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The Secret

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Contents
Articles
Law of Attraction Feeling Emotion Emotion classification Sociology of emotions Happiness Philosophy of happiness Cosmic ordering Optimism Intuition (knowledge) 1 5 6 17 20 23 28 35 36 39

References
Article Sources and Contributors Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 44 47

Article Licenses
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Law of Attraction

Law of Attraction
New Thought Beliefs
Divinity Omnipresent God Ultimate Spirit Divine Humanity Higher consciousness Beliefs Universal law Law of Attraction Power of choice Metaphysics Life force Actions Affirmations Affirmative prayer Creative visualization Healing Huna Personal magnetism Positive thinking

The Law of Attraction is a metaphysical New Thought belief that "like attracts like", that positive and negative thinking bring about positive and negative physical results, respectively.[1] [2] [3] [4] According to the Law of Attraction, the phrase "I need more money" allows the subject to continue to "need more money". If the subject wants to change this they would focus their thoughts on the goal (having more money) rather than the problem (needing more money). This might take the form of phrases such as "I have as much money as I need" or "I have a job that pays very well".

Interpretation
Skeptical Inquirer magazine criticized the lack of falsifiability and testability of these claims.[5] Critics have asserted that the evidence provided is usually anecdotal and that, because of the self-selecting nature of the positive reports, as well as the subjective nature of any results, these reports are susceptible to confirmation bias and selection bias.[6] Physicist Ali Alousi, for instance, criticized it as unmeasurable and questioned the likelihood that thoughts can affect anything outside the head.[1] The Law of Attraction has been popularized in recent years by books and films such as The Secret. This film and the subsequent book use interviews with New Thought authors and speakers to explain the principles of an alleged metaphysical law that can attract anything that one thinks about consistently. Writing for the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry, Mary Carmichael and Ben Radford wrote that "neither the film nor the book has any basis in scientific reality", and that its premise contains "an ugly flipside: if you have an accident or disease, it's your fault." They asked, "If an airplane crashes, does that mean that one or more of the passengers brought that on himself? Do soldiers killed in Iraq simply not think enough positive thoughts?"[5]

As physical hypothesis
Others have questioned the references to modern scientific theory, and have maintained, for example, that the Law of Attraction misrepresents the electrical activity of brainwaves.[7] Victor Stenger and Leon Lederman are critical of attempts to use quantum physics to bridge any unexplained or seemingly implausible effects, believing these to be traits of modern pseudoscience.[8] [9] [10] Writing in the New York Times, Virginia Heffernan characterised The Secret as "a series of misquotations ... and fraudulent maxims" that nonetheless "takes [her] to a happy place."[5]

Law of Attraction

In health science
The principles of the law of attraction have also been interpreted in the realm of medicine and illness. The law of attraction has some parallels with the placebo effect. In 1990, Bernie Siegel published a book, Love, Medicine and Miracles, which asserted that the threat of disease was related to a person's imagination, will, and belief.[6] Siegel primarily advocated "love" as the source of healing and longevity stating that "if you want to be immortal, love someone."[11] [12] Siegel's description has been rejected by some from within the medical community.[13]

Personal responsibility
Robert Sapolsky, a professor and neuroendocrinologist, devoted a chapter in his book, Why Zebras Don't Get Ulcers, to Siegel. Sapolsky refers to Siegel's general idea as "benign gibberish" but is particularly critical of what he sees as blaming patients for their illness, based only on anecdotal evidence.[14] Sapolsky sums up his primary criticism as follows: Where the problems become appallingly serious is when Siegel concentrates on the main point of his book. No matter how often he puts in the disclaimers saying that he's not trying to make people feel guilty, the book's premise is that (a) cancer can be caused by psychosocial factors in the person; (b) cancer (or any other disease, as far as I can tell) is curable if the patient has sufficient courage, love and spirit; (c) if the patient is not cured, it is because of the insufficient amounts of those admirable traits. As we have just seen, this is not how cancer works, and a physician simply should not go about telling seriously ill people otherwise.[14]

History
The New Thought Movement, 19041910
Thomas Troward, who was a strong influence in the New Thought Movement, claimed that thought precedes physical form and that "the action of Mind plants that nucleus which, if allowed to grow undisturbed, will eventually attract to itself all the conditions necessary for its manifestation in outward visible form."[15] In 1906, William Walker Atkinson (18621932) used the phrase in his New Thought Movement book Thought Vibration or the Law of Attraction in the Thought World, stating that "like attracts like."[16] The following year, Elizabeth Towne, the editor of The Nautilus Magazine, a Journal of New Thought, published Bruce MacLelland's prosperity theology book Prosperity Through Thought Force, in which he summarized the principle, stating: "You are what you think, not what you think you are." [17] The book "The Science of Getting Rich" by Wallace D. Wattles espouses similar principlesthat truly believing in the object of your desire and focusing onto it will lead to that object or goal being realized on the material plane (Wattles indicates in the Preface and later chapters of this book that his premise stems from the monistic Hindu view that God pervades everything and can deliver that which we focus on). In addition, the book also indicates that negative thinking will manifest negative results.[18] Richard Weiss explains in his book The American Myth of Success that during the New Thought movement, the "principle of "non-resistance" was a popular concept taught in conjunction with the Law of Attraction.[19]

Law of Attraction

The "law of attraction" in Theosophy, 19151919


The phrase "Law of Attraction" appeared in the writings of the Theosophical authors William Quan Judge in 1915,[20] and Annie Besant in 1919.[21]

The Law of Success in 16 Lessons


Before the release of Think and Grow Rich, Napoleon Hill released The Law of Success in 16 Lessons (1928) which directly references the Law of Attraction, by name, repeatedly.

"Think and Grow Rich", 1937


In 1937, author Napoleon Hill published his book Think and Grow Rich which went on to become one of the best selling books of all time, selling over 60 million copies. In this book, he discusses the importance of controlling your own thoughts in order to achieve success, as well as the energy that thoughts have and their ability to attract other thoughts. In the beginning of the book, Napoleon Hill mentions a "secret" to success, and promises to indirectly describe it at least once in every chapter of the book. It is never named directly for he says that discovering it on one's own is far more beneficial. Many people have argued over what the secret actually is, with some arguing that it was the Law of Attraction. Hill states the "secret" to which he refers is mentioned no fewer than a hundred times, yet reference to "attract" is used less than 30 times in the text. Most students of the book claim the secret is hidden in its title: THINK (i.e., thoughts)

Mid-1900s2000
By the mid 1900s, various authors addressed the topic and related ideas under a range of religious and secular terms, such as "positive thinking", "mental science", "pragmatic Christianity", "New Thought", "practical metaphysics", "Science of Mind" / "Religious Science", and "Divine Science".[1] [22] Among the mid 20th century authors who used the term were Florence Scovel Shinn (1925), Sri K. Parvathi Kumar (1942),[23] Alice Bailey (1942),[24] [25] [26] and Omraam Mikhal Avanhov (1968).[27] Author Louise Hay in 1976 released a pamphlet in which she links various diseases and disorders to certain thoughts and states of minds. This list was included in her 1984 best-seller book You Can Heal Your Life, in which she promotes positive thinking as a healing method.[28] Other proponents of the Law of Attraction included Wallace Wattles, Ernest Holmes, Charles Fillmore, Robert Collier, Helen Wilmans, Charles Brodie Patterson, and Helena Blavatsky, who all published books in the early 1900s.

21st century
The Law of Attraction was brought to hundreds of thousands of people for the first time by Rhonda Byrne through the film The Secret(2006) which is based on the "Law of Attraction" and includes many Experts in the Field of Personal Excellence such as Bob Proctor, Jack Canfield, John Grey and Marci Schimoff as well as quantum physicists John Hagelin and Fred Alan Wolf. 'The Secret' was then developed into a book of the same title in 2007. The movie and book gained widespread attention in the media also from Saturday Night Live to The Oprah Winfrey Show in the United States.[1] The same year Esther and Jerry Hicks (who provided much of the original source material for The Secret)[29] released the bestseller, The Law of Attraction. The Law of Attraction's modern interpretation, as presented in The Secret, is that physical reality is a reflection of inner (subjective) reality, summarized in the quote from The Secret, "your thoughts and your feelings create your life." Author and business man Kevin Trudeau produced an audio compact disk program called "Your Wish Is Your Command" which deals with the same subject of thoughts manifesting reality. The success of the film and various books led to increased media coverage, both positive and negative. Oprah Winfrey devoted two episodes of her show to discuss the film and the law of attraction.[3] [4] Talk show host Larry

Law of Attraction King also discussed it on his show with Bob Solis but criticized it for several reasons. He pointed to the sufferings in the world and asked: "If the Universe manifests abundance at a mere thought, why is there so much poverty, starvation, and death?" A common response to this question from those who subscribe to the Law of Attraction's philosophy is that one's unconscious thoughts (which are more difficult to control) are attracting as well as one's conscious thoughts. In August 2008, Esther and Jerry Hicks's book Money and the Law of Attraction: Learning to Attract Health, Wealth & Happiness appeared on the New York Times Best Seller list.[30]

Notes
[1] Whittaker, S. Secret attraction (http:/ / www. canada. com/ montrealgazette/ story. html?id=78fc94dd-c0b2-4ade-891d-98770bfae388& k=70777), The Montreal Gazette, May 12, 2007. [2] Redden, Guy, Magic Happens: A New Age Metaphysical Mystery Tour, Journal of Australian Studies: 101 [3] "The Law of Attraction: Real-Life Stories - Oprah.com" (http:/ / www. oprah. com/ spirit/ The-Law-of-Attraction-Real-Life-Stories_1). oprah.com. . Retrieved November 8, 2010. [4] "Go Beyond 'The Secret' - Oprah.com" (http:/ / www. oprah. com/ spirit/ Go-Beyond-The-Secret_1). oprah.com. . Retrieved November 8, 2010. [5] http:/ / www. csicop. org/ specialarticles/ secrets. html [6] Kaptchuk, T., & Eisenberg, D. (1998). "The Persuasive Appeal of Alternative Medicine". Annals of Internal Medicine 129 (12): 1061. PMID9867762. [7] Scientific American; Jun2007, Vol. 296 Issue 6, p39-39: and the same article online Scientific American Magazine, June 2007; article entitled "The (Other) Secret" page 1 http:/ / www. sciam. com/ article. cfm?id=the-other-secret [8] Cosmic Mind pages 8 through 19 http:/ / www. colorado. edu/ philosophy/ vstenger/ Quantum/ 01CosmicMind. pdf [9] The God Particle: If the Universe is the Answer, What is the Question - pages 189 to 198 by Leon Lederman with Dick Teresi (copyright 1993) Houghton Mifflin Company [10] Non-science posing as science; Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy http:/ / plato. stanford. edu/ entries/ pseudo-science/ #NonSciPosSci [11] Woo, L. (1989, May 5). Doctor's prescription: Love yourself Caring can cure when science can't, Siegel tells 1,300. The Orange County Register. [12] Siegel, B. S. (1990). Love, Medicine and Miracles: Lessons Learned about Self-Healing from a Surgeon's Experience with Exceptional Patients. Harper Paperbacks. [13] Surviving terminal illness with big dose of optimism Surgeon prescribes peace of mind. (1991, June 18).The Atlanta Journal, E1. [14] Sapolsky, R. M. (1998). Why Zebras Don't Get Ulcers, 2nd Edition: An Updated Guide To Stress, Stress Related Diseases, and Coping (2nd ed., p. 178-179). W. H. Freeman. [15] Judge Thomas Troward, The Edinburgh Lectures on Mental Science, 1904. [16] William Walker Atkinson. Thought Vibration or the Law of Attraction. Advanced Thought Publishing. 1906. (http:/ / gitacademy. tripod. com/ GodsInTraining/ ThoughtVibration. htm) Out of Copyright version [17] MacLelland, Bruce, Prosperity Through Thought Force, Elizabeth Towne, 1907 [18] http:/ / en. wikisource. org/ wiki/ The_Science_of_Getting_Rich [19] The American Myth of Success. Illini Books. 1969. p.169. [20] Judge, William Quan (1915). The Ocean of Theosophy. United Lodge of Theosophists. p.103. ISBN076610544X. [21] Popular Lectures on Theosophy. Theosophical Publishing House. 1919. p.79. ISBN0524034753. [22] Griffiths, L. Law of attraction has long history in inspirational writing (http:/ / www. eastvalleytribune. com/ story/ 88221) East Valley Tribune, April 21st 2007. [23] Kumar, Sri K. Parvathi (1942). Occult Meditations. Dhanishta. p.230. ISBN8189467042. [24] Bailey, Alice A. (1942). Letters on Occult Meditation. Lucis Trust. pp.53, p265. ISBN0853301115. [25] Bailey, Alice A. (1942). Esoteric Psychology II. Lucis Trust. pp.111113. ISBN0853301190. [26] Bailey, Alice A. (1973). A Treatise on Cosmic Fire. Lucis Trust. pp.11661229. ISBN0853301174. "Section Two - Division F - The Law of Attraction" [27] Avanhov, Omraam Mikhal (1968). Cosmic Moral Law. Prosveta. p.384. ISBN2-85566-445-4. [28] Mark Oppenheimer (2008), The New York Times, The Queen of the New Age (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2008/ 05/ 04/ magazine/ 04Hay-t. html?_r=1), article retrieved January 26, 2008, [29] Jerry & Esther's Statement on The Secret (http:/ / www. meetup. com/ Washington-Abraham-Hicks/ boards/ view/ viewthread?thread=2283719) [30] NY Times Bestseller information August 31, 2008 (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2008/ 08/ 31/ books/ bestseller/ bestpaperadvice. html?_r=1& 8bu& emc=bu& oref=slogin)

Law of Attraction

Further reading
The Secret (November 28, 2006) Rhonda Byrne, Beyond Words Publishing, ISBN 978-1582701707

Feeling
Feeling is the nominalization of "to feel". The word was first used in the English language to describe the physical sensation of touch through either experience or perception. The word is also used to describe experiences, other than the physical sensation of touch, such as "a feeling of warmth".[1] In psychology, the word is usually reserved for the conscious subjective experience of emotion.[2] Phenomenology and heterophenomenology are philosophical approaches that provide some basis for knowledge of feelings. Many schools of psychotherapy depend on the therapist achieving some kind of understanding of the client's feelings, for which methodologies exist. Some theories of interpersonal relationships also have a role for shared feelings or understanding of another person's feelings. Perception of the physical world does not necessarily result in a universal reaction among receivers (see emotions), but varies depending on one's tendency to handle the situation, how the situation relates to the receiver's past experiences, and any number of other factors. Feelings are also known as a state of consciousness, such as that resulting from emotions, sentiments or desires.

Gut feeling
A gut feeling, or gut reaction, is a visceral emotional reaction to something, and often one of uneasiness. Gut feelings are generally regarded as not modulated by conscious thought, and as a reflection of intuition rather than rationality. The phrase "gut feeling" may also be used as a short-hand term for an individual's "common sense" perception of what is considered "the right thing to do"; such as: helping an injured passerby, avoiding dark alleys and generally acting in accordance with instinctive feelings about a given situation. It can also refer to simple common knowledge phrases which are true no matter when said, such as "Water is wet", "Fire is hot", or to ideas that an individual intuitively regards as true, without proof (see "Truthiness" for examples). Gut feelings, like all reflexive unconscious comparisons, can be re-programmed by practice or experience.
Sensitive, sculpture by Miquel Blay (1910)

Feeling

Footnotes
[1] feeling - Dictionary definition and pronunciation - Yahoo! Education (http:/ / education. yahoo. com/ reference/ dictionary/ entry/ feeling) [2] VandenBos, Gary (2006) APA Dictionary of Psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association

External links
A Dictionary of Feelings (http://www.feelingdictionary.com)

Emotion
Emotions Affection Anger Angst Annoyance Anxiety Apathy Awe Contempt Curiosity Boredom Depression Desire Despair Disappointment Disgust Ecstasy Embarrassment Empathy Envy Euphoria Fear Frustration Gratitude Grief Guilt Happiness Hatred Hope Horror Hostility

Emotion

7
Hysteria Indifference Interest Jealousy Loathing Loneliness Love Lust Misery Pity Pride Rage Regret Remorse Sadness Satisfied Shame Shock Shyness Sorrow Suffering Surprise Wonder Worry

Emotion is the complex psychophysiological experience of an individual's state of mind as interacting with biochemical (internal) and environmental (external) influences. In humans, emotion fundamentally involves "physiological arousal, expressive behaviors, and conscious experience."[1] Emotion is associated with mood, temperament, personality and disposition, and motivation. Motivations direct and energize behavior, while emotions provide the affective component to motivation, positive or negative.[2] No definitive taxonomy of emotions exists, though numerous taxonomies have been proposed. Some categorizations include: "Cognitive" versus "non-cognitive" emotions Instinctual emotions (from the amygdala), versus cognitive emotions (from the prefrontal cortex). Categorization based on duration: Some emotions occur over a period of seconds (for example, surprise), whereas others can last years (for example, love). A related distinction is between the emotion and the results of the emotion, principally behaviors and emotional expressions. People often behave in certain ways as a direct result of their emotional state, such as crying, fighting or fleeing. If one can have the emotion without the corresponding behavior, then we may consider the behavior not to be essential to the emotion. The JamesLange theory posits that emotional experience is largely due to the experience of bodily changes. The "functionalist" approach to emotions (for example, Nico Frijda and Freitas-Magalhaes) holds that emotions have evolved for a particular function, such as to keep the subject safe.

Emotion

Etymology
The English word emotion is derived from the French word mouvoir. This is based on the Latin emovere, where e(variant of ex-) means "out" and movere means "move."[3] The related term "motivation" is also derived from the word movere.

Classification
There are basic and complex categories, where some basic emotions can be modified in some way to form complex emotions (for example, Paul Ekman). In one model, the complex emotions could arise from cultural conditioning or association combined with the basic emotions. Alternatively, analogous to the way primary colors combine, primary emotions could blend to form the full spectrum of human emotional experience. For example interpersonal anger and disgust could blend to form contempt. Robert Plutchik proposed a three-dimensional "circumplex model" which describes the relations among emotions. This model is similar to a color wheel. The vertical dimension represents intensity, and the circle represents degrees of similarity among the emotions. He posited eight primary emotion dimensions arranged as four pairs of opposites. Some have also argued for the existence of meta-emotions which are emotions about emotions.

Examples of basic emotions.

Another important means of distinguishing emotions concerns their occurrence in time. Some emotions occur over a period of seconds (for example, surprise), whereas others can last years (for example, love). The latter could be regarded as a long term tendency to have an emotion regarding a certain object rather than an emotion proper (though this is disputed). A distinction is then made between emotion episodes and emotional dispositions. Dispositions are also comparable to character traits, where someone may be said to be generally disposed to experience certain emotions, though about different objects. For example an irritable person is generally disposed to feel irritation more easily or quickly than others do. Finally, some theorists (for example, Klaus Scherer, 2005) place emotions within a more general category of "affective states" where affective states can also include emotion-related phenomena such as pleasure and pain, motivational states (for example, hunger or curiosity), moods, dispositions and traits. The neural correlates of hate have been investigated with an fMRI procedure. In this experiment, people had their brains scanned while viewing pictures of people they hated. The results showed increased activity in the medial frontal gyrus, right putamen, bilaterally in the premotor cortex, in the frontal pole, and bilaterally in the medial insula of the human brain. The researchers concluded that there is a distinct pattern of brain activity that occurs when people are experiencing hatred (Zeki and Romaya, 2008).

Emotion

Theories
Theories about emotions stretch back at least as far as the stoics of ancient Greece, as well as Plato and Aristotle. We also see sophisticated theories in the works of philosophers such as Ren Descartes,[4] Baruch Spinoza[5] and David Hume. Later theories of emotions tend to be informed by advances in empirical research. Often theories are not mutually exclusive and many researchers incorporate multiple perspectives (theories) in their work.

Somatic theories
Somatic theories of emotion claim that bodily responses rather than judgements are essential to emotions. The first modern version of such theories comes from William James in the 1880s. The theory lost favor in the 20th century, but has regained popularity more recently due largely to theorists such as John Cacioppo, Antnio Damsio, Joseph E. LeDoux and Robert Zajonc who are able to appeal to neurological evidence. JamesLange theory William James, in the article "What is an Emotion?",[6] argued that emotional experience is largely due to the experience of bodily changes. The Danish psychologist Carl Lange also proposed a similar theory at around the same time, so this position is known as the JamesLange theory. This theory and its derivatives state that a changed situation leads to a changed bodily state. As James says "the perception of bodily changes as they occur is the emotion." James further claims that "we feel sad because we cry, angry because we strike, afraid because we tremble, and neither we cry, strike, nor tremble because we are sorry, angry, or fearful, as the case may be."[6] This theory is supported by experiments in which by manipulating the bodily state, a desired emotion is induced.[7] Such experiments also have therapeutic implications (for example, in laughter therapy, dance therapy). Some people may believe that emotions give rise to emotion-specific actions: e.g. "I'm crying because I'm sad," or "I ran away because I was scared." The JamesLange theory, conversely, asserts that first we react to a situation (running away and crying happen before the emotion), and then we interpret our actions into an emotional response. In this way, emotions serve to explain and organize our own actions to us. The JamesLange theory has now been all but abandoned by most scholars.[8] Tim Dalgleish (2004)[9] states the following: The JamesLange theory has remained influential. Its main contribution is the emphasis it places on the embodiment of emotions, especially the argument that changes in the bodily concomitants of emotions can alter their experienced intensity. Most contemporary neuroscientists would endorse a modified JamesLange view in which bodily feedback modulates the experience of emotion." (p. 583) The issue with the JamesLange theory is that of causation (bodily states causing emotions and being a priori), not that of the bodily influences on emotional experience (which can be argued is still quite prevalent today in biofeedback studies and embodiment theory).

Neurobiological theories
Based on discoveries made through neural mapping of the limbic system, the neurobiological explanation of human emotion is that emotion is a pleasant or unpleasant mental state organized in the limbic system of the mammalian brain. If distinguished from reactive responses of reptiles, emotions would then be mammalian elaborations of general vertebrate arousal patterns, in which neurochemicals (for example, dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin) step-up or step-down the brain's activity level, as visible in body movements, gestures, and postures. For example, the emotion of love is proposed to be the expression of paleocircuits of the mammalian brain (specifically, modules of the cingulate gyrus) which facilitate the care, feeding, and grooming of offspring. Paleocircuits are neural platforms for bodily expression configured before the advent of cortical circuits for speech. They consist of pre-configured pathways or networks of nerve cells in the forebrain, brain stem and spinal cord.

Emotion The motor centers of reptiles react to sensory cues of vision, sound, touch, chemical, gravity, and motion with pre-set body movements and programmed postures. With the arrival of night-active mammals, smell replaced vision as the dominant sense, and a different way of responding arose from the olfactory sense, which is proposed to have developed into mammalian emotion and emotional memory. The mammalian brain invested heavily in olfaction to succeed at night as reptiles sleptone explanation for why olfactory lobes in mammalian brains are proportionally larger than in the reptiles. These odor pathways gradually formed the neural blueprint for what was later to become our limbic brain. Emotions are thought to be related to certain activities in brain areas that direct our attention, motivate our behavior, and determine the significance of what is going on around us. Pioneering work by Broca (1878), Papez (1937), and MacLean (1952) suggested that emotion is related to a group of structures in the center of the brain called the limbic system, which includes the hypothalamus, cingulate cortex, hippocampi, and other structures. More recent research has shown that some of these limbic structures are not as directly related to emotion as others are, while some non-limbic structures have been found to be of greater emotional relevance. Prefrontal cortex There is ample evidence that the left prefrontal cortex is activated by stimuli that cause positive approach.[10] If attractive stimuli can selectively activate a region of the brain, then logically the converse should hold, that selective activation of that region of the brain should cause a stimulus to be judged more positively. This was demonstrated for moderately attractive visual stimuli[11] and replicated and extended to include negative stimuli.[12] Two neurobiological models of emotion in the prefrontal cortex made opposing predictions. The Valence Model predicted that anger, a negative emotion, would activate the right prefrontal cortex. The Direction Model predicted that anger, an approach emotion, would activate the left prefrontal cortex. The second model was supported.[13] This still left open the question of whether the opposite of approach in the prefrontal cortex is better described as moving away (Direction Model), as unmoving but with strength and resistance (Movement Model), or as unmoving with passive yielding (Action Tendency Model). Support for the Action Tendency Model (passivity related to right prefrontal activity) comes from research on shyness[14] and research on behavioral inhibition.[15] Research that tested the competing hypotheses generated by all four models also supported the Action Tendency Model.[16] [17] Homeostatic/primordial emotion Another neurological approach distinguishes two classes of emotion. "Classical" emotions including love, anger and fear, are evoked by appraisal of scenarios fed by environmental stimuli via distance receptors in the eyes, nose and ears.[18] "Homeostatic"[19] or "primordial"[20] emotions are feelings such as pain, hunger, thirst and fatigue, evoked by internal body states, communicated to the central nervous system by interoceptors, which motivate behavior aimed at maintaining the internal milieu at its ideal state.[21] These demanding sensations that capture conscious attention are coordinated from the lower or basal regions of the brain and impact diverse regions of the brain, including the frontal lobes.[20]

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Emotion

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Cognitive theories
Several theories argue that cognitive activityin the form of judgments, evaluations, or thoughtsis necessary for an emotion to occur. This, argued by Richard Lazarus, is necessary to capture the fact that emotions are about something or have intentionality. Such cognitive activity may be conscious or unconscious and may or may not take the form of conceptual processing. An influential theory here is that of Lazarus: emotion is a disturbance that occurs in the following order: 1.) Cognitive appraisalThe individual assesses the event cognitively, which cues the emotion. 2.) Physiological changesThe cognitive reaction starts biological changes such as increased heart rate or pituitary adrenal response. 3.) ActionThe individual feels the emotion and chooses how to react. For example: Jenny sees a snake. 1.) Jenny cognitively assesses the snake in her presence, which triggers fear. 2.) Her heart begins to race faster. Adrenaline pumps through her blood stream. 3.) Jenny screams and runs away. Lazarus stressed that the quality and intensity of emotions are controlled through cognitive processes. These processes underlie coping strategies that form the emotional reaction by altering the relationship between the person and the environment. George Mandler provided an extensive theoretical and empirical discussion of emotion as influenced by cognition, consciousness, and the autonomic nervous system in two books (Mind and Emotion, 1975, and Mind and Body: Psychology of Emotion and Stress, 1984) There are some theories on emotions arguing that cognitive activity in the form of judgements, evaluations, or thoughts is necessary in order for an emotion to occur. A prominent philosophical exponent is Robert C. Solomon (for example, The Passions, Emotions and the Meaning of Life, 1993). The theory proposed by Nico Frijda where appraisal leads to action tendencies is another example. It has also been suggested that emotions (affect heuristics, feelings and gut-feeling reactions) are often used as shortcuts to process information and influence behavior.[22] The affect infusion model (AIM) is a theoretical model developed by Joseph Forgas in the early 1990s that attempts to explain how emotion and mood interact with one's ability to process information. Perceptual theory A recent hybrid of the somatic and cognitive theories of emotion is the perceptual theory. This theory is neo-Jamesian in arguing that bodily responses are central to emotions, yet it emphasizes the meaningfulness of emotions or the idea that emotions are about something, as is recognized by cognitive theories. The novel claim of this theory is that conceptually-based cognition is unnecessary for such meaning. Rather the bodily changes themselves perceive the meaningful content of the emotion because of being causally triggered by certain situations. In this respect, emotions are held to be analogous to faculties such as vision or touch, which provide information about the relation between the subject and the world in various ways. A sophisticated defense of this view is found in philosopher Jesse Prinz's book Gut Reactions and psychologist James Laird's book Feelings. Affective events theory This a communication-based theory developed by Howard M. Weiss and Russell Cropanzano (1996), that looks at the causes, structures, and consequences of emotional experience (especially in work contexts). This theory suggests that emotions are influenced and caused by events which in turn influence attitudes and behaviors. This theoretical frame also emphasizes time in that human beings experience what they call emotion episodesa "series of emotional states extended over time and organized around an underlying theme." This theory has been utilized by numerous researchers to better understand emotion from a communicative lens, and was reviewed further by Howard M. Weiss and Daniel J. Beal in their article, "Reflections on Affective Events Theory" published in Research on Emotion in Organizations in 2005.

Emotion CannonBard theory In the CannonBard theory, Walter Bradford Cannon argued against the dominance of the JamesLange theory regarding the physiological aspects of emotions in the second edition of Bodily Changes in Pain, Hunger, Fear and Rage. Where James argued that emotional behavior often precedes or defines the emotion, Cannon and Bard argued that the emotion arises first and then stimulates typical behavior. Two-factor theory Another cognitive theory is the SingerSchachter theory. This is based on experiments purportedly showing that subjects can have different emotional reactions despite being placed into the same physiological state with an injection of adrenaline. Subjects were observed to express either anger or amusement depending on whether another person in the situation displayed that emotion. Hence, the combination of the appraisal of the situation (cognitive) and the participants' reception of adrenaline or a placebo together determined the response. This experiment has been criticized in Jesse Prinz's (2004) Gut Reactions. Component process model A recent version of the cognitive theory regards emotions more broadly as the synchronization of many different bodily and cognitive components. Emotions are identified with the overall process whereby low-level cognitive appraisals, in particular the processing of relevance, trigger bodily reactions, behaviors, feelings, and actions.

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Disciplinary approaches
Many different disciplines have produced work on the emotions. Human sciences study the role of emotions in mental processes, disorders, and neural mechanisms. In psychiatry, emotions are examined as part of the discipline's study and treatment of mental disorders in humans. Nursing studies emotions as part of its approach to the provision of holistic health care to humans. Psychology examines emotions from a scientific perspective by treating them as mental processes and behavior and they explore the underlying physiological and neurological processes. In neuroscience sub-fields such as social neuroscience and affective neuroscience, scientists study the neural mechanisms of emotion by combining neuroscience with the psychological study of personality, emotion, and mood. In linguistics, the expression of emotion may change to the meaning of sounds. In education, the role of emotions in relation to learning are examined. Social sciences often examine emotion for the role that it plays in human culture and social interactions. In sociology, emotions are examined for the role they play in human society, social patterns and interactions, and culture. In anthropology, the study of humanity, scholars use ethnography to undertake contextual analyses and cross-cultural comparisons of a range of human activities; some anthropology studies examine the role of emotions in human activities. In the field of communication sciences, critical organizational scholars have examined the role of emotions in organizations, from the perspectives of managers, employees, and even customers. A focus on emotions in organizations can be credited to Arlie Russell Hochschild's concept of emotional labor. The University of Queensland hosts EmoNet,[23] an e-mail distribution list representing a network of academics that facilitates scholarly discussion of all matters relating to the study of emotion in organizational settings. The list was established in January 1997 and has over 700 members from across the globe. In economics, the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, emotions are analyzed in some sub-fields of microeconomics, in order to assess the role of emotions on purchase decision-making and risk perception. In criminology, a social science approach to the study of crime, scholars often draw on behavioral sciences, sociology, and psychology; emotions are examined in criminology issues such as anomie theory and studies of "toughness," aggressive behavior, and hooliganism. In law, which underpins civil obedience, politics, economics and society, evidence about people's emotions is often raised in tort law claims for compensation and in criminal law prosecutions against alleged lawbreakers (as evidence of the defendant's state of

Emotion mind during trials, sentencing, and parole hearings). In political science, emotions are examined in a number of sub-fields, such as the analysis of voter decision-making. In philosophy, emotions are studied in sub-fields such as ethics, the philosophy of art (for example, sensoryemotional values, and matters of taste and sentimentality), and the philosophy of music (see also Music and emotion). In history, scholars examine documents and other sources to interpret and analyze past activities; speculation on the emotional state of the authors of historical documents is one of the tools of interpretation. In literature and film-making, the expression of emotion is the cornerstone of genres such as drama, melodrama, and romance. In communication studies, scholars study the role that emotion plays in the dissemination of ideas and messages. Emotion is also studied in non-human animals in ethology, a branch of zoology which focuses on the scientific study of animal behavior. Ethology is a combination of laboratory and field science, with strong ties to ecology and evolution. Ethologists often study one type of behavior (for example, aggression) in a number of unrelated animals.

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Evolutionary psychology
Perspectives on emotions from evolutionary theory were initiated in the late 19th century with Charles Darwin's book The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals.[24] Darwin's original thesis was that emotions evolved via natural selection and therefore have cross-culturally universal counterparts. Furthermore, animals undergo emotions comparable to our own (see emotion in animals). In the early 1970s, Paul Ekman and colleagues began a line of research that suggests that many emotions are universal.[2] He found evidence that humans share at least five basic emotions: fear, sadness, happiness, anger, and disgust.[2] Other research in this area focuses on physical displays of emotion including body language of animals and humans (see affect display). The increased potential in neuroimaging has also allowed investigation into evolutionarily ancient parts of the brain. Important neurological advances were derived from these perspectives in the 1990s by, for example, Joseph E. LeDoux and Antnio Damsio.

Illustration from Charles Darwin's The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals.

Social emotions evidently evolved to motivate social behaviors that were adaptive in the ancestral environment.[2] For example, spite seems to work against the individual but it can establish an individual's reputation as someone to be feared.[2] Shame and pride can motivate behaviors that help one maintain one's standing in a community, and self-esteem is one's estimate of one's status.[2] [25]

Sociology
We try to regulate our emotions to fit in with the norms of the situation, based on manysometimes conflictingdemands upon us which originate from various entities studied by sociology on a micro levelsuch as social roles and "feeling rules" the everyday social interactions and situations are shaped byand, on a macro level, by social institutions, discourses, ideologies, etc. For example, (post-)modern marriage is, on one hand, based on the emotion of love and on the other hand the very emotion is to be worked on and regulated by it. The sociology of emotions also focuses on general attitude changes in a population. Emotional appeals are commonly found in advertising, health campaigns and political messages. Recent examples include no-smoking health campaigns and political campaign advertising emphasizing the fear of terrorism.

Emotion

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Psychotherapy
Depending on the particular school's general emphasis either on cognitive components of emotion, physical energy discharging, or on symbolic movement and facial expression components of emotion,[26] different schools of psychotherapy approach human emotions differently. Cognitively oriented schools approach them via their cognitive components, such as rational emotive behavior therapy. Yet others approach emotions via symbolic movement and facial expression components (like in contemporary Gestalt therapy).[27]

Computer science
In the 2000s, research in computer science, engineering, psychology and neuroscience has been aimed at developing devices that recognize human affect display and model emotions.[28] In computer science, affective computing is a branch of the study and development of artificial intelligence that deals with the design of systems and devices that can recognize, interpret, and process human emotions. It is an interdisciplinary field spanning computer sciences, psychology, and cognitive science.[29] While the origins of the field may be traced as far back as to early philosophical enquiries into emotion,[6] the more modern branch of computer science originated with Rosalind Picard's 1995 paper[30] on affective computing.[31] [32] Detecting emotional information begins with passive sensors which capture data about the user's physical state or behavior without interpreting the input. The data gathered is analogous to the cues humans use to perceive emotions in others. Another area within affective computing is the design of computational devices proposed to exhibit either innate emotional capabilities or that are capable of convincingly simulating emotions. Emotional speech processing recognizes the user's emotional state by analyzing speech patterns. The detection and processing of facial expression or body gestures is achieved through detectors and sensors.

Notable theorists
In the late 19th century, the most influential theorists were William James (18421910) and Carl Lange (18341900). James was an American psychologist and philosopher who wrote about educational psychology, psychology of religious experience/mysticism, and the philosophy of pragmatism. Lange was a Danish physician and psychologist. Working independently, they developed the JamesLange theory, a hypothesis on the origin and nature of emotions. The theory states that within human beings, as a response to experiences in the world, the autonomic nervous system creates physiological events such as muscular tension, a rise in heart rate, perspiration, and dryness of the mouth. Emotions, then, are feelings which come about as a result of these physiological changes, rather than being their cause. Some of the most influential theorists on emotion from the 20th century have died in the last decade. They include Magda B. Arnold (19032002), an American psychologist who developed the appraisal theory of emotions; Richard Lazarus (19222002), an American psychologist who specialized in emotion and stress, especially in relation to cognition; Herbert Simon (19162001), who included emotions into decision making and artificial intelligence; Robert Plutchik (19282006), an American psychologist who developed a psychoevolutionary theory of emotion; Robert Zajonc (19232008) a PolishAmerican social psychologist who specialized in social and cognitive processes such as social facilitation. In addition, an American philosopher, Robert C. Solomon (19422007), contributed to the theories on the philosophy of emotions with books such as What Is An Emotion?: Classic and Contemporary Readings (Oxford, 2003). Influential theorists who are still active include psychologists, neurologists, and philosophers including: Lisa Feldman Barrett Social philosopher and psychologist specializing in affective science and human emotion. John Cacioppo from the University of Chicago, founding father with Gary Berntson of social neuroscience. Antnio Damsio (born 1944) Portuguese behavioral neurologist and neuroscientist who works in the US Richard Davidson (born 1951) American psychologist and neuroscientist; pioneer in affective neuroscience. Paul Ekman (born 1934) Psychologist specializing in study of emotions and their relation to facial expressions

Emotion Barbara Fredrickson Social psychologist who specializes in emotions and positive psychology. Nico Frijda (born 1927) Dutch psychologist who specializes in human emotions, especially facial expressions Peter Goldie British philosopher who specializes in ethics, aesthetics, emotion, mood and character Arlie Russell Hochschild (born 1940) American sociologist whose central contribution was in forging a link between the subcutaneous flow of emotion in social life and the larger trends set loose by modern capitalism within organizations. Joseph E. LeDoux (born 1949) American neuroscientist who studies the biological underpinnings of memory and emotion, especially the mechanisms of fear George Mandler (born 1924) - American psychologist who wrote influential books on cognition and emotion Jaak Panksepp (born 1943) Estonian-born American psychologist, psychobiologist and neuroscientist; pioneer in affective neuroscience. Jesse Prinz American philosopher who specializes in emotion, moral psychology, aesthetics and consciousness Klaus Scherer (born 1943) Swiss psychologist and director of the Swiss Center for Affective Sciences in Geneva; he specializes in the psychology of emotion Ronald de Sousa (born 1940) EnglishCanadian philosopher who specializes in the philosophy of emotions, philosophy of mind and philosophy of biology.

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References
Notes
[1] Myers, David G. (2004) "Theories of Emotion." Psychology: Seventh Edition, New York, NY: Worth Publishers, p. 500. [2] Gaulin, Steven J. C. and Donald H. McBurney. Evolutionary Psychology. Prentice Hall. 2003. ISBN 13: 9780131115293, Chapter 6, p 121-142. [3] Emotional Competency discussion of emotion (http:/ / www. emotionalcompetency. com/ emotion. htm) [4] See Philip Fisher (1999) Wonder, The Rainbow and the Aesthetics of Rare Experiences for an introduction [5] See for instance Antonio Damasio (2005) Looking for Spinoza. [6] James, William. 1884. "What Is an Emotion?" (http:/ / psychclassics. yorku. ca/ James/ emotion. htm) Mind. 9, no. 34: 188-205. [7] Laird, James, Feelings: the Perception of Self, Oxford University Press [8] jstor.com (http:/ / www. jstor. org/ stable/ 185033), Cornelius L. Golightly, The JamesLange Theory: A Logical Post-Mortem. [9] Dalgleish, T. (2004). The emotional brain. Nature: Perspectives, 5, 58289. [10] Kringelbach, M.L.; O'Doherty, J.O.; Rolls, E.T.; & Andrews, C. (2003). Activation of the human orbitofrontal cortex to a liquid food stimulus is correlated with its subjective pleasantness. Cerebral Cortex, 13, 10641071. [11] Drake, R.A. (1987). Effects of gaze manipulation on aesthetic judgments: Hemisphere priming of affect. Acta Psychologica, 65, 9199. [12] Merckelbach, H.; & van Oppen, P. (1989). Effects of gaze manipulation on subjective evaluation of neutral and phobia-relevant stimuli: A comment on Drake's (1987) 'Effects of gaze manipulation on aesthetic judgments: Hemisphere priming of affect.' Acta Psychologica, 70, 147151. [13] Harmon-Jones, E.; Vaughn-Scott, K.; Mohr, S.; Sigelman, J.; & Harmon-Jones, C. (2004). The effect of manipulated sympathy and anger on left and right frontal cortical activity. Emotion, 4, 95101. [14] Schmidt, L.A. (1999). Frontal brain electrical activity in shyness and sociability. Psychological Science, 10, 316320. [15] Garavan, H.; Ross, T.J.; & Stein, E.A. (1999). Right hemispheric dominance of inhibitory control: An event-related functional MRI study. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 96, 83018306. [16] Drake, R.A.; & Myers, L.R. (2006). Visual attention, emotion, and action tendency: Feeling active or passive. Cognition and Emotion, 20, 608622. [17] Wacker, J.; Chavanon, M.-L.; Leue, A.; & Stemmler, G. (2008). Is running away right? The behavioral activationbehavioral inhibition model of anterior asymmetry. Emotion, 8, 232249. [18] Derek A. Denton (8 June 2006). The primordial emotions: the dawning of consciousness. Oxford University Press. p.10. ISBN9780199203147. [19] Craig (http:/ / www. cba. arizona. edu/ People/ Faculty/ Craig-A. htm), A.D. (Bud) (2003). "Interoception: The sense of the physiological condition of the body" (http:/ / www. jsmf. org/ meetings/ 2007/ oct-nov/ CONB Craig 2003. pdf). Current Opinion in Neurobiology 13 (4): 500505. doi:10.1016/S0959-4388(03)00090-4. PMID12965300. . [20] Derek A. Denton (8 June 2006). The primordial emotions: the dawning of consciousness. Oxford University Press. p.7. ISBN9780199203147. [21] Craig (http:/ / www. cba. arizona. edu/ People/ Faculty/ Craig-A. htm), A.D. (Bud) (2008). "Interoception and emotion: A neuroanatomical perspective" (http:/ / books. google. com. au/ books?id=DFK1QwlrOUAC& pg=PA272). In Lewis, M.; Haviland-Jones, J.M.; Feldman

Emotion
Barrett, L.. Handbook of Emotion (3 ed.). New York: The Guildford Press. pp.272288. ISBN978-1-59385-650-2. . Retrieved 6 September 2009. [22] see the HeuristicSystematic Model, or HSM, (Chaiken, Liberman, & Eagly, 1989) under attitude change. Also see the index entry for "Emotion" in "Beyond Rationality: The Search for Wisdom in a Troubled Time" by Kenneth R. Hammond and in "Fooled by Randomness: The Hidden Role of Chance in Life and in the Markets" by Nassim Nicholas Taleb. [23] EmoNet (http:/ / www. uq. edu. au/ emonet/ ) [24] Darwin, Charles (1872). The Expression of Emotions in Man and Animals. Note: This book was originally published in 1872, but has been reprinted many times thereafter by different publishers [25] Wright, Robert. Moral animal. [26] Freitas-Magalhes, A., & Castro, E. (2009). Facial Expression: The effect of the smile in the Treatment of Depression. Empirical Study with Portuguese Subjects. In A. Freitas-Magalhes (Ed.), Emotional Expression: The Brain and The Face (pp. 127140). Porto: University Fernando Pessoa Press. ISBN 978-989-643-034-4 [27] On Emotion an article from Manchester Gestalt Centre website (http:/ / www. 123webpages. co. uk/ user/ index. php?user=mgc& pn=10713) [28] Fellous, Armony & LeDoux, 2002 [29] Tao, Jianhua; Tieniu Tan (2005). "LNCS". Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction. 3784. Springer. pp.981995. doi:10.1007/11573548. [30] "Affective Computing" (http:/ / affect. media. mit. edu/ pdfs/ 95. picard. pdf) MIT Technical Report #321 ( Abstract (http:/ / vismod. media. mit. edu/ pub/ tech-reports/ TR-321-ABSTRACT. html)), 1995 [31] Kleine-Cosack, Christian (October 2006). "Recognition and Simulation of Emotions" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20080528135730/ http:/ / ls12-www. cs. tu-dortmund. de/ ~fink/ lectures/ SS06/ human-robot-interaction/ Emotion-RecognitionAndSimulation. pdf) (PDF). Archived from the original (http:/ / ls12-www. cs. tu-dortmund. de/ / ~fink/ lectures/ SS06/ human-robot-interaction/ Emotion-RecognitionAndSimulation. pdf) on May 28, 2008. . Retrieved May 13, 2008. "The introduction of emotion to computer science was done by Pickard (sic) who created the field of affective computing." [32] Diamond, David (December 2003). "The Love Machine; Building computers that care." (http:/ / www. wired. com/ wired/ archive/ 11. 12/ love. html). Wired. . Retrieved May 13, 2008. "Rosalind Picard, a genial MIT professor, is the field's godmother; her 1997 book, Affective Computing, triggered an explosion of interest in the emotional side of computers and their users."

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Further reading
Dana Sugu & Amita Chaterjee "Flashback: Reshuffling Emotions" (https://sites.google.com/site/sugudana/ articles-1), International Journal on Humanistic Ideology, Vol. 3 No. 1, SpringSummer 2010. Cornelius, R. (1996). The science of emotion. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Freitas-Magalhes, A. (Ed.). (2009). Emotional Expression: The Brain and The Face. Porto: University Fernando Pessoa Press. ISBN 978-989-643-034-4. Freitas-Magalhes, A. (2007). The Psychology of Emotions: The Allure of Human Face. Oporto: University Fernando Pessoa Press. Ekman, P. (1999). " Basic Emotions (http://www.paulekman.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/02/ Basic-Emotions.pdf)". In: T. Dalgleish and M. Power (Eds.). Handbook of Cognition and Emotion. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Sussex, UK:. Frijda, N.H. (1986). The Emotions. Maison des Sciences de l'Homme and Cambridge University Press. (http:// www.cambridge.org/uk/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=0521316006) Hochschild, A.R. (1983). The managed heart: Commercialization of human feelings. Berkeley: University of California Press. LeDoux, J.E. (1986). The neurobiology of emotion. Chap. 15 in J.E. LeDoux & W. Hirst (Eds.) Mind and Brain: dialogues in cognitive neuroscience. New York: Cambridge. Plutchik, R. (1980). A general psychoevolutionary theory of emotion. In R. Plutchik & H. Kellerman (Eds.), Emotion: Theory, research, and experience: Vol. 1. Theories of emotion (pp.333). New York: Academic. Ridley-Duff, R.J. (2010). Emotion, Seduction and Intimacy: Alternative Perspectives on Human Behaviour (Third Edition), Seattle: Libertary Editions. http://www.libertary.com/book/emotion-seduction-intimacy Scherer, K. (2005). What are emotions and how can they be measured? (http://www.affective-sciences.org/ system/files/2005_Scherer_SSI.pdf) Social Science Information Vol. 44, No. 4: 695729. Solomon, R. (1993). The Passions: Emotions and the Meaning of Life. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing.

Emotion Zeki, S. & Romaya, J.P. (2008), "Neural correlates of hate", PloS one, vol. 3, no. 10, pp. 3556. Wikibook Cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience (http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/ Cognitive_Psychology_and_Cognitive_Neuroscience/Motivation_and_Emotion) Hogan, Patrick Colm, What Literature Teaches Us about Emotion (http://www.themontrealreview.com/2009/ What-literature-teaches-us-about-emotion.php) (Cambridge University Press, 2011)

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External links
Online Demo: Emotion recognition from speech, University of Patras, Wire Communication Lab (http://www. wcl.ece.upatras.gr/ai/resources/demo-emotion-recognition-from-speech) Facial Emotion Expression Lab (http://feelab.ufp.pt/index.swf) CNX.ORG: The Psychology of Emotions, Feelings and Thoughts (free online book) (http://www.cnx.org/ content/m14358/latest) Queen Mary Centre for the History of the Emotions (http://www.qmul.ac.uk/emotions/) Humaine Emotion-Research.net: The Humaine Portal: Research on Emotions and Human-Machine Interaction (http://emotion-research.net/) PhilosophyofMind.net: Philosophy of Emotions portal (http://www.philosophyofmind.net) Swiss Center for Affective Sciences (http://www.affective-sciences.org/) The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Theories of Emotion (http://www.iep.utm.edu/e/emotion.htm) The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Emotion (http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/emotion/) University of Arizona: Salk Institute: (http://emotion.nsma.arizona.edu/emotion.html)

Emotion classification
The means by which we distinguish one emotion from another is a hotly contested issue in emotion research and affective science. This page summarises some of the major theories.

Basic and Complex Emotions


Many theorists define some emotions as basic where others are complex. Basic emotions are claimed to be biologically fixed, innate and as a result universal to all humans and many animals as well. Complex emotions are then either refined versions of basic emotions, culturally specific or idiosyncratic. A major issue is to define which emotions are basic and which are complex. One of the problems here is that there is no consensus on the method by which basic emotions can be determined. Theorists can point to universals in facial expression (e.g. Ekman), distinctive physiological symptoms (e.g. the blush of embarrassment), or labels common to different languages. Moreover there should be some plausible developmental story concerning how the various non-basic emotions can be grounded in the basic ones. The Li Chi: Joy, anger, sadness, fear, love, disliking and liking (1st Century BC Chinese encyclopedia, cited in Russell 1991: 426). The Stoics: Pleasure/delight, distress, appetite and fear (Cicero, Tusculan Disputations, iv: 13-15). Ren Descartes: Wonder, love, hatred, desire, joy and sadness (Passions, 353). Baruch Spinoza: Pleasure, pain and desire (Ethics, pt. III, prop. 59). Thomas Hobbes: Appetite, desire, love, aversion, hate, joy and grief (Leviathan, pt. I, ch. 6). Paul Ekman (1972): Anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness and surprise. Paul Ekman (1999): Amusement, anger, contempt, contentment, disgust, embarrassment, excitement, fear, guilt, happiness, pride in achievement, relief, sadness/distress, satisfaction, sensory pleasure, shame, and surprise.

Emotion classification Jesse Prinz (2004): Frustration, panic, anxiety, physical disgust, separation distress, aversive self-consciousness, satisfaction, stimulation and attachment.[1]

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Social v Non-social Distinction


Emotions can also be classified according to those that can occur when the individual is alone and not thinking about others, and those that seem more essentially socially directed. Examples of proposed social emotions include jealousy, love, hatred, guilt and gratitude. A current work by Rechter, Levontin and Kluger from the Hebrew University is done classifying and grouping social emotions, while relating and distinguishing them from non-social, or general, emotions.

Dimensional Models of Emotion


For both theoretical and practical reasons some researchers define emotions according to one or more dimensions. A popular version of this is Russell's (1979) dimensional, or circumplex model, which uses the models of arousal and valence. Other dimensions have more recently been suggested, for example 'potency' or power.

Plutchik's Model
Robert Plutchik offers a three-dimensional model that is a hybrid of both basic-complex categories and dimensional theories. It arranges emotions in concentric circles where inner circles are more basic and outer circles more complex. Notably outer circles are also formed by blending the inner circle emotions.[2]

Culturally specific emotions


One of the barriers to establishing a taxonomy of the emotions is that different cultures do not always recognise the same emotions in their languages. In some cases, the expressive behaviours, judgements or appropriate reactions associated with an emotion term are different. Moreover, a number of cultures have terms for emotions that have no direct equivalent in the English language. The following is a list of emotion terms that are deemed culturally specific in this sense: Acedia (Europe Middle Ages and Renaissance): Spiritual torpor or aversion to religious imagery, suggested as arising from boredom induced by repetitive nature of worship, (Harre 1986 cited in Prinz 2004: 148). Amae (Japan): Feeling of dependency akin to what infants feel towards their mothers. Important for bonding individuals to each other and cherished institutions. (Prinz 2004: 131). Awumbuk (Baining of Papua New Guinea): Sadness, tiredness or boredom caused by the departure of visitors, friends or relatives, (Russell 1991: 432). Fago (Ifaluk): A combination of love, compassion and sadness, (Lutz 1988, cited in Prinz 2004: 147). Gezellig (the Netherlands): Similar meaning to English word 'cozy', but occurring in the presence of other people, (Harre, 1986, Doi, 1973 cited in Prinz 2004: 131). Very similar the German word Gemtlich. Ijirashii (Japan): Arising when seeing someone praiseworthy overcome an obstacle, (Matsumoto 1994 cited in Prinz 2004: 140). Ker (Ifaluk): Pleasant surprise, (cited in Goldie 2000: 91). Liget (Ilongot people): Aroused by situations of grief but closely related to anger, can inspire headhunting expeditions, (Rosaldo 1980 cited in Prinz 147). Malu (Dusun Baguk, Malaysia): Overlapping of shame and embarrassment, can be elicited by being in the presence of a person of higher rank, (Fessler 1999 cited in Prinz 2004: 156) Nginyiwarrarringu (Pintupi Aborigines of the Western Australian Desert): A sudden fear that leads one to stand up to see what caused it, (Russell 1991: 431) Rus (Ifaluk): Unpleasant surprise, cited in Goldie 2000: 91).

Emotion classification Schadenfreude (Germany): Feeling of joy triggered by perception of someone suffering. Song (Ifaluk people, Micronesia): Close to anger, or admonition, with moralistic overtones and no disposition to revenge. (Lutz 1988 cited in Prinz 2004: 147). Sram (Russia): Shame specifically focused on sexual indecency, originating in religious discoursealso used as a noun denoting pudenda, or to prefix a location name in which sexual activity occurs (such as a red light district) Vergenza Ajena / Pena Ajena: Also known as 'Spanish Shame'sense of shame on behalf of another person, even though that person may not experience shame themselvesfor example, cringing when watching a very bad comicgenerally more intense when the other is well known to you, though possible even when you dislike the other personsimilar to the Dutch term plaatsvervangende schaamte and the German term Fremdschmen 'external shame' or 'vicarious embarrassment', being vicariously embarrassed by someone else. The humor enacted by video clips of very bad auditions for televised talent shows leverage the vicarious pain of this emotion. Prinz 2004 also cites patriotism as an emotion specific to Western cultures.

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Culturally specific phobias or emotion syndromes


Koro (Assam and South Chinese): An intense anxiety that penis, breasts or vulva may retract into the body, (Yap 1965, cited in Prinz 2004: 136). Latah (Malaysia): Affecting middle aged women, an exaggerated startle reflex, outbursts of profanity and disposition to repeat whatever they hear. Cf. Mali-Mali in Philippines, yuan in Burma, ikota in Siberia, jumping mania in French Canadians of Main (Simons 1996, cited in Prinz 2004: 136). Pa-leng (China): A morbid fear of the cold even in hot weather, associated with a yin-yang imbalance (too little yang), (Kleinman 1980, cited in Prinz 2004: 136). Pibloktoq (Greenland Intuits): A fear causing sufferers to scream, tear off their clothing, break things, eat feces before collapsing into seizures, followed by deep sleep and loss of memory of the incident, (Yap 1974 cited in Prinz 2004: 135). Cf. amok in Malaysia and phii bod in Thailand. (Simons and Hughes 1993 cited in Prinz 2004: 136). Wild pig syndrome (Gururumba, New Guinea): Said to be caused when bitten by the ghosts of their ancestors, this syndrome affects young men entering maturity who begin running wild, stealing and shooting arrows for a few days. Cure involves being held over a smoking fire (Averill 1980, Griffiths 1997, Newman 1965, cited in Prinz 2004: 136). Witiko/Windigo (Algonquian Indians): A fear that one has been transformed into a cannibalistic monster, (Trimble, Monson, Dinges & Medicine 1984, cited in Prinz 2004: 135). Prinz, 2004, also cites anorexia nervosa as a culture specific syndrome found in Western cultures. See also this list of phobias, some of which may be culturally specific.

Bibliography
Ekman, P. (1972). Universals and Cultural Differences in Facial Expression of Emotion. In J. Cole ed. Nebraska Symposium on Motivation. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press: 207-283. Ekman, P. (1992). "An argument for basic emotions". Cognition and Emotion 6: 169200. doi:10.1080/02699939208411068. Ekman, P. (1999). Basic Emotions. In T. Dalgleish and T. Power (Eds.) The Handbook of Cognition and Emotion Pp.4560. Sussex, U.K.: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Fontaine, J. et al.; Scherer, KR; Roesch, EB; Ellsworth, PC (2007). "The world of emotions is not two-dimensional". Psychological Science 18 (12): 10501057. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.2007.02024.x. PMID18031411. Freitas-Magalhes, A. (2009). Emotional expression: The brain and the face. Porto: University Fernando Pessoa Press.

Emotion classification Prinz, J. (2004). Gut Reactions: A Perceptual theory of Emotions. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Dana Sugu & Amita Chaterjee Flashback: Reshuffling Emotions, International Journal on Humanistic Ideology, Vol. 3 No. 1, Spring-Summer 2010 [3] Russell, J.A. (1979). "Affective space is bipolar". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 37: 345356. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.37.3.345. Russell, JA (1991). "Culture and the categorization of emotions.". Psychological bulletin 110 (3): 42650. PMID1758918.

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Notes and references


[1] Jesse Prinz Gut Reactions: A Perceptual Theory of Emotion (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004): page 157. [2] Plutchik, R. "The Nature of Emotions" (http:/ / replay. waybackmachine. org/ 20010716082847/ http:/ / americanscientist. org/ articles/ 01articles/ Plutchik. html). American Scientist. . Retrieved 14 April 2011. [3] https:/ / sites. google. com/ site/ sugudana/ articles-1

Sociology of emotions
The sociology of emotion applies sociological theorems and techniques to the study of human emotions. As sociology emerged primarily as a reaction to the negative affects of modernity, many normative theories deal in some sense with 'emotion' without forming a part of any specific subdiscipline: Marx described capitalism as detrimental to personal 'species-being', Simmel wrote of the deindividualizing tendencies of 'the metropolis', and Weber's work dealt with the rationalizing effect of modernity in general.

Theory
Emotions are on one hand constitutive of, embedded in, and on the other hand manipulated or instrumentalized by entities that are studied by sociology on a micro level, such as social roles and norms and 'feeling rules' the everyday social interactions and situations are shaped by, and, on a macro level, by social institutions, discourses, ideologies etc. For example, (post-)modern marriage is, on one hand, based on the emotion of love and on the other hand the very emotion is to be worked on and regulated by it. Likewise, modern science could not exist without the emotion of curiosity but it does narrow it leading sometimes to over-specialization of science. Many forms of cultural stratification could not exist without disgust and contempt, and there are politics that could not exist without fear, as many civil and ethnic wars could not take place without hate. We try to regulate our feelings to fit in with the norms of the situation, based on many - sometimes conflicting demands upon us. Systematic observations of group interaction found that a substantial portion of group activity is devoted to the socio-emotional issues of expressing affect and dealing with tension.[1] Simultaneously, field studies of social attraction in groups revealed that feelings of individuals about each other collate into social networks,[2] a discovery that still is being explored in the field of social network analysis. Ethnomethodology revealed emotional commitments to everyday norms through purposeful breaching of the norms. For example, students acting as boarders in their own homes reported others' astonishment, bewilderment, shock, anxiety, embarrassment, and anger; family members accused the students of being mean, inconsiderate, selfish, nasty, or impolite. Actors who breach a norm themselves feel waves of emotion, including apprehension, panic, and despair.[3] However, habitual rule breaking leads to declining stress, and may eventually end in enjoyment. T. David Kemper[4] proposed that people in social interaction have positions on two relational dimensions: status and power. Emotions emerge as interpersonal events change or maintain individuals' status and power. For example, affirming someone else's exalted status produces love-related emotions. Increases or decreases in one's own and other's status or power generate specific emotions whose quality depends on the patterns of change.

Sociology of emotions Arlie Hochschild[5] proposed that individuals manage their feelings to produce acceptable displays according to ideological and cultural standards. Hochschild showed that jobs often require such emotional labor. Her classic study of emotional labor among flight attendants found that an industry speed-up, reducing contact between flight attendants and passengers, made it impossible for flight attendants to deliver authentic emotional labor, so they ended up surface-acting superficial smiles. Peggy Thoits[6] divided emotion management techniques into implementation of new events and reinterpretation of past events. Thoits noted that emotions also can be managed with drugs, by performing faux gestures and facial expressions, or by cognitive reclassifications of one's feelings. Students from the University of California are studying Arlie Hochschilds theory of heart management. Hochschild states that the ways we manage our emotions is based on our expectations of others, the expectations of others toward us, and earlier experiences. Therefore, there are no ups and downs to emotions as long as we manage them. Here are a few examples: An upside to emotion is a better understanding of one another. A better understanding of one another would result in less conflict, for example, listening to a persons opinion and showing empathy towards him or her for any public or private circumstances. A second upside to emotion is no health problems.[7] This is also shown in Chris Lucernes theory. Sociologist Chris Lucerne states in her article titled Emotions! Good or Bad, that there are neither good nor bad emotions. However, you can judge emotions as such. According to Lucerne's theory emotion is believed to help humans express their feelings. Therefore emotions are a part of human nature to help us communicate. In addition to Chris Lucernes theory, when humans experience a situation good or bad an emotion is triggered. As a result of emotion an action is followed. For example, here are a few emotions listed in Lucernes article in which people experience daily. The first is the emotion of happiness, which can ignite the sensation to dance. A second emotion is anger, in which the person begins to feel hot causing him or her to perspire. Finally is the emotion of sadness, which creates a sensation of feeling closed in. As a consequence of feeling closed in the person may react irrationally to make them comfortable. Chris Lucerne also states in her article "that no matter what you cannot control your reactions to emotion." In conclusion to Lucernes theory reaction is random in expressing your feelings.[8] David Straker states that "we should watch our own emotions", likewise in Arlie Hochschilds theory of emotions. Straker talks about how emotions are signals that tell you something about what is happening in the inner you. Sometimes bad emotions can be misleading because of the reaction often causing conflict. To conclude based on Strakers theory, you can use emotions for good or bad. An example Straker talked about was the use of emotion to motivate others.[9] Thomas J. Scheff[10] established that many cases of social conflict are based on a destructive and often escalating, but stoppable and reversible shame-rage cycle: when someone results or feels shamed by another, their social bond comes under stress. This can be cooperatively acknowledged, talked about and most effectively when possible laughed at so their social bond may be restored. Yet, when shame is not acknowledged, but instead negated and repressed, it becomes rage, and rage may drive to aggressive and shaming actions that feed-back negatively on this self-destructive situation. The social management of emotions might be the fundamental dynamics of social cooperation and conflict around resources, complexity, conflict and moral life. It is well-established sociological fact that expression and feeling of the emotion of anger, for example, is strongly discouraged (repressed) in girls and women in many cultures, while fear is discouraged in boys and men. Some cultures and sub-cultures encourage or discourage happiness, sadness, jealousy, excitedness, and many other emotions. The free expression of the emotion of disgust is considered socially unacceptable in many countries. Sociologist Randall Collins has stated that emotional energy is the main motivating force in social life, for love and hatred, investing, working or consuming, rendering cult or waging war.[11] Emotional energy ranges from the highest heights of enthusiasm, self-confidence and initiative to the deepest depths of apathy, depression and retreat. Emotional energy comes from variously successful or failed chains of interaction rituals, that is, patterned social encounters from conversation or sexual flirtation through Christmas family dinners or office work to mass demonstrations, organizations or revolutions. In the latter, the coupling of participants' behavior synchronizes their

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Sociology of emotions nervous systems to the point of generating a collective effervescence, one observable in their mutual focus and emotional entraining, as well as in their loading of emotional and symbolic meaning to entities which subsequently become emblems of the ritual and of the membership group endorsing, preserving, promoting and defending them. Thus social life would be most importantly about generating and distributing emotional energy. Affect Control Theory, originated by David R. Heise, proposes that social actions are designed by their agents to create impressions that befit sentiments reigning in a situation. Emotions are transient physical and subjective states depending on the current impression of the emoting person, and on the comparison of that impression with the sentiment attached to the person's identity. As such, emotions are visceral signals to self and observable signals to others about the individual's identity in the situation, and about the individual's understanding of events in the situation. Heise developed a simulation program for analyzing affect-control processes in social interaction, and for predicting moment-to-moment emotions of interactants. The program specifies emotions in terms of numerical profiles, emotion words, and cartoon-like drawings of interactants' facial expressions. A complete review of affect control theory is provided in Heise's 2007 book, Expressive Order.[12]

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Empirical Applications
Workplaces. Following Hochschild's lead, the sociology of emotions has been applied extensively to a variety of workplace interactions. Jennifer Pierce, a student of Hocschild's, has examined law firms, for instance, and Robin Leidner the emotion work in fast food outlets. Social Movements. Inspired by James M. Jasper's cultural work in the late 1990s, especially The Art of Moral Protest, a number of scholars of protest and social movements have begun to examine the emotions involved. They include Erika Summers Effler, a student of Randall Collins who examines how emotions inform a sense of time in Laughing Saints and Righteous Heroes; Lynn Owens, who documents the emotions of a declining social movement, Amsterdams's squatters, in Cracking under Pressure; and Verta Taylor, whose book, Rock-a-Bye Baby documents struggles over the feelings new mothers are supposed to feel. Deborah Gould traces a number of emotional processes throughout the rise and fall of ACT UP in a series of articles and a book, Moving Politics. A 1999 conference, organized by James M. Jasper, Jeff Goodwin, and Francesca Polletta, helped spur this new development in social movement theory and research. Scholars worldwide have taken up the challenge to study the emotions of social movements, including a cluster of French researchers such as Olivier Fillieule, Isabelle Sommier, and Christophe Traini.

Notes
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] Hare, A. P. (1976). Handbook of small group research (2nd ed.). New York: Free Press, Chapter 3 Hare, A. P. (1976). Handbook of small group research (2nd ed.). New York: Free Press, Chapter 7 Milgram, S. (1974, ). An interview with Carol Tavris. Psychology Today, pp. 70-73 Kemper, T. D. (1978). A social interactional theory of emotion. New York: Wiley Hochschild, A. R. (1983). The managed heart: The commercialization of human feeling. Berkeley: University of California Press Thoits, P. A. (1990). Emotional deviance: research agendas. T. D. Kemper (Ed.), Research agendas in the sociology of emotions (pp. 180203). Albany: State University of New York Press [7] Sociology 250 (http:/ / uregina. ca/ ~gingrich/ n1302. htm) [8] Microso (http:/ / www. chrislucerne. com/ pdfs/ emotions. pdf) [9] Purpose of emotions (http:/ / www. changeminds. org/ explanations/ emotions/ emotion_purpose. htm) [10] Scheff, Thomas J, and Retzinger, Suzanne. (1991) Emotions and violence : shame and rage in destructive conflicts. Lexington, Mass: Lexington Books [11] Collins, Randall. (2004) Interaction Ritual Chains. Princeton University Press [12] Heise, David. (2007) Expressive Order: Confirming Sentiments in Social Actions. New York: Springer

Happiness

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Happiness
Happiness is a mental state of well-being characterized by positive emotions ranging from contentment to intense joy.[1] A variety of biological, psychological, religious, and philosophical approaches have striven to define happiness and identify its sources. Positive psychology endeavors to apply the scientific method to answer questions about what "happiness" is, and how we might attain it. Philosophers and religious thinkers often define happiness in terms of living a good life, or flourishing, rather than simply as an emotion. Happiness in this older sense was used to translate the Greek Eudaimonia, and is still used in virtue ethics. Happiness economics suggests that measures of public happiness should be used to supplement more traditional economic measures when evaluating the success of public policy.
The smiley face is a well-known symbol of happiness

Scientific views
Happiness is a very fuzzy concept and can mean many things to many people. Part of the challenge of the science of happiness is to identify all the different uses of the word "happiness", or else to understand its various components. Studies have found that things like money, education, or the weather do not affect happiness the way one might expect. There are various habits that have been correlated with happiness. Psychologist Martin Seligman provides the acronym PERMA to summarize many of Positive Psychology's findings: humans seem happiest when they have Pleasure (tasty foods, warm baths, etc.), Engagement (or flow, the absorption of an enjoyed yet challenging activity), Relationships (social ties have turned out to be extremely reliable indicator of happiness), Meaning (a perceived quest or belonging to something bigger), and finally Accomplishments (having realized tangible goals).

Martin Seligman asserts that happiness is not just [2] external, momentary pleasures. Flow (engagement) and general life satisfaction are parts of happiness too, for example.

There is evidence suggesting that people can improve their happiness. Mood disorders like depression are often understood through a biopsychosocial model, meaning biological, psychological, and social factors all contribute to mood (i.e. there is no single cause). The diathesisstress model further argues that a diathesis (a biological vulnerability due to genes) to certain moods are worsened or improved by the environment and upbringing. The idea is that individuals with high vulnerability,

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especially if their early environment worsened depressive tendencies, may need antidepressants. Furthermore, the model suggests that everyone can benefit, to varying degrees, from the various habits and practices identified by positive psychology. There have also been some studies of religion as it relates to happiness, as well as religious or generally philosophical notions of happiness. Research has generally found that religion may help make people happier by providing various important components (e.g. PERMA) in countries where there are many who share that religion.

Hotei, god of happiness in East Asian folklore

Religious perspectives
Buddhism
Happiness forms a central theme of Buddhist teachings. For ultimate freedom from suffering, the Noble Eightfold Path leads its practitioner to Nirvana, a state of everlasting peace. Ultimate happiness is only achieved by overcoming craving in all forms. More mundane forms of happiness, such as acquiring wealth and maintaining good friendships, are also recognized as worthy goals for lay people (see sukha). Buddhism also encourages the generation of loving kindness and compassion, the desire for the happiness and welfare of all beings.[3] [4]

A smiling 95-year-old man from Santa Cruz, Chile.

Catholicism
In Catholicism, the ultimate end of human existence consists in felicity (Latin equivalent to the Greek eudaimonia), or "blessed happiness", described by the 13th-century philosopher-theologian Thomas Aquinas as a Beatific Vision of God's essence in the next life.[5]

Philosophical views
The Chinese Confucian thinker Mencius, who 2300 years ago sought to give advice to the ruthless political leaders of the warring states period, was convinced that the mind played a mediating role between the "lesser self" (the physiological self) and the "greater self" (the moral self) and that getting the priorities right between these two would lead to sage-hood. He argued that if we did not feel satisfaction or pleasure in nourishing one's "vital force" with "righteous deeds", that force would shrivel up (Mencius,6A:15 2A:2). More specifically, he mentions the experience of intoxicating joy if one celebrates the practice of the great virtues, especially through music.[6] Al-Ghazali (10581111) the Muslim Sufi thinker wrote the Alchemy of Happiness, a manual of spiritual instruction throughout the Muslim world and widely practiced today. The Hindu thinker Patanjali, author of the Yoga Sutras, wrote quite exhaustively on the psychological and ontological roots of bliss.[7] In the Nicomachean Ethics, written in 350 BCE, Aristotle stated that happiness (also being well and doing well) is the only thing that humans desire for its own sake, unlike riches, honor, health or friendship. He observed that men sought riches, or honor, or health not only for their own sake but also in order to be happy. Note that eudaimonia, the term we translate as "happiness", is for Aristotle an activity rather than an emotion or a state.[8] Happiness is

Happiness characteristic of a good life, that is, a life in which a person fulfills human nature in an excellent way. People have a set of purposes which are typically human: these belong to our nature. The happy person is virtuous, meaning they have outstanding abilities and emotional tendencies which allow him or her to fulfill our common human ends. For Aristotle, then, happiness is "the virtuous activity of the soul in accordance with reason": happiness is the practice of virtue. Many ethicists make arguments for how humans should behave, either individually or collectively, based on the resulting happiness of such behavior. Utilitarians, such as John Stuart Mill and Jeremy Bentham, advocated the greatest happiness principle as a guide for ethical behavior.

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Economic views
Common market health measures such as GDP and GNP have been used as a measure of successful policy. On average richer nations tend to be happier than poorer nations, but this effect seems to diminish with wealth.[9] [10] This has been explained by the fact that the dependency is not linear but logarithmic, i.e., the same percentual increase in the GNP produces the same increase in happiness for wealthy countries as for poor countries.[11] [12] [13] [14] Economic freedom correlates strongly with happiness[15] preferably within the context of a Newly commissioned officers celebrate their new positions by throwing their midshipmen covers into the air as part of the U.S. Naval Academy class western mixed economy, with free press and a of 2005 graduation and commissioning ceremony. democracy. "Socialist" East European countries were less happy than Western ones, even less happy than other equally poor countries.[16] It would be inaccurate to consider the ex-Soviet states as socialist, however, as socialism indicates that the workers own the means of production, which under the Soviet Union was not the case.[17] It has been argued that happiness measures could be used not as a replacement for more traditional measures, but as a supplement.[18] According to professor Edward Glaeser, people constantly make choices that decrease their happiness, because they have also more important aims. Therefore, the government should not decrease the alternatives available for the citizen by patronizing them but let the citizen keep a maximal freedom of choice.[19] It has been argued that happiness at work is the one of the driving forces behind positive outcomes at work, rather than just being a resultant product.[20]

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References
[1] Wordnet 3.0 (http:/ / www. wolframalpha. com/ input/ ?i=happiness& a=*C. happiness-_*Word-) (accessed 2011-Feb-24 via Wolfram Alpha) [2] Seligman, M.E.P. (2004). Can Happiness be Taught?. Daedalus journal, Spring 2004. [3] (see brahmavihara) [4] Bhikkhu, Thanissaro (1999). "A Guided Meditation" (http:/ / www. accesstoinsight. org/ lib/ authors/ thanissaro/ guided. html). . [5] Aquinas, Thomas. "Question 3. What is happiness" (http:/ / www. newadvent. org/ summa/ 200308. htm). Summa Theologiae. . [6] Chan, Wing-tsit (1963). A Source Book in Chinese Philosophy. Princeton, NJ, US: Princeton University Press. ISBN0691019649. [7] Levine, Marvin (2000). The Positive Psychology of Buddhism and Yoga : Paths to a Mature Happiness. Lawrence Erlbaum. ISBN0805838333. [8] Eudaimonia (Greek: ) is a classical Greek word commonly translated as 'happiness'. Etymologically, it consists of the word "eu" ("good" or "well being") and "daimn" ("spirit" or "minor deity", used by extension to mean one's lot or fortune). [9] Frey, Bruno S.; Alois Stutzer (December 2001). Happiness and Economics. Princeton University Press. ISBN0691069980. [10] "In Pursuit of Happiness Research. Is It Reliable? What Does It Imply for Policy?" (http:/ / www. cato. org/ pub_display. php?pub_id=8179). The Cato institute. 2007-04-11. . [11] Wealth and hapiness revisited Growing wealth of nations does go with greater happiness (http:/ / www2. eur. nl/ fsw/ research/ veenhoven/ Pub2000s/ 2003e-full. pdf) [12] Leonhardt, David (2008-04-16). "Maybe Money Does Buy Happiness After All" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2008/ 04/ 16/ business/ 16leonhardt. html). The New York Times. . Retrieved 2010-04-10. [13] Economic Growth and Subjective Well-Being: Reassessing the Easterlin Paradox (http:/ / bpp. wharton. upenn. edu/ betseys/ papers/ Happiness. pdf) [14] Boston.com (http:/ / www. boston. com/ bostonglobe/ ideas/ articles/ 2008/ 11/ 23/ a_talk_with_betsey_stevenson_and_justin_wolfers/ ?page=full) [15] In Pursuit of Happiness Research. Is It Reliable? What Does It Imply for Policy? (http:/ / www. cato. org/ pub_display. php?pub_id=8179) The Cato institute. April 11, 2007 [16] The Scientist's Pursuit of Happiness (http:/ / www. cis. org. au/ Policy/ spring05/ polspr05-2. htm), Policy, Spring 2005. [17] Youtube.com (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=K4Tq4VE8eHQ) [18] Weiner, Eric J. (2007-11-13). "Four months of boom, bust, and fleeing foreign credit" (http:/ / www. latimes. com/ news/ opinion/ la-oe-weiner13nov13,0,5698259. story?coll=la-opinion-rightrail). Los Angeles Times. . [19] Coercive regulation and the balance of freedom (http:/ / www. cato-unbound. org/ 2007/ 05/ 11/ edward-glaeser/ coercive-regulation-and-the-balance-of-freedom/ ), Edward Glaeser, Cato Unbound 11.5.2007 [20] Boehm, J K.; S Lyubomirsky (February 2008). Journal of Career Assessment. Sage.

Further reading
Boehm, J K. & S. Lyubomirsky, Journal of Career Assessment. Vol 16(1), Feb 2008, 101116. C. Robert Cloninger, Feeling Good: The Science of Well-Being, Oxford, 2004. McMahon, Darrin M., Happiness: A History, Atlantic Monthly Press, November 28, 2005. ISBN 0871138867 McMahon, Darrin M., The History of Happiness: 400 B.C. A.D. 1780, Daedalus journal, Spring 2004. Daniel Gilbert, Stumbling on Happiness, Knopf, 2006. Carol Graham (2010), Happiness around the World: The Paradox of Happy Peasants and Miserable Millionaires, Oxford: Oxford University Press. Hills P., Argyle M. (2002). "The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire: a compact scale for the measurement of psychological well-being. Personality and Individual Differences". Psychological Wellbeing 33: 10731082. Koenig HG, McCullough M, & Larson DB. Handbook of religion and health: a century of research reviewed (see article). New York: Oxford University Press; 2001. Barbara Ann Kipfer, 14,000 Things to Be Happy About, Workman, 1990/2007, ISBN 978-0761147213. Stefan Klein, The Science of Happiness, Marlowe, 2006, ISBN 1-56924-328-X. Richard Layard, Happiness: Lessons From A New Science, Penguin, 2005, ISBN 978-0-141-01690-0. David G. Myers, Ph. D., The Pursuit of Happiness: Who is Happyand Why, William Morrow and Co., 1992, ISBN 0-688-10550-5.

Martin E.P. Seligman, Ph. D., Authentic Happiness, Free Press, 2002, ISBN 0-7432-2298-9. Wadysaw Tatarkiewicz, Analysis of Happiness, The Hague, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1976

Happiness Journal of happiness studies: an interdisciplinary forum on subjective well-being, International Society for Quality-of-Life Studies (ISQOLS), quarterly since 2000, also online Carol Graham "Happiness Around the World: The Paradox of Happy Peasants and Miserable Millionaires", OUP Oxford, 2009. ISBN 978-0199549054 (favorable review in Science 6 August 2010) W. Doyle Gentry "Happiness for dummies", 2008 Jimmy DeMesa, M.D. "BeHappy!: Your Guide to the Happiest Possible Life", 2006 Eric G. Wilson "Against happiness", 2008 Sonja Lyubomirsky "The how of happiness", 2007 Niek Persoon "Happiness doesn't just happen", 2006 Richard Layard "Happiness", 2005 Desmond Morris "The nature of happiness", 2004 Gregg Easterbrook "The progress paradox how life gets better while people feel worse", 2003 Ben Renshaw "The secrets of happiness", 2003 Martin E.P. Seligman "Authentic happiness", 2002 Alexandra Stoddard "Choosing happiness keys to a joyful life", 2002 Robert Holden "Happiness now!", 1998 Joop Hartog & Hessel Oosterbeek "Health, wealth and happiness", 1997 Ruut Veenhoven "Bibliography of happiness world database of happiness : 2472 studies on subjective appreciation of life", 1993 Neil Kaufman "Happiness is a choice", 1991 Michael W. Eysenck "Happiness facts and myths", 1990 Lynne McFall "Happiness", 1989 Michael Argyle "The psychology of happiness", 1987 Ruut Veenhoven "Conditions of happiness", 1984 Elizabeth Telfer "Happiness : an examination of a hedonistic and a eudaemonistic concept of happiness and of the relations between them...", 1980 Norman M. Bradburn "The structure of psychological well-being", 1969 Bertrand Russell "The conquest of happiness", orig. 1930 (many reprints) James Mackaye "Economy of happiness", 1906 Sara Ahmed, "The Promise of Happiness", 2010

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External links
History of Happiness (http://pursuit-of-happiness.org/pursuit-of-happiness/history-of-happiness) concise survey of influential theories The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy entry "Pleasure" (http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/pleasure/) ancient and modern philosophers' and neuroscientists' approaches to happiness The World Database of Happiness (http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/) a register of scientific research on the subjective appreciation of life. Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (http://www.meaningandhappiness.com/oxford-happiness-questionnaire/ 214/) Online psychological test to measure your happiness. Srikumar Rao: Plug into your hard-wired happiness (http://www.ted.com/talks/ srikumar_rao_plug_into_your_hard_wired_happiness.html) Video of a short lecture by Srikumar Rao on how to be happy Dan Gilbert: Why are we happy? (http://www.ted.com/talks/dan_gilbert_asks_why_are_we_happy.html) Video of a short lecture by Dan Gilbert our how our "psychological immune system" lets us feel truly happy even when things dont go as planned.

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Philosophy of happiness
The philosophy of happiness is a direction by which philosophical inquiry approaches the nature of happiness and the ways by which to attain it. Both the classic Western philosophy (Ancient philosophy) and the Eastern philosophy since its inception deal with the subject of happiness.

Greek philosophers (Sokrates, Antisthenes, Chrysippos, Epicurus).

Happiness in the philosophy of the ancient world


Socrates
Socrates (* 469 BC in Athens, 399 BC) is fundamental for Western thinking. Almost all the major philosophical schools of antiquity have to rely on Socrates. Michel de Montaigne called him the "master of masters" and Karl Jaspers wrote, "Socrates to have in mind is one of the essential conditions of our philosophy".[1] Socrates was a mystic. There are many accounts of his extraordinary abilities. He could fall for hours in meditation, go barefoot in winter and consume excessive amounts of alcohol, without ever showing signs of intoxication. He lived in strict guidance by his inner voice, whose origin he regarded as divine. He prayed regularly. About life after death, he preferred an open perspective, "Either it is a non-being, and we have no sensation after death - or, as it is told, it is a migration of the soul from this place to another."[2] It is interesting to note that a significant portion of Plato's Pheado is concerned with various arguments whose purpose can be seen to prove the existence of life after death. [3]

Diogenes with a lamp.

We can regard Socrates as the spiritual father of today's scientific thinking time. He was an advocate of reason. He was highly involved with the question of the truth. What is true and what is wrong? What is the way of a true life? Socrates had no ready answers. He left it to each of his students themselves, to find their own way of truth. Three things he gave them along the way: 1. Keep interested in the truth. 2. Make sure that your soul is as good as possible. 3. To get a good soul, maintain the four virtues of prudence, temperance, courage and justice (charity).[4]

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Aristippus of Cyrene
Perhaps the first philosopher who has developed a complete philosophy of happiness was Aristippus. He was a student of Socrates, but adopted a very different philosophical outlook, teaching that the goal of life was to seek external pleasure. Aristippus lived luxuriously. He is considered the founder of hedonism.

Antisthenes
Antisthenes (c. 445 BCE c. 365 BCE) was also a student of Socrates. He adopted and developed the ethical side of Socrates' teachings, advocating an ascetic life lived in accordance with virtue. Later writers regarded him as the founder of Cynic philosophy. His most important disciple was Diogenes, who lived after a legend in a barrel. The way of happiness of Antisthenes is similar to the Enlightenment philosophy of Buddhism, Indian Yoga and Chinese Taoism. Through a life of peace, simplicity, naturalness, modesty and virtue (mental work) dissolve the inner tensions. Inner happiness and enlightenment appear. We find Antisthenes praising the pleasures which spring "from out of one's soul."[5]

Plato
Plato lived from 428/427 BC to 348/347 BC in Athens. He was a student of Socrates, writer of philosophical dialogues, and founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world. According to Plato the human soul consits of three parts: The reason, the will and the desire. A man is happy when all three parts of the soul are in balance. Plato has thought about how to build a good society. He proposed to transfer the leadership of a society to the wise. One could say that science (the philosophy of happiness) should be the center of happy society. A student of Plato was Aristotle. According to Aristotle, happy is he who develops his virtues and abilities. Perfectly happy can a man be called if he is sufficiently equipped with external goods and spends his life according to virtue.[6]

Epicurus
For Epicurus, the purpose of philosophy was to attain a happy, tranquil life, characterized by peace, freedom from fear, the absence of pain, and by living a self-sufficient life surrounded by friends. A life after Epicurus (341-270 BC) is happy when you live everything in the right degree. Everyone should know his point of enough. "Whom is enough too little, nothing is enough."[7] Epicureans often confounded with the hedonists. Both are completely different philosophical paths. An Epicurean embodies a moderate path of asceticism and a hedonist a path of extreme external pleasure. Epicureanism is wisdom and hedonism is unwisdom. Epicureanism leads to enlightenment (inner happiness) and hedonism to unenlightenment (inner tensions, addictions).[8] Epicurus taught positive thinking. A life will be happy when we constantly train positive thinking. Epicurus called it "philosophize." A person should philosophize every day. One should think about the meaning of life and reflect again and again to his positive goals. One should avoid it, to worry too much.

Epicurus meditating.

The inner happiness comes from inner peace. When a person calms down, inner happiness appears. Epicurus recommended it to live in inner peace, "Then you live like a God (Buddha) among your unwise fellow men,"[9] which

Philosophy of happiness an Epicurean also helps on the way: "The friendship dances around the globe, all of us announcing that we shall awaken to bliss."[10]

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Happiness in the philosophy of the middle ages


Augustine of Hippo
Augustine of Hippo (354 430), was Bishop of Hippo Regius (present-day Annaba, Algeria). He was a Latin-speaking philosopher and theologian who lived in the Roman Africa Province. His writings were very influential in the development of Western Christianity. In the Catholic Church and the Anglican Communion, he is a saint and pre-eminent Doctor of the Church, and the patron of the Augustinian religious order. Augustine wrote a whole book (the happy life) about human happiness. The ultimate goal of all human endeavor lies in the happiness. Happiness man can receive but not by satisfaction of goods of this world. Lasting happiness is possible only by living in God. God is the greatest happiness that a man can achieve, "for God has created us to him and our heart is restless until it rests in God."[11]

Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite


Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite, was a Christian theologian and philosopher of the late 5th to early 6th century, the author of the Augustine Baptism. Corpus Areopagiticum. He is identified as "Dionysos" in the corpus, which later came to be attributed to Dionysius the Areopagite. In the so-called Mystical theology, it is primarily Dionysius the Areopagite, who deals with the idea of happiness. According to him, the human soul longs for God. This yearning can be satisfied only by the mystical union with God. Over the three steps purity (katharsis), enlightenment (photismos) and agreed (teleiosis) can one reach the knowledge of God. "For by this ecstasy, (...) you will, after you have everything removed and detached, brought to the real ray of the divine shadow."[12] "The divine darkness is the inaccessible light, in which God lives. In it are all who have become worthy to recognize God."[13] "It is necessary to (... ) go into the darkness, to find the one that is beyond all."[14]

Meister Eckhart
Eckhart von Hochheim, known as Meister Eckhart (c. 1260; c. 1327) was a late medieval theologian and philosopher. Meister is German for "Master", referring to the academic title Magister in theologia he obtained in Paris. He is an important link of the Western philosophy with the Eastern religions, because he had an impersonal image of God and tought it to meditate (God can be found in the silence). "A man should not be content to have an imaginary God. (...) Those who have God in being, (...) God shines in all things, all things taste like God, and God is seen in all things. (...) This needs zeal and devotion and a close attention to the inside. (...) One has to learn an inner loneliness, whereever one is. (...) Surely if you want to master this, you have to practice a lot and often."[15] For Meister Eckhart meditation is helpful to get a life in God, "Know indeed. Standing quite still and as long as possible, this is your very best."[16] At the same time, it is also important to walk the way of charity, "As Mary sat at

Philosophy of happiness the feet of our Lord , she learned. (...) But later, when Christ had gone to heaven, and she had received the Holy Spirit, (...) she taught and became a servant of the disciples."[17]

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Happiness in the philosophy of the modern


Michel de Montaigne
Michel de Montaigne (*1533, 1592) was a French politician and philosopher. He is considered the most important successor of Epicurus. At the age of 38, he moved back from working life in order to devote himself extensively to philosophy. He thought thouroughly about himself and his life. Thereby he created his famous Essais. Stoic contempt of outward appearances, criticism of the human arrogance and natural skepticism of any dogma characterize the Essais. Remarkably modern even to readers today, Montaigne's attempt to examine the world through the lens of the only thing he can depend on implicitly his own judgment. He wrote, "The enjoyment of life requires a deliberate handling with it. I enjoy my life twice as much as the others."[18] "Philosophy makes those who are devoted to her, happy and cheerful."[19] Like Epicurus, the center of the art of life for Montaigne was to find the right balance. But Montaigne turned to pleasure much more than Epicurus. Epicurus preferred to live as a single. Montaigne was married. "I think it's equally wrong to reject the natural desires, as to hang too much on them."[20]

Arthur Schopenhauer
Arthur Schopenhauer (*1788, 1860) was a German philosopher, author and lecturer. He established a system of empirical and metaphysical pessimism. The world for him was a "vale of tears, full of suffering. All happiness is an illusion. Life oscillates like a pendulum, back and forth between the pain and boredom".[21] "Each life history is a story of suffering, a continuing series of large and small accidents."[22] Schopenhauer taught pessimism as a way to happiness. He found inspiration in Buddhism. In Buddhism, the outer world can be visualized as a field of suffering to awaken the enlightenment energy (Kundalini). Grief can dissolve inner blockages. Pessimism can sometimes be helpful, but it does not always.

Jeremy Bentham
Jeremy Bentham (* 1748 1832) was an English jurist, philosopher Jeremy Bentham, The greatest happiness for the greatest number. and social reformer. He became a leading theorist in Anglo-American philosophy of law, and a political radical whose ideas influenced the development of welfarism. He is best known for his advocacy of animal rights, the separation of church and state, freedom of expression and equal rights for women. He is considered the founder of classical utilitarianism. The greatest happiness for the greatest number (greatest-happiness-principle) is the guiding principle of Bentham's ethics. An act is therefore morally right if it is good for many people. For Bentham, the quantity of happiness was the deciding factor. His student John Stuart Mill represented, that cultural, intellectual and spiritual satisfaction also own a qualitative value.

Philosophy of happiness

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The current philosophy of happiness


Today's philosophy of happiness is strongly influenced by the happiness research. Happiness research is the quantitative study of happiness, positive and negative affect, well-being, quality of life and life satisfaction. The field has grown substantially since the late 20th century. The Greek thinkers are still current, but very important is also the positive thinking in its various forms (see Self-help, Positive The Satisfaction with Life Index. psychology). Well known are Joseph Murphy, Dale Carnegie, Norman Vincent Peale, Wayne Dyer, Marianne Williamson, Oprah Winfrey and the Dalai Lama. They sold many books in the western book market and some are often seen on TV.

Ludwig Marcuse
An important contemporary book on the philosophy of happiness wrote Ludwig Marcuse. In it he told humorous stories of many Western philosophers of happiness. He believed that there are only some moments of happiness in life, but the great permanent happiness does not exist.[23] With this statement he is in opposition to many spiritual philosophers (Gautama Buddha, Laozi, Meister Eckhart, Patanjali). Professor Ludwig Marcuse (18941971), was a German philosopher. From 1940 to 1950 he lived in Los Angeles.

The ethics of transcendence


Jonathan Haidt is an American psychology professor. He wrote the book The Happiness Hypothesis in which he combines ancient philosophical and spiritual knowledge with the latest happiness research. His main teaching is the ethics of transcendence (living in God). Psychologically, it is shown that a person has in his brain an area for experiences of God. The enlightened one is happier than an unenlightened. Religion makes you happy, if not lived too dogmatic and intolerantly. Haidt sees himself as an atheist, who does not believe in God, but advocates for reasons of inner happiness and health positive spiritual values, "If we rely on balanced wisdom - old and new, eastern and western, liberal and conservative - we can choose directions in our life that lead to satisfaction, happiness and a sense of purpose."[24]

Nozick and the experience machine


One contemporary thought experiment that has direct relevance to the philosophy of happiness is the experience machine thought experiment that was created by the American philosopher Robert Nozick in Anarchy, State, Utopia. The thought experiment gives you the option to enter a machine that would give you the maximum amount of unending hedonistic pleasure for the rest of your life. But since most people would prefer not to take this kind of deal if offered shows that hedonistic pleasure is not the ultimate goal of human life, and that happiness or "the good life" therefore requires more than maximisation of pleasure.

Philosophy of happiness

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Positive psychology emphasizes positive values


Sonja Lyubomirsky is one of America's happiness researchers. She is a professor and wrote the international bestseller The How of Happiness.[25] She wondered what one can do if one want to get a happy life. She accepted that, after the current state of research about 50 percent of a given human's happiness level is genetically determined. About 10% of happiness is affected by external living conditions. But 40% of happiness can be influenced by the mind of a person. After Sonja Lyubomirsky the secret of lasting happiness is that we turn our attention mainly to those 40% and constantly maintain our inner happiness. We should exercise regularly, avoid negative thoughts and encourage positive thoughts, maintain our social relationships and have a positive task in our lives. Many studies demonstrate the positive effects of meditation on our happiness, "Meditate every day. Begin with five minutes and increase to up to 20 minutes a day."[26] Sonja Lyubomirsky developed a twelve-point program for personal happiness. The main point for her is gratitude. We should focus on the positives in our lives and be grateful. We should live according to principles such as optimism, joy, helpfulness, forgiveness, good social relationships, good health care and a positive task if we want to achieve a happy and fulfilling life.[27]

A happy society
Richard Layard (born 15 March 1934) is a British economist. He was founder-director in 1990 of the Centre for Economic Performance at the London School of Economics. He argues that people in the West could live happier if they would instead focus on the growth of the outer wealth concentrate themselves on the growth of inner happiness. At the moment the unbridled selfishness destroys the growth of general happiness. People in the West need a new philosophy on the basis of the happiness research. The goal should be the greatest happiness of all.[28] Richard Layard stated, "Although the people in the West are for decades got richer, they have not become happier. (...) Studies show that people are not happier today than 50 years ago. And this despite the fact that the real median income in this period has more than doubled."[29] On the contrary, people are getting richer externally and internally unhappy. The likelihood of suffering from a clinical depression is now ten times as large as a century ago.[30] Bhutan is a small landlocked country in South Asia, located at the eastern end of the Himalayas and bordered to the south, east and west by the Republic of India and to the north by the People's Republic of China. Gross national happiness (GNH) is a concept introduced by the King of Bhutan in 1972 as an alternative to the Gross domestic product. Although the GNH framework reflects its Buddhist origins, it is based upon the empirical research of happiness, positive psychology and wellbeing. The philosophy of happiness of Bhutan rests on four pillars: a healthy environment, a good economy, a democratic government and the anchoring in a positive religion / culture.

References
[1] Eva-Maria Kaufmann: Sokrates. Munich 2000, p. 93 (Montaigne), p. 8 (Jaspers). [2] Plato, Apologie, Stuttgart 1982, p. 36 [3] Plato, Phaedo, 66a-67d. [4] Plato, Apologie, Stuttgart 1982, p. 36 [5] Xenophon, Symposium, iv. 41. [6] Nicomachean Ethics Book I. [7] Johannes Mewaldt: Epikur. Philosophie der Freude. Stuttgart 1973, page 71. [8] Philosophy of Happiness (Wikiversity) [9] Johannes Mewaldt, ibid, page 48. [10] Johannes Mewaldt, ibid, page 70. [11] Augustinus: Confessiones 1,1 [12] Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite, ber mystische Theologie, I.1. [13] Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite, letter V [14] Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite, About mystical theology, I.3.

Philosophy of happiness
[15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] [27] [28] [29] [30] Josef Quint (Hrsg.): Meister Eckehart. Deutsche Predigten und Traktate. Mnchen 1979, s.60 f. Quint, supra, 435th page Quint, supra, 289th page Josef M. Werle: Epikur fr Zeitgenossen. Munich 2002, 2 Edition, page 107. Josef M. Werle, supra, page 96. Josef M. Werle , Supra, page 99 Arthur Schopenhauer, The World as Will and Idea. Cologne 1997, Volume One, . 56th. Arthur Schopenhauer, supra, . 59th. Ludwig Marcuse, Die Philosophie des Glcks. 1949. Jonathan Haidt, page 315. Sonja Lyubomirsky, The How of Happiness. 2007. Sonja Lyubomirsky, supra, 257th page. Sonja Lyubomirsky, ibid, page 103 et seq. Richard Layard, Happiness, Lessons from a New Science, page 142. Richard Layard, Happiness, page 13. Sonja Lyubomirsky, ibid, page 49

34

Further reading
Dalai Lama, co-authored with Howard C. Cutler, The Art of Happiness, 2003. Jonathan Haidt, The Happiness Hypothesis: Finding Modern Truth in Ancient Wisdom (http://www. happinesshypothesis.com/), 2005. Richard Layard, Happiness, Lessons from a New Science, 2005. Sonja Lyubomirsky, The How of Happiness: A Scientific Approach to Getting the Life You Want. 2007. Ludwig Marcuse: Philosophie des Glcks. Paul List Verlag, Mnchen 1962. Matthieu Ricard, Happiness: A Guide to Developing Life's Most Important Skill, (2006). (http://www.amazon. com/Happiness-Guide-Developing-Lifes-Important/dp/0316057835)

External links
Epicurus, Letter to Menoeceus (http://www.epicurus.net/en/menoeceus.html) Mystical Theology (http://www.esoteric.msu.edu/VolumeII/MysticalTheology.html) (Theologica Mystica) by Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite. Richard Layard, Happiness: has social science got a clue (PDF) (http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/ download?doi=10.1.1.167.7018&rep=rep1&type=pdf) Video of Good Morning America interview (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xwOROplhgL0) with Lyubomirsky about The How of Happiness

Cosmic ordering

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Cosmic ordering
Cosmic ordering is the name given to a version of positive thinking that was renamed by Brbel Mohr of Munich, Germany. She first outlined her own version in her own magazine called 'Sonnenwind' (Solar Wind), and then expanded these ideas into a book called 'Cosmic Ordering Service - A Guide to Realising Your Dreams'. In the Great Depression of the 1930s Napoleon Hill popularised similar ideas, and in the 1970s Reverend Ike was widely heard over radio and television stations claiming that "You can't lose with the stuff I use". This "stuff" was mind power based upon similar ideas to those promoted by Hill in his many books, and which Mohr has recently promoted in Germany. In the United Kingdom disc jockey and TV game show host Noel Edmonds has become the main media promoter of Mohr's work.

History
Mohr believes that a person can simply write down their wish list and wait for it to become reality. However, this would appear to be a new name for ideas proposed back in 1937 during the Great Depression by Napoleon Hill in his book Think and Grow Rich which sold into the millions, and which is still widely available. Hill's ideas were then adopted for Christianity in a most blatant manner by radio and television evangelist Reverend Ike, and then by a stream of televangelists such as pop singer turned preacher Kenneth Copeland; builder turned preacher Bob Tilton and even Jim Bakker of the failed PTL television empire. Mohr's idea that individuals can use their desires to "connect with the cosmos" and make those desires become reality is a rewrite of the work by Napoleon Hill and others who have promoted similar ideas before.

Criticism
Cosmic ordering has been criticised as "nonsense" by the Right Reverend Carl Cooper. He describes it as goal setting dressed up in spiritual language. He also distinguishes cosmic ordering from intercessory prayer, noting that prayer is not "divine room service".[1]

Noel Edmonds
It would appear that TV show host and disc jockey Noel Edmonds has also jumped on this bandwagon.[2] Edmonds was first introduced to the book The Cosmic Ordering Service - A Guide to Realising Your Dreams by his reflexologist. He had not worked on TV since the end of his BBC TV show Noel's House Party in 1999. One of his wishes was for a new challenge. Later he was offered the chance to return to TV to work on Deal or No Deal.[3] He claims to have written down a wish list of things that he wanted to come true, and then waited for the 'cosmos' to make it happen.[3]

Academia
Cosmic ordering has recently been put forward as a solution to women's inequality in academia. Proponents advocate asking the cosmos for a promotion to help equal the playing field with men.[4] Opponents of the concept described the approach as "scandalous" and that "It sounds like an opiate to dull the pain of reality and I can't see the point. The university might as well give women cannabis to dull their senses."[4] [5] The idea is connected to the New Age movement and other concepts such as the Law of Attraction.

Cosmic ordering

36

Notes
[1] http:/ / www. independent. co. uk/ news/ uk/ this-britain/ no-deal-cosmic-ordering-is-nonsense-says-bishop-474077. html [2] Need a lover or a house? Call on the cosmos (http:/ / www. telegraph. co. uk/ health/ main. jhtml?xml=/ health/ 2006/ 04/ 04/ hcosmos04. xml& sSheet=/ health/ 2006/ 04/ 04/ ixhmain. html) The Daily Telegraph April 4th 2006. [3] DEAR COSMOS, CAN I HAVE A HIT SHOW? (http:/ / www. dailyrecord. co. uk/ news/ tm_objectid=16895144& method=full& siteid=66633& headline=dear-cosmos--can-i-have-a-hit-show---name_page. html) Daily Record, April 3rd 2006. [4] 'Cosmic ordering' cure for campus sex war (http:/ / www. telegraph. co. uk/ news/ main. jhtml?xml=/ news/ 2007/ 04/ 28/ newage28. xml) The Daily Telegraph April 28th 2007 [5] South Bank head defends 'cosmic ordering' workshop (http:/ / education. guardian. co. uk/ higher/ news/ story/ 0,,2067217,00. html), Educational Guardian April 27th, 2007

References
Feeling the force of the cosmic bang (http://www.thenorthernecho.co.uk/features/leader/display.var. 868027.0.feeling_the_force_of_the_cosmic_bang.php), The Northern Echo, 2006-08-08. The Cosmic Ordering Service - A guide to realising your dreams. Barbel Mohr. ISBN 1-57174-272-7. The Ultimate Guide to Cosmic Ordering - Empower your destiny: Take control of your life. Andronicos Andronicou. ISBN 0-9554-6690-3. Cosmic Ordering Guide:Where Dreams Can Become Reality. Stephen Richards. ISBN 1-902578-24-4.

Optimism
"Positive thinking" redirects here. For songs of that title, see Positive Thinking. The Oxford English Dictionary defines optimism as having "hopefulness and confidence about the future or successful outcome of something; a tendency to take a favourable or hopeful view." The word is originally derived from the Latin optimum, meaning "best." Being optimistic, in the typical sense of the word, ultimately means one expects the best possible outcome from any given situation. This is usually referred to in psychology as dispositional optimism. Researchers sometimes operationalize the term differently depending on their research, however. For example, Martin Seligman and his fellow researchers define it in terms of explanatory style, which is based on the way one explains life events. As for any trait characteristic, there are several ways to evaluate optimism, such as various forms of the Life Orientation Test, for the original definition of optimism, or the Attributional Style Questionnaire designed to test optimism in terms of explanatory style. While the heritability of "Is the glass half empty or half full?". The optimist would choose half full, while the optimism is largely debatable, most researchers agree that it seems to pessimist would pick half empty. be a biological trait to some small degree, but it is also thought that optimism has more to do with environmental factors, making it a largely learned trait.[1] It has also been suggested that optimism could appear to be a hereditary trait because it is actually a manifestation of combined traits that are mostly heritable, like intelligence and temperament.[2] Optimism may also be linked to health.

Optimism

37

Explanatory style
Explanatory style is different, though related to, the more traditional, narrower definition of optimism. This broader concept is based on the theory that optimism and pessimism are drawn from the particular way people explain events. There are three dimensions within typical explanations, which include internal versus external, stable versus unstable, and global versus specific. Optimistic justifications toward negative experiences are attributed to factors outside the self (external), are not likely to occur consistently (unstable), and are limited specific life domains (specific). Positive experiences would be optimistically labeled as the opposite: internal, stable, global.[3] There is much debate about the relationship between explanatory style and optimism. Some researchers argue that there is not much difference at all; optimism is just the lay term for what scientists call explanatory style.[4] Others argue that explanatory style is exclusive to its concept and should not be interchangeable with optimism.[5] [6] It is generally thought that, though they should not be used interchangeably, dispositional optimism and explanatory style are at least marginally related. Ultimately, the problem is simply that more research must be done to either define a "bridge" or further differentiate between these concepts.[7]

Philosophy
Philosophers often link the concept of optimism with the name of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, who held that we live in the best of all possible worlds, or that God created a physical universe that applies the laws of physics, which Voltaire famously mocked in his satirical novel Candide. A modern manifestation of this approach is exemplified in artist Rina Krevat through her abstract art and tenor singing. The philosophical pessimism of William Godwin demonstrated perhaps even more optimism than Leibniz. He hoped that society would eventually reach the state where calm reason would replace all violence and force, that mind could eventually make matter subservient to it, and that intelligence could discover the secret of immortality. Much of this philosophy is exemplified in the Houyhnhnms of Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels.

Panglossianism
The term "panglossianism" describes baseless optimism of the sort exemplified by the beliefs of Pangloss from Voltaire's Candide, which are the opposite of his fellow traveller Martin's pessimism and emphasis on free will. The phrase "panglossian pessimism" has been used to describe the pessimistic position that, since this is the best of all possible worlds, it is impossible for anything to get any better. The panglossian paradigm is a term coined by Stephen Jay Gould and Richard Lewontin to refer to the notion that everything has specifically adapted to suit specific purposes. Instead, they argue, accidents and exaptation (the use of old features for new purposes) play an important role in the process of evolution. Some other scientists however argue the implication that many (or most) adaptionists are panglossians is a straw man. Why People Believe Weird Things: Pseudoscience, Superstition, and Other Confusions of Our Time Michael Shermer relates Frank J. Tipler to Voltaire's character Pangloss to show how clever people deceive themselves. Shermer explores the psychology of scholars and business men who give up their careers in their pursuit to broadcast their paranormal beliefs. In his last chapter, added to the revised version, Shermer explains that "smart people" can be more susceptible to believing in weird things.

Optimism

38

Assessment
Life Orientation Test (LOT) Designed by Scheier and Carver (1985), this is one of the more popular tests of optimism and pessimism. There are eight measurements (and an additional four filler items), with four positively ("In uncertain times, I usually expect the best") and four negatively ("If something can go wrong for me, it will") worded items.[8] The LOT has been revised twice--once by the original creators (LOT-R) and also by Chang, Maydeu-Olivares, and D'Zurilla as the Extended Life Orientation Test (ELOT). All three are most commonly used because they are based on dispositional optimism, which simply means expecting positive outcomes.[9] Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ) This questionnaire created by Peterson et al. (1982) is based on the explanatory style definition of optimism. It lists six positive and negative events ("you have been looking for a job unsuccessfully for some time"), and asks the respondents to record a possible cause for the event and rate the internality, stability, and globality of the event.[10] An optimistic person is one who perceives good things happening to them as internal, stable, and global. There are several modified versions of the ASQ including the Expanded Attributional Style Questionnaire (EASQ), the Content Analysis of Verbatim Explanations (CAVE), and the ASQ designed for testing the optimism for children.[9]

Health
A multitude of research has emerged showing the intense relationships between several psychological constructs and health. Optimism is certainly one of these concepts, with correlation coefficients between .20 and .30.[11] This research has shown that optimism can correlate with good health at many stages, including preventative health (making it less likely to experience illness), severity and duration of illness, and reduction of relapse chances. However, Affleck, Tennen, and Apter (2001) studied optimism and health in terms of physical symptoms, coping strategies and negative affect for those suffering from rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, and fibromyalgia. They found that optimists were not more likely than pessimists to report pain alleviation due to their coping strategies, though they did find significance in the psychological well-being of the two groups.[12] A meta-analysis by Scheier, Carver and Bridges confirms the assumption that optimism is related to psychological well-being: Put simply, optimists emerge from difficult circumstances with less distress than do pessimists.[13] Furthermore, the correlation appears to be attributable to coping style: That is, optimists seem intent on facing problems head-on, taking active and constructive steps to solve their problems; pessimists are more likely to abandon their effort to attain their goals.[13] Researchers have stated that optimism may help prevent depression in teenagers.[14]

References
[1] Susan C. Vaughan. Half Empty, Half Full: Understanding the Psychological Roots of Optimism. New York: Harcourt, Inc., 2000. [2] P. Schulman, D. Keith, M. Seligman "Is Optimism Heritable? A Study of Twins." Behavior Research and Therapy. 31.6 (1993): 56974. [3] J.Gillham, A. Shatt, K Reivich, M. Seligman. "Optimism, Pessimism, And Explanatory Style." Optimism & Pessimism: Implications for Theory, Research, and Practice. Ed. E. Chang. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2001. 53-75 [4] C. Peterson "The Future of Optimism." American Psychologist. 55:1 (2000): 44-55. [5] L. Abramson, B. Dykman, D. Needles. "Attributional Style and Theory: Let No One Tear Them Asunder." Psychological Inquiry. 2.1 (1991): 11-13 [6] H. Zullow. "Explanations and Expectations: Understanding the "Doing" Side of Optimism. "Psychological Inquiry. 2.1 (1991): 45-49. [7] Gillham, A. Shatt, K Reivich, M. Seligman. "Optimism, Pessimism, And Explanatory Style." Optimism & Pessimism: Implications for Theory, Research, and Practice. Ed. E. Chang. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2001. 53-75 [8] M. Scheier, C. Carver. "Optimism, Coping, and Health: Assessment and Implications of Generalized Outcome Expectancies." Health Psychology. 4 (1985): 219-247. [9] J. Gillham, A. Shatt, K Reivich, M. Seligman. "Optimism, Pessimism, And Explanatory Style." Optimism & Pessimism: Implications for Theory, Research, and Practice. Ed. E. Chang. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2001. 53-75.

Optimism
[10] C. Peterson, A. Semmel, D. Von Baeyer, L. Abramson, G. Metalsky, M. Seligman. "The Attributional Style Questionnaire." Cognitive Therapy and Research. 6 (1982): 287-299. [11] C. Peterson, L. Bossio. "Optimism and Physical Wellbeing." Optimism & Pessimism: Implications for Theory, Research, and Practice. Ed. E. Chang. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2001: 127-145. [12] G. Affleck, H Tennen, A. Apter. "Optimism, Pessimism, and Daily Life With Chronic Illness. Optimism & Pessimism: Implications for Theory, Research, and Practice. Ed. E. Chang. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2001: 147-168. [13] M. Scheier, C. Carver, M. Bridges. "Optimism, Pessimism, and Psychological Well-Being." Optimism & Pessimism: Implications for Theory, Research, and Practice. Ed. E. Chang. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2001: 189-216. [14] http:/ / health. usnews. com/ health-news/ blogs/ on-parenting/ 2011/ 01/ 13/ optimism-protects-teens-from-depression-health-risks

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Intuition (knowledge)
Intuition is the ability to acquire knowledge without inference or the use of reason.[1] "The word 'intuition' comes from the Latin word 'intueri', which is often roughly translated as meaning 'to look inside' or 'to contemplate'."[2] Intuition provides us with beliefs that we cannot necessarily justify. For this reason, it has been the subject of study in psychology, as well as a topic of interest in the supernatural. The "right brain" is popularly associated with intuitive processes such as aesthetic abilities.[3] [4] [5] Some scientists have contended that intuition is associated with innovation in scientific discovery.[6] Intuition is also a common subject of New Age writings.[7]

In psychology and personality assessment


In Carl Jung's theory of the ego, described in 1921 in Psychological Types, intuition was an "irrational function", opposed most directly by sensation, and opposed less strongly by the "rational functions" of thinking and feeling. Jung defined intuition as "perception via the unconscious": using sense-perception only as a starting point, to bring forth ideas, images, possibilities, ways out of a blocked situation, by a process that is mostly unconscious. Jung said that a person in whom intuition was dominant, an "intuitive type", acted not on the basis of rational judgment but on sheer intensity of perception. An extraverted intuitive type, "the natural champion of all minorities with a future", orients to new and promising but unproven possibilities, often leaving to chase after a new possibility before old ventures have borne fruit, oblivious to his or her own welfare in the constant pursuit of change. An introverted intuitive type orients by images from the unconscious, ever exploring the psychic world of the archetypes, seeking to perceive the meaning of events, but often having no interest in playing a role in those events and not seeing any connection between the contents of the psychic world and him- or herself. Jung thought that extraverted intuitive types were likely entrepreneurs, speculators, cultural revolutionaries, often undone by a desire to escape every situation before it becomes settled and constrainingeven repeatedly leaving lovers for the sake of new romantic possibilities. His introverted intuitive types were likely mystics, prophets, or cranks, struggling with a tension between protecting their visions from influence by others and making their ideas comprehensible and reasonably persuasive to othersa necessity for those visions to bear real fruit.[8] The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), first published in 1944, attempted to provide an empirical method of identifying a person's dominant ego function, in terms of Carl Jung's theory. Tabulations of MBTI results showed that about one fourth of the United States population favor intuition over sensing. Such people are highly overrepresented in some careers: for example, about 60% of college professors, and two thirds of psychological counselors, favor intuition.[9] Whether an intuitive ego function really exists, or MBTI results really tell whether a person's dominant function is intuition, is highly doubtful, and is rejected by most contemporary psychological research. Even so, the MBTI is still widely used in career and marital counseling. In more-recent psychology, intuition can encompass the ability to know valid solutions to problems and decision making. For example, the recognition primed decision (RPD) model explains how people can make relatively fast decisions without having to compare options. Gary Klein found that under time pressure, high stakes, and changing parameters, experts used their base of experience to identify similar situations and intuitively choose feasible

Intuition (knowledge) solutions. Thus, the RPD model is a blend of intuition and analysis. The intuition is the pattern-matching process that quickly suggests feasible courses of action. The analysis is the mental simulation, a conscious and deliberate review of the courses of action.[10] According to the renowned neuropsychologist and neurobiologist Roger Wolcott Sperry though, intuition is a right-brain activity while factual and mathematical analysis is a left-brain activity.[11] The reliability of one's intuition depends greatly on past knowledge and occurrences in a specific area. For example, someone who has had more experiences with children will tend to have a better instinct or intuition about what they should do in certain situations with them. This is not to say that one with a great amount of experience is always going to have an accurate intuition (because some can be biased); however, the chances of it being more reliable are definitely amplified.[12] It has been asserted that Jung's analytical psychological theory of synchronicity is equal to intellectual intuition.[13]

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Intuition and spirituality


Intuition is commonly discussed in writings of spiritual thought. Contextually, there is often an idea of a transcendent and more qualitative mind of one's spirit towards which a person strives, or towards which consciousness evolves. Typically, intuition is regarded as a conscious commonality between earthly knowledge and the higher spiritual knowledge[14] and appears as flashes of illumination.[15] It is asserted that by definition intuition cannot be judged by logical reasoning.[16] Thomas Merton discussed variations of intuition in a series of essays. In describing aesthetic intuition he asserted that the artist has a subjective identification with an object that is both heightened and intensified and thereby "sees" the object's spiritual reality.[17] In discussing Zen meditation he asserted that a direct intuition is derived through a "struggle against conceptual knowledge." An end result is "the existent knows existence, or 'isness,' while completely losing sight of itself as a 'knowing subject.'"[18] Rudolf Steiner postulated that intuition is the third of three stages of higher knowledge, coming after imagination and inspiration, and is characterized by a state of immediate and complete experience of, or even union with, the object of knowledge without loss of the subject's individual ego.[19] The high value of intuition in the Sufi schemata is related by El Sayeed Idries Shah el-Hashimi el-Naqshbandi, Grand Sheikh of the Dervish Orders.[20]

Empathic accuracy
Empathic accuracy is a term in psychology that refers to how accurately one person (usually designated the perceiver) can infer the thoughts and feelings of another person (usually designated the target). It was first introduced in conjunction with a new research method by psychologists William Ickes and William Tooke in 1988.[21] It is similar to the term accurate empathy, which psychologist Carl Rogers had previously introduced in 1957.[22] Empathic accuracy is an important aspect of what William Ickes has called "everyday mind reading."[23] Contrary to popular understanding women do not seem to possess empathic abilities that men do not have. However research by William Ickes has shown that women are susceptible to stereotypes, and try harder in situations where they would expect to do better. In situations where they are unaware that this is expected, no improved performance is found.

Intuition (knowledge)

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Studies and claims


Dismissing the notion that intuitive impulses arise supernaturally, one is left to assume they originate with the five innate human senses. Remnants of perception, such as a movement occurring out of the "corner of your eye" or subtle sound that would normally be ignored as background noise, could occur simultaneously. While these events could be filtered as irrelevant by the mind, their coincidental synchronicity could lead to a sudden assumptions about one's surroundings, such as the feeling of being watched or followed. Intuitive abilities were quantitatively tested at Yale University in the 1970s. While studying nonverbal communication, researchers noted that some subjects were able to read nonverbal facial cues before reinforcement occurred.[24] In employing a similar design, they noted that highly intuitive subjects made decisions quickly but could not identify their rationale. Their level of accuracy, however, did not differ from that of nonintuitive subjects.[25] Law enforcement officers often claim to observe suspects and immediately "know" that they possess a weapon or illicit narcotic substances. Often unable to articulate why they reacted or what prompted them at the time of the event, they sometimes retrospectively can plot their actions based upon what had been clear and present danger signals. Such examples liken intuition to "gut feelings" and when viable illustrate preconscious activity.[26]

Various definitions
Intuition is a combination of historical (empirical) data, deep and heightened observation and an ability to cut through the thickness of surface reality. Intuition is like a slow motion machine that captures data instantaneously and hits you like a ton of bricks. Intuition is a knowing, a sensing that is beyond the conscious understanding a gut feeling. Intuition is not pseudo-science. Abella Arthur Intuition (is) perception via the unconscious Carl Gustav Jung INTUITION may be defined as understanding or knowing without conscious recourse to thought, observation or reason. Some see this unmediated process as somehow mystical while others describe intuition as being a response to unconscious cues or implicitly apprehended prior learning. Dr. Jason Gallate & Ms Shannan Keen BA[27]

Honor
Intuition Peak on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica is named in appreciation of the role of scientific intuition for the advancement of human knowledge.[28]

Notes and references


[1] Oxford English Dictionary [2] Carlin Flora. "Gut Almighty". Psychology Today. Vol 40. Issue 3:68-75,2007. [3] Converting Words into Pictures--Reading Comprehension Guide--Academic Support (http:/ / academic. cuesta. edu/ acasupp/ AS/ 312. HTM). [4] Left/Right Processing. (http:/ / frank. mtsu. edu/ ~studskl/ hd/ LRBrain. html) [5] Right-Brain Hemisphere. (http:/ / psychology. jrank. org/ pages/ 545/ Right-Brain-Hemisphere. html) [6] Gerald Holton, Yehuda Elkana. Albert Einstien: Historical and Cultural Perspectives, Dover Publications, July 1997, p. 97. ISBN 0486298795 "The workings of intuition transcend those of the intellect, and as is well known, innovation is often a triumph of intuition over logic." [7] Peter Steinfels Beliefs (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 1996/ 07/ 13/ us/ beliefs-080624. html) The New York Times, July 13, 1996. [8] C.G. Jung. Psychological Types. Bollingen Series XX, Volume 6, Princeton University Press, 1971. [9] Mary H. McCaulley and Charles R. Martin. " Career Assessment and the MBTI (http:/ / jca. sagepub. com/ content/ 3/ 2/ 219)", Journal of Career Assessment 1995 3:219 DOI: 10.1177/106907279500300208.

Intuition (knowledge)
[10] Klein, Gary. Intuition At Work. Random House, NY, NY. January, 2003. [11] Allen Chuck Ross, "Brain Hemispheric Functions and the Native American," Journal of American Indian Education, August 1989. (http:/ / jaie. asu. edu/ sp/ V21S3bra. htm) [12] Eugene Sadler-Smith. Inside Intuition. 2008. [13] Bishop, Paul (2000). Synchronicity and Intellectual Intuition in Kant, Swedenborg, and Jung. The Edwin Mellen Press. pp.1720. ISBN0773475931. [14] Sri Aurobindo, The Life Divine, Sri Aurobindo Publication Department, 1970, p.65. ISBN 81-7058-187-7. [15] Alice A. Bailey, The Light of the Soul, Lucis Publishing Company, 1927, p. 317. ISBN B000XPMTB0. [16] Sri Aurobindo, The Life Divine, Sri Aurobindo Publication Department, 1970, p. 69. ISBN 81-7058-187-7. [17] Thomas Merton The Literary Essays of Thomas Merton, New Directions Publishing, March 1985, pp. 341, 348. ISBN 0811209318. [18] Thomas Merton, The Literary Essays of Thomas Merton, New Directions Publishing, March 1985, p. 364. ISBN 0811209318. [19] Lorenzo Ravagli, Zanders Erzhlungen, Berliner Wissenschafts-Verlag, ISBN 978-3-8305-1613, pp. 680ff. [20] Idries Shah, Thinkers of the East, pp. 191 et seq, ISBN 0 224 61912 8 c/r 1971. [21] Ickes, W., & Tooke, W. (1988). The observational method: Studying the interactions of minds and bodies. In S. Duck, D.F. Hay, S.E. Hobfoll, W. Ickes, & B. Montgomery (Eds.), Handbook of personal relationships: Theory, research, and interventions (pp. 79-97). Chichester: Wiley. [22] Rogers, C. R. (1957). The necessary and sufficient conditions of therapeutic personality change. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 21, 95103. [23] Ickes, W. (2003). Everyday mind reading: Understanding what other people think and feel. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books. [24] AJ Giannini, J Daood,MC Giannini, R Boniface, PG Rhodes. Intellect versus intuition--dichotomy in the reception of nonverbal communication.Journal of General Psychology. 99:19-24,1978. [25] AJ Giannini, ME Barringer, MC Giannini, RH Loiselle. Lack of relationship between handedness and intuitive and intellectual (rationalistic) modes of information processing. Journal of General Psychology. 111:31-37 1984. [26] Anthony J. Pinizzotto, PhD, Edward F. Davis, MA, and Charles E. Miller III Emotional/rational decision making in law enforcement (http:/ / www. thefreelibrary. com/ Emotional/ rational+ decision+ making+ in+ law+ enforcement-a0114370262) (Federal Bureau of Investigation), Free Online Library, 2004. [27] Encyclopedia of Creativity, 2nd Edition. [28] Intuition Peak. (http:/ / data. aad. gov. au/ aadc/ gaz/ scar/ display_name. cfm?gaz_id=134566) SCAR Composite Gazetteer of Antarctica.

42

Further reading
Chopra, Deepak, and Judith Orloff. The Power of Intuition. Hay House, 2005. (Audio) ISBN 978-1401906221 Davis, Elizabeth. Women's Intuition. Celestial Arts, 1989. ISBN 978-0890875728 Mayer, Elizabeth Lloyd. Extraordinary Knowing: Science, Skepticism, and the Inexplicable Powers of the Human Mind. Bantam, 2008. ISBN 978-0553382235 McTaggart, Lynn. The Intention Experiment. Free Press, 2008. ISBN 978-0743276962 Schulz, Mona Lisa, and Christriane Northrup. Awakening Intuition. Three Rivers Press, 1999. ISBN 978-0-609-80424-7 Sheldrake, Rupert. Dogs That Know When Their Owners Are Coming Home: And Other Unexplained Powers of Animals. Three Rivers Press, 2000. ISBN 978-0609805336 Sheldrake, Rupert. The Sense of Being Stared At: And Other Aspects of the Extended Mind. Crown, 2003. ISBN 978-0609608074 Sheldrake, Rupert. Seven Experiments That Could Change the World: A Do-It-Yourself Guide to Revolutionary Science. Park Street Press, 2002. ISBN 978-0892819898 Wilde, Stuart Intuition. Hay House, 1996. (Audio) ISBN 978-1401906740 Wilde, Stuart. The Sixth Sense: Including the Secrets of the Etheric Subtle Body. Hay House, 2000. ISBN 978-1561705016 Levin, Michal. Spiritual Intelligence: Awakening the Power of Your Spirituality and Intuition. Hodder & Stoughton, 2000. ISBN 978-0340733943 Doc Childre and Howard Martin. The HEARTMATH Solution. HarperSanFrancisco, 1999. ISBN 978-0062516060 Hoeflich, Christine. What Everyone Believed: A Memoir of Intuition and Awakening. Between Worlds Publishing, 2008. ISBN 978-0979658907

Intuition (knowledge)

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External links
Nobel prize winner Daniel Kahneman on Intuition (http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/economics/laureates/ 2002/kahnemann-lecture.pdf) A scientific research group on intuition (http://www.intuition-sciences.com/) Ask Philosophers: Question on Intuition and Rationality (http://www.amherst.edu/askphilosophers/question/ 1533)

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Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors


File:Sensitiva (Miquel Blay, MRABASF E-76) 01.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Sensitiva_(Miquel_Blay,_MRABASF_E-76)_01.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: User:Zaqarbal File:Emotions.gif Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Emotions.gif License: Creative Commons Zero Contributors: Toddatkins File:Expression of the Emotions Figure 15.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Expression_of_the_Emotions_Figure_15.png License: Public Domain Contributors: Mr. T. W. Wood ("I am also greatly indebted to Mr. T. W. Wood for the extreme pains which he has taken in drawing from life the expressions of various animals." - p. 26) File:Face-smile.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Face-smile.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Bayo, Bdesham, Cwbm (commons), Csium137, Ecelan, EvaK, Fandecaisses, Gildemax, Lucideer, Lugiatm, Mikael Hggstrm, OsamaK, Rocket000, Sasa Stefanovic, Skalman, , 2 anonymous edits File:800px-Jeff in thailand4.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:800px-Jeff_in_thailand4.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Contributors: By Eleanor Silvers; Edited by ZooFari 00:11, 14 December 2008 (UTC) and Kamangir1214 File:Hotei, god of happiness at Jchi-ji temple.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Hotei,_god_of_happiness_at_Jchi-ji_temple.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Contributors: Andrea Schaffer from Sydney, Australia File:My Grandfather Photo from January 17.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:My_Grandfather_Photo_from_January_17.JPG License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0,2.5,2.0,1.0 Contributors: Diego Grez File:AnnapolisGraduation.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:AnnapolisGraduation.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: U.S. Navy Photographer's Mate 2nd Class Daniel J. McLain (RELEASED) File:Greek philosopher busts.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Greek_philosopher_busts.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Contributors: Matt Neale from UK File:Diogenes-statue-Sinop-enhanced.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Diogenes-statue-Sinop-enhanced.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Contributors: Diogenes-statue-Sinop.JPG: Tony f derivative work: Singinglemon (talk) File:Epikur Statue.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Epikur_Statue.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Contributors: Nobody60 File:AugustineBaptism.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:AugustineBaptism.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: AndreasPraefcke, G.dallorto, Irmgard, Mladifilozof, Skipjack File:Jeremy Bentham by Henry William Pickersgill detail.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Jeremy_Bentham_by_Henry_William_Pickersgill_detail.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Henry William Pickersgill (died 1875) Image:World happiness.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:World_happiness.png License: Public Domain Contributors: Andiecakes, Bezuidenhout, Blue Tie, Curaris, Qygen, Roketjack, 25 anonymous edits Image:Glass-of-water.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Glass-of-water.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Tysto

License

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License
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported http:/ / creativecommons. org/ licenses/ by-sa/ 3. 0/