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Cita Hati Christian High School

Physics Laboratory Report

Name: Rut 2011 Student Number: Date: Tuesday, 25th Jan

Measuring the Latent Fusion of Ice I. Design Aim The experiment was considered to determine the latent fusion of ice based on the experiment. The latent fusion would be compared to the known value. Hypothesis The general accepted value of ice is stated to become 334 103 J/kg. So, the calculated latent fusion from the experiment should be the same or at least close to it. Variables The calculated value later on would be the latent fusion of the ice. It means it was the independent variable during the experiment. The controlled variables the variable with same value amount every trial were the mass of the calorimeter as the same calorimeter was used and also the brass used. The other variables such as the mass of the water and the ice given were categorized as independent variables. They were called independent because they could be changed during the experiment. To be more clearer, the table given will show the type of variables and its category. Dependent Variables Controlled Variables Independent Variables
Latent fusion of ice Mass of calorimeter Calorimeter used Mass of the water Mass of the ice

Protocol Diagram The diagram below shows how the experiment was conducted.

The broken ice

*the image was taken,+Hannah,+and+Marissa%27s+Calorimetry+Lab


Photograph of Lab Set-up:

Below is the image of what materials were used in the experiment. Thermometer


Beaker glass


The ice

Procedure Before the experiment started, the materials needed should be prepared. Below is the list of materials needed. Name Amount Balance 1( 0.05 g) Ice 1 Calorimeter 1 Beaker glass 2 Paper Tissues 5 1. Break the ice first so that it will fit into the calorimeter. After that, put the pieces inside the beaker glass. 2. Use the beaker glass as the place for the water. 3. Weigh the calorimeter. Input the data and pour the water from the beaker glass into the calorimeter. 4. Weigh again the calorimeter which containing water and take note of the mass. 5. Measure the temperature of the broken ice inside the beaker while waiting the calorimeter and the water become in equilibrium state. 6. Measure the temperature of water and calorimeter. After the temperature of them known, put the ice on the tissue so that the water from the ice will be absorbed and put it quickly to the calorimeter. 7. Close the calorimeter and prevent any hole from the lid. Wait for several minutes. 8. When those substances might have reached equilibrium and the ice has melted, measure their final temperature and input the data. 9. Do number 1 8 until few times to get better result.


Data Collection and Processing

Raw Data Table: The Measurement of Materials Needed

Trial 1 2 Object Calorimeter Water Ice Calorimeter Water Ice Mass 0.05 g 118.6 92.7 9.7 118.6 84.4 8.5 Tinitial 0.5 C 24.0 24.0 0.0 24.5 24.5 0.8 Tfinal 0.5 C 18.8 18.8 18.8 18.1 18.1 18.1

Data Processing Overview The raw data table part shows only the data inputted from the materials needed. There were some calculations involved in that table but not the complicated one. The result later on will contain calculated value from those data in the list. Sample Calculation The experiment was done with two trials. It can be seen from the raw data table part. Some of the data such as the mass of water should be calculated first because water couldnt be weighed without its container. Also, the mass of ice given was an calculated value. The first calculated value was the mass of water. For example in the first trial, we wanted to find the mass of water. The total mass of water and calorimeter = 211.3 0.05 g and the mass of calorimeter = 118.6 0.05 g. So, the mass of water = 211.3 g 118.6 g = 92.7 g 0.1 g The other value that should be calculated is the temperature difference. In the first trial, the T of Calorimeter is T=Tinitial- Tfinal =24.0-18.8=5.21.0 This calculation also done for the other substance such as for the temperature difference in water and also the ice. Aside from finding the T of those materials, the latent heat of the ice should be calculated also based on the experiment. The calculation made example below is for value from trial 1. Qgain = Qloss Qice=Qwater+Qcalorimeter Mice.Lfice + Mice.cice.T= Mwater.cwater.T+ Mcalorimeter.ccalorimeter.T 0.0097kg.Lfice +(0.0097kg2200 J(kg )18.8)=(0.0927kg4200 J(kg )5.2)+0.1186kg 900 J(kg )5.2 0.0097kg.Lfice+401.192 J=2024.568 J+555.048 J 0.0097kg.Lfice=2178.424 J Lfice=224,579.7938~224,579.8 J/kg Therefore, from the calculation above, the experiment value of the Lfice based on trial 1 is 224,579.8 J/kg. The calculation above also done for the second trial with the different value. The different values of

Tria Object Mass 0.05 Tinitial Tfinal T Lfice/J

l 1 Calorime ter Water Ice Calorime ter Water Ice

g 118.6 92.7 9.7 118.6 84.4 8.5

0.5C 24.0 24.0 0.0 24.5 24.5 0.8

0.5C 18.8 18.8 18.8 18.1 18.1 18.1

1.0C 5.2 5.2 18.8 6.4 6.4 17.3

kg-1 224,57 9.8

307,94 6.6

From the processed data table, there were two different values of the experiment latent fusion of the ice. To make it simple, the average value should be found from both of the result. Average of Lfice=Trial 1+Trial 22= 224,579.8+307,946.62= 266,263.2 J/kg The uncertainties in the measurement of each mass 0 because there was no difference of mass when the calorimeter for example was weighed for three times. Since the uncertainties of mass is zero, the only uncertainties used was from the temperature difference. To get the uncertainties value, the ratio of the uncertainties and the real value should be found in term of percentage. Percentage uncertainty of T trial 1 =15.2100%+ 118.8100%=24.54991817% ~ 24.55% Percentage uncertainty of T trial 2 =16.4100%+ 117.3100%=21.40534682% ~ 21.40% So, the total percentage uncertainties of the average =2.455%+2.140%=4.595% After all data were calculated, the graph could be plotted from the values found.

II. Conclusion and Evaluation Conclusion Both graphs show the same pattern or trendline which is linear. From the graphs also it could be known that when the mass and the temperature difference was high, the Lf of ice became lower than when the mass and the temperature difference of the ice was low. It means that during the experiment, the mass of the ice and also the measurement of the temperature would affect directly to the Lf of ice. So, to get the closest value to the accepted one, the mass of the ice should be small so that when the Q or the heat divided by the calculated value would be quite big. Limitations of Experimental Design The experiment was conducted in a room with air conditioner. Though the experiment was done in a position quite far from the air conditioner, the temperature measured would be affected. Thus, random error committed and create unprecise result. Aside from that, when the ice temperature was measured, the ice was in contact with the air. So, its temperature measurement couldnt be said accurate as the thermometer might measure the temperature of air surrounding the ice. The other thing was that the ice not really frozen when it was put into the calorimeter. It was because the time gap from being crushed and then put into the calorimeter was quite long. Therefore, the surface of the ice already melted when its temperature measured. During the experiment, the calorimeter wasnt stirred well. This might influence the separation of cooling temperature in the experiment. Also, the temperature measured only the center part of the calorimeter. So, it did not show the whole temperature of all part of calorimeter which could lead to inaccurate data of temperature recorded.

The average value of the Lf showed that it gained some errors. The error gained during the experiment is Accepted Value-Experiment ValueAccepted Value100%=334000266263,2334000100%=20.28% Suggestions for Improvement To prevent any temperature affected, the same experiment should be conducted in a room where is isolated but without air conditioner next time. With this kind of place, the random error could be reduced rather than in the first experiment. Another suggestion is that the ice should be broken after the water and the calorimeter already prepared well. So, the ice would be less in contact with the air rather than broke the ice first and put it in the beaker glass. This also might increase the accuracy of the ice mass as less surface of ice melted. Also, the time gap of ice between the breaking process and then put into the calorimeter would be reduced. Last but not least, to ensure that the temperature given is the whole part temperature, the calorimeter should be stirred in few minutes. With that action, the temperature would be wellseparated and the result would be more acurate.