Sie sind auf Seite 1von 47

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF INDEX CRIME RATE AND NON-INDEX CRIME RATE IN TRECE MARTIRES CITY

Undergraduate Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of the Department of Criminal Justice Cavite State University Indang, Cavite

In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Science in Criminology

NAIZELL A. ANGGA ARLENE P. TANYAG April 2010

1 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF INDEX-CRIME RATE AND NON-INDEX CRIME RATE IN TRECE MARTIRES CITY

Naizell A. Angga Arlene P. Tanyag

A Thesis Manuscript submitted to the faculty of the Department of Criminal Justice, Cavite State University, Indang, Cavite in partial fulfillment of the requirements for graduation with the degree of Bachelor of Science in Criminology with Contribution No. _________________. Prepared under the supervision of Ms. Susan G. Tan.

INTRODUCTION Whatever barometer crime may be, its prevention, detection and prosecution involves substantial public costs and provokes considerable public interest. The public's fear and perceived risks of crime are influential elements in the response to crime. Because the effectiveness of crime suppression and prevention is one of the fundamental measures of the capability of the State, the "crime barometer" is a constructed and contested artifact of these crime control activities. Pertinent, if flawed, "crime statistics" represent the "facts" and serve as the measure of crime. The statistics in turn become phenomena in their own right and the source for data and speculation on changing patterns of crime. Nevertheless apart from bureaucratic need, the State's interest in producing crime statistics is to promote the perception of public order, safety, predictability of law and to highlight its protective and essential role. It is generally acknowledged that societies that are stable with low crime, secure and safe environments and rational means of dealing with conflicts and "rule" breaking are advanced and 'civilized' societies. In rational economic terms, such 'rule of law' states,

2 generate sustainable wealth and attract rather than deter investment (World Bank. 1997). Crime then is a threat to social order and development as well as a problem of individual pathology or risk. The level of investment by the state in "law and order" reflects the political salience of public order and crime issues (UNDP, 2008). The Philippines supports a relatively large public and private policing establishment. In the last two decades about 12 percent of annual government expenditure was devoted to the maintenance of security, an outlay that is exceeded only by spending on health and education. Traditionally, countries have relied on police statistics of reported and recorded offences to assess changes in rates of offending over time. Since many offences are not reported to the police, victimization surveys, which ask people about the crimes they have experienced, are increasingly used to assess levels of offending and to track trends. Surveys of fear of crime, which are usually included in victimization surveys, are also important ways of assessing levels of insecurity (not necessarily related to actual crime levels) among different populations and communities. The existence of reliable baseline data and research on crime rates and incidence is important in developing and adapting relevant crime prevention programs and strategies. Such data are equally important for the monitoring and evaluation of activities undertaken. Currently, there exists no baseline data on Cavite particularly in Trece Martires City. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to investigate the rate of indexcrimes and non-index crimes in Trece Martires City, the seat of the provincial government of Cavite.

3 This research aims to enhance information and statistics on crime rates and crime incidence in Trece Martires City for the development of crime prevention programs and strategies. There is also a need to disseminate the information obtained in this study to government authorities at all levels, and police services and NGOs, to assist them in developing data, measuring performance and evaluating the impact of current crime prevention programs of the city.

Statement of the Problem In general, this study was conducted to compare the index crime rate and nonindex crime rate in Trece Martires City. Specifically, this sought answers to the following research problems: 1. What type of non-index crimes are recorded by the police force in Trece Martires City from January to May 2008 and from January to May 2009? 2. What type of index crimes are recorded by the police force in Trece Martires City from January to May 2008 and from January to May 2009? 3. What is the prevalence of recorded index crimes and non-index crimes in Trece Martires City in the two periods? 4. What are the rates of index crimes and non-index crimes in Trece Martires City from January to May 2008 and from January to May 2009? 5. Is there significant difference in the rates of index crimes and non-index crimes in Trece Martires City from January to May 2008 and from January to May 2009?

4 Hypotheses of the Study Ho1: There are no significant differences in the rates of index and non-index crimes in Trece Martires City between January to May 2008 and from January to May 2009.

Scope and Limitations of the Study The study focused on the rates of index and non-index crimes for two periods, namely: January to May 2008 and from January to May 2009. This study was conducted from November 2009 to March 2010. Data were limited to index and non-index crimes recorded by the Philippine National Police of Trece Martires City. Secondary data were obtained from the records of the Trece Martires City police station. Drug-related crimes were not covered in this study due to confidentiality of information.

Importance of the Study The study is important because it will be useful to the Department of the Interior and Local Government (DILG), Philippine National Police, City Government of Trece Martires, other members of the public sector, and students and researchers. The following are expected to benefit from this study: The Department of the Interior and Local Government (DILG) which authority over local government executives including public safety line bureaus like the Philippine National Police (PNP), the Bureau of Fire Protection (BFP) and the Bureau of Jail Management and Penology (BJMP), enables it to direct policy guidelines on matters of public safety and security. Findings and recommendations contained in this study may be of valuable use to the DILG in policy formulation and issuance of Department Orders to

5 the PNP towards further improvement of the PNP standard operating procedures in dealing with index and non-index crimes. The Philippine National Police (PNP), wherein its top hierarchy and units responsible for responding to calls/information regarding crimes of all types, this study may be used as a reference for review and further improvement of measures and procedures towards further operational effectiveness. City Government authorities on whose shoulders lay the responsibility of keeping their political jurisdictions safe, orderly and secure from threats, this study may be used for decision-making concerning further support, financial or otherwise, to their local PNP units under their operational supervision and control with respect to capability against crime. Other members of the public sector, especially NGOs and cause-oriented groups that are well-organized and having a collective drive to push proper authorities into timely action concerning issues, the findings and recommendations contained in this study could be of great importance for purposes of strengthening public safety and security against criminal activities. Finally, this research could be used by students and other researchers conducting similar studies.

Operational Definition of Terms For purposes of clarity to establish a common frame of reference for the study, the following terms are defined operationally as they are used in this study: Access to justice refers to the courts; the independence, impartiality and integrity of the judiciary; the prosecution service; and legal defense and legal aid.

6 Arson is the crime of intentionally and maliciously setting fire to structures or wildland areas. It may be distinguished from other causes such as spontaneous combustion and natural wildfires. Arson usually describes fires deliberately set to the property of another or to one's own property as to collect insurance compensation. Burglary involves trespassing and theft, entering a building or automobile, or remaining unlawfully with intent to commit theft or any crime, not necessarily a theft, for example, vandalism. Even if nothing is stolen in a burglary, the act is a statutory offense. Crime is the breach of rules or laws for which the Philippine government (via mechanisms such as legal system) can ultimately prescribe a conviction. While every crime violates the law, not every violation of the law counts as a crime; for example: breaches of contract and of other civil law may rank as "offences" or as "infractions". Crime prevention refers to strategies and measures that seek to reduce the risk of crimes occurring, and their potential harmful effects on individuals and society, including fear of crime, by intervening to influence their multiple causes. Grave threats refer to the act of any person who threatening another with the infliction upon the person, honor or property of the latter or of his family of any wrong amounting to a crime. Homicide refers to the act of a human killing a human being. A common form of homicide, for example, would be murder. It can also describe a person who has committed such an act, though this use is rare in modern English. Homicide is not always an illegal act, so although "homicide" is often used as a synonym for "murder", this is not formally correct

7 Index crimes refer to those violations of the penal code considered to have socioeconomic significance, and occur with sufficient regularity to be meaningful. These include crimes against person (murder, homicide, physical injury and rape), and crimes against property (robbery and theft). Kidnapping and serious illegal detention refers to any private individual who kidnapped or detained another, or in any other manner deprive him of his liberty. Murder refers to the act of a human killing if committed with any of the following attendant circumstances: (1) With treachery, taking advantage of superior strength, with the aid of armed, men, or employing means to weaken the defense or of means or persons to insure or afford impunity; (2) In consideration of a price, reward, or promise; (3) By means of inundation, fire, poison, explosion, shipwreck, stranding of a vessel, derailment or assault upon a street car or locomotive, fall of an airship, by means of motor vehicles, or with the use of any other means involving great waste and ruin; (4) On occasion of any of the calamities, or of an earthquake, eruption of a volcano, destructive cyclone, epidemic or other public calamity (5) With evident premeditation; (6) With cruelty, by deliberately and inhumanly augmenting the suffering of the victim, or outraging or scoffing at his person or corpse. Mutilation refers to the act of a human intentionally mutilating another by depriving him, either totally or partially, or some essential organ of reproduction. Non-index crimes refer to all other crimes not classified as index crimes. These are mostly composed of victimless offenses (e.g., crimes against national security, crimes against the fundamental laws of the state, crimes against public order, crimes against public morals, and violations of special laws). Non-Index Crime includes negligent

8 manslaughter, non-aggravated assault, forgery and counterfeiting, fraud, embezzlement, stolen property, vandalism, weapons, prostitution & common law vice, sex offenses, narcotic laws, gambling, offenses against family & children, driving under the influence, liquor laws, disorderly conduct, and all other crimes not listed here or in the index crimes. Parricide refers to the act of a human killing his father, mother, or child, whether legitimate or illegitimate, or any of his ascendants, or descendants, or his spouse. Policing refers to public safety and police service delivery; the integrity and accountability of the police; crime investigation; and police information and intelligence systems Rape is an assault by a person involving sexual intercourse with another person without that person's consent. Robbery is the crime of seizing property through violence or intimidation, as opposed to stealth or fraud (which is theft). At common law, robbery is defined as taking the property of another, with the intent to permanently deprive the person of that property, by means of force or fear. Robbery differs from simple theft in its use of violence and intimidation. Serious physical injuries refer to the act of a human wounding, beating, or assaulting another, shall be guilty of the crime of serious physical injuries. Theft refers to unauthorized taking, keeping or using of another's property which must be accompanied by a mens rea of dishonesty and/or the intent to permanently deprive the owner or the person with rightful possession of that property or its use. Trespass to dwelling refers to the act of any private person who entered the dwelling of another against the latter's will.

9 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Profile of Trece Martires City The City of Trece Martires is a third-class city in the province of Cavite, Philippines. The city serves as the seat of government of the Cavite, where many of the provincial government offices are located. According to the NSO census, it has a population of 90,177 people in a land area of 49.10 square kilometers

(www.cavite.gov.ph, 2010). The city is named after the Thirteen Martyrs of Cavite, who were executed by the Spaniards on September 12, 1896. Trece Martires City used to be the largest, remotest and one of the oldest barrios in Cavite. The City was formerly a barrio of Tanza and was most probably known then as "Quinta" or "Quintana". It was re-named after the thirteen Caviteos who were executed by the Spaniards on September 12, 1896 shortly after the outbreak of the Philippine Revolution. Development is basically agricultural with the land subdivided into cattle ranches and sugar farms. Honorable Justiniano S. Montano and Honorable Jose T. Cajulis jointly prepared House Bill No. 1795. The said House Bill became Republic Act No. 981. President Ramon Magsaysay, in May 24, 1954, approved Republic Act No. 981 known as the "Charter of Trece Martires City" which also provides for the transfer of the capital of Cavite Province from Cavite City to Trece Martires City. It changed the tempo of development and urbanization in the area. The charter of Trece Martires City originally provided that the Provincial Governor should be the ex-officio city mayor. Honorable Dominador Mangubat, the incumbent governor then, thus became the first chief executive of the new city. The provincial capitol was formally inaugurated on January 2, 1956, the day Governor Delfin N. Montano was sworn into office.

10 President Ferdinand E. Marcos signed, on June 11, 1977, Presidential Decree No. 1163 relocating the capital and seat of government from Trece Martires City to Imus. Governor Juanito R. Remulla requested Marcos, in September 1979, to transfer the Provincial Capitol back to the City of Trece Martires. President Corazon C. Aquino approved on March 31, 1992 Republic Act 7325, amending the charter of the City of Trece Martires. The amendment provided for the first local elections in the city (www.cavite.gov.ph, 2010). Trece Martires City is politically subdivided into 13 barangays (4 urban and 9 rural). It is not coincidence but design that the city was subdivided into thirteen barangays; this was planned by Senator Justiniano Montano and Congressman Jose Cajulis, who played a major role in creating the city. Each barangay was named after one of the Thirteen Martyrs of Cavite to commemorate their bravery and heroism (www.tmc.gov.ph, 2010). Trece Martires City is strategically located at the heart of the Province of Cavite. Its major source of income is real property taxes. Agriculture has long been neglected in favor of commercialism and industrialization. With its 14.75% growth-rate, the projected population by 2010 is 110,000. The major cause of this ballooning population is inmigration (which is gladly facilitated by the LGU even though it is not sustainable, in order to support the incumbents for the upcoming 2010 elections) (www.tmc.gov.ph, 2010). The most noteworthy fact about this city is its cleanliness and the absence of any form of gambling. The city has been awarded in the fields of nutrition, health services, cleanliness, literacy, education and social services. With its small land area and its

11 income, the city is fairly manageable in terms of public works, infrastructure and provision of basic services to the residents (www.tmc.gov.ph, 2010). The city government provides the following assistance to its indigent: financial, medical, emergency, school fees and burial expenses. It has extensive programs for the elderly, solo parents, out-of-school youths and mothers. One of its most admirable programs is their blood donation activity every March, May, September and December; Balik Ewskwela (school supplies distribution to all public elementary and highschool students); clean and green; revitalization of agricultural lands, high school and college scholarship and their livelihood programs. These programs all look good on paper, but are mundane in actuality (www.tmc.gov.ph, 2010). As of 2007, this city is considered one of the most beautiful and prosperous cities in Cavite. This is to be attributed to the admirable leadership of the current mayor (www.tmc.gov.ph, 2010).

Crime Prevention In many countries, crime prevention has traditionally been seen as the responsibility of the police or as stemming from the deterrent aspects of the law or repression of offenders. However, as a result of increasing innovation, research and experience throughout the world, it is now recognized that crime has multiple causes and that many other sectors of society can have an impact on crime levels and therefore have a responsibility to act to help prevent crime. The police cannot do so alone (UNODC , 2009).

12 There is a much broader role for government at all levels in establishing proactive rather than reactive strategies for preventing and reducing crime and victimization. Housing, health and job creation, recreation, social services and environmental services can all make a significant difference to crime levels when they work in partnership with the police and justice sector (UNODC, 2009). More significantly, this is not just a government role, but one that includes communities and civil society organizations, working in partnership with government and public and private institutions. For this reason, this Tool emphasizes the need to understand how security and safety emerge in a specific context and what measures may be taken to support governance, and the involvement of stakeholders and communities in crime prevention. The assumption that prevention can somehow be accomplished through the establishment of the rule of law and a viable criminal justice system remains strong in many countries, nevertheless. Having a well-resourced and well-run criminal justice system has been assumed to be the best way not only to build strong democratic institutions, but also to prevent crime. What has become increasingly clear, however, is that this is not necessarily the case (UNODC, 2009). In developed countries such as the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, for example, over a 10-year period significant increases in penalties, in the numbers of police and in resources for youth justice have resulted in increasing numbers of young people being drawn into the criminal justice system and being charged or placed in custody (Solomon and Garside, 2008).

13 Crime Trends in Asia For many developed countries in Asia, the likelihood of a family being the victim of a common property crime such as burglary or car theft has decreased gradually in the last few years. Yet, owing to an extended rise in crime rates in the 1960s and 1970s, the likelihood of a family falling victim to a crime in the year 2000 is still between two and three times higher than it was in the 1960s. The likelihood of violent crime continues to increase to rates that are several times what they were in the 1960s. Violence against women and crimes committed by and against youth are matters of particular concern (Reports on Tenth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders, 2000). Even in countries where crime rates are decreasing, levels of public insecurity and fear remain high. It is well known that levels of insecurity are related to factors other than crime itself: a sense of insecurity may be exacerbated by several factors, including precarious living conditions, rising unemployment and little hope for the future. Crime, however, remains a main source of public insecurity (Reports on Tenth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders, 2000). For many developing countries and countries with economies in transition, crime rates have escalated dramatically in recent decades. Studies show that nine of the 10 countries with the highest rates of serious violent crime are those with economies in transition. Murder rates in some cities in developing countries are 10 times or more than those of developed countries in Europe (Reports on Tenth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders, 2000).

14 The social consequences of crime are significant. Crime affects the poor in urban areas more frequently and more deeply than other groups of the population (Graeme, 1999). It leads to shattered lives for victims and has an impact on society in general, seen in the increase in measures taken to ensure private security, loss of confidence in the justice system for a large segment of society and architecture of fear. Generally, the highest rates of homicide, between 22 and 64 per 100,000 population tend to occur in cities of developing countries (Graeme, 1999).

Philippine Laws relating to Crime Presidential Decree No. 1866 are laws on illegal/unlawful possession, manufacture, dealing in, acquisition or disposition, of firearms, ammunition or explosives or instruments used in the manufacture of firearms ammunition or explosives and imposing stiffer penalties for certain violations thereof and for relevant purposes. Republic Act No. 9165 enacted on June 7, 2007 is an act instituting the Comprehensive Dangerous Drugs Act of 2002, repealing Republic Act No. 6425, otherwise known as The Dangerous Drugs Act of 1972, as amended, providing funds therefore, and for other purposes. Republic Act No. 8294 is an act amending the provisions of Presidential Decree No. 1866, as amended, entitled Codifying the Laws on Illegal/Unlawful Possession, manufacture, dealing in, acquisition or disposition of firearms, ammunition or explosives or instruments used in the manufacture of firearms, ammunition or explosives, and imposing stiffer penalties for certain violations thereof and for relevant purposes.

15 Republic Act No. 7610 enacted on June 17, 1997 is an act providing for stronger deterrence and special protection against child abuse, exploitation and discrimination and for other purposes. Republic Act No. 9262 is an act defining violence against women and their children, providing for protective measures for victims, prescribing penalties therefore, and for other purposes.

Crime Trends in the Philippines Despite some improvement in law and order, crime remained a major problem through the end of the 1980s in the Philippines. Police attributed the country's chronic crime problems to a variety of social and cultural factors. Widespread poverty and rapid population growth were frequently cited. Population pressures and a shortage of land and jobs in rural areas had produced a steady internal migration to the cities. This urbanization of a traditionally agrarian society was commonly mentioned as cause for increased crime rates. In particular, police pointed to the rapid growth of urban slum and squatter areas; more than 25 percent of the population of Metro-Manila were thought to be squatters in the late 1980s. Widespread possession of firearms--including automatic rifles--was another factor contributing to crime. Undisciplined private armies, usually maintained by local politicians and wealthy families, and numerous organized crime gangs were the biggest violators of firearms laws. The Communist and Muslim insurgencies compounded the problem of proliferating guns and violence. Piracy and smuggling also were thriving criminal industries, especially in the southern portions of the archipelago (Winslow, 2002).

16 According to the police, the incidence of serious crime escalated through the early 1980s, from approximately 250 crimes per 100,000 population in 1979, to a sustained level of around 310 during 1984 through 1987, then declined in 1988 and 1989. In 1988 the crime rate dipped below 300 crimes per 100,000 people, then fell dramatically in 1989 to 251 crimes per 100,000 citizens. Because of differing reporting practices and degrees of coverage, it was difficult to compare Philippine crime rates to those of other countries (Winslow, 2002). Government officials attributed the decrease in crime to improved police work, but economic conditions appeared to be as important. The deterioration in law and order during the early and mid-1980s accompanied a steadily worsening economy, whereas the improvement in the late 1980s paralleled renewed economic growth under Aquino. Not surprisingly, crime rates were highest in major urban areas, where unemployment was the highest. Regionally, peninsular southern Luzon, the western Visayan islands, and portions of Mindanao--impoverished rural areas where insurgents were active--had the most criminal activity in the mid-1980s (Winslow, 2002). Drug use and trafficking were growing problems during the 1980s, particularly in marijuana. Cultivation was geographically widespread, but the mountainous portions of northern Luzon and the central Visayas were the major marijuana-growing centers. During the late 1980s, another drug, methamphetamine, was fast becoming a narcotics problem. Known locally as shabu, it had generally been smuggled into the country, but domestic production expanded sharply in 1989 to meet growing demand. Coca cultivation was not significant in 1989, and there was no evidence of opium poppy cultivation or heroin manufacture (Winslow, 2002).

17 The Philippines remained a center of drug trafficking and transshipment. Cannabis growers exported their product to Hong Kong, Japan, Australia, and the United States, and Philippine waters were routinely used by other smugglers as a transshipment point for Southeast Asian marijuana bound for North America. Manila's Ninoy Aquino International Airport, too, was used for transhipment of heroin and marijuana destined for Guam, Australia, Europe, and the United States. Production and trafficking of illegal drugs was accomplished by a variety of domestic and foreign criminal groups, notably Australian, American, and ethnic Chinese Filipinos. Communist insurgents also were involved in marijuana cultivation (Winslow, 2002). Corruption remained a serious problem in the early 1990s, and its elimination was one of the government's most vexing challenges. Despite persistent efforts, petty graft was commonplace, and high-level corruption scandals periodically rocked the government. As part of its continuing efforts to weed out official malfeasance, the government maintained a special anticorruption court, known as the Sandiganbayan (Winslow, 2002). Other government initiatives targeted corruption, crime, and terrorism. Peace and Order Councils at the national, regional, and provincial level were rejuvenated under Aquino. By regularly bringing together responsible government, military, and community leaders, the government hoped to improve the effectiveness of its anticrime and counterinsurgency programs. AFP and police commanders also attempted to address the problems of internal corruption and abuse, which, they admitted, undermined public confidence in, and cooperation with, the security forces. Top military leaders routinely publicized retraining programs, the discharge and demotion of scalawags in the ranks,

18 and other measures designed to improve discipline. The military also mounted a counternarcotics effort, spearheaded by the constabulary's Narcotics Command. Government agents more than doubled arrests during 1989 and eradicated millions of marijuana plants, but they still found it difficult to keep pace with the growing drug trade. The crime rate in the Philippines is low compared to industrialized countries. An analysis was done using INTERPOL data for the Philippines. For purpose of comparison, data were drawn for five of the seven offenses used to compute the United States FBI's index of crime. Index offenses include murder, forcible rape, robbery, aggravated assault, and motor vehicle theft. The Philippines does not report data for burglary, and theft data do not exclude burglary and are thus not comparable to FBI data on larceny. Lacking complete data on property crimes, the combined total of these offenses constituting the Index used for trend calculation purposes cannot be made. The Philippines will be compared with Japan (country with a low crime rate) and USA (country with a high crime rate) with the data available. According to the INTERPOL data, for murder, the rate in 2000 was 7.85 for the Philippines, 1.10 for Japan, and 5.51 for USA. For rape, the rate in 2000 was 4.21 for the Philippines, compared with 1.78 for Japan and 32.05 for USA. For robbery, the rate in 2000 was 8.06 for the Philippines, 4.08 for Japan, and 144.92 for USA. For aggravated assault, the rate in 2000 was 15.10 for the Philippines, 23.78 for Japan, and 323.62 for USA. The rate for motor vehicle theft in 2000 was 3.26 for the Philippines, compared with 44.28 for Japan and 414.17 for USA.

19 Crime Statistics in the Philippines In the Philippines, between 1997 and 2000, according to INTERPOL data, the rate of murder decreased from 14.11 to 7.85, an decrease of 44.4%. The rate for rape was not given for 1997. The rate of robbery increased from 7.94 to 8.06, an increase of 1.5%. The rate for aggravated assault decreased from 17.37 to 15.10 per 100,000, an decrease of 13.1%. Data were not given on auto thefts for 1997. Limited studies were found on regional and provincial crime statistics in the Philippines. One study conducted by the National Statistical Coordination Board (2009) focused on Crime Incidence, Crime Rate/ and Crime Solution Efficiency Rate in Region XI as of 2008. The preceding section discusses the results of this study: Crime statistics of the Philippine National Police XI revealed that in 2008, among the provinces and cities in Region XI, Davao del Sur posted the lowest crime rate with only 40 crimes per 100,000 population. Among the four provinces in the region, Davao del Norte had the highest crime rate of 74 crimes per 100,000 while Samal City recorded the lowest crime incidence among cities with 64 crimes per 100,000 population (NCSB, 2009). On the other hand, of the total 5,164 crimes committed in the region in 2008, about 60 percent (3,115) of this were non-index crimes while the remaining 40 percent (2,049) were index crimes. Among the index crimes committed, physical injuries recorded the highest with 573 cases or about 28.0 percent of the total index crimes. This was followed by murder with 540 reported cases or roughly 26.4 percent of the total. Homicide posted the lowest among index crimes committed in the region with only 132 cases or 6.4 percent of the total (NCSB, 2009).

20 In terms of crime solution efficiency, or the percentage of crimes solved, the Philippine National Police in Region XI was able to solve 90.6 percent of the total crimes reported in the region in 2008. The province of Compostela Valley topped the other provinces in the region as it recorded the highest crime solution efficiency with 92.8 percent while police authorities in Samal City managed to solve 98.5 percent, the highest among the cities in the region (NCSB, 2009). Among the industrialized towns in Cavite, Carmona is considered the most peaceful. It has a very low crime rate at 7.15%, with a crime solution efficiency of 90%, despite the unfavorable policeman-to-population ratio of 1:1,788. This is made possible through the concerted efforts of the Carmona PNP, private volunteer groups, and organizations with the local government taking the lead (http://carmonagov.net/home, 2010). The local police force of Carmona works in close cooperation with other PNP units and agencies both in the provincial and national level. Extending support to its efforts, the Carmona Traffic Management Office oversees road safety and regulations. Moreover, emergencies and fires are quickly responded to by the local Bureau of Fire Station with additional enforcements from other fire stations in Cavite

(http://carmonagov.net/home, 2010).

21 METHODOLOGY

This chapter discusses the research design, locale of the study, the data collection, and the statistical treatment of data.

Research Design The study employed descriptive research design. This study dealt on the rates of index and non-index crimes in Trece Martires City from January to May 2008 to January to May 2009. Secondary data from PNP Trece Martires City was utilized to answer the objectives of this research.

Locale of the Study The study covered all recorded crimes in all 13 barangays of Trece Martires City namely: Cabezas, Cabuco, De Ocampo, Lallana, San Agustin, Osorio, Conchu, Perez, Aguado, Gregorio, Inocencio, Lapidario, and Luciano. The study was conducted from November 2009 to March 2010.

Data Collection Prior to the collection of data, permission was secured from the Research Adviser and Dean of the College of Sports, Physical Education and Recreation. Thereafter, permission to collect data was obtained from the PNP Chief of Police of Trece Martires City. Secondary data on index crimes and non-index crimes were collected from the records of the PNP station in Trece Martires City. Other relevant information were

22 obtained from the Web, existing reports, research papers, books, journals, and other publications.

Statistical Treatment of Data For the statistical treatment of data, certain statistical formulas were used in this research work. Descriptive statistics such as frequency distribution, percentage, rank, and mean were used in analyzing the data gathered. The statistical computations were recorded into an SPSS statistical computer program for analysis. The formulas that were utilized are as follows: (Weiss and Hasset, 1996) 1. Frequency count was used to determine the types of index crimes and nonindex crimes recorded by the police force in Trece Martires City from January to May 2008 and from January to May 2009, the prevalence of index and non-index crimes and the crime incidence by barangay. 2. Percentage (%) was used to determine the types of index crimes and nonindex crimes recorded by the police force in Trece Martires City from January to May 2008 and from January to May 2009, the prevalence of index and non-index crimes, and the crime incidence by barangay. The formula for percentage is: % = F/N x 100 where: F= frequency of an item or response N= Total number of respondents

23 3. T-test was used to determine the significant differences in the rates of index crimes and non-index crimes in Trece Martires City from January to May 2008 and from January to May 2009. The formula for t-test is:

t=

(n 1  1 )(s 1 ) 2  (n 2  1 )(s 2 ) 2 n1  n 2  2

1 1  n1 n2

where:
1=

mean of the first group mean of the second group

2=

s1 = standard deviation of the first group s2 = standard deviation of the second group n1 = number of observations in the first group n2 = number of observations in the second group s = standard deviation which is computed as follows: The standard deviation, s, of n pieces of sample data can be computed from the formula: x x s! n 1 where: x x x2 = data values = sum of observations = sum of observations squared

or

s!

n x2  x n (n  1)

24
x

= sample mean = number of pieces of data = deviation from mean


2

n
xx

x  x

= squared deviation

25 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

This section discusses the types of index and non-index crimes recorded by the police force in Trece Martires City from January to May 2008 and from January to May 2009, the prevalence of recorded index crimes and non-index crimes in Trece Martires City in the two periods; the incidence of crime by barangay in Trece Martires City; the rates of index crimes and non-index crimes in Trece Martires City from January to May 2008 and from January to May 2009; and the significant different in the rates of index crimes and non-index crimes in Trece Martires City from January to May 2008 and from January to May 2009.

Types of Index and Non-Index Crimes recorded by the Police Force in Trece Martires City from January to May 2008 and from January to May 2009

Of the 347 recorded index crimes from January to May 2008 in Trece Martires City, vehicular accident ranked first in the total number of index crimes of the city with 133 recorded vehicular accidents or 38.33 percent of the total index crimes (Table 1). This was followed by mauling incident (12.68%) and alleged thievery incident / alleged theft (9.8%). On the other hand, only one incident each was recorded in the same period on the following index crimes: alleged maltreatment, qualified seduction, vagrancy, violation of R.A 7610, alleged sexual assault, consented abduction, alleged abduction, grave oral defamation, stabbing incident, hacking incident, and budol-budol /salisi gang. Similar to the 2008 data, the highest type of recorded index crime in the city from January to May 2009 was also vehicular accident with recorded 91 incidents. As

Table 1. Index crimes recorded by police force in Trece Martires City from January to May 2008 and from January to May 2009

INDEX CRIME

Abandonment Abortion / alleged abortion Act of lasciviousness Alarm and scandal Alleged abduction Alleged car napping incident Alleged maltreatment Alleged rape Alleged sexual assault Alleged thievery incident / alleged theft Arson Attempted homicide Budol-budol / Salisi gang Consented abduction Damage to property Damage to property and physical injury Direct assault Explosion incident Grave coercion Grave oral defamation Hacking incidents

NUMBER OF RECORDED INDEX CRIMES January May 2008 January May 2009 total % of total total % of total 0 1 0.39 2 0.58 0 9 2.59 4 1.56 3 0.86 3 1.17 1 0.29 2 0.78 8 2.31 3 1.17 1 0.29 0 5 1.44 1 0.39 1 0.29 1 0.39 34 9.80 19 7.42 2 0.58 0 0 1 0.39 1 0.29 7 2.73 1 0.29 1 0.39 2 0.58 1 0.39 3 0.86 0 3 0.86 0 0 2 0.78 0 1 0.39 1 0.29 2 0.78 1 0.29 3 1.17

GRAND TOTAL

1 2 13 6 3 11 1 6 2 53 2 1 8 2 3 3 3 2 1 3 4

27

Table 1 continued

INDEX CRIME

Hacking incidents Hit and run Illegal recruitment Kidnapping Malicious mischief Mauling incident Murder Physical injury Qualified seduction Robbery incident / robbery hold-up Self-accident Shooting incident Stabbing incident Threat / alleged threat Traffic accident Trespass to dwelling Vagrancy Vehicular accident Violation of R.A. 7610 Violation of R.A 9262 TOTAL

NUMBER OF RECORDED INDEX CRIMES January May 2008 January May 2009 total % of total total % of total 1 0.29 3 1.17 17 4.90 13 5.08 0 1 0.39 0 2 0.78 7 2.02 6 2.34 44 12.68 22 8.59 0 0 9 2.59 12 4.69 1 0.29 0 17 4.90 3 1.17 2 0.58 0 9 2.59 6 2.34 1 0.29 2 0.78 7 2.02 16 6.25 20 5.76 16 6.25 0 3 1.17 1 0.29 0 133 38.33 91 35.55 1 0.29 0 0 1 0.39 347 100.00 246 100.00

GRAND TOTAL

4 30 1 2 13 66 0 21 1 20 2 15 3 23 36 3 1 224 1 1 593

compared to 2008, the number of vehicular accidents declined by 42. Ranked second and third type of index crimes recorded were mauling incident (8.94%) and alleged thievery incident / alleged theft (7.72%). This finding is also similar to the ranking of index crimes recorded in 2008. In contrast, only one of the following index crimes was recorded in 2009, namely: abandonment, attempted homicide, grave coercion, illegal recruitment, violation of R.A 9262, alleged sexual assault, consented abduction, damage to property, and alleged rape. Overall, results showed that vehicular accident, mauling incident and alleged thievery incident / alleged theft were prevalent in Trece Martires City for both periods. In terms of non-index crimes, alleged libel / estafa was the most common nonindex crime recorded by the police force of Trece Martires City from January to May 2008 and from January to May 2009 (Table 2). There were 12 recorded alleged libel/estafa incidents in 2008 which declined to six incidents in 2009. Ranked second was unjust vexation with recorded four incidents in 2008 (18.18%) and two incidents (20%) in 2009. As a whole data indicate that alleged libel / estafa was the most common nonindex crime recorded in 2008 and 2009. Index crimes declined from 347 in 2008 to 246 in 2009 (Figure 1). This could mean that the crime prevention program of the city or the performance of the police force in countering crimes was improving. Likewise, non-index crimes decreased by 12 between the two periods. This suggests that the recorded victimless offenses or violations of special laws were declining.

Table 2. Non-index crimes recorded by police force in Trece Martires City from January to May 2008 and from January to May 2009

NON-INDEX CRIME

NUMBER OF RECORDED NON- INDEX CRIMES January May 2008 January May 2009 total % of total total % of total 1 1 12 1 4 1 0 1 1 22 4.55 4.55 54.55 4.55 18.18 4.55 4.55 4.55 100.00 0 0 6 0 2 0 2 0 0 10 60.00 20.00 20.00 100.00

GRAND TOTAL

Alleged swindling Gambling Alleged libel / estafa Concubinage Unjust vexation Violation of P.D. 1866 Violation of R.A. 9165 Violation of R.A. 8294 Illegal discharge of firearm TOTAL

1 1 18 1 6 1 2 1 1 32

January - May 2008 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 Index crimes 246 347

January - May 2009

22

10

Non-index crimes

Figure 1. Comparison in the number of index crimes recorded from January to May 2008 and from January to May 2009

31 The decline in the number of index crimes and non-index crimes from 2008 to 2009 could be attributed to the projects and activities implemented by the police force of Trece Martires City between 2008 and 2009. These activities include: continuing conduct of barangay pulong (dialogue) with the barangay leaders and residents to discuss antiinsurgency campaign; establishment of checkpoints at strategic locations of the city during nighttime; conduct of mobile patrolling to all vital installation particularly in crime-prone areas; sustained and strict implementation of OPLAN SITA or regular checkpoint operations to deter criminal elements; and weekly patrolling of the boundaries according to the respective areas of responsibility.

Prevalence of Recorded Index Crimes and Non-Index Crimes in Trece Martires City As shown in the computation below, the prevalence rate of index crimes in Trece Martires City was much higher than the prevalence rate of non-index crimes from January to May 2008 and from January to May 2009. The prevalence rate of index crime was 0.38% in 2008 and 0.22% in 2009. This shows that there was a decline in crimes against person and property in Trece Martires City between 2008 and 2009. On the other hand, the prevalence rates of non-index crimes in the same periods were 0.02% and 0.009%, respectively. Hence, victimless crimes decreased in the city between 2008 and 2009. The following step by step procedure was done to compute for prevalence rate:

32
Number of new cases x 100 Total Population 347 x 100 90,177

Prevalence rate of index crime !

Prevalence rate of index crime (2008) !

Prevalence rate of index crime (2008) ! 0.38% 246 x 100 112,452

Prevalence rate of index crime (2009) !

Prevalence rate of index crime (2009) ! 0.22% Prevalence rate of non - index crime ! Number of new cases x 100 Total Population 22 x 100 90,177

Prevalence rate of non - index crime (2008) !

Prevalence rate of non - index crime (2008) ! 0.02% 10 x 100 112,452

Prevalence rate of non - index crime (2009) !

Prevalence rate of index crime (2009) ! 0.009%

Crime Incidence in Trece Martires City by Barangay from January to May 2008 and from January to May 2009 The barangay with the highest recorded crime incidence from January to May 2008 of 94 crimes was Brgy. San Agustin (Table 3). This was followed by Brgy. Inocencio with 53 recorded crimes during the same period; Brgy. Lapidario and Brgy. Luciano with 36 recorded crimes, respectively. In contrast, the barangay with the least number of recorded crimes from January to May 2008 was Brgy. Lallana with only one

33 recorded crime. Likewise, Brgy. Cabezas only had eight recorded crimes during the same period. Data suggest that in 2008, Brgy. San Agustin had the most crime incidence. This is due to the fact this barangay is located at the heart of the city where crimes against person and property are rampant because of the presence of numerous commercial establishments. Aside from this, the incidence of vehicular accidents within the city proper is higher due to traffic congestion. On the other hand, Brgy. Lallana is the most peaceful among the 13 barangays in Trece Martires City.

Table 3. Crime incidence in Trece Martires City by barangay from January to May 2008

BARANGAY San Agustin Inocencio Lapidario Luciano De Ocampo Hugo Perez Cabuco Aguado Conchu Gregorio Osorio Cabezas Lallana Total Jan 20 16 7 8 9 8 8 5 5 3 5 3 1 98

2008 CRIME INCIDENCE Feb Mar Apr May 25 30 11 8 16 9 7 5 11 8 4 6 9 6 6 7 3 3 5 9 3 6 7 5 3 4 1 6 6 3 2 3 1 3 3 2 1 2 2 6 1 2 4 2 0 0 3 2 0 0 0 0 79 76 55 61

TOTAL 94 53 36 36 29 29 22 19 14 14 14 8 1 369

RANK 1 2 3 4 5 5 6 7 8 8 8 9 10

Similar to 2008 data, Brgy. San Agustin posted the highest crime incidence from January to May 2009 with 82 recorded crimes (Table 4); Brgy. Inocencio had 31 recorded crimes during the same period; Brgy. De Ocampo and Brgy. Luciano with 20

34 recorded crimes, respectively. As against the 2008 crime incidence, Brgy. Lallana had no recorded crime from January to May 2009 indicating that this area was the most peaceful among the 13 barangays in Trece Martires City. In contrast, Brgy. San Agustin had the highest crime incidence in both periods. As mentioned earlier, this barangay is located at the heart of the city where crimes against person and property are rampant because of the presence of numerous commercial establishments and congestion.

Table 4. Crime incidence in Trece Martires City by barangay from January to May 2009

BARANGAY San Agustin Inocencio De Ocampo Luciano Cabuco Hugo Perez Lapidario Conchu Gregorio Aguado Osorio Cabezas Lallana Total Jan 12 4 2 3 2 3 2 2 1 3 1 2 0 37

2008 CRIME INCIDENCE Feb Mar Apr May 18 17 20 15 7 7 9 4 4 4 6 4 4 4 6 3 4 2 4 6 2 4 5 3 5 2 4 4 1 3 5 3 2 2 3 4 2 1 2 3 1 0 5 1 1 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 51 48 69 51

TOTAL 82 31 20 20 18 17 17 14 12 11 8 6 0 256

RANK 1 2 3 3 4 5 5 6 7 8 9 10

Rates of Index crimes and Non-index crimes in Trece Martires City from January to May 2008 and from January to May 2009 A decline of 29.11% was accounted in the recorded index crimes from January to May 2008 and from January to May 2009 and a decline of 54.55% was also accounted in

35 the recoded non-index crimes from January to May 2008 and from January to May 2009 (Figure 2). This could mean that the crime prevention program of the city was effective or this could also mean that the police force of the city was very active in limiting the incidence of index and non-index crimes. Hence, the violation of victimless crimes and crimes against person or property were decreasing from year to year.

Comparison in the Rates of Index Crimes and Non-index Crimes in Trece Martires City from January to May 2008 and from January to May 2009 Test statistics revealed that there was no significant difference in the rates of index crimes between the two periods (from January to May 2008 and from January to May 2009). The computed t-value of .596 was not significant at five percent level (Tables 5 and 6). Hence, the null hypothesis of insignificant difference was accepted. Similarly, the application of t-test also showed no significant difference in the rates of non-index crimes between the two periods. The computed t-value of .471 was not significant at five percent level. Hence, the null hypothesis of insignificant difference between the rates of non-index crimes from January to May 2008 and from January to May 2009 was accepted. The findings imply that although there was a decline in the rates of index and non-index crimes in Trece Martires between the two periods, the decline was not substantial to construe that crime prevention programs in the city was effective or that police force efficiency in curbing crimes was effective. Hence, the data suggest that the rates of index crime and non-index crimes between the two periods were generally the same.

36

0.00%

Index Crimes
-10.00% -20.00% -30.00% -40.00% -50.00% -60.00%

Non-index crimes

-29.11%

-54.55%

Figure 2. Rate of decrease in index and non-index crimes from January to May 2008 and from January to May 2009

37 Table 5. T-test results on the difference in the rates of index crimes from January to May 2008 and from January to May 2009, Trece Martires City

PERIOD

Incidence

SD

t-test statistics .596ns

Significance

Decision

January- May 2008

8.46

21.969 14.736

.655

Accept Ho

6.00 January- May 2009 Degrees of freedom = 80 ns = not significant

Table 6. T-test results on the difference in the rates of non- index crimes from January to May 2008 and from January to May 2009, Trece Martires City

PERIOD

Incidence

SD

t-test statistics .939ns

Significance

Decision

January- May 2008

2.44

3.745 2.028

.471

Accept Ho

1.11 January- May 2009 Degrees of freedom = 16 ns = not significant

38 SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Summary A study was conducted to compare the index crime rate and non-index crime rate in Trece Martires City from January to May 2008 and from January to May 2009. Specifically, the study aimed to identify the type of index and non-index crimes recorded by the police force in Trece Martires City from January to May 2008 and from January to May 2009, the prevalence of recorded index crimes and non-index crimes in Trece Martires City in the two periods, the rates of index crimes and non-index crimes in Trece Martires City from January to May 2008 and from January to May 2009; and the comparison in the rates of index crimes and non-index crimes in Trece Martires City from January to May 2008 and from January to May 2009. Results showed that vehicular accident, mauling incident and alleged thievery incident / alleged theft were the most common index crimes in Trece Martires City from January to May 2008 and from January to May 2009 while alleged libel / estafa was the most popular non-index crime. The prevalence rate of index crimes in Trece Martires City was much higher than the prevalence rate of non-index crimes from January to May 2008 and from January to May 2009. The prevalence rate of index crime was 0.38% in 2008 and 0.22% in 2009. On the other hand, the prevalence rates of non-index crimes in the same periods were 0.02% and 0.009%, respectively. In terms of crime incidence by barangay, Brgy. San Agustin posted the highest crime incidence from January to May 2008 and from January to May 2009 while Brgy. Lallana posted the least crime incidence in both periods.

39 In terms of rates of increase or decline in index crimes and non-index crimes, a decline of 29.11% was accounted in the recorded index crimes from January to May 2008 and from January to May 2009. Similarly, a decline of 54.55% was recorded in non-index crimes from January to May 2008 and from January to May 2009. Finally, test statistics revealed that there were no significant differences in the rates of index crimes and non-index crimes between the two periods. The computed t-values were less than the critical values at five percent level of significance.

Conclusions In the light of the significant findings of the study, the following conclusions were drawn: 1. Among the index crimes recorded in Trece Martires City, vehicular accident has the highest incidence record. This means traffic management in Trece Martires City needs improvement. 2. Alleged libel / estafa is the most frequent non-index crime in the city. This may be attributed to the current economic crisis of the country which prompted many Filipinos to cheat others in paying their debts or financial obligations. 3. The incidence of index crimes is much higher than the incidence of non-index crimes in Trece Martires City. This suggests that violations against persons and property are more prevalent than victimless crimes. 4. Among the 13 barangays of Trece Martires City, the least orderly is Brgy. San Agustin while the most peaceful is Brgy. Lallana.

40 5. Non-index crimes and index crimes are declining from year to year as evidenced by the computed rates of decrease between 2008 and 2009. This shows that the prevalence of victimless offenses such as estafa, swindling, gambling, or unjust vexation are decreasing along with crimes versus person and property such as murder, homicide, physical injury, rape, robbery, or theft in Trece Martires City. 6. No substantial evidence was found to conclude that the crime prevention programs of Trece Martires City are effective as supported by insignificant differences in the rates of non-index crimes and rates of index crimes between the two periods. This means that that crime prevention programs in the city did not improve from 2008 to 2009 or that police force efficiency in curbing crimes was not effective.

Recommendations The City Government of Trece Martires should endeavor to make positive efforts towards effective and efficient police actions against crimes. There is an imperative need to sustain the comprehensive approach to combat crimes in the city. This comprehensive approach includes clearly stated policies and strategies to ensure that all responses are integrated and coordinated. Equally important is the need to galvanize the structural and operating mechanisms that would develop and sustain the city government's operational capability to respond to criminal activities. Community-wide and city-wide cooperation to prevent crimes must be sustained, if not strengthened.

41 While the city government intensifies its campaign against criminality, there is a recognized need to expand and strengthen cooperation and coordination with the community particularly the civilian security unit. A concerted program of action of all law enforcement, intelligence and other agencies for the prevention and control of crime is also necessary. There is also a need to explore and coordinate information exchanges and training with other government agencies, to establish a shared central database on provincial as well as national jurisprudence for faster and efficient crime prevention and solutions. Future research should seek to explore the rates of index and non-index crimes for at least 10 year period allowing for a better representation. This could lend empirical support to the findings of this study.

42 BIBLIOGRAPHY

Graeme, N. ed. (1999) Global Report on Crime and Justice. New York, Oxford University Press; K. Kangaspunta and others, Crime and Criminal Justice Systems in Europe and North America (Helsinki, HEUNI, 1998). National Statistical Coordination Board. (2009). Davao del Sur posts lowest crime rate in Davao Region, NCSB Fact Sheet, FS200910-R11-04. Report of the Secretary-General on United Nations standards and norms in crime prevention and criminal justice. E/CN.(November 15, 2007). Reports on Tenth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders. Vienna, 10-17 April 2000. Solomon and R. Garside (2008) Ten Years of Criminal Justice under Labor: an Independent Audit. London, Centre for Crime and Justice Studies. United Nations Development Programme. (2008) Strengthening the Rule of Law in Conflict and Post- Conflict Situations: a Global UNDP Programme for Justice and Security 2008-2011. UNDP New York. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (2009). Crime Prevention Assessment Tool: Criminal Justice Assessment Toolkit. United Nations, New York. World Bank (1997) World Development Report, Oxford University Press: New York.

Online sources Profile of Carmona, Cavite. Retrieved from http://carmonagov.net/home on March 2010. Winslow, R. (2002). Philippines Crime and Society: A Comparative Criminology Tour of the World. San Diego State University. Retrieved from http://wwwrohan.sdsu.edu/faculty/rwinslow/asia_pacific/philippines.html on March 2010.

43

Appendices

44

Appendix Figure 1. Vicinity Map of Trece Martires City

45

Appendix Figure 2. The researchers while gathering data from the records of Trece Martires City Police Station

46

Appendix Figure 2. The logbook of criminal records at Trece Martires City Police Station