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Honors Physics / Unit 02 / BFPM

Name:

Balanced Force Model

A force is

Common Types of Forces

Type of Force
Direction
When is it present?
Symbol
Equation
} {
}
the {
} force the {
} exerts on the {

Newton’s 1st Law:

Newton’s 3rd Law:

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Honors Physics / Unit 02 / BFPM

Reading: A Force is an Interaction between Two Objects

When exploring the motion of a hover puck, we decided that we needed

a force to change the motion of the block. We deﬁned a force as an interac-

tion between two objects . Thus, every force involves two objects, the object exerting the force and the object experiencing the force.

We have noticed that some forces, such as the gravitational force, act at

a distance. These forces are non-contact forces. Electric and magnetic forces

are the other non-contact forces with which we are familiar. Otherwise, forces are exerted by way of objects interacting by touching one another. These forces are called contact forces. Some contact forces, such as the tension force of a rope on a crate, have the interesting ability to adjust.

To help us keep track of the forces acting on an object, we have devel- oped a new representation: system schema. System schema are sketches that list all objects interacting with the object we are considering. As an example, we will take the case of a book sitting on a table. The system schema in ﬁgure 1 shows the book and all objects interacting with the book as labeled ovals. Solid lines are draw between two objects if they are inter- acting. Finally, a dotted line is drawn around the object of interest (which we will call our system ). Each line that crosses the dotted line surrounding our object of interest indicates that we should be able to identify a force corresponding to that interaction. In ﬁgure 1, we note that the table and Earth interact with the book.

After identifying the objects interacting with our object of interest (our system), we label the forces we have identiﬁed. In ﬁgure 1 we have the gravitational force exerted by Earth on the book ( F g , E B ), and the contact normal force exerted by the table on the book ( F N , T B ).

We now employ another new representation: the free body diagram, as shown in ﬁgure 2. The free body diagram is a very stripped down schematic of the object and the forces exerted on the object. For our exam- ple of the book sitting on the table, the free body diagram shows the book as a dot, and the forces on the book are represented by arrows whose tails are on the dot and whose heads point in the direction of the force. You will notice that a free body diagram is very similar to a vector diagram.

There are two quick checks that you should perform on your free body diagram. First, are the number of forces on the object the same as the number of solid lines crossing your dotted line boundary around your object? Second, are all the forces you wrote down for the object of interest of the form “the (type of force) force exerted by (object exerting the force) on the (object of interest)?”

In order to help you draw your system schema and your free body diagrams, there are several steps you should take to identify all of the in- teractions between your object of interest and the outside world. First, you should identify all non-contact interactions between your system and its surroundings. We currently know of three non-contact force types: grav- itational forces, electrical forces and magnetic forces. Thus, identifying outside objects interacting via non-contact forces is as simple as asking whether there are gravitational, electric or magnetic forces on our system, and what objects are exerting those forces.

Second, you should tally all surrounding objects that are touching our system. These objects might be exerting contact forces. Contact forces include compression forces (the normal force of the table on our book,

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Book
Table
Earth

Figure 1: The system schema for a book sit- ting still on a table top. The book is inter- acting with the table (it is touching the ta- ble) and Earth (the gravitational force is a non-contact force).

The word normal means “perpendicular to.” This force is due to the compression of the atomic bonds (which are modeled by springs) in the table surface, and the force is therefore perpendicular to the surface of the table.

 F N ,T B normal force, table on book F g ,E B grav. force, Earth on book

Figure 2: The free body diagram for a book sitting still on a table top. Note that there are two forces on the system (which is the book in this case), the same number of forces as there are lines crossing the dotted line in the system schema.

Honors Physics / Unit 02 / BFPM

in the previous example, or the force of a mashed spring on the object placed on top of that spring), tension forces (the force of a spring or string on an object), friction forces (always parallel to the surface on contact be- tween two objects), air resistance (due to wind or an object moving quickly through still air), as well as pushes and pulls by living objects (which can be thought of as compression and tension forces, too).

It is possible for two objects to interact in more than one way, simulta- neously. To illustrate this possibility, let’s consider a book sliding to a halt on a table top. The system schema is shown in ﬁgure 3. There are now two lines connecting the book and the table, representing the normal force ex- erted by the table on the book and the friction force exerted by the table on the book. It helps to draw two separate lines for these two forces, thereby clearly indicating that there are now three forces (due to two interactions between the book and the table and one interaction between the book and Earth) on the book.

 F N ,T B normal force, table on book F f ,T B fric. force, table on book F g ,E B grav. force, Earth on book

Figure 4: The free body diagram for a book sliding on a horizontal table top.

Book
Table
Earth

Figure 3: The system schema for a table slowing as it slides on a table top. Notice that there are now three solid lines crossing the dotted line, indicating three distinct interactions of our system with its surroundings.

Using the system schema in ﬁgure 3, we can now draw a free body diagram for the sliding book on the table. The correct free body diagram should have one non-contact force (the gravitational force exerted by Earth on the book, F g , E B ) and two contact forces (the normal (perpendicular) force exerted by the table on the book, F N , T B , and the (parallel) friction

force exerted by the table on the book, F f , T B ).

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all parts of one question can ﬁt

Honors
Physics
/ Unit
Worksheet
1:
Forces and
Motion
Take care in reading every word in
these questions.
Make sure
you
know exactly when we
are
in
each part
of the
problem.
When making
a whiteboard,
arrange your
work
so that
on one board (neatly).
1.
A
cardboard box with
a
rubber bottom contains a
cinder block at
rest
on a rough, concrete,
horizontal ﬂoor.
a.
Draw
a
system schema for this situation.
b.
Since the shape
of the
[box + cinder block]—your “system”—is unimportant, shrink
it
to a
point
we are treating the box like
a particle)
and then show
and
clearly label each
force
on the system.
obvious from your
diagram which
forces you
intend to
be equal and
which you
intend to
others.

BFPM

02 /

(this is where

Make it

be greater than

taking our snapshots

it.

that

it

box, clearly

Label!

still

Make

(ii) Also

an FBD.

schema for

obvious which lines are

horizontal,

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draw a system schema for the box when it leaves

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which have greater

contact

slopes,

smaller

with the person’s

slopes, or

hands.

(iii) Also

negative slopes.

draw

 c. A person shoves the box horizontally so that it begins to move. Your answers to this time while the person is still touching the box and shoving. (i) Draw a velocity-vs-time graph for the marking the time when the box is at rest and This should be qualitatively accurate (no numbers, but correct shape). (ii) Also draw a system same time period. (iii) Also draw a free body diagram for the box during that same time period. d. The shove ends when the box leaves contact with the person’s hands. (i) Draw time graph for the box, clearly marking the time when the box is at rest, the time when the person is touching the box and shoving it, and the time after the box loses contact with the person’s hands.

part should concern the

the time when the person is still touching the box and shoving

a qualitatively correct velocity-vs-

Honors Physics

/

2. The

rubber is

ﬂoor. It

is

 do not have to be intend to be between forces in
 a. Draw a b. Draw a c. Draw a d. Draw a hands.

as

you

time graph

equal and which

directly on the same

velocity vs.

time periods.

forces you intend to be

cardboard surface rests

three

the

In the space below, modify your

box so that

clearly marking the

of the

person.

problem 1 to accurately describe this

from

bottom

the

FBDs

and

 and an FBD for this situation while the box is at rest on the horizontal ﬂoor. and an FBD for this situation while the person is still touching the box and shoving. and an FBD for this situation during the time after the box loses contact with the person's

a horizontal shove by a

quantitatively accurate, but make it obvious which

 or less than others, so that comparisons can be made among forces in this problem as well as this problem and in problem 1. Make any differences in your graphs and diagrams obvious.

Unit 02 / BFPM

now removed from

then given

greater

velocity-vs-time graph for the box,

system schema

system schema

system schema

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Modeling Workshop Project

2006

3. The

box

graph

diagrams do not have

which

as well

as your

you intend

 as well as a. Draw b. Draw a c. Draw a d. Draw a hands.

BFPM

Your

02 /

equal and

/ Unit

in this problem

situation.

Physics

Honors

below, modify your velocity vs. time

time periods.

any

space

three

the

2 to accurately describe this new

and 2. Make

that comparisons

clearly marking the

polished ﬂoor. In

problems 1

others, so

and

less than

schemas and FBDs from problem

quantitatively accurate, but make it obvious which forces you intend to be

this problem

 and an FBD for this situation while the box is at rest on the horizontal ﬂoor. and an FBD for this situation while the person is still touching the box and shoving. and an FBD for this situation during the time after the box loses contact with the person's

a very smooth and

is now placed on

system

to be

to be greater or

between forces in

a velocity-vs-time graph for the box,

system schema

system schema

system schema

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succeed in making the ﬂoor completely frictionless. Again, make new

Honors Physics

/ Unit 02 / BFPM

4. Suppose that we could somehow

diagrams/graphs

to represent this new

variation

in the situation. Make any

differences obvious.

 a. velocity-vs-time graph for the box, Draw a clearly marking the three time periods. b. system schema Draw a and an FBD for this situation while the box is at rest on the horizontal ﬂoor.

hands.

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from

 c. Draw a system schema and an FBD for this situation while the person is still touching the box and d. Draw a system schema and an FBD for this situation during the time after the box loses

Modeling Workshop Project

shoving.

the person's

2006

contact with

enough

below, modify your

accurately describe this

to

start it into

a. Draw

changing,

 b. Draw a c. Draw a d. Draw a

e. After pushing the

maintain a

while

you continue

BFPM

02 /

space

/ Unit

In the

pushes it hard

Physics

velocity.

Honors

A person

ﬂoor, with friction.

that it maintains a constant

pushing so

resting on the concrete

continues

reduce

to half the

value

needed to

a new (continued) velocity-vs-time

graph to show what happens to the box

force.

a constant velocity for a while, you

Make

with this

and then

a constant velocity).

 and an FBD for this situation while the box is at rest on the horizontal ﬂoor. and an FBD for this situation while the box is changing velocity. and an FBD for this situation while the box moves with a constant velocity.
 time graph as well as your system schemas and FBDs from problem 2 to new situation. clearly marking the three time periods (at rest, velocity is

to push

of the cardboard box

motion

velocity vs.

a velocity-vs-time graph for the box,

moving with

system schema

system schema

system schema

box with

constant velocity.

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Honors Physics / Unit 02 / BFPM

Worksheet 2: FBDs

6. In each of the following situations, represent the object with a labelled free body diagram. Label each force with a meaningful symbol (ex: F g ) AND with the object exerting the force (ex: F g (earth)).

1. ! Object lies motionless.

2. ! Object slides at constant speed without friction.

3. ! Object slows due to kinetic friction.

!

4. ! Object slides without friction.

5. ! Static friction prevents sliding.

!

6. ! An object is suspended from the ceiling.

!

7. ! An object is suspended from the ceiling.

8. ! The object is motionless.

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Honors Physics / Unit 02 / BFPM

 9. The object is pulled upward at constant speed. 10. The object is motionless. 11. The object is pulled by a force parallel to the surface. 12. The object is pulled by a force at an angle to the surface. 13. The object is falling (no air resistance). 14. The object is falling at constant (terminal) velocity. 15. The ball is rising in a parabolic trajectory. 16. The ball is at the top of a parabolic trajectory.

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Honors Physics / Unit 02 / BFPM

Empirical Force Laws Experiments (F g , F s )

Sketch and label the experiment setup:

What could we measure? How could we measure it?

Use this space for notes at the whiteboarding stage of the experiment:

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Honors Physics / Unit 02 / BFPM

Consider experiments in which two unequal forces act on a body in opposite directions. The result is an acceleration in the direction of the larger force but smaller. Figure 1 shows an example. This should remind you of how the force of friction slightly decreased the overall force on the carts when we pulled them with one spring of force.

5 N
2 N

equivalent to

3 N

Figure 1: Two forces acting in opposite directions subtract, with the net force point- ing in the direction of the larger of the two forces. If we deﬁne forces pointing to the right as positive (+2 N here) and to the left as negative (-5 N), we can alway just add the forces.

Thus we can simply add the two forces to get the ‘net force’ expressed in Newton’s Second Law as long as we keep track of the directions of the forces using positive and negative numbers (with positive numbers representing forces pointing in the direction we have deﬁned as the positive direction). For the example in ﬁgure 1 we would have a positive force (to the right) of

2 N and a negative force (to the left) of 5 N. If we add those forces we get

F net = (+ 2 N )+( 5 N ) = 3 N.

Situations where the forces point in the same or opposite directions are fairly straightforward, but what happens when there are multiple forces

pointing in all directions? In such cases, we need to treat forces as vectors. In fact, without really thinking about it too much, the example in ﬁgure

1 does treat the forces as vectors. You may have noticed that by using

arrows to depict forces, we have already chosen a visual representation that is similar to the way we depict vectors.

An experiment can be performed in which three forces act on a body in different directions to produce an equilibrium state (that is, zero net force). If vectors are used to represent these forces with their lengths proportional to the force magnitude, it is possible to add them using our familiar head- to-tail sequence. Since the vectors add up to zero, the resulting vector diagram forms a closed polygon, as in ﬁgure 2. This corresponds to vec- tor addition resulting in a zero resultant vector (if this is not immediately clear, please review your summer homework on vectors).

We experimentally determine that when two or more forces act at acute or obtuse angles, the forces have a combined effect that is equivalent to a single force that is their vector sum. The vector sum of force vectors repre- sents the net force vector, and this situation is shown in ﬁgure 3. Note that we cannot merely add the magnitudes of the vectors in this more general case!

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F 2
F 3

F 1

is equivalent to
F 2
F 3
F 1

Figure 2: Forces adding to zero result in equilibrium (no change in velocity). The vectors are added using the tail-to-head method.

F 1
F 2
equivalent to
F net F 1 F 2
F 2
F 1

Figure 3: Forces add as vectors. This takes a little more work, but it is the only way to deal with forces in more than one dimen- sion!

Honors Physics / Unit 02 / BFPM

Worksheet 3: Interaction Problem Solving

7. The player in the photo exerts a 100 N horizontal force on a 25 kg blocking sled, pushing it across the grass with a constant speed of 2.0 m/s.

a. Fill out the chart below, determining all of the forces on the blocking sled.

 System Schema Motion Map Qualitatively correct sketch of FBD

REMINDERS: Does your system schema have a system boundary? In your FBD, did you represent the system with a particle? Is it obvious when you intend two forces to be equal or when you intend one force to be greater than another? Did you label your forces with the object exerting the force in parentheses?

b. On the graph below, draw an FBD to a precise scale. Make sure you write down your scale!

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Honors Physics / Unit 02 / BFPM

c. How would the situation change if the player pushed with more than 100 N, while the frictional force between the grass and the sled remained the same? Illustrate your answer with another FBD and motion map.

d. Describe, in terms of the amount of force he would have to apply, what the player would have to do to make the sled move with a constant velocity of 3.0 m/s. Assume that the frictional force between the grass and the sled remains the same under all circumstances. Illustrate your answer with diagrams and/or graphs as appropriate.

e. If he pushes the sled as originally described with a velocity of 2.0 m/s, how far will it slide in 7.5 seconds? Draw at least three diagrams/graphs to illustrate this situation, then solve this problem using at least two different methods (and getting the same answers).

f. With the sled moving at a constant velocity of 2.0 m/s, the person reduces his force to 75 N. Describe what happens to the sled. Illustrate your answer with another FBD and motion map.

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Honors Physics / Unit 02 / BFPM

8. The 80 kg box rests motionless on the 20º incline.

a. Fill out the chart below, determining all of the forces on the box (including their magnitudes).

 (Qualitative) Sketch of FBD System Schema (Qualitative) Sketch of Vector Addition Diagram

REMINDERS: Does your system schema have a system boundary? In your FBD, did you represent the system with a particle? Is it obvious when you intend two forces to be equal or when you intend one force to be greater than another? Did you label your forces with the object exerting the force in parentheses? Did you add vectors tail to head?

b. On the graph below, draw the vector addition diagram to a precise scale. Be sure to write down your scale! Be sure to use a ruler and a protractor!

c. Is the contact normal force [greater than, less than, or equal to] the gravitational force? Explain.

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Honors Physics / Unit 02 / BFPM

Activity: Broom Ball

For each of the situations, describe (using words, pictures, etc) how to accomplish each feat. Each situation refers to pushing a bowling ball on the ﬂoor with a broom.

 Speed up the bowling ball from rest. Stop a moving bowling ball. Keep a moving bowling ball moving at a constant velocity. Move the ball from one line to the other and back as quickly as possible and without overshooting the lines. With a moving bowling ball, make a sharp left turn. Travel at a constant speed along a curved line. Move the ball around a circle as quickly as possible.

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Honors Physics / Unit 02 / BFPM

Activity: Dueling Forces

For each of the following situations:

1. Draw one system schema. In your system schema, draw the interaction between the two carts in colored pencil. (Keep everything else in regular pencil.)

2. Draw and label two FBDs (one for each cart). Draw the forces the carts exert on one another in colored pencil. (Again, keep everything else in regular pencil.) Be sure your FBDs look balanced or unbalanced as appropriate. Draw forces to approximate scale.

3. Finally, measure the colored pencil forces with the force sensors and correct your diagrams if necessary. Remember to zero your force sensors!

4. After completing the ones on this sheet, if you have time (or outside of class), you might be interested in trying additional variations and conﬁrming your results.

I. You may ignore friction on this particular situation.

velocity = 0

F

person

A

B

F

person

II. Do not ignore friction.

constant velocity
F
person
A
B

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III. Do not ignore friction.

speeding up
F
person
A
B

IV. Do not ignore friction.

speeding up
F
B
person
A

Honors Physics / Unit 02 / BFPM

V. This should be a collision on a track (snapshot during the collision). You may ignore friction in this situation.

velocity
initially at rest
B
A

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Honors Physics / Unit 02 / BFPM

Worksheet 4: N3L in Action

6. A block slides down a ramp at a constant speed. During that slide, the ramp sits at rest on a table. Draw one system schema for the situation, then draw an FBD for the block and an FBD for the ramp.

!

7. In frustration, Alec gets Henry to hold up his test and punches his ﬁst completely through all of the sheets of paper. Which is greater: the force that Alec’s ﬁst exerted on the paper or the force that the paper exerted on Alec’s ﬁst? Explain.

8. Your friend’s truck stalls out on a hill, so you get out to push. However, after a couple minutes you start to tire yourself out and the truck starts pushing you back down the hill. While the truck is pushing you back down the hill, which is greater: the force that you exert on the truck or the force that the truck exerts on you? Explain.

9. At the ice skating rink, Lydia (who has a mass of 50 kg) stands face to face with her brother, Marcus (who has a mass of 80 kg). They put their hands together and Lydia pushes Marcus backwards. Draw one system schema and two FBDs (one each for Lydia and Marcus) during the push. You may assume that the ice is frictionless.

!

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Honors Physics / Unit 02 / BFPM