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STUDYSMART CHEMISTRY FORM 6 CHAPTER 1 : MATTER

STUDYSMART CHEMISTRY FORM 6 CHAPTER 1 : MATTER 1.1 Fundamental Particles of Atoms 1.2 Relative atomic

1.1 Fundamental Particles of Atoms

1.2 Relative atomic masses and Relative molecular masses

1.3 Mass spectrometry

1.4 Mole Concept and Avogadro Constant

1.1 FUNDAMENTAL PARTICLES OF ATOMS

Particles in nucleus are called nucleons which are made up of proton and neutrons

Nucleus is surrounded by a cloud of electron

Electron
Electron

FUNDAMENTAL PARTICLES

@

SUBATOMIC PARTICLES

Neutron
Neutron
Proton
Proton

Effect of Electric Field and Magnetic Fields on Subatomic Particles

ELECTRIC FIELD
ELECTRIC FIELD

From the above diagram, electron deflected to positive plate because electron is negatively charged. Therefore it will deflect toward opposite charge plate (positive charge)

Proton deflected to negative plate because proton is positively charged. Therefore it will deflect toward opposite charge plate (negative charge)

Neutron does not deflect to positive or negative plate because neutron is neutral subatomic particles.

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MAGNETIC FIELD
MAGNETIC FIELD

The angle of deflection of electron, β is higher than deflection angle of proton, α. This is because, electron is far more lighter than proton making slightly bigger angle of deflection than proton

Proton Number and Nucleon Number

Proton number of an element is the number of proton in its atom

Nucleon number of an element is the total number of proton and neutrons in its atom

is the total number of proton and neutrons in its atom  Charged Species  Atoms

is the total number of proton and neutrons in its atom  Charged Species  Atoms

Charged Species

Atoms and Molecules does not contain charged, but ions contain charge example, Al 3+ . Therefore all ions are known as charged particles

Ions contain two charged, Positive Charge (Cations), an d Negative Charge (Anions)

Positive charged ions formed when an atom loses electron to achieve stable electron arrangements.

Negative charged ions formed when an atom accept electron to achieve stable electron arrangements.

The number stated in charge indicate the number of electron released or accepted

Examples of Cations Aluminium

- Proton Number is 13

- Electron arrangement is 2.8.3

- In order to achieve stable electron arrangement, Aluminium atom loses 3 electron and becomes Al 3+ ion

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Examples of Anions Chlorine

- Proton Number is 17

- Electron arrangement is 2.8.7

- In order to achieve stable electron arrangement, Chlorine atom accept 1 electron and becomes Cl - ion

Some species of ions contain more than one atom in it. This is called polyatomic ions

Examples of polyatomic ions are OH (hydroxide ion) NO 3 - (nitrate ion) CO 3 2- (carbonate ion) NH 4 + (ammonium ion) MnO 4 2- (manganate ion) SO 4 2- (sulphate ion)

Isotopes

Isotopes are elements which have same number of proton but different number on nucleon and neutron

Example : isotopes of Hydrogen

1

1 H

Hydrogen

2 1 H

Deuterium

3 1 H

Tritium

Isotopes have different physical properties such as melting point, boiling point, density and rate of diffusion

Some isotopes are unstable. These unstable isotopes are known as radioactive isotopes (Radioisotopes).

These isotopes disintegrate spontaneously by emitting alpha-particles ( 2 4 He 2+ ), beta-particles

( 0 1 e ), and gamma-rays (γ rays). All these 3 rays are known as electromagnetic waves with very short wavelength. This disintegration is known as radioactive decay.

Unstable nucleus will continuously undergo radioactive decay until it’s become stable.

1.2 RELATIVE ATOMIC MASSES AND RELATIVE MOLECULAR MASSES

Relative Atomic Mass A r

A single atom is two small and light and cannot weighed directly

The best way to determine the mass of a single atom is to compare its mass to the mass of another atoms of an element that is used

Hydrogen was the first element to be chosen as the standard for comparing masses because the hydrogen is the lightest atom with a mass 1.0 a.m.u. (atomic mass unit)

Example

hydrogen is the lightest atom with a mass 1.0 a.m.u. (atomic mass unit)  Example 3

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The masses of 1 helium atom is 4 times larger than 1 hydrogen atom.Therefore the RAM of Helium is 4

On the hydrogen scale, the RAM of an elements mean the mass of one atom of the element compared to the mass of a single hydrogen atom.

Note that RAM does not have any units

The new standard used today is the carbon-12 atom. RAM based on carbon-12 scale is the mass of one atom of element compared to 1/12 mass of an atom of carbon-12

Example

compared to 1/12 mass of an atom of carbon-12  Example RAM of Mg = 2

RAM of Mg

= 2 (The average mass of one atom of the element)

= 2 .

1/12

= 24

1/12

Relative Molecular Mass, M r

RMM of a molecules

= the average mass of one molecules

.

1/12 x the mass of an atom of carbon-12

The relative molecular mass of molecules can be calculated by adding up the RAM of all atoms that are present in the molecules.

SUBSTANCE

RMM

Hydrogen Gas, H 2

2 x A r of H = 2 x 1 = 2

Ammonia, NH 3

A r of N + 3(A r of H) = 14 + 3(1) = 17

Sodium Chloride,

A r of Na + A r of Cl = 23 + 35.5 = 58.5

NaCl

Hydrated Magnesium Sulphate, MgSO 4 .7H 2 O

A r of Mg + A r of S + 4(A r of O) + 14(A r of H) + 7(A r of O) = 24 + 32 + 4(16) + 14(1) + 7(16) = 246

Relative Isotopic Mass

The carbon-12 isotopes is chosen as the standard for comparing the masses of other isotopes. This is known as carbon scale.

The Relative Isotopic Mass is defined as the ration of the mass of one atom of isotopes to 1/12 of mass of one atom of carbon-12 isotopes

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1.3 MASS SPECTROMETRY



Stage 1: Ionisation The atom is ionised by knocking one or more electrons off to give a positive ion. This is true even for things which you would normally expect to form negative ions (chlorine, for example) or never form ions at all (argon, for example). Mass spectrometers always work with positive ions.

Stage 2: Acceleration The ions are accelerated so that they all have the same kinetic energy.

Stage 3: Deflection The ions are then deflected by a magnetic field according to their masses. The lighter they are, the more they are deflected. The amount of deflection also depends on the number of positive charges on the ion - in other words, on how many electrons were knocked off in the first stage. The more the ion is charged, the more it gets deflected.

Stage 4: Detection The beam of ions passing through the machine is detected electrically.

Isotopes abundance

Isotopes abundance is the abundance of each isotopes in the mixture

It can be expressed in term of fractional abundance or percentage abundance

It is also can be expressed in form of isotopic ratio

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Interpreting Mass Spectra in term of Relative Abundance of Isotopes

The Mass Spectrum of Boron

Abundance of Isotopes  The Mass Spectrum of Boron  The spectrum is also can be

The spectrum is also can be changed to line chart

Boron  The spectrum is also can be changed to line chart  From the diagrams,

From the diagrams, we can see two peaks at 10 m/e and 11 m/e. This shows that boron consist of two isotopes, 10 B and 11 B

In term of relative abundance, 10 B is 20% while 11 B is 80%. This shows that Boron-11 is 4 times more abundant than boron-10. Ratio of relative abundance of Boron-10 to Boron-11 is 1:4.

Interpreting Mass Spectra in term of Molecular Fragment

The mass spectrum of methane, CH 4

Molecular Fragment  The mass spectrum of methane, CH 4  From the above mass spectrum

From the above mass spectrum diagram, CH 4 + ion is called the molecular ion (M) or the parent ion of which have m/e value if 16, corresponding to the relative molecular mass of methane

The other lines (m/e values of 12,13,14,15) are caused by the ions or molecular fragments

In natural, 99% of carbon is carbon-12 isotopes and only 1% of carbon-13 which will show peak (M+1). The M+1 can be ignored in determining the Relative molecular mass of the compound

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Determining Relative Atomic Mass from Mass Spectrometry

Relative atomic mass (A r ) = ah 1 + bh 2 + ch 3 + … h 1 + h 2 + h 3 + …

Example 1 : To find relative atomic mass of X

+ …  Example 1 : To find relative atomic mass of X Therefore, the Relative

Therefore, the Relative Atomic Mass of X is,

= (10 x 20) + (11 x 80) 20 + 80

= 10.80

With reference of the Periodic Table, the element X is Boron.

1.4 MOLE CONCEPT AND AVOGADRO CONSTANT

One mole = 12 grams of carbon-12

One mole contains 6.02 x 10 23 numbers of atoms. This is known as Avogadro Constant

Molar mass = Relative atomic mass BUT, Relative atomic mass does not have any units, but molar mass have unit, g mol -1

Volume occupied by 1 mol of any gas is called the molar volume

There are 2 types of molar volume

a) At s.t.p (Standard Temperature and Pressure) Molar volume = 22.4 dm 3 The condition for s.t.p are 0°C and 1 atm pressure

b) At r.t.p ( Room Temperature and Pressure) Molar volume = 24 dm 3 The condition for s.t.p are 21°C and 1 atm pressure

General relationship in mole concept

x Molar Mass ÷ N A Number of mole Mass Number of Particles x N
x Molar Mass
÷
N A
Number of mole
Mass
Number of Particles
x N A
÷ Molar Mass
x
Molar Volume
÷ Molar Volume
Volume

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Concentration of a solution can be measured as mass of solute per dm -3 of solution (g dm -3 ) or moles of solute per dm -3 (mol dm -3 ) [KNOWN AS MOLARITY OF SOLUTION]

Number of solute = MV

1000

For the reaction between A and B aA + bB Product

M A V A

M B V B

a

b

For standard solution

Thus, moles of solute before dilution = moles of solute after dilution

M 1

x

V 1

=

M 2

x

V 2

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