Sie sind auf Seite 1von 111

:

, ,

'- -

" 2009

33

:
, ,
- -

,-.
.

,2009

,20 92186
http://www.jiis.org
http://www.jiis.org.il
E-mail: machon@jiis.org.il


" '- - ,
.
- ,
.
, , .

.



.
, - , , , , ,
, , , , , ,
, , , , , , ,
, , , , ,
, , , , , , ,
, , .

;
.
, ,
.


9
.1 13
.1.1 13
.1.1.1 , : 13
.
.1.1.2 15
.
.1.2 18
.2 19
.3 25
.3.1 25
.3.2 26
.4 29
.4.1 29
.4.1.1 29
.
.4.1.2 30
.
.4.2 33
.4.2.1 33
.
.4.2.2 34
.
.4.3
36
.
.5 47
.5.1
47
.
.5.1.1
.
.. 47

.5.1.2
.
.. 48
.5.2 67
.6 71
.6.1- 71
.6.2 71
.6.3 72
.7 83 GIS-
.7.1 83
.7.2 84
.8 87
.8.1 87
.8.1.1 87
.
.8.1.2 90
.
.8.2 , 90
.8.2.1
.
.. 91
.8.2.2 98
.
.8.3 : 99
.8.4 101
.9 103
iii Abstract


' :1 19
' :2
(2000) Richardson et al. 25 .(2004) Pyek et al.
.
' :3 26
' :4 36
' :5 50
' :6 53
' :7 67
' :8
73
.
' :9 " , 85


' :1 14
' :2 15
' :3 , 17
' :4 - 17
' :5 54
' :6 54 .
' :7 55 .
' :8 56 .
' :9 57
' :10 , 58 .
' :11 58
' :12 59
' :13 -60 .
' :14 . 61 .
' :15 , 62
' :16 63 .
' :17 64

' :18 65
' :19 65
' :20 66
' :21 66 .
' :22 ( ) 88
' :23 89 .
' :24
91 2006
.
' :25
(. 92 )2006
' :26 93 .
' :27 2005 95 .2006
' :28 96 .
' :29 97 2006
' :30 99
' :31
100
.

:
.
( ,)Dafni & Heller, 1980, 1990
,
( .)Danin, 2000, 2004
, , .
,
.
: ,
, ,
, . ,
-
. ,


.
: 60-
, , .
, , ,
.
: )1( :
,
; ( )2
; ( )3 ,
)4(- GIS
;
().
9


:
, .
" " ,
, . 83 , 67
54 : 9 , 4- " ( 3
); " 16 " , .
83 17 , 1
. 42 26 , 15-
. )1( :
)2( , , )3(-
. .
)1( : )2( ,
)3(-

.
:
.
, ( )1 "" 50-;
( )2 "" 50 200-; ( )3 ""
200- 100- , )4(- " "
200 100- .
)1( : "" :
)2( , "" 1 10
)3(- "" 10- .
)1( :
, )2(-
.
,
. , , , 100

1

: , .

10

. , ,
, ,
. , ,
50- , ,)1998( Myers et al -
. 50 200- ( )
,
.
. (Mack & Lonsdale,
.)2002
( .)D'Antonio & Meyerson, 2002,
, , ""
. "" , 200
100- , . ,
, ,
- . " "
, 200 100- ,
, .
, .
,
, , .
"" .
10-
, .
10- , .
.
: ' 'Naturalized' ,'Invasive 'Casual'-
(2000) Richardson et al. .(2004) Pyek et al.
:
.
( :) ( ,2)
2
.
11

,(-) .
.
, ,
,
.
: 15
.
.


210 , 45- .
22 6 , - 17- - - .
, :,
,
( 62% ) 71% . ' 20% ,'invasive
' 'naturalized 9% ' .'casual
, 72% "" "" . 8
39% 15% .
.
,
,
,
.

12

.1
1.1
1.1.1 , :
' ' ( )alien plant species
)2004( Pyek et al. " ,
, ,
" . :
"() any plant taxa in a given area () whose presence there is due to intentional
or unintentional human involvement, or which have arrived there without
the help of people from an area in which they are alien".

,
.
' ' ' ' .
, ,
, (.)1999
(2004) Pyek et al. ,
, .
.
''.
)2003( Wilson
"
" . :
"A species of plant () that is both alien to the environment in which it lives
and destructive in some manner to the environment and its inhabitants".


.
13

,
(- .)2005 ,
. ,
(")
( 15 , ,)2008 "
.
( )Eichhornia crassipes (Carpobrotus
)edulis ( ' 1 ' .)2

' :1 100- .
. 2000-
, , .
14

' :2
, . .

1.1.2

, - (.)Wilson, 2001, 2003
, .

: , ,
,
/ ,
, , .
15

:
, (Flannery
.)& Shcouten, 2001
, , .)2004( Gurevitch & Padilla
,
.
,
,
.
() , ,
.
,
, .
,
.
( ' 3 ' .)4

:
( )1 ,
.
.
( )2 , .
50- - ,
.
,
, .
,
,
.
''
.
16

' :3 ,
:
(
) ,
.
.


.
' :4 - (
)
.


.
17

1.2
:
( )1
. : ,
, " . '
' .
.
( )2 .
,
. -
.
( )3 .

, .
.

.
( )4 .
GIS GIS-
(") .
GIS- ".
2006.2007-

18

.2
, 83 , . 67 54 :
9 , , 4- " . 16
, .
, , .
90 , 83-
.
83 17 ,
.
, ' 1
. ' 1 ' 26 ( 26) , ' 27
' 68 ( 42) ' 69 ' 83
( 15).
' :1
'

"
. .

705402

20360

20850

643000

70250

21270

20380

20370

172000

19

'

"
. .

20260

10

683500

11

20400

12

20310

13

697090

196170

14

631590

169230

15

21710

16

20730

17

20820

18

70140

19

21280

20

20790

21

641100

196150

22

635600

211375

23

20691

24

70080

25

21940

26

20280

27

10820

28

11190

29

11210

30

11180

20

188300

'

"
. .

31

11270

32

11200

33

50300

34

755100

35

11380

36

730700

"

37

11040

38

11610

39

11050

40

10970

41

10870

42

50020

43

10040

44

10120

45

10450

46

10371

47

10340

48

774000

257500

49

779250

256350

"

50

10500

51

10540

52

10420

210245

250000

21

'

"
. .

53

10430

54

10390

55

767630

"

56

11260

57

11320

58

10110

59

709294

60

11140

61

11120

62

11160

63

50230

64

60090

65

60050

66

21300

67

20140

68

20080

69

30120

70

30241

71

30050

72

20530

73

589250

188450

. .

74

628572

245661

22

247890

249278

'

"
. .

75

590500

175200

76

583636

237651

77

565700

149302

78

30100

79

556380

80

40070

81

40050

82

393300

198500

"

"

83

421800

204800

182650

23

.3

3.1
210 , 45- .
)71%( 32 ' 'invasive )2000( Richardson et al.
)2004( Pysek et al.- ' 2.
' :2
- (2000) Richardson et al.- (2004) Pyek et al.

Casual

, ,
, .

.

Naturalized

, ,
10 .

Invasive

' 'Naturalized
,
.
100' 50 , 6'
.

45 ' 3 .
. , ''invasive
, ' 'naturalized
' .'casual 'invasive'- ,
' 3.'invasive'-
25

3.2

210- ,
.
. sensu stricto
, ' 3
.
.
' :3
'


Pinus brutia

Invasive

Melia azedarach

Invasive

Ailanthus altissima

Invasive

Invasive

Casual

Eucalyptus
camaldulensis

Myriophyllum aquaticum

Ambrosia confertiflora

Naturalized

Aster subulatus

Invasive

[
]

Cyperus imbricatus

Casual

Cyperus odoratus

Naturalized

10

Datura stramonium

Invasive

11

Washingtonia robusta

Invasive

12

Verbesina encelioides

Invasive

26

Invasive

Pennisetum clandestinum

Invasive

Casual

Invasive

Invasive

Invasive

Invasive

Invasive

Invasive

Lantana camara

Naturalized

Tipuana tipu

Invasive

Invasive

Oenothera drummondii

Invasive

Solanum elaeagnifolium

Naturalized

Phytolacca americana

Invasive

Ficus benghalensis

Naturalized

Ficus benjamina

Invasive

Naturalized

27

'
-

13

Oxalis pes-caprae

14

Pistia stratiotes

15

Nicotiana glauca

16

17

18

Eichhornia crassipes

19

Xanthium strumarium

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

Ficus religiosa

29

Schinus molle

30

Invasive

Schinus terebinthifolius

31

Invasive

Schinus lentiscifolius

32

Heterotheca subaxillaris
Prosopis juliflora

Atriplex holocarpa

Invasive

Invasive

Invasive

Invasive

Invasive

'

33

34

35

Conyza canadensis

36

Ricinus communis

37

Naturalized

Robinia pseudoacacia

38

Naturalized

Acacia paradoxa

39

Invasive

Acacia saligna

40

Casual

Acacia sclerosperma
subsp. sclerosperma

41

Invasive

Acacia cyclops

42

Naturalized

Acacia farnesiana

43

Invasive

Acacia victoriae

44

Invasive

Acacia salicina

45

Parkinsonia aculeata
Carpobrotus edulis
Populus alba

28

.4
,
( , ) .

.
.


. 100 , , ,
100
, ,
.

4.1

4.1.1
/
:
: "" .
1- 50- ( .) :
2- 50 200- ( .) :
3- 200- ,
100 ( 10) ( .) :
3- 200-,
100- ( 10) ( .) :
.
29

4.1.2
, ,
. 50 200- , 100
, , ,
.
( , , )

.
:
, ( )% . ,
, , 50% ,
50%
, . ,
,
, ,
.
, ''' ,' '-'
50' :' ''
''; ' 200' '' '' .
''
' ' . 100 .

. ,
,
.
( 1- ) : 50-
: ,
. , 100%-
. , .
, ,
' ' : )2002( Rejmanek & Pitcairn
30

; Panetta & Lawes


( )2005 )2002( Wotherspoon & Wotherspoon .


. . ,
, ''
.)2005( Panetta & Lawes

(
) ,
3
.
( 2- ) : 50
200- : -
.
,
. ( 50-) , 200-50
, ,
("
") . , ,
( ,)Weber, 2003
100- .
.
) ,(Mack & Lonsdale, 2002
. ,
200-50 .
( 3- ) :
200 ,
. , ''
100- ' '
100-.

3 ,
.
31

' 100' , 10 ( 0.1",)2


)2002( Rejmnek & Pitcairn )2004( Panetta & Timmins
- . Rejmnek & Pitcairn
( ,)2002 1,000- , 10,000 ,
.
)2004( Panetta & Timmins ,
' 1,000'
)2002( Pitcairn & Rejmnek : 1,000
, Panetta
(2004) & Timmins '' )types of impedance( 4
. , ,
'' ,
(' ,)'detectability .
.)2002( Rejmnek & Pitcairn
,)2004( Panetta & Timmins 100- ,

.
10 , 100 ,
. , Rejmnek
,)2002( & Pitcairn , ,
100 )1( :
,
1,000-100 ( ,); ( )2

; ( )3 ,
. ( 10) ,
, ,
.
, '' ' '
: 200 , : 100-.

, .

32

3- ( ) : 200
100- : ,
.
, 200 ,
100- , . ,
, ,
.
.
)2002( Wotherspoon & Wotherspoon "."control to zero density

.
3- ( ) : 200
100- :
, 50-
.
(.)containment

4.2

4.2.1
,
. ,
,
. 4.2.2:
: "" .
1- (
.) :
2- 10-
( .) :
33

3- 10-( .
.) :

4.2.2
,
.
.
.
,
, GIS .

. .
,
:
( )1 (- , );
( )2 (;)eradication
( )3 .
1- (0.1
) . ,
, ,
( , ) . ( )

5.
; ''
.
. ( 0.1) , 1,000' 2 ,
,
.
5

34

,
"" .
. .
2- 10-
( 0.1 1) . ,
(
100 ) . ,

. , '' ''
.
3- 10- (1
) . , ,
. 10
( 6) 7.

. ,
.
10 , ,
.
,

.

, ,
,
, .

6 ,
. Donald
)1983( & Kirby-Smith )1987( Mc Dermott glyphosate
.
7 .
35

4.3

' ,4 , .
( 4.1.)4.2-
' :4
'
'

= : = = =
( )4.1-
= : = = ( )4.2

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

36

'
'

= : = = =
( )4.1-
= : = = ( )4.2

17

18

19

20

21

22

10

23

10

24

10

25

10

26

10

27

10

28

11

29

12

30

12

31

13

32

13

33

13

34

13

35

13

36

13

37

13

38

13

37

'
'

= : = = =
( )4.1-
= : = = ( )4.2
39

14

40

14

41

14

42

14

43

14

44

15

45

15

46

16

47

17

48

17

49

18

50

18

51

18

52

18

53

19

54

19

55

20

56

21

57

22

58

22

59

22

60

22

38

'
'

= : = = =
( )4.1-
= : = = ( )4.2

61

23

62

23

63

23

64

23

65

24

66

24

67

24

68

24

69

24

70

25

71

25

72

25

73

25

74

26

75

27

76

27

77

27

78

27

39

'
'

= : = = =
( )4.1-
= : = = ( )4.2
79

28

80

28

81

28

82

28

83

28

84

28

85

28

86

28

87

29

88

29

89

29

90

29

91

29

92

29

93

29

94

30

95

30

40

'
'

= : = = =
( )4.1-
= : = = ( )4.2
96

31

97

31

98

31

99

31

100

31

101

31

102

31

103

32

104

33

105

34

106

35

107

36

"

108

37

109

37

110

37

111

37

112

37

113

38

114

39

115

39

116

39

117

40

41

'
'

= : = = =
( )4.1-
= : = = ( )4.2

118

41

119

41

120

42

121

42

122

42

123

43

124

43

125

43

126

44

127

45

128

45

129

45

130

46

131

46

132

46

133

46

42

'
'

= : = = =
( )4.1-
= : = = ( )4.2
134

47

135

47

136

47

137

47

138

47

139

47

140

47

141

48

142

48

143

49

144

49

145

49

[
]

146

49

147

49

148

49

149

50

150

51

151

52

152

52

153

52

"

43

'
'

= : = = =
( )4.1-
= : = = ( )4.2
154

53

155

53

156

54

157

55

"

158

56

159

56

160

56

161

57

162

58

163

59

164

60

165

60

166

61

167

61

168

61

169

61

170

62

171

63

172

63

173

63

174

63

44

'
'

= : = = =
( )4.1-
= : = = ( )4.2
175

64

176

65

177

65

178

66

179

66

180

66

181

67

182

68

183

68

184

69

185

70

186

70

187

71

188

71

189

71

190

71

191

71

192

71

193

72

194

72

195

72

196

72

45

'
'

= : = = =
( )4.1-
= : = = ( )4.2
197

73

198

73

199

74

200

74

201

75

202

75

203

76

204

77

205

78

206

78

207

78

208

78

209

79

210

80

211

81

212

82

"

"

213

83

46

.5

5.1

5.1.1


.
,

.
. ( ' 2' ,)3
.
:
( )Casual, Naturalized, Invasive
.
' 'naturalized ' 'invasive
( Minimum Residence Time) (Pyek
.)& Jarosk, 2005; Richardson & Pyek, 2006; Rejmanek et al., 2005 ,,
( )Lantana camara 30- ''naturalized
' 'invasive .)Soria et al., 2002( 70-
, , ( )Parkinsonia aculeata
)Sawer, 1922( 20- ,'invasive' ,
( 70- .)2005 ,-
.
' 'invasive
. ' ' '
' .
47

,
. ,6

.
.
,
,
. , ( ,)Lantana camara 100
( ,)Lowe et al., 2004 , ,
,
8. , ( ,)Acacia victoriae
,
, . ,
;
. ,
'' , ' 'Weed Risk Assessment
.
, (,)Groves et al., 2001
( )Randall et al., 2001 (.)Daehler et al., 2004

5.1.2


.
Benton ,Randall , )2001( Morse-
)1( : ;
( )2 ; ( )3 ,
)4(- .


8

48

.
- .
, ,
, .

.

:
.1 ,
.
(' ;)'allelopathy
, ,pH-
.

.2 .

. ,
.
""
' .'
.
, '' .
:
, .
, ,
, ( ) (
, ) , , ,
.
49

.3
.
( .)Daehler et al., 2004

, , .
' , ' ,
.
:

. , ,
, (
) .
,
.
''
' .5
' :5

50

'' ' 1' 8


, .
:
( )1
;
( )2
;
( )3
;
( )4
. ,


.
( ) ,
,
;
( )5
,
.
.
, - ,
.
,
, , -
.

,
.
:
51

( )1 , .

"" ;
( )2 ,
.
, - ( ,) ,
( ) .

;
( )3 ,
,
. ,
.
. , ,
.


,
, ,
.
. , :,
.
.
' '3
. ' '7
. ' '13
.
(
' .)6 , ,
"1"- " "8
.
52

" , "1
;"0"- " "8

" ."23
. ' ' ' '
' .6
' :6

= 3



= 7



= 13

10

13

16

20

23

:1
, ,
( = .)0
.
: (( )Acacia paradoxa ' )5 -
(( )Robinia pseudoacacia ' .)6

-
.
53

' :5
.

.



.

(Richardson,
.)pers. com.

' :6 . , .
.19-
54

,
.
( ' .)7

' :7 .

:2
,
( =
.)3 .
: (( )Lantana camara ' )8
(( )Phytolacca americana ' .)9
55

' :8- .

. International-
) Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN
( .)Lowe et al., 2004 ,


, ( - .)2005 ,,
, .
40- (;Soria et al., 2002
.)Tye, 2001 , ,
,
. , ,
.
56

' :9 . , ,
(.)Kim et al., 2007

:3
,
, ( = .)7
, ,
, . ,
.
: (( )Atriplex holocarpa ' )10
(( )Washingtonia robusta ' .)11
-
.
.
57


' :10
,

' :11

.
58

:4 :
,
. (
= .)10 = 3 + 7
: (( )Solanum eleagnifolium ' .)12
, .
.

:12 .

:5 ,

( = .)13 ,
59

.

.
: - (( )Datura stramonium )13
(( )Ricinus communis .)14

' :13 - .
. ,
.

60

:14 . .

:6
, ,
( = .)16 = 3 + 13
( )13 , ,
, . ,
, .
.
: (( )Melia azedarach ' .)15
.
(
) .
.
61

' :15 , .

:7
,
( = .)20 = 7 + 13
.
.
: (( )Acacia saligna ' )16
(( )Heterotheca subaxillaris ' .)17

62

' :16 .

,

.

.

63

' :17 .

:8
:

( = .)23 = 3 + 7 + 13
,7
.
: (( )Ailanthus altissima ' ,)18
(( )Carpobrotus edulis ' ,)19 (( )Verbesina encelioides
( )Inderjit et al., 1999; Shluker, 2002 ' )20 (Eichhornia
( )crassipes ' .)21
64

' :18
.

:






.

' :19


.

''

pH-
,


.
65

' :20 .

' :21 . , ,
pH- .
66

,
,
.
, ,
,
( .)6

5.2

' ( 7)
. .5.1.1
.
' :7

Carpobrotus edulis

Eichhornia crassipes

Pistia stratiotes

Ailanthus altissima

Myriophyllum aquaticum

Verbesina encelioides

Acacia saligna

Heterotheca subaxillaris

Xanthium strumarium

Acacia cyclops

Pennisetum clandestinum


-
-

67

Schinus terebinthifolius

Schinus lentiscifolius

Acacia victoriae

Populus alba

Pinus halepensis

Pinus brutia

Ficus benghalensis

Melia azedarach

Nicotiana glauca

Datura stramonium

Ambrosia confertiflora

Oxalis pes-caprae

Ricinus communis

Solanum elaeagnifolium

Oenothera drummondii

Eucalyptus camaldulensis

Schinus molle

Tipuana tipu

Acacia farnesiana

Parkinsonia aculeata

Washingtonia robusta

Cyperus odoratus

Prosopis juliflora

68

69

Acacia salicina

Ficus religiosa

Ficus benjamina

Atriplex holocarpa

Lantana camara

Phytolacca americana

Conyza canadensis

Acacia paradoxa

Robinia pseudoacacia

Cyperus imbricatus

Aster subulatus

Acacia sclerosperma subsp.


sclerosperma








] [

.6


.

6.1-

5 .4


- ,
, .
- : ,

9,-
.

.
(;Mack & Lonsdale, 2002 ;D'Antonio & Meyerson, 2002
Timmins & ;Simberloff ,2003 ; Rejmanek et al., 2005 ;Rejmanek & Pitcairn, 2002
.)Wotherspoon & Wotherspoon, 2002 ;Braithwaite, 2002

6.2
, ,
:
9 , ,
.
71

' :1 ' 7' .8


.
' :2 ' 5' .6
,
.
' :3 ' 3' .4
,
.
' :4 ' 1' .2 ,
- - ,
.

' ( 1 ' 7'
,)8 ,
.
, , .
-
,
. , 10SLOSS-
,
' 'single large '.'several small

6.3
' 8
.
.Single large or several small = SLOSS 10 70-
.
72

' ( 1 ' 7' :)8


1 : = ( ,1-)1-
1 = ( ,2-)2-
:
11
1 : = (( 3- -) ,)3-
' ( 2 ' 5' :)6
2 =
:
2 : =
2 =
:
' :8
.
(1)
'
'
-

10

11

12

13

11

. .8.1
73

'
'
-

2
1

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

10

23

10

24

10

25

10

26

10

27

10

28

11

29

12

30

12

31

13

32

13

33

13

34

13

35

13

36

13

37

13

38

13

74

'
'
-

39

14

40

14

41

14

42

14

43

14

44

15

45

15

46

16

47

17

48

17

49

18

50

18

51

18

52

18

53

19

54

19

55

20

56

21

57

22

58

22

59

22

60

22

75

'
'
-

61

23

62

23

63

23

64

23

65

24

66

24

67

24

68

24

69

24

70

25

71

25

72

25

73

25

74

26

75

27

76

27

77

27

78

27

76

'
'
-

79

28

80

28

81

28

82

28

83

28

84

28

85

28

86

28

87

29

88

29

89

29

90

29

91

29

92

29

93

29

94

30

95

30

96

31

97

31

98

31

99

31

100

31

101

31

102

31

77

'
'
-

103

32

104

33

105

34

106

35

107

36

"

108

37

109

37

110

37

111

37

112

37

113

38

114

39

115

39

116

39

117

40

118

41

119

41

120

42

121

42

122

42

123

43

124

43

125

43

126

44

78

'
'
-

1
1
2

127

45

128

45

129

45

130

46

131

46

132

46

133

46

134

47

135

47

136

47

137

47

138

47

139

47

140

47

141

48

142

48

143

49

144

49

145

49

[
]

146

49

147

49

148

49

149

50

150

51

"

79

'
'
-

151

52

152

52

153

52

154

53

155

53

156

54

157

55

"

158

56

159

56

160

56

161

57

162

58

163

59

164

60

165

60

166

61

167

61

168

61

169

61

170

62

171

63

172

63

173

63

174

63

80

'
'
-

175

64

176

65

177

65

178

66

179

66

180

66

181

67

182

68

183

68

184

69

185

70

186

70

187

71

188

71

189

71

190

71

191

71

192

71

193

72

194

72

195

72

196

72

197

73

198

73

. .

81

'
'
-

2
1

199

74

200

74

201

75

202

75

203

76

204

77

205

78

206

78

207

78

208

78

209

79

210

80

211

81

212

82

"

"

213

83

32 , ,213 ,15%
.
, , .
.

82

.7 GIS-
,1.2
. GIS GIS-
.
GIS- .
, ,GIS
.
. ,
, .
( )7.1 ( )items
.)7.2( GIS-

7.1
Excel .GIS 15:
( )1
( )2
( )3
( )4
( )5
( )6
( )7
( )8
( )9
( )10
( )11
( )12

;
;
, ..
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
83

( )13 ;
( )14 ;
( )15 .

7.2
( )1 :
.
( )2 : 1.82-
( )3 ( ") .
" . ..
( )4
.
( )5 : 5-( :) ( ,) ( ,)
( ,) " (-) ".
( )6 : Myriophyllum aquaticum :Cyperus-
imbricatus . -
:- . imbricatus .

( )7 .
( )8 () :
. 21-
.
, . , ' ,9
:

84

' :9 " ,

Ailanthus altissima

90000020

Myriophyllum aquaticum

90000100

Ambrosia confertiflora.

90000080

Cyperus imbricatus

90000110

Cyperus odoratus

90000111

Washingtonia robusta

95556111

Pistia stratiotes

90000050

Prosopis juliflora

90000030

Eichhornia crassipes

90000040

Ficus benghalensis

90000091

Ficus benjamina

90000092

Ficus religiosa

90000090

Schinus molle

90055551

Schinus terebinthifolius

90055553

Schinus lentiscifolius

90055552

Carpobrotus edulis

90000010

Acacia paradoxa

90000065

Acacia sclerosperma subsp


sclerosperma

90000069

Acacia cyclops

90000063

Acacia victoriae

90000060

Acacia salicina

90000067

[ ]






( )9 ' :'' ,',


'-'' , -'' , -'' ,'' , -',
' -'' , ' (' 'Helophyt
85

)' , ' (' 'Hydrophyt , ,


) .
.)1934( Raunkir , '',
'' ' ,
.
( )10 2005 .2007
.
( )11
, .
( )12
' 4' .6 :GIS-
= 3 ;2 ;1 .
= 1 ; 1 = 2 10; = 3 10.
= 14 ;13 ;12 ;11 .
= 11 50-; 50 = 12 200; = 13 200
100-; = 14 200 100-.
( )13
'' ' '
.
" .
1:5,000 .1:20,000-
, GIS .
.)ArcView 9( GIS
.

( )14 Richardson et al.,
) (2000 .(2004) Pyek et al.

( )15 ( )
' .6
86

.8
8.1
8.1.1
( )Pinus halepensis .
45
,
. , ,
.

.
'' :
() ,
, ()Van Zeist & Bottema, 1991
, .
,
,
.
() , ,
,
( .)Babero et al., 1990
,
, (,)Quercus ilex
. ,
, .
,
. ,
:
87

.1

', '
, ,
. ,
,
'' .

.2


. , "
.
. ,
. ,
.

.3

( , ,
) ,
.

:22 ( ).
88

.4

, :
( )
. , , ,
.

.5


, ,,
( ' .)22
, ,
. ,
, .
:
.

( ' .)23

' :23 .
.
. .
89

8.1.2
,
:
() , " " ,
,
.
.
() , ,
, .

8.2 ,

, ,
, :
( )1 .
100
(.)Lowe, 2004
( )2 , ,Myriophyllum aquaticum
.
100" (!) ( ,)Parsons & Cuthbertson, 2001
600 2
(.)Bossard et al., 2000
( )3 ,-
( ,).
90

8.2.1


.2005
21- .2005 ( )750,750 ;210,000
. 7,150 ,' , 69%
. " ,
( 22 )2006
( ' .)24

' :24 .2006


2007 2008
. , ",
.
91


(
12.5 :1994-' 800 , 1.5-' ) . ,
, 300' , 37.5% ( 288'
314-' ) . ,
. ,2004
. .
( ' .)25

' :25 ( .)2006

,
,
.
92

, .
; .



( .)730,700;250,000 1,950'
.

( ).
600' , 31% ( ' .)26
.
.
,2000 .

' :26

.

.
93


2005
. . 696,150 196,500 . ,
. 2005 5,200'
27% . ,
, .2006
2- 2006
( ' )27
, . 10- 2006
.
2006
(. 696,150 196,500 . ) . 4,200'
22% . . 2007-
.


.2005 100-
' (. .)636500 169500 . .
2005
, 30- .2006
( ' .)28
14- 2006
.2005 , ,
.

94


:27

2005
()

2006
()

.
95


:28

.2006-2005
96


.

.2003 .2003
100% 39.
10- ( 2006
' .)29

' :29 .2006

2007 ,
.

97

8.2.2
,
:
()
;
() ,
.
, .
.

;
() ,
.
, ,8.2
, .
,
,

.
' ,6
.
( ' ,)101 -
( ' ,)157 ('1')
.
( ' 141' )142 ('1')
('1') .
,
. '1'
,
'1.'1
98

8.3 :

,
( ,)Parson & Cuthbertson, 2001 (Bossard
,)et al., 2000 61% :
, 50%-
.
, 65%
, 35% .

,

:30
.
99

, , , .
:
, .
, ,
.

.
,
.
, , ,
, ( ' )30 ( ' ( )31-
2007 ,2007 ,).

' :31 ,
.
100

8.4
,
( )72% . :

( .)4
"- " . 42%
.
,
( )46% ,7- 39%-
.20- 15% , 10
.16-

, ,

( ,)Henderson, 2001 ( )Randall et al., 2001 (& Parsons
.)Cuthbertson, 2001
, ,
.
, ,

.

101

.9
,)2005( "-
. .
,)2007( "-
, , " .
.2007
,)2007( "-
.2007 , , " .
. ,)1999( '' ' & ,
.
. ,)2005( '
.
BARBERO M., BONIN G., QUEZEL P. & LOISEL R. (1990) Changes and
disturbances of forest ecosystems caused by human activities in the
western part of the mediterranean basin. Vegetatio, 87:151-173.
BOSSARD C.C., RANDALL J.M. & HOSHOVSKY M.C. (2000) Invasive plants
of California's wildlands. Univeristy of California Press, London.
DAFNI A. & HELLER D. (1980) The threat posed by alien weeds in Israel.
Weed Research 20(5):277-283.
DAFNI A. & HELLER D. (1990) Invasions of adventive plants in Israel. In:
Di Castri F., Hansen A.J. & Debussche M. (Eds.) Biological invasions in
Europe and the Mediterranean basin. Kluwer. pp.135-160.
DANIN A. (2004) Distribution Atlas of Plants in the Flora Palaestina Area. The
Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem, Israel.
DANIN A. (2000) The inclusion of adventive plants in the second edition of
Flora Palaestina. Willdenowia 30:305-314.
D'ANTONIO C.M. & MEYERSON L.A. (2002) Exotic plant species as
problems and solutions in Ecological Restoration: A synthesis.
Restoration Ecology 10(4):703-713.
103

DAEHLER C.C., DENSLOW J.S., ANSARI S. & KUO H.C. (2004) A RiskAssessment System for Screening Out Invasive Pest Plants from
Hawaii and Other Pacific Islands. Conservation Biology 18(2):360-368.
DONALD D.G.M. & KIRBY-SMITH J.H. (1983) Chemical control of phyllode
Acacias in the SW Cape. In: S.Neser & A.L.P Cairns (Eds.) Proceedings
of the fifth national weeds conference of South-Africa, Stellenbosch.
FLANNERY T. & SCHOUTEN P. (2001) A gap in nature, discovering the world's
extinct animals. William Heinemann, London.
GROVES R.H., PANETTA F.D. & VIRTUE J.G.(2001) Weed risk assessment.
CSIRO Publishing..
GUREVITCH J. & PADILLA D.K. (2004) Are invasive species a major cause
of extinctions? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 19(9):470-474.
HENDERSON L. (2001) Alien weeds and invasive plants: a complete guide to
declared weeds and invaders in South Africa. The Plant Protection Research
Institute, Handbook No. 12. Agricultural Research Council, Pretoria.
INDERJIT, ASAKAWA C. & DAKSHINI K.M.M. (1999) Allelopathic potential
of Verbesina encelioides root leachate in soil. Canadian Journal of
Botany 77(10):1419-1424.
KIM Y.O., JOHNSON J.D. & LEE E.J (2007)Phytotoxicity of Phytolacca
americana Leaf Extracts on the Growth, and Physiological Response
of Cassia mimosoides. Journal of Chemical Ecology 31(12):2963-2974.
LOWE S., BROWNE M., BOUDJELAS S. & De POORTER M. (2004) 100
of the world's worst invasive alien species. A selection from the global
nd
invasive species database. 2 edn. The invasive species speciality group
(ISSG) a specialist group of the species survival commission (SSC) of the
world conservation union (IUCN).
MACK R.N. & LONSDALE W.M. (2002) Eradicating invasive plants:
Hard-won lessons for islands. In: C.R.VEITCH & M.N.CLOUT (Eds.)
Turning the tide: The eradication of invasive species. IUCN, SSC Invasive
Species Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK,
pp.164-172.
104

MC DERMOTT J.B. (1987) The control of Acacia saligna (Port Jackson Willow)
by glyphosate in the South Western Cape Province. Eighth National Weeds
Congress, Potchefstroom.
MYERS, J.H., SIMBERLOFF, D., KURIS, A.M. & CAREY, J.R. (1998) Eradication and pest management. Annual Review of Entomology 43: 471-491.
PANETTA F.D. & TIMMINS M. (2004) Evaluating the feasibility of eradication
for terrestrial weed incursions. Plant Protection Quarterly 19(1):5-11.
PANETTA F.D. & LAWES R. (2005) Evaluation of weed eradication programs:
the delimitation of extent. Diversity and Distributions 11:435-442.
PARSONS W.T. & CUTHBERTSON E.G. (2001) Noxious weeds of Australia.
Second edition. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia..
PYEK P., RICHARDSON D.M., REJMANEK M., WEBSTER G.L.,
WILLIAMSON M. & KIRSCHNER J. (2004) Alien plants in checklists
and floras: towards better communication between taxonomists and
ecologists. Taxon 53(1):131-143.
PYEK P., JAROSK V. & KUCERA T. (2002) Patterns of invasion in temperate
nature reserves. Biological Conservation, 104(1):13-24.
RANDALL J.M., BENTON N. & MORSE L.E. (2001) Categorizing invasive
weeds: The challenge of rating the weeds already in California. In
R.H.Groves, F.D. Panetta & J.G.Virtue (Eds.) Weed risk assessment.
CSIRO Publishing, pp. 203-216.
REJMANEK M. & PITCAIRN M.J. (2002) When is eradication of exotic pest
plants a realistic goal ? In: C.R. VEITCH & M.N. CLOUT (Eds.) Turning
the tide: The eradication of invasive species. IUCN, SSC Invasive Species
Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK, pp. 249253.
REJMNEK, M., RICHARDSON, D.M., HIGGINS, S.I., PITCAIRN, M.J.
AND GROTKOPP, E. (2005) Ecology of invasive plants: state of the art.
In: H.A.Mooney, R.M Mack, J.A. MCNEELY, L. NEVILLE, P. SCHEI,
& J. WAAGE, (Eds.) Invasive alien species: searching for solutions,
Washington, DC: Island Press, pp. 104-161.
105

RICHARDSON D.M., PYEK P., REJMANEK M., BARBOUR M.G., PANETTA


F.D. & WEST C.J. (2000) Naturalization and invasion of alien plants:
concepts and definitions. Diversity and Distributions 6:93-107.
RICHARDSON D.M. & PYEK P. (2006) Plant invasions: Merging the
concepts of species invasiveness and community invasibility. Progress
in Physical Geography 30(3):409-431.
SAWER E.R. (1922) A review of the agricultural situation in Palestine.
Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Palestine.
SHLUKER A. (2002) Verbesina encelioides [(Cav.) Bentham & Hooker fil.
Ex Gray] ssp. Exauriculata [Robinson & Greenman]. HNIS Report for
Verbesina encelioides.
SIMBERLOFF D. (2003) Eradication preventing invasions at the outset.
Weed science 51:247-253.
SORIA M.C., GARDENER M.R. & TYE A. (2002) Eradication of potentially
invasive plants with limited distributions in the Galapagos Islands. In:
C.R. VEITCH & M.N. CLOUT (Eds.) Turning the tide: The eradication
of invasive species. IUCN, SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group. IUCN,
Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK, p.414. pp.287-292.
TIMMINS S.M. & BRAITHWAITE H. (2002) Early detection of invasive
weeds on islands. In: Veitch C.R. & Clout M.N. (Eds.) Turning the tide:
The eradication of invasive species. IUCN, SSC Invasive Species Specialist
Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK, pp. 311-318.
TYE A. (2001) Invasive plant problems and requirements for weed risk
assessment in the Galapagos Islands. In: R.H. GROVES, F.D. PANETTA
& J.G. VIRTUE (Eds.) Weed risk assessment. CSIRO Publishing, pp. 153175.
VAN ZEIST W. & BOTTEMA S. (1991) Late quaternary vegetation of the
Near-East, Beihefte zum Tbinger Atlas des Vorderen orients Reihe A
(Natuwissenschaften) Nr.18, Ludwig Reichert Verlag, Wiesbaden.
WEBER E. (2003) Invasive plant species of the world, a reference guide to
environmental weeds. CABI Publishing, Oxon.
106

WILSON E.O. (2001) The diversity of life. Penguin books, London.


WILSON E.O. (2003) The future of life. Abascus, London.
WOTHERSPOON S.H. & WOTHERSPOON J.A. (2002) The evolution
and execution of a plan for invasive weed eradication and control,
& Rangitoto Island, Hauraki Gulf, New Zealand. In: C.R. VEITCH
M.N. CLOUT (Eds.) Turning the tide: The eradication of invasive species.
IUCN, SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland
and Cambridge, UK, pp. 381-388.

.

.
:
' ( ,)2005 .
, , -
,' .30-29
' ' ( ,)2005
. , ,
- ,' .29-28
- '' ( ,)2007
: , .
30-29 , ,2007
,' .193-191
- " ( ,)2008
: , . ' ,1
;2007 ' ,2 ;2007 ' ,3 .2008
' ( ,)2007 ." .
' ( ,)2007 , (Acacia
)saligna . . -

.
107

' ' ( ,)2005 ) (Acacia saligna


. .17-10 :7
' ( ,)1999 Acacia cyanophylla .
(1 , ).36-34 :
' ( ,)2007" (Verbesina
.)encelioides

' ( ,)2006 ) .(Verbesina encelioides ,


. , ,
, .

108

' ' ( ,)2005 ) (Acacia saligna


. .17-10 :7
' ( ,)1999 Acacia cyanophylla .
(1 , ).36-34 :
' ( ,)2007" (Verbesina
.)encelioides

' ( ,)2006 ) .(Verbesina encelioides ,


. , ,
, .

108