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Formal - Informal Language

1. When to use? Formal Language Informal Language

2. What to use? Items Grammar Formal Language Informal Language

Vocabulary

3. Examples:

Items Grammar

Formal Language - Passive voice The experiment was conducted using other raw materials.

Informal Language - Active sentences. They conducted the experiment. (Personal pronouns are used more often in the informal language.) - Simple sentences (single-clause sentences) (not complex or compound ones). Dr. Shaw conducted the experiment. It used other raw materials.

- Relative clauses The experiment that was conducted by Dr. Shaw used other raw materials. (DO NOT delete that.) - Noun clauses (sentences beginning with it would seem that..., it appears that..., it seems likely that...) - Full sentences. Do you know him? - No contractions She is the supervisor of the experiment. - More Present Perfect, Past Perfect, etc used. George has received the result of his assignment.

- Reduced sentences. You know him? - Contractions. Shes the supervisor of the experiment. - Simple tenses (Simple Present, Simple Past, etc.) George received the result of his assignment.

Items Vocabulary

Formal Language illuminated occupation employ donate, contribute multiply father child potato courage require preserve devastated satisfactory enquire telephone aeroplane slightly a particular approximately, somewhat in a certain way possibly, perhaps Please refrain from smoking. You must adhere to these guidelines. Thats too bad. Thats great.

Informal Language lit up job take on give times dad kid spud guts need jam gutted OK ask phone plane a bit some kind of kind of somehow maybe Please dont smoke. You must follow these guidelines. That sucks. That's legit/sweet/awesome.

Practice
Exercise 1 Can you think of an informal way of saying these words? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. courage retail outlet spectacles endeavor satisfactory enquire grandmother annually child hand in notice a great deal of correspondence 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Exercise 2 Can you think of a formal way of saying these words? fridge TV buy need dont boss change phone your back bin man get your money back pay your bills send on all letters

Exercise 3: The following sentences are mixed formal and informal. Write F (formal) or I (informal) after each sentence. 1. The project will be completed next year. 2. I showed that his arguments didnt hold water. 3. I wonder why he put up with those terrible conditions for so long. 4. Five more tests will be necessary before the experiment can be concluded. 5. It is possible to consider the results from a different viewpoint. 6. It has been proved that the arguments so far are without foundation. 7. Hell have to do another five tests before he can stop the experiment. 8. It is not clear why such terrible conditions were tolerated for so long. 9. There are a number of reasons why the questionnaire should be revised. 10. Well finish the job next year.

Practice - Answers
Exercise 1 Can you think of an informal way of saying these words? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. courage retail outlet spectacles endeavor satisfactory enquire grandmother annually child hand in notice a great deal of correspondence guts shop glasses try OK ask gran/granny/nana every year/ each year kid quit/leave loads of/plenty of letters/mail 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Exercise 2 Can you think of a formal way of saying these words? fridge TV buy need dont boss change phone your back bin man get your money back pay your bills send on all letters refrigerator television purchase require do not employer transform return your call refuse collector refund your payment settle your account forward all correspondence

Exercise 3: The following sentences are mixed formal and informal. Write F (formal) or I (informal) after each sentence. 1. The project will be completed next year. [F] 2. I showed that his arguments didnt hold water. [I] 3. I wonder why he put up with those terrible conditions for so long. [I] 4. Five more tests will be necessary before the experiment can be concluded. [F] 5. It is possible to consider the results from a different viewpoint. [F] 6. It has been proved that the arguments so far are without foundation. [F] 7. Hell have to do another five tests before he can stop the experiment. [I] 8. It is not clear why such terrible conditions were tolerated for so long. [F] 9. There are a number of reasons why the questionnaire should be revised. [F] 10. Well finish the job next year. [I]