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by Karl Wiklund, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada Michael Moher, Space-Time DSP Ottawa, Canada and Simon Haykin, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada

Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

We can rewrite the half-cosine as: t A cos(2 f c t ) rect T Using the property of multiplication in the time-domain: G ( f ) = G1 ( f ) G2 ( f )

1 sin( fT ) [ ( f fc ) + ( f + fc )] AT fT 2 Writing out the convolution: AT sin(T ) G( f ) = [ ( ( f + f c ) + ( ( f f c ) ] d 2 T = A sin( ( f + f c )T ) sin( ( f f c )T ) + f + fc f fc 2 A cos( fT ) cos( fT ) = 1 2 f 1 f+ 2T 2T = (b)By using the time-shifting property: T exp( j 2 ft0 ) g (t t0 ) t0 = 2 A cos( fT ) cos( fT ) G( f ) = exp( j fT ) 1 2 f 1 f+ 2T 2T fc = 1 2T

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(c)The half-sine pulse is identical to the half-cosine pulse except for the centre frequency and time-shift.

fc =

1 2Ta

cos( fTa ) cos( fTa ) (cos( fTa ) j sin( fTa )) f + fc f fc A cos(2 fTa ) cos(2 fTa ) sin(2 fTa ) sin(2 fTa) = +j j 4 f f c f + fc f fc f + fc A 2 A exp( j 2 fTa ) exp( j 2 fTa ) 4 f fc f + fc

G( f ) =

(d) The spectrum is the same as for (b) except shifted backwards in time and multiplied by -1.

A cos( fT ) cos( fT ) exp( j fT ) G( f ) = 1 2 f 1 f+ 2T 2T A exp( j 2 fT ) exp( j 2 fT ) = 1 4 f 1 f+ 2T 2T (e) Because the Fourier transform is a linear operation, this is simply the summation of the results from (b) and (d) A exp( j 2 fT ) + exp( j 2 fT ) exp( j 2 fT ) + ( j 2 fT ) G( f ) = 1 1 4 f f+ 2T 2T A cos(2 fT ) cos(2 fT ) = 1 2 f 1 f+ 2T 2T

Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

G( f ) =

2.3 (a)

g (t ) = g e (t ) + g o (t ) 1 [ g (t ) + g (t )] 2 t g e (t ) = Arect 2T g e (t ) = 1 [ g (t ) g (t )] 2 1 1 t 2T t + 2T rect g o (t ) = A rect T T g o (t ) =

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Ge ( f ) =

G(-f)

Go ( f ) =

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2.4. We need to find a function with the stated properties. We can verify that: G ( f ) = j sgn( f ) + ju( f W ) ju( f W ) meets the stated criteria. By duality g(f) G(-t)

g (t ) =

t +T

1 1 j (t ) exp( j 2 Wt ) j 2 t 2

2.5

g (t ) = =

t T

h( )d +

t +T

h( )d

0

2j

H ( f ) sin(2 f )

But H ( f ) = exp( f 2 2 ) 1 exp( f 2 2 ) sin(2 fT ) G( f ) = f sin(2 fT ) = exp( f 2 2 ) f = 2T exp( f 2 2 )sinc(2 fT ) lim G ( f ) = 2Tsinc(2 fT )

0

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1 [ g (t ) + g (t )] 2 and g (t ) = g * (t ) G ( f ) = G* ( f ) g (t ) =

1 [ g (t ) g (t )] 2 and g (t ) = g * (t ) G ( f ) = G* ( f ) g (t ) =

( j 2 t )G (t ) t G (t )

d g ( f ) by duality df

j d g ( f ) 2 df

The previous step can be repeated n times so: dn g ( f ) ( j 2 ft ) n G (t ) df n But each factor ( j 2 ft ) represents another differentiation. t n G (t ) j (n) g ( f ) 2 Replacing g with h j (n) H (f) 2

n n

t n h(t )

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(c)

j (n) Let h(t ) = t g (t ) and H ( f ) = G (f) 2

n n

(d) g1 (t )

* g 2 (t )

G1 ( f ) G2 ( f )

g1 (t ) g 2 (t )

* g1 (t ) g 2 (t )

G ( )G ( f )d

1 2

G ( )G (( f ))d

1 2 1 2

= (e)

G ( )G ( f )d

* g1 (t ) g 2 (t )

G ( )G ( f )d

1 2

g (t ) g (t )dt

1 * 2

G (0)

* g1 (t ) g 2 (t )dt

* 2

G ( )G ( 0)d

1 2

g (t ) g (t )dt

1

G ( )G ( )d

1 2

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g (t ) dt = AT

(b)

dg (t ) dt = 2 A dt sin( fT ) sin( fT ) fT fT

j 2 fG ( f ) = 2 fATsinc 2 ( fT ) = 2 fAT = 2A

sin( fT ) sin( fT ) fT

But,

j 2 fG ( f ) 2 A

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2.7 c)

( j 2 f ) 2 G ( f ) = 4 2 f 2G ( f ) sin 2 ( fT ) = 4 f AT ( fT ) 2

2 2

4A 2 sin ( fT ) T 4A T =

d 2 g (t ) 4A dt = 2 dt T

( j 2 f ) 2 G ( f )

d 2 g (t ) dt dt 2

Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

2.8. (a) g1 (t ) g 2 (t ) G1 ( f )G2 ( f ) = G2 ( f )G1 ( f ) by the commutative property of multiplication b) g1 ( f ) [ g 2 ( f ) g 3 ( f ) ] G1 ( f ) [G2 ( f )G3 ( f ) ]

Because multiplication is commutative, the order of the multiplication doesn't matter. G1 ( f ) [G2 ( f )G3 ( f ) ] = [G1 ( f )G2 ( f ) ] G3 ( f ) G1 ( f ) [G2 ( f )G3 ( f ) ]

[ g1 ( f ) g 2 ( f )] g3 ( f )

Multiplication is distributive so: G1 ( f )G2 ( f ) + G2 ( f )G 3 ( f ) g1 (t ) g 2 (t ) + g1 (t ) g 2 (t )

Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

= ( j 2 fG1 ( f ) ) G2 ( f )

dg1 (t ) dt g 2 (t ) d dg (t ) [ g1 (t ) g 2 (t )] = 1 g 2 (t ) dt dt

( j 2 fG1 ( f ) ) G2 ( f )

b)

g (t ) g (t )dt

1 2

1 G (0) = G1 ( f ) + 1 ( f ) G2 ( f ) 2 j 2 f t t g1 (t ) g 2 (t )dt = g1 (t ) g 2 (t ) Y( f ) =

2.10.

X ( ) X ( f )d

X ( ) 0 if W X ( f ) 0 if f W

( f ) W for f W + when 0 and W ( f ) W for f W + when 0 and W ( f ) W for 0 W when f 2W ( f ) W for -W 0 when f 2W Over the range of integration [ W ,W ] , the integral is non-zero if

f 2W

Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

2.11 a) Given a rectangular function: g (t ) = always equal to 1, and the height is 1/T.

1 t rect T T

sinc( fT )

g (t ) = 2Wsinc(2Wt ) 2Wsinc(2Wt ) f rect 2W

2.12.

G( f ) = 1 1 + sgn( f ) 2 2 By duality:

1 1 ( t ) j 2 t 2 j 1 g (t ) = (t ) + 2 2 t G( f )

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i

G( f ) =

1 4 2 f 2

k exp( j 2 ft )

i i i

A tb t a

1 A G( f ) = 2 2 [ exp( j 2 ftb ) exp( j 2 fta ) exp( j 2 fta ) + exp( j 2 ftb ) ] 4 f tb ta A = 2 2 [cos(2 ftb ) cos(2 fta )] 2 f ( tb ta ) 1 But: sin( f (tb ta )) sin( f (tb + ta )) = [ cos(2 fta ) cos(2 ftb ) ] by a trig identity. 2 A G( f ) = 2 2 [sin( f (tb ta )) sin( f (tb + ta ))] f (tb ta )

2.14 a) let g(t) be the half cosine pulse of Fig. P2.1a, and let g(t-t0) be its time-shifted counterpart in Fig.2.1b

= G ( f )G* ( f )

= G( f )

2

2

G( f )

Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

2.14 b)Given that the two energy densities are equal, we only need to prove the result for one. From before, it was shown that the Fourier transform of the half-cosine pulse was: AT 1 [sinc(( f + fc )T ) + sinc(( f f c )T )] for fc = 2 2T After squaring, this becomes: sin( ( f + f c )T ) sin( ( f f c )T ) A2T 2 sin 2 ( ( f + f c )T ) sin 2 ( ( f f c )T ) + +2 4 ( ( f + f c )T ) 2 ( ( f f c )T ) 2 2T 2 ( f + f c )( f f c ) The first term reduces to: sin 2 fT + 2 cos 2 ( fT ) 2 cos ( fT ) = = 2 2 2 2 2 T ( f + fc ) fT + fT + 2 2 The second term reduces to:

sin 2 fT cos 2 ( fT ) 2 = 2 2 2 2 T ( f fc ) fT 2

The third term reduces to: sin( ( f + f c )T ) sin( ( f f c )T ) cos( ) cos 2 (2 fT ) = 1 2T 2 ( f + f c )( f f c ) 2T 2 f 2 2 4T 1 cos(2 fT ) = 1 2T 2 f 2 2 4T 2 cos 2 ( fT ) = 1 2T 2 f 2 2 4T Summing these terms gives: 2 2 2 2 2 cos ( fT ) A T cos ( fT ) cos ( fT ) + 2 2 2 1 1 4 2T 2 1 1 f+ f f + f 2T 2T 2T 2T 2

Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

2.14 b)Contd By rearranging the previous expression, and summing over a common denominator, we get: 2 2 2 A T cos ( fT ) 2 4 2T 2 2 1 f 2 4T A2T 2 cos 2 ( fT ) = 2 4 4 T 1 1 4T 2 f 2 1 2 ( ) 16 T 4 A2T 2 cos 2 ( fT ) = 2 ( 4T 2 f 2 1)2

Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

dg (t ) dt

j 2 fG ( f )

By Rayleighs theorem:

W T

2 2

g (t ) dt =

2 2

G( f )

df

t = t =

g (t ) dt f 2 G ( f ) df

2

(

2

g (t ) dt

( g (t ) dt )

2

d * t dt ( g (t ) g (t ) ) dt = 2 16 2 g (t ) g * (t )dt

1 16 2 1 WT 4 W 2T 2

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g (t ) exp( f 2 )

2 2 2 2 t exp(2 t )dt f exp(2 f )df

W 2T 2 =

exp(2 t

0

)dt

exp(ax 2 )dx =

1 4a a

for a > 0

t 2 exp(2 t 2 )dt =

1 1 4 2 1 4 1 2

f 2 exp(2 t 2 )df =

2

exp(2 t

)=

1 2 1 2

2

1 4 2 2 T W =

1 2

2

1 = 4 1 TW = 4

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2.16.

Given:

2

h(t ) dt < .

4

However, if

2

X ( f ) df < and

2

applies to h(t). Y( f ) = H( f )X ( f )

Y ( f ) df =

2

X ( f )H ( f ) X

2

( f ) H * ( f )df

X ( f ) H ( f ) df

Y ( f ) df

X ( f ) df

H ( f ) df

<

Y( f )

df <

2

Y( f )

df = y (t ) dt

2

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2.17. The transfer function of the summing block is: H1 ( f ) = [1 exp( j 2 fT ) ] . The transfer function of the integrator is: H 2 ( f ) = These elements are cascaded : H ( f ) = ( H1 ( f ) H 2 ( f ) ) ( H1 ( f ) H 2 ( f ) ) = = 1 1 j 2 f

( 2 f )

1

[1 exp( j 2 fT )]

( 2 f )

[1 2 exp( j 2 fT ) + exp( j 4 fT )]

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2.18.a) Using the Laplace transform representation of a single stage, the transfer function is: 1 H 0 (s) = 1 + RCs 1 = 1+ 0s H0 ( f ) = 1 1 + j 2 f 0

These units are cascaded, so the transfer function for N stages is:

H ( f ) = ( H ( f ))

N

1 = 1 + j 2 f 0

2 b) For N, and 0 =

T2 4 2 N 1 ln H ( f ) = N ln 1 + j 2 f 0 = N ln (1 + j 2 f 0 )

jfT = N ln 1 + N jfT let z = , then for very large N , z < 1 N We can use the Taylor series expansion of ln(1 + z )

1 m +1 N ln(1 + z ) = N ( 1) z m m =1 m m 1 fT m +1 = N ( 1) j N m =1 m

(next page)

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m 1 fT fT f 2T 2 m +1 lim N ( 1) j + = N j N 2N N N m =1 m 1 = f 2T 2 j N fT 2 1 H ( f ) = exp( f 2T 2 ) exp( j N ft ) 2 1 H ( f ) = exp( f 2T 2 ) 2

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2.19.a) y (t ) =

t T

x( )d

This is the convolution of a rectangular function with x(). The interval of the rectangular function is [(t-T),T], and the midpoint is T/2. T t rect Tsinc( fT ), but the function is shifted by . 2 T H ( f ) = Tsinc( fT ) exp( j fT ) b)BW = 1 1 = RC T T T exp( j 2 f ) 1 + j 2 RC f 2

H( f ) =

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2.20. a) For the sake of convenience, let h(t) be the filter time-shifted so that it is symmetric about the origin (t = 0).

H ( f ) = wk exp( j 2 fk ) +

k =1 N 1 2

k =1

N 1 2

exp( j 2 fk ) + w0

= 2 wk cos(2 fk )

k =1

N 1 2

Let G(f) be the filter returned to its correct position. Then N 1 N 1 G ( f ) = H ( f ) exp( j 2 f samples. ) , which is a time-shift of 2 2

G ( f ) = exp ( j f ( N 1) ) 2 wk cos(2 fk )

k =1 N 1 2

b)By inspection, it is apparent that: G ( f ) = exp( j f ( N 1)) This meets the definition of linear phase.

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2.21 Given an ideal bandpass filter of the type shown in Fig P2.7, we need to find the response of the filter for x(t ) = A cos(2 f 0t ) 1 f fc 1 f + fc rect rect + 2B 2B 2B 2B 1 X ( f ) = [ ( f f 0 ) + ( f f 0 ) ] 2 If f c f 0 is large compared to 2B, then the response is zero in the steady state. H( f ) = However:

A A A A + ( f f0 ) + + ( f + f0 ) j 2 ( f + f 0 ) 2 j 2 ( f f 0 ) 2 Since f c f 0 is large, assume that the portion of the amplitude spectrum lying inside the x(t )u (t )

passband is approximately uniform with a magnitude of The phase spectum of the input is plotted as:

A . 4 ( f c f 0 )

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Taking the envelope by retaining the positive frequency components, shifting them to the origin, and scaling by 2: A exp j 2 j 2 ft0 if B < f < B 2 ( f c f 0 ) 0 otherwise AB sinc [ 2 B(t t0 )] j ( f c f 0 ) AB sinc [ 2 B(t t0 ) ] sin(2 f ct ) ( fc f0 )

Y( f )

y (t ) = y (t )

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2.22 H ( f ) = X ( f ) exp( j 2 fT ) A T [ ( f fc ) + ( f + f c )] Tsinc( fT ) exp( j 2 f ) 2 2 AT = [sinc(T (f fc )) + sinc(T (f + fc ))] exp( j fT ) 2 N Let f c = for N large T X(f ) =

Y( f ) = H( f )X ( f ) = X ( f ) exp( j 2 fT ) exp( j fT ) = exp( j 2 fT ) AT sinc (T ( f f c ) ) + sinc (T ( f + f c ) ) 2

A2T 2 sinc (T ( f f c ) ) + sinc (T ( f + f c ) ) sinc ( T ( f f c ) ) + sinc (T ( f + f c ) ) 4 A2T 2 = exp( j 2 fT ) [sinc( fT N ) + sinc( fT + N )][sinc( fT N ) + sinc( fT + N )] 4

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2.23 G(k)=G

gn = = = 1 N

G (k ) exp( j

k =0

N 1

2 k n) N

If n = 0, g (n) =

G N 1 1 = G N k =0 For n 0 , we are averaging over one full wavelength of a sine or cosine, with regularly sampled points. These sums must always be zero.

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2.24. a) By the duality and frequency-shifting properties, the impulse response of an ideal low-pass filter is a phase-shifted sinc pulse. The resulting filter is non-causal and therefore not realizable in practice.

BT 5 10 20 100 Overshoot (%) 9,98 9.13 9.71 100 Ripple Period 1/5 1/10 1/20 No visible ripple

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Increasing B, which also increases the filters bandwidth, allows for more of the highfrequency components to be accounted for. These high-frequency components are responsible for producing the sharper edges. However, this accuracy also depends on the sampling rate being high enough to include the higher frequencies.

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2.25

BT 5 10 20 100 Overshoot (%) 8.73 8.8 9.8 100 Ripple Period 1/5 1/10 1/20 -

The overshoot figures better for the raised cosine pulse that for the square pulse. This is likely because a somewhat greater percentage of the pulses energy is concentrated at lower frequencies, and so a greater percentage is within the bandwidth of the filter.

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2.26.b)

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2.26 b) If B is left fixed, at B=1, and only T is varied, the results are as follows

BT 5 2 1 0.5 0.45 Max. Amplitude 1.194 1.23 1.34 0.612 0.286

As the centre frequency of the square wave increases, so does the bandwidth of the signal (and its own bandwidth shifts its centre as well). This means that the filter passes less of the signals energy, since more of it will lie outside of the pass band. This results in greater overshoot. However, as the frequency of the pulse train continues to increase, the centre frequency is no longer in the pass band, and the resulting output will also be attenuated.

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c) BT 5 2 1 0.5 0.45

Extending the length of the filters impulse response has allowed it to better approximate the ideal filter in that there is less ripple. However, this does not extend the bandwidth of the filter, so the reduction in overshoot is minimal. The dramatic change in the last entry (BT=0.45) can be accounted for by the reduction in ripple.

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2.27 a)At fs = 4000 and fs = 8000, there is a muffled quality to the signals. This improves with higher sampling rates. Lower sampling rates throw away more of the signals high frequencies, which results in a lower quality approximation. b)Speech suffers from less muffling than do other forms of music. This is because a greater percentage of the signal energy is concentrated at low frequencies. Musical instruments create notes that have significant energy in frequencies beyond the human vocal range. This is particularly true of instruments whose notes have sharp attack times.

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2.28

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Chapter 3

3.1 s(t) = Ac[1+kam(t)]cos(2fc t) where m(t) = sin(2fs t) s (t ) = Ac [cos(2 f c t ) + and fs=5 kHz and fc = 1 MHz.

ka (sin(2 ( f c + fs)t ) + sin(2 ( f c f s )t )] 2 s(t) is the signal before transmission. f 106 The filter bandwidth is: BW = c = = 5714 Hz Q 175 m(t) lies close to the 3dB bandwidth of the filter, m(t) is therefore attenuated by a factor of a half.

' or ka = 0.5ka

m' (t ) = 0.5m(t )

' ka = 0.25

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3.2 (a) v ) 1] VT Using the Taylor series expansion of exp(x) up to the third order terms, we get: i = I 0 [exp( v 1 v 1 v i = I 0 [ + ] VT 2 VT 6 VT (b) v(t ) = 0.01[cos(2 f mt ) + cos(2 f c t )] Let = 2 t fc + fm f fm , = 2 t c 2 2

2 3

v 2 (t ) = 0.022 [1 + cos(2 )][1 + cos(2 )] 1 = 0.022 [1 + cos(2 ) + cos(2 ) + (cos(2 + 2 ) + cos(2 2 ))] 2 1 = 0.022 [1 + cos(2 ( f c + f m )t ) + cos(2 ( f c f m )t ) + (cos(4 f c t ) + cos(4 f mt ))] 2

3cos + cos 3 3cos + cos 3 v 3 (t ) = 0.023 4 4 3 0.02 9 3 = [ (cos( + ) + cos( )) + (cos( + 3 ) + cos( 3 ) 16 2 2 3 1 + (cos(3 + ) + cos(3 )) + (cos(3 + 3 ) + cos(3 3 ))] 2 2 0.022 9 3 [ (cos(2 f ct ) + cos(2 f mt )) + (cos(2 (2 f c f m )t ) + cos(2 (2 f m ft )t ) 16 2 2 3 1 + (cos(2 (2 f c + f m )t ) + cos(2 (2 f m + f t )t )) + (cos(6 f c t ) + cos(6 f mt ))] 2 2

v 3 (t ) =

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The output will have spectral components at: fm fc fc+ fm fc- fm 2fc 2fm 2fc- fm 2fc+ fm fc- 2fm fc+2 fm 3fc 3fm (c)

The bandpass filter must be symmetric and centred around fc . It must pass components at fc+ fm, but reject those at fc+2 fm and higher.

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(d) Term # 1 2 3

-6

Message 0.0001

After filtering and assuming a filter gain of 1, we get: i (t ) = 0.41cos(2 f c t ) + 0.074[cos(2 ( f c f m )t ) + cos(2 ( f c + f m )t )] = 0.41cos(2 f c t ) + .148[cos(2 f c t ) cos(2 f mt )] = [0.41 + 0.148cos(2 f mt )]cos(2 f c t ) = [1 + 0.36 cos(2 f mt )]cos(2 f c t ) The modulation percentage is ~36%

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(b)

Let the voltage Vb-Vd be the voltage across the output resistor, with Vb and Vd being the voltages at each node. Using the voltage divider rule for condition (a): Vb = V Rb , R f + Rb Vd = V Rf R f + Rb , Vb Vd =V Rb R f R f + Rb

Vb = V

Rf R f + Rb

Vd = V

Rb , R f + Rb

Vb Vd =V

Rb + R f R f + Rb

The two voltages are of the same magnitude, but are of the opposite sign.

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3.16 (a)

s (t ) = 1 1 a Am Ac cos(2 ( f m + f c )t ) + (1 a ) Am Ac cos(2 ( f m + f c )t ) 2 2

Am Ac [a(cos(2 f ct ) cos(2 f mt ) sin(2 f c t ) sin(2 f mt )) 2 + (1 a)(cos(2 f c t ) cos(2 f mt ) + sin(2 f c t ) sin(2 f mt ))] s (t ) = Am Ac [cos(2 f c t ) cos(2 f mt ) + (1 2a ) sin(2 f c t ) sin(2 f mt ))] 2 A m1 (t ) = m cos(2 f mt ) 2 A m2 (t ) = m (1 2a ) sin(2 f mt ) 2 s (t ) = b)Let: s (t ) = 1 1 Ac m(t ) cos(2 f c t ) + Ac ms (t ) sin(2 f c t ) 2 2

By adding the carrier frequency: 1 1 s (t ) = Ac [1 + ka m(t )]cos(2 f c t ) + ka Ac ms (t ) sin(2 f ct ) 2 2 where ka is the percentage modulation. After passing the signal through an envelope detector, the output will be:

2 2 1 1 s (t ) = Ac 1 + ka m(t ) + ka ms (t ) 2 2 1 2

2 1 ka ms (t ) 1 = Ac 1 + ka m(t ) 1 + 2 1 2 1 + k m(t ) a 2

The second factor in s (t ) is the distortion term d(t). For the example in (a), this becomes:

2 1 (1 2a ) sin(2 f mt ) d (t ) = 1 + 2 1 1 + cos(2 f mt ) 2 1 2

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c)Ideally, d(t) is equal to one. However, the distortion factor increases with decreasing a. Therefore, the worst case exists when a = 0.

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3.20. m(t) contains {100,200,400} Hz Ac [m(t ) cos(2 f ct ) m(t ) sin(2 f c t ) 2 Demodulation is accomplished using a product modulator and multiplying by: Ac' cos(2 f c't ) The transmitted SSB signal is:

(a) 1 Ac Ac' cos(2 f c't )[m(t ) cos(2 f c t ) m(t ) cos(2 f c t )] 2 The only lowpass components will be those that are functions of only t and f. Higher frequency terms will be filtered out, and so can be ignored for the purposes of determining the output of the detector. vo (t ) =

vo (t ) =

When the upper side-band is transmitted, and f>0, the frequencies are shifted inwards by f. Vo ( f ) contains {99.98,199.98,399.98} Hz (b) When the lower side-band is transmitted, and f>0, then the baseband frequencies are shifted outwards by f. Vo ( f ) contains {100.02, 200.02, 400.02} Hz

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3.22.

f1 = f c f W f 2 = f c + f

The low-pass filter will only pass the first term. 1 LFP(v1 (t )v2 (t )) = A1 A2 [cos(2 (W + 2f )t + 1 2 )] 2 Let v0(t) be the final output, before band-pass filtering.

vo (t ) = = W + 2f 1 1 2 A1 A2 [cos(2 ) A2 cos(2 f 2t + 2 )] t + 2 W / f + 2 W / f + 2

vo (t ) =

1 2 A1 A2 [cos(2 f c t + 1 2 + 2 ) 4 n+2

2 =

1

n +1

(b) At the second multiplier, replace v2(t) with v1(t). expression for the phase:

n+2

n+2

+ 1 = 0

1 =

2

n+3

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3.23. Assume that the mixer performs a multiplication of the two signals. y1 (t ) {1, 2,3, 4,5, 6, 7,8,9} MHz y2 (t ) {100, 200,300, 400,500, 600, 700,800,900} kHz This system essentially produces a DSB-SC signal centred around the frequency of y1(t). The lowest frequencies that can be produced are:

1 yo (t ) = [cos(2 ( f1 f 2 )t ) + cos(2 ( f1 + f 2 )t )] 2 f1 = 1 MHz f1 f 2 = 0.9 MHz f 2 = 100 kHz f1 + f 2 = 1.1 MHz

The highest frequencies that can be produced are: f1 = 9 MHz f 2 = 900 kHz f1 f 2 = 8.1 MHz f1 + f 2 = 9.9 MHz

The resolution of the system is the bandwidth of the output signal. Assuming that no branch can be zeroed, the narrowest resolution occurs with a modulation frequency of 100 kHz. The widest bandwidth occurs when there is a modulation frequency of 900 kHz.

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3.24 Given the presence of the filters, only the baseband signals need to be considered. All of the other product components can be discarded. (a) Given the sum of the modulated carrier waves, the individual message signals are extracted by multiplying the signal with the required carrier. For m1(t), this results in the conditions: cos(1 ) + cos( 1 ) = 0 cos( 2 ) + cos( 2 ) = 0 cos( 3 ) + cos( 3 ) = 0 i = i For the other signals:

m2 (t ) : cos(1 ) + cos( 1 ) = 0 cos( 2 1 ) + cos( 2 1 ) = 0 cos( 3 1 ) + cos( 3 1 ) = 0 Similarly: m3 (t ) : (1 2 ) = ( 1 2 ) ( 3 2 ) = ( 3 2 ) m4 (t ) : (1 3 ) = ( 1 3 ) ( 2 3 ) = ( 2 3 )

1 = 1 ( 2 1 ) = ( 2 1 ) ( 3 1 ) = ( 3 1 )

(b) Given that the maximum bandwidth of mi(t) is W, then the separation between fa and fb must be | fa- fb|>2W in order to account for the modulated components corresponding to fa- fb.

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The period of the carrier wave is 1/fc = 50 s. The period of the modulating wave is 1/fm = 0.025 s. The time constant is much shorter than the modulating wave and therefore should track the message signal very well. The discharge time constant is: Rl C = 100 s . This is twice the period of the carrier wave, and should provide some smoothing capability. From a maximum voltage of V0, the voltage Vc across the capacitor after time t = Ts is: T Vc = V0 exp( s ) Rl C Using a Taylor series expansion and retaining only the linear terms, will result in the T linear approximation of VC = V0 (1 s ) . Using this approximation, the voltage will Rl C decay by a factor of 0.94 from its initial value after a period of Ts seconds. From the code, it can be seen that the voltage decay is close to this figure. However, it is somewhat slower than what was calculated using the linear approximation. In a real circuit, it would also be expected that the decay would be slower, as the voltage does not simply turn off, but rather decreases over time.

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3.25 c)

Qc (t ) = C (Vin (t ) V0 (t )) dQc dt dV (t ) dV (t ) V0 (t ) = RC in 0 dt dt Using first order differences to approximate the derivatives results in the following difference equation: RC RC V0 (t ) = V0 (t 1) + (Vin (t ) Vin (t 1)) RC + Ts RC + Ts I (t ) =

The high-pass filter applied to the envelope detector eliminates the DC component.

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function [y,t,Vc,Vo]=AM_wave(fc,fm,mi) %Problem 3.25 %Inputs: fc % fm % mi

%Problem 3.25 (a) fs=160000; %sampling rate deltaT=1/fs; %sampling period t=linspace(0,.1,.1/deltaT); %Create the list of time periods y=(1+mi*cos(2*pi*fm*t)).*cos(2*pi*fc*t); %Create the AM wave %Problem 3.25 (b) %%%%Create the envelope detector%%%% Vc=zeros(1,length(y)); Vc(1)=0; %inital voltage for k=2:length(y) if (y(k)>(Vc(k-1))) Vc(k)=y(k); else

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%Problem 3.25 (c) %%%Implement the high pass filter%%% %%This implements bias removal Vo=zeros(1,length(y)); Vo(1)=0; RC=.001; beta=RC/(RC+deltaT); for k=2:length(y) Vo(k)=beta*Vo(k-1)+beta*(Vc(k)-Vc(k-1)); end

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Chapter 4 Problems

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Problem 4.7.

s (t ) = Ac cos( (t ))

(t ) = 2 f c t + k p m(t )

Let = 0.3 for m(t) = cos(2fmt). s (t ) = A c cos(2 f c t + m(t )) = Ac [cos(2 f c t ) cos( cos(2 f mt )) sin(2 f c t ) sin( cos(2 f mt ))] for small : cos( cos(2 f mt )) 1 sin( sin(2 f mt ))

cos(2 f mt )

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Problem 4.14.

v2 = av12 s (t ) = Ac cos(2 f c t + sin(2 f mt )) = Ac cos(2 f c t + m(t ))

v2 = a s 2 (t ) = a cos 2 (2 f c t + m(t )) = a cos(4 f c t + 2 m(t )) 2

The square-law device produces a new FM signal centred at 2fc and with a frequency deviation of 2. This doubles the frequency deviation.

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The response of |X1(f)| after the resonant peak is the same as for a single pole low-pass filter. From a table of Bode plots, the following gain response can be obtained: | X 1 ( f ) |= 1 f fB 1+ B

2

Where fB is the frequency of the resonant peak, and B is the bandwidth. For the slope circuit, B is the filters bandwidth or cutoff frequency. For convenience, we can shift the filter to the origin (with X 1 ( f ) as the shifted version).

| X 1 ( f ) |=

1 f 1+ B =

f = kB 2

d | X1 ( f ) | df

k B(1 + k )

3 2 2

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Because the filters are symmetric about the central frequency, the contribution of the second filter is identical. Adding the filter responses results in the slope at the central frequency being:

d | X(f )| df =

f = kB

2k B(1 + k )

3 2 2

In the original definition of the slope filter, the responses are multiplied by -1, so do this here. This results in a total slope of:

2k B(1 + k )

3 2 2

As can be seen from the following plot, the linear approximation is very accurate between the two resonant peaks. For this plot B = 500, f1=-750, and f2=750.

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Problem 4. 23

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Problem 4.24 The amplitude spectrum corresponding to the Gaussian pulse p(t ) = c exp c 2t 2 * rect[t / T ]

P ( f ) = F c exp c 2t 2 F rect ( t / T ) = c exp f 2 c 2 Tsinc [ fT ] where we have used the convolution theorem

Problem 4.25

The Carson rule bandwidth for GSM is BT = 2 ( f + W ) where the peak deviation is given by k c 1 f = f = B 2 / log(2) = 0.75 B 2 4 With BT = 0.3 and T = 3.77 microseconds, the peak deviation is 59.7 kHz From Figure 4.22, the one-sided 3-dB bandwidth of the modulating signal is approximately 50 kHz. Combining these two results, the Carson rule bandwidth is

BT = 2 ( 59.7 + 50 ) = 219.4 kHz

The 1-percent FM bandwidth is given by Figure 4.9 with = vertical axis we find that

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Problem 4.26. a)

Beta 1 2 5 10

# of side frequencies 1 2 8 14

b)By experimentation, a modulation index of 2.408, will force the amplitude of the carrier to be about zero. This corresponds to the first root of J0(), as predicted by the theory.

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Problem 4.27. a)Using the original MATLAB script, the rms phase error is 6.15 % b)Using the plot provided, the rms phase error is 19.83%

Problem 4.28 a)The output of the detected signal is multiplied by -1. This results from the fact that m(t)=cos(t) is integrated twice. Once to form the transmitted signal and once by the envelope detector. In addition, the signal also has a DC offset, which results from the action of the envelope detector. The change in amplitude is the result of the modulation process and filters used in detection.

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The above signal has been multiplied by a constant gain factor in order to highlight the differences with the original message signal. c)The earliest signs of distortion start to appear above about fm =4.0 kHz. As the message frequency may no longer lie wholly within the bandwidth of either the differentiator or the low-pass filter. This results in the potential loss of high-frequency message components.

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4.29. By tracing the individual steps of the MATLAB algorithm, it can be seen that the resulting sequence is the same as for the 2nd order PLL. e(t ) is the phase error e (t ) in the theoretical model. The theoretical model of the VCO is:

2 (t ) = 2 kv v(t )dt

0

and the discrete-time model is: VCOState = VCOState + 2 kv (t 1)Ts which approximates the integrator of the theoretical model. The loop filter is a PI-controller, and has the transfer function: a H ( f ) = 1+ jf This is simply a combination of a sum plus an integrator, which is also present in the MATLAB code: Filterstate = Filterstate + e(t ) Integrator v(t ) = Filterstate + e(t ) Integrator +input

b)For smaller kv, the lock-in time is longer, but the output amplitude is greater.

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d)For a single sinusoid, the track is lost if f m K 0 where K 0 = k f kv Ac Av For this question, K0=100 kHz, but tracking degrades noticeably around 60-70 kHz. e)No useful signal can be extracted. By multiplying s(t) and r(t), we get: Ac Av sin(k f VCOState) + sin(4 f c t + k f + VCOState) 2 This is substantially different from the original error signal, and cannot be seen as an adequate approximation. Of particular interest is the fact that this equation is substantially more sensitive to changes in than the previous one owing to the presence of the gain factor kv

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Chapter 5 Problems

5.1.

( x x )2 exp( ) (a) Given f ( x) = 2 2 2 x 2 x 1 exp( f 2 ) , then by applying the time-shifting and scaling properties:

2 2 2 x exp( ( 2 x ) 2 f 2 ) exp( j 2 f x )

and exp( t 2 ) F( f ) = 1 2

2 x

2 = exp( 2 2 x f 2 + j x 2 f ) 1 2 = exp( j x 2 x ) 2

and let = 2 f

(b)The value of x does not affect the moment, as its influence is removed. Use the Taylor series approximation of x(x), given x = 0.

x ( ) = exp( 2 x2 )

x2 exp( x) = n=0 n !

E[ X n ] = d nx ( ) d n v =0

k

1 2

2k 2k 1 x ( ) = x k! 2 k =0

d nx ( ) leaves the lowest non-zero derivative as 2k-n. d n When this derivative is evaluated for v=0, then E[ X n ] =0.

For even values of n, only the terms in the resulting derivative that correspond to 2k-n = 0 are non-zero. In other words, only the even terms in the sum that correspond to k = n/2 are retained. E[ X n ] = n! x2 (n / 2)!

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5.2. (a) All the inputs for x 0 are mapped to y = 0. However, the probability that x > 0 is unchanged. Therefore the probability density of x 0 must be concentrated at y=0.

Because fy(y) is a

f y ( y )dy = 0.5

Therefore, the integral over the delta function must be 0.5. This means that the factor k must also be 0.5.

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5.3 (a)

(b) P ( y ) = p y ( y )dy

( y )2 exp( )dy 2 2 2 2 1

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Problem 5.4

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Problem 5.5

If, for a complex random process Z(t) RZ ( ) = E [ Z *(t ) Z (t + ) ] then (i) The mean square of a complex process is given by RZ (0) = E [ Z *(t ) Z (t ) ]

2 = E Z (t )

RZ ( ) = E [ Z *(t ) Z (t ) ] = E [ Z *( s + ) Z ( s ) ] = E [ Z ( s ) Z ( s + )] *

* = RZ ( ) where we have used the change of variable s = t - . (iii) Taking an approach similar to that of Eq. (5.67) 2 0 E ( Z (t ) Z (t + ) )

= E ( Z (t ) Z (t + ) )( Z *(t ) Z *(t + ) )

2 2 = E Z (t ) E [ Z (t ) Z *(t + )] E [ Z *(t ) Z (t + ) ] + E Z (t + ) 2 = 2E Z (t ) 2 Re {E [ Z *(t ) Z (t + ) ]} = 2 RZ (0) 2 Re { RZ ( )}

Thus Re { RZ ( )} RZ (0) .

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E[ Z (t1 ) Z * (t2 )] = E[( A cos(2 f1t1 + 1 ) + jA cos(2 f 2t1 + 2 )) ( A cos(2 f1t2 + 1 ) + jA cos(2 f 2t2 + 2 ))] Let 1=2f1 2=2f2 After distributing the terms, consider the first term: A2 E[cos(1t1 + 1 ) cos(1t2 + 1 )] = A2 E[cos(1 (t1 t2 )) + cos(1 (t1 + t2 ) + 21 )] 2

The expectation over 1 goes to zero, because 1 is distributed uniformly over [-,]. This result also applies to the term A2 [cos(2t1 + 2 ) cos(2t2 + 2 )] . Both cross-terms go to zero. R(t1 , t2 ) = A2 [cos(1 (t 1 t2 )) + cos(2 (t1 t2 ))] 2

(b) If f1 = f2, only the cross terms may be different: E[ jA2 (cos(1t1 + 2 ) cos(1t2 + 1 ) + cos(1t1 + 2 ) cos(1t2 + 1 )] But, unless 1=2, the cross-terms will also go to zero. R(t1 , t2 ) = A2 cos(1 (t1 t2 )) (c) If 1=2, then the cross-terms become: jA2 E[cos((1t1 2t2 )) + cos((1t1 + 2t2 ) + 21 ) + jA2 E[cos((2t1 1t2 )) + cos((1t1 + 2t2 ) + 21 )] After computing the expectations, the cross-terms simplify to: jA2 [cos(2t1 1t2 ) cos(1t1 2t2 )] 2 RZ (t1 , t2 ) = A2 [cos(1 (t1 t2 )) + cos(2 (t1 t2 )) + j cos(2t1 1t2 ) j cos(1t1 2t2 )] 2

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Problem 5.7

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Problem 5.8

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Problem 5.9

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Problem 5.10

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Problem 5.11

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Problem 5.12

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Problem 5.13

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Problem 5.14

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Problem 5.15

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Problem 5.16

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Problem 5.17

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Problem 5.18

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Problem 5.19

Problem 5.20

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Problem 5.21

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Problem 5.22

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Problem 5.23

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Problem 5.24

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Problem 5.25

Problem 5.26

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Problem 5.27

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Problem 5.28

1 + (2 f ) df <

2

( f )

For the filter of part (b) 1 ( f ) = [ ln(2) + ln( S x ( f ) ln( N 0 )] 2 The first and the last terms have no impact on the absolute integrability of the previous expression, and so do not matter as far as evaluating the above criterion. This leaves the only condition: ln S x ( f ) 1 + (2 f )2 df <

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Problem 5.29

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Problem 5.30

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Problem 5.31

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Problem 5.32

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Problem 5.33 (a) The receiver position is given by x(t) = x0+vt Thus the signal observed by the receiver is

x r (t , x) = A( x) cos 2 f c t c x + vt = A( x) cos t 2 f c t 0 c f v x = A( x) cos 2 f c c t f c 0 c c The Doppler shift of the frequency observed at the receiver is f D = fc v . c

= 1 2 1 2

exp ( j 2 f cos ) d

D n

= J 0 ( 2 f D ) where the second line comes from the symmetry of cos and sin under a -/2 translation. Eq. (5.174) follows directly from this upon noting that, since the expectation result is real-valued, the right-hand side of Eq.(5.173) is equal to its conjugate.

exp ( j 2 f sin ) d

D n

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Problem 5.34

The histogram has been plotted for 100 bins. Larger numbers of bins result in larger errors, as the effects of averaging are reduced. Distance 0 1 2 3 4 Relative Error 0.94% 2.6 % 4.8 % 47.4% 60.7%

The error increases further out from the centre. It is also important to note that the random numbers generated by this MATLAB procedure can never be greater than 5. This is very different from the Gaussian distribution, for which there is a non-zero probability for any real number.

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%Problem 5.34 %Set the number of samples to be 20,000 N=20000 M=100; Z=zeros(1,20000); for i=1:N for j=1:5 Z(i)=Z(i)+2*(rand(1)-0.5); end end sigma=sqrt(var(Z-mean(Z))); %Calculate a histogram of Z [X,C]=hist(Z,M); l=linspace(C(1),C(M),M); %Create a gaussian function with the same variance as Z G=1/(sqrt(2*pi*sigma^2))*exp(-(l.^2)/(2*sigma^2)); delta2=abs(l(1)-l(2)); X=X/(20000*delta2);

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5.35 (a) For the generated sequence: y = 0.0343 + j 0.0493 2 y = 5.597 The theoretical values are: y = 0 (by inspection).

2 The theoretical value of y =5.56. See 5.35 (c) for the calculation.

5.35 (b) From the plots, it can be seen that both the real and imaginary components are approximately Gaussian. In addition, from statistics, the sum of tow zero-mean Gaussian signals is also Gaussian distributed. As a result, the filter output must also be Gaussian.

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5.35 (c)

y (n) = ay (n 1) + w(n) Y ( z ) = aY ( z ) z 1 H ( z) = 1 1 az 1

-1

h( n) = a u ( n)

n

Rh(z) = H(z)H(z ) =

1 (1 az )(1 az )

1

=

But, Ry(z) = Rh(z)Rw(z) Taking the inverse z-transform: ry (n) =

2 w

a z 1 1 1 + 2 1 2 1 a 1 az 1 a 1 az

1 a2

an

< n <

From the plots, the measured and observed autocorrelations are almost identical.

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Chapter 6 Solutions

Problem 6.3

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Problem 6.4

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Problem 6.5

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Problem 6.8

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Problem 6.11

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Problem 6.12

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Problem 6.13

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Problem 6.24

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Problem 6.15

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Problem 7.2

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Problem 7.3

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Problem 7.4

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Problem 7.5

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Problem 7.6

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Problem 7.7

Problem 7.8

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Problem 7.9

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Problem 7.13

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Problem 7.14

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Problem 7.15

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Problem 7.16

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Problem 7.17

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Problem 7.18

Problem 7.19

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Problem 7.20

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Problem 7.21

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Problem 7.22 The maximum slope of the signal s (t ) = A sin ( 2 ft ) is 2fA. Consequently, the

maximum change during a sample period is approximately 2AfTs. To prevent slope overload, we require 100mV > 2 AfTs = 2 A(1kHz ) /(68kHz ) = 0.092 A or A < 1.08 V.

Ss ( f ) =

n =

H ( f nf )

s s

where Hs(f) is the spectrum of the signal H(f) limited to f f s / 2 . For this example, the sample spectrum should look as below.

-5 kHz

5 kHz

2.5 x 10

5

Amplitude Spectrum

1.5

0.5

0 -5

-4

-3

-2

-1 0 1 Frequency (kHz)

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There are several features to comment on: (i) The component at +4 kHz is due to aliasing of the -6 kHz sinusoid; and the component at -4kHz is due to aliasing of the +6 kHz sinusoid. (ii) The lower frequency is at 2 kHz is six times larger than the one at 4 kHz. One would expect the power ratio to be 4:1, not 6:1. The difference is due to relationship between the FFTsize (period) and the sampling rate. (Try a sampling rate of 10.24 kHz and compare.)

2.5 x 10

5

Amplitude Spectrum

1.5

0.5

0 -6

-4

-2

0 Frequency (kHz)

As expected the 2kHz component is unchanged in frequency, while the aliased component is shifted to reflect the new sampling rate.

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Problem 7.23 (a) The expanding portion of the -law compander is given by exp log(1 + ) 1 m=

(1 + ) exp 1

(b) (i) For the non-companded case, the rms quantization error is determined by step size. The step size is given by the maximum range over the number of quantization steps 2A = Q 2 For this signal the range is from +10 to -1, so A = 10 and with Q = 8, we have = 0.078. From Eq. ( ) , the rms quantization error is then given by 1 2 2 Q = mmax 22 R 3 1 = (10) 2 216 3 = 0.0005086 and the rms error is Q 0.02255. (ii) For a fair comparison, the signal must have similar amplitudes. The rms error with companding is 0.0037 which is significantly less. The plot is shown below. Note that the error is always positive.

0.035 0.03 0.025 0.02 0.015 0.01 0.005 0 -0.005

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

Rest TBD.

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Chapter 8

Problem 8.1

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Problem 8.4

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Problem 8.5

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Problem 8.6

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Problem 8.7

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Problem 8.8

Problem 8.9

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Problem 8.10

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Problem 8.11

Problem 8.12

.

Problem 8.13

Problem 8.14

Problem 8.15

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Problem 8.16

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Problem 8.20

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Problem 8.21

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Problem 8.22

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Problem 8.23

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Problem 8.24

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Chapter 9

Problem 9.1 The three waveforms are shown below for the sequence 0011011001. (b) is ASK, (c) is PSK; and (d) is FSK.

The corresponding amplitude spectrum, using the multiplication theorem for Fourier transforms, is given by S ( f ) = G ( f ) * [ ( f f c ) + ( f + f c ) ]

= G( f fc ) + G( f + fc )

Problem 9.3

To be done

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Problem 9.4

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Problem 9.5

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Problem 9.6

**The problem here is solved as erfc here and in the old edition, but listed in the textbook question as Q(x).

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Problem 9.7

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Problem 9.8

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Problem 9.9

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Problem 9.10

Problem 9.11

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Problem 9.12

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Problem 9.15

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Problem 9.16

Problem 9.17

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Problem 9.18

Problem 9.19

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Problem 9.20

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Problem 9.21

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Problem 9.22

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Problem 9.23

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Problem 10.2

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Problem 10.3

Problem 10.4

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Problem 10.5

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Problem 10.6

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Problem 10.7

a)

b)To be done

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Problem 10.8

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Problem 10.9

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Problem 10.10

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Problem 10.11

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Problem 10.12

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Problem 10.13

Problem 10.14

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Problem 10.15

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Problem 10.16

Problem 10.17

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Problem 10.18

Problem 10.19

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Problem 10.20

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Problem 10.21

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Problem 10.22

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Problem 10.23

Problem 10.24

Problem 10.25

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Problem 10.26

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Problem 10.27

Problem 10.28

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Problem 10.29

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Problem 10.30

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