of personnel and meet technologic adjuncts
The professional forces like changing function of the

nurse are increasing trend towards specialization, shortage of specialized nurses, variation in the nature and recency of formal education preparation and the mobility of the nurse population Clinical specialists are needed for direct patient and for teaching and consultation roles to help the students and staff nurses to reach higher level of competency. Nurses with research aptitudes and preparation are needed
Nurses in administrative positions need to increase their

understanding of the administrative process and to design effective methods of maximizing the contribution of individuals help to provide nursing services to the patients Nursing functions require a high degree of skill , knowledge, competence and educational preparation The demand for specialized nursing services is increasing more rapidly
Planned programmes are needed to increase their

competence as practitioner Needs for additional preparation for the positions are already holding or to prepare themselves for their positions

It provides opportunities for educational growth

compatible with the realities of both work situation and the home responsibilities In the world, scientific advancements, technologic innovations, social are occurring rapidly and new patterns of health care changes in the role expectations of all health care personnel are emerging to meet their needs and demands qualified nurses are essential
To maintain their roles as bedside nurses and to assume

more supervision, administrative and delegated medical functions, to specialize and to generalize the practise continuing nursing education.
If is needed for the nurses who wish to shape their own

destiny must be aware of the forces at work which will affect their future roles To provide and prepare faculty who see continuing nursing education as a personal responsibility as well as professional and university responsibility To provide a variety of continuing nursing education opportunities of high quality to nurses in both education and service. FUNCTION: To meet the health needs and public expectation To develop the practicing abilities of the nurse Recruitment function Recognize gaps in their knowledge To test ability to do final academic study

To improve the communication between the participants, faculty, community, and the health sector To test the participants ability to do formal academic study

To shape or support university educational policies practises PHILOSOPHY: It encompasses various aspects of life and is not limited to professional education . Continuing nursing education is concerned with the development of the nurse as a person, a practitioner and a citizen. These are closely inter related but each must be considered in identifying philosophy of education. Nurses philosophy of life, nursing and education, belief etc., will influence the philosophy of continuing nursing education. It focuses on individual learner. Philosophy is thought of relating to basic beliefs. Actions are guided by ones beliefs, how ones teachings relates to his beliefs about learning and education. Philosophy provides a direction for action, it is useful to think through . Ones personal philosophy of education is expressed not by what he does , what one believes about learning .The rights of the individual and the needs of society are all reflected in ones approach to teaching, this is philosophy in action. Philosophy is based on values, social change . The thoughtful teacher recognises that ones philosophy of education is always are emerging one rather than a static one. Learning must be a continuous process throughout the life span not limited to formal courses of study. Facts are more meaningful and more rapidly learned when there is an opportunity for immediate application. The aims and methods of formal education are shifting , to solve the problems of communication , continuity, co ordination in providing patient care. Nursing is based on knowledge of the physical and psychological functioning of man within his environment, expanding the knowledge related to man and his dynamic, proliferating fields To ensure the quality of education To grant budget for extension studies To maintain academic standards To meet educational requirements

of operation is of concern. To sharpen the judgement and an increased understanding of ideas and values as they shape personal and social goals. To maintain worth, dignity of the individual ,it is essential to have compassion, care and nurture in his professional role. To shape personal and social focus by acquiring more knowledge , sharpening the judgement and on increased understanding of ideas and values. To develop basic nursing abilities and new dimensions of adjustment to a changing society, provides liberation to the individual for maximum growth. ELEMENTS : The philosophies of continuing nursing education recognise the following : LEARNER : CNE views the learner as a person, as a nurse and as a citizen. Thus continuing nursing education is seen as a totality, a sound philosophy of education which recognises all three aspects of life long learning

Diversity is a part of learning process and contribute to the development of the individual so the teacher has to make the learner to involve the nursing and non nursing courses. Eg. Music, dance and participating in extracurricular activities. It encourages provincialism among nurses, benefits by learning with persons to form their own walk of light It aims at self directed learning

TEACHER / NURSE EDUCATOR : He has to accept the concept of life long learning and his responsibility to encourage nurses to recognise the value of participating in different types of educational activities Educator must be aware of sources of information about related continuing education activities. Eg: Self directed individual study, in-service education

programme, formal basic courses, PG academic studies etc.,

Teacher task is to help the student how to approach

situations with an open inquiring attitude, how to interpret what he observes and how to examine the system of values which gives meaning to his life as adult can learn effectively, gathers many facts, make inferences, takes action by testing theories and ideas and to face an uncertain and changing future. Adult learners with them on the problems they face the world of work. The teacher must help the learner to discover new approaches and potential developments in the field Teacher should act as a role model The teacher is a dispenser of wisdom and knowledge guide in the learning process, assisting wherever appropriate, encourages the activities that promote individual thoughts The skilful teacher has to be aware of the difference in learning what is already known and encouraging exploration in those area yet to be discovered
Creative thinking is essential . The effective teacher

takes advantage of the assets , which the learner brings with him. A warm helping trusting relationship creates conducive environment for learning He has to show interest and concern for every member of his class
He is able to instil in his students a sense of their

own adequacy and the feeling of confidence in themselves, which are necessary for the learning process The continuing educator has to play multiple roles like,

o Guide and counsellor to the learner o An arranger and organiser of learning experience o Motivator and encourager of students o Evaluator of programme o Involving resource experts for teaching the students o Producing instructional materials

Select and evaluate materials prepared by others

o Administrative role o Public relations role to change the image of nursing and in recognising the contribution and potentials of nurse VALUE CONTINUING NURSING EDUCATION : Value education is one of the hallmarks of a profession. The continuing development of ones professional skills and knowledge is an empowering experience, preparing the nurse to make decisions with the support of expanding body of knowledge. Seminar, workshops and conferences offer opportunities for continued professional growth and empowerment. To develop expertise in the science and art of nursing , one needs to be educated in the discipline of nursing. DOCTORAL PROGRAMME : Doctoral programmes in nursing fall into two principal types. Research focussed Practice focussed RESEARCH FOCUSSED: Most research focussed program grant the doctor of philosophy degree (Ph.D) while o small percentage offers the doctor of nursing science degrees [DNS or DSN] designed to prepare nurse scientists and scholars , these programs focus heavily on scientific content and research methodology and all require an original

research project and the completion and defences of a dissertation or linked research papers. The two types of doctoral programmes differ in their goals and the competencies of their graduates. PRACTICE FOCUSSED : The concept of a practice doctorate in nursing is not new. However this course of study has evolved considerably over the 20 years since the first practice. Focussed nursing doctorate, the doctor of nursing was initiated as an entry level degree. Doctor of nursing practice recognising the need for consistency in the degree required for advanced nursing practice all existing programs have transitioned to the DNP COMPARISON BETWEEN RESEARCH FOCUSSED AND PRACTICE FOCUSSE DOCTORAL EDUCATION : Research and focussed doctoral programs in nursing share vigorous and demanding expectations a scholarly approach to the discipline and a commitment to the advancement of the profession. Both are terminal degree in the discipline , one in practice and one in research. There are distinct difference between the two degree programmes For eg., Practice focussed program understand by placing greater emphasis on practice and less emphasis on theory, research methodology and statistics than in apparent research. Focussed program as well as a research programs requires an extensive research. THE ESSENTIALS OF DOCTORAL EDUCATION FOR ADVANCED NURSING PRACTICE : The following DNP essentials outline the curriculum elements and competencies that must be present in programmes conferring the doctor of nursing practice degree. The DNP is a degree title, like the Ph.D or MSN and does not designate in what speciality a graduate is prepared. DNP essentials delineated her address the foundational competencies that core to all advanced nursing practice role. However the depth and focus of the core competencies will vary based on the particular role for which the student is preparing

ESSENTIAL I : Scientific underpinnings for practice The practice doctorate in nursing provides the terminal academic preparation for nursing practice. The scientific underpinning of this education reflect the complexity of practice at the doctoral level and the rich heritage that is the conceptual foundation of nursing. The disciplines and laws that govern the life process, well being and optimal function of human beings , sick or well. The nursing actions or processes by which positive changes in health and health status are altered
The wholeness or health of human beings

recognising that they are in continuous interaction with their environments ESSENTIAL : II Organisational and systems leadership for quality improvement and system Organizational and system leadership are critical for DNP graduates to improve patient and health care outcomes Doctoral level knowledge and skills in these areas are consistent with nursing and the health care goals to eliminate health disparities and to promote patient safety and excellence in practice ESSENTIAL : III Clinical scholarship and research are the hallmarks of doctoral education . These paradigms recognizes that, The scholarship of discovery and integration reflects the investigative and synthesizing tradition of academic life

Scholars give meaning to isolated facts and make connections across disciplines through the scholarship of integration The scholar applies knowledge to solve a problem via the scholarship of application ESSENTIAL : IV: Health care policy for advocacy in health care Health care policy whether it is created through governmental actions, institutional decision making or organizational standards creates a framework that can facilitate or impede the delivery of health care services or the ability of the provider to engage in practice to address health care needs

ESSENTIAL :V Advanced nursing practice The increased knowledge and sophistication of health care has resulted the growth of specialization in nursing in order to ensure competence in these high complex areas of practice The reality of the growth of specialisation in nursing is that no individual can master all advanced roles and the requisite knowledge for enacting these roles. RESPONSIBILITY OF NURSE CLINICIANS TO IMPLEMENT RESEARCH TO THEIR PRACTICE : Although we acknowledge the need for clinicians to be in touch with literature even after they complete their schooling. We must indoctrinate the nurses early in their career while still in school. Schools and colleges of nursing give students tools to evaluate research results by teaching nursing research courses. It is discouraging to see that only 5-10% of our efforts to improve health care has been demonstrated to be effective. It means that 90-95% of our clinical practices either harm the patient are ineffective. Excellence in clinical practice occurs when clinicians use evidence to guide their practice

RESPONSIBILITY OF NURSE ADMINISTRATORS TO CONNECT RESEARCH TO THEIR PRACTICE : In the ideal nursing world, where we are all scholars, nurse administrators would conduct administrative and /or clinical research , finding out the best practices applicable to those domains. When managing a clinical unit, the professionals carries the burden of keeping abreast not only the clinical research but also the management literature Nurse administrators can model research utilization by talking about current management research in meeting by supporting and encouraging research into their area to improve health of clients, establish change in the educational area or mobilize others into action

RESPONSIBILITY OF NURSE EDUCATORS TO CONNECT RESEARCH TO THEIR PRACTICE : In the ideal world where professional nurses connect and incorporate research into practice, we perceive that nurse educators have a to fold responsibility not only must they are learning theories and strategies to deliver the content ,but also stay connect with clinical literature . while teaching health related content, nurse educators should attempt to provide clarity show patterns and relationships within the content and help students internalize or retain information so that the student can in turn use the theory in clinical practice. Nurse educators can model research utilization by talking about clinical research reports while teaching and also by showing students how they personally have utilized research in their teaching activity

SUMMARY : Till now we have seen about the continuing education, its definition , features, needs, functions, philosophy, elements, values of continuing education , doctoral programmes etc..,

CONCLUSION: Change will continue in the health care system , necessitating continuing education to empower nurses to be proactive, not just reactive. A well educated nursing work force is essential if nursing is to have a strong voice in shaping the changes in health care . An additional advantages of participating in educational experiences is that it creates opportunities for networking.

K.P. Neeraja (2007), TEXTBOOK OF NURSING

EDUCATION1st edition; Jaypee brothers Medical publishers Pvt ltd; Pp: 386-389
Patricia. S. Yoder, Wise (2007), LEADING AND MANAGING

IN NURSING 4th edition; Mosby publications; Pp: 570-571,176


By, Ms.T.j. glads robala, i year