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PRESENTATION

ON
IDENTIFICATION OF PROBLEM
AND
FORMULATION OF HYPOTHESIS
SUBMITTED TO :- SUBMITTED BY:-
DR. KARMPAL SIR PRAMOD LEGA
SONU SAINI
RUCHIKA RA1PAL
ROHTASH
A1IT
KUSUM LATA
PINKY
Meaning
Research is an endeavour to discover answers to intellectual and practical
problems through the application of scientific method.
~Research is a systematized effort to gain new knowledge.
-Redman and Mory.
Research is the systematic process of collecting and analyzing information
(data) in order to increase our understanding of the phenomenon about
which we are concerned or interested.
Objectives of Research
The purpose of research is to discover answers through the application of
scientific procedures.
The objectives are:
To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights into it -
Exploratory or Formulative Research.
To portray accurately the characteristics of a particular individual. situation
or a group - Descriptive Research.
To determine the frequency with which something occurs or with which it is
associated with something else - Diagnostic Research.
To test a hypothesis of a causal relationship between variables - Hypothesis-
Testing Research.
RESEARCH PROCESS RESEARCH PROCESS
Define
Research
Problem
Review
Concepts
And
theories
Review
Previous
Research
findings
Formulate
hypothesis
Design
Research
(Including
Sample
Design)
Collect
Data
(Execution)
Analyse
Data
(Test
Hypothesis
if any)
Interpret
and
report
FF
F
F F
FF
I
II
III IV V
VI VII
F
FF
Feed Back
Feed Forward
Review the literature
I1I1^1I1O^ I1I1^1I1O^
OI I11 OI I11
)1^1/)(1 ))O1^ )1^1/)(1 ))O1^
RESEARCH PROBLEM RESEARCH PROBLEM
What is a research problem? What is a research problem?
%he term problem` means a question or issue to be %he term problem` means a question or issue to be
examined. examined.
Research Problem reIers to some diIIiculty /need Research Problem reIers to some diIIiculty /need
which a researcher experiences in the context oI either which a researcher experiences in the context oI either
theoretical or practical situation and wants to obtain a theoretical or practical situation and wants to obtain a
solution Ior the same. solution Ior the same.
HOW DO WE KNOW WE HAVE A HOW DO WE KNOW WE HAVE A
RESEARCH PROBLEM? RESEARCH PROBLEM?
ustomer complaints ustomer complaints
onversation with company employees onversation with company employees
Observation oI inappropriate behaviour or conditions Observation oI inappropriate behaviour or conditions
in the Iirm in the Iirm
Deviation Irom the business plan Deviation Irom the business plan
Success oI the Iirm`s competitor`s Success oI the Iirm`s competitor`s
Relevant reading oI published material (trends, Relevant reading oI published material (trends,
regulations) regulations)
ompany records and reports ompany records and reports
%he Iirst step in the research process %he Iirst step in the research process deIinition deIinition
oI the problem oI the problem involves two activities: involves two activities:
IdentiIication / Selection oI the Problem IdentiIication / Selection oI the Problem
Formulation oI the Problem Formulation oI the Problem
IDENTIFICATION / SELECTION OF THE IDENTIFICATION / SELECTION OF THE
RESEARCH PROBLEM RESEARCH PROBLEM
%his step involves identiIication oI a Iew %his step involves identiIication oI a Iew
problems and selection oI one out oI them, aIter problems and selection oI one out oI them, aIter
evaluating the alternatives against certain selection evaluating the alternatives against certain selection
criteria. criteria.
SOURCES OF PROBLEMS SOURCES OF PROBLEMS
Reading Reading
Academic Experience Academic Experience
Daily Experience Daily Experience
Exposure to Field Situations Exposure to Field Situations
onsultations onsultations
Brainstorming Brainstorming
Research Research
Intuition Intuition
CRITERIA OF SELECTION CRITERIA OF SELECTION
%he selection oI one appropriate researchable %he selection oI one appropriate researchable
problem out oI the identiIied problems requires problem out oI the identiIied problems requires
evaluation oI those alternatives against certain evaluation oI those alternatives against certain
criteria. %hey are: criteria. %hey are:
Internal / Personal criteria Internal / Personal criteria Researcher`s Interest, Researcher`s Interest,
Researcher`s ompetence, Researcher`s own Researcher`s ompetence, Researcher`s own
Resource: Iinance and time. Resource: Iinance and time.
External riteria or Factors External riteria or Factors Researchability oI the Researchability oI the
problem, Importance and Urgency, Novelty oI the problem, Importance and Urgency, Novelty oI the
Problem, Feasibility, Facilities, UseIulness and Social Problem, Feasibility, Facilities, UseIulness and Social
Relevance, Research Personnel. Relevance, Research Personnel.
DEFINITION / FORMULATION OF THE DEFINITION / FORMULATION OF THE
RESEARCH PROBLEM RESEARCH PROBLEM
Formulation is the process oI reIining the research Formulation is the process oI reIining the research
ideas into research questions and obiectives. ideas into research questions and obiectives.
Formulation means translating and transIorming the Formulation means translating and transIorming the
selected research problem/topic/idea into a selected research problem/topic/idea into a
scientiIically researchable question. It is concerned scientiIically researchable question. It is concerned
with speciIying exactly what the research problem is. with speciIying exactly what the research problem is.
Problem deIinition or Problem statement is a clear, Problem deIinition or Problem statement is a clear,
precise and succinct statement oI the question or issue precise and succinct statement oI the question or issue
that is to be investigated with the goal oI Iinding an that is to be investigated with the goal oI Iinding an
answer or solution. answer or solution.
%here are two ways oI stating a problem: %here are two ways oI stating a problem:
1) 1) Posting question / questions Posting question / questions
2) 2) Making declarative statement / statements Making declarative statement / statements
PROCESS INVOLVED IN DEFINING THE PROCESS INVOLVED IN DEFINING THE
PROBLEM PROBLEM
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM IN A STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM IN A
GENERAL WAY. GENERAL WAY.
UNDERSTANDING UNDERSTANDING THE THE NATURE NATURE Of Of
PROBLEM PROBLEM
SURVEYING SURVEYING THE THE AVAILABLE AVAILABLE
LITERATURE LITERATURE
DEVELOPING IDEAS THROUGH DEVELOPING IDEAS THROUGH
DISCUSSIONS DISCUSSIONS
REPHRASING THE RESEARCH PROBLEM REPHRASING THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
CRITERIA OF A GOOD RESEARCH PROBLEM CRITERIA OF A GOOD RESEARCH PROBLEM
lear and Unambiguous lear and Unambiguous
Empirical Empirical
VeriIiable VeriIiable
Interesting Interesting
Novel and Original Novel and Original
Availability oI Guidance Availability oI Guidance
Statement of
Research Objectives
Defining Problem. Results in
Clear Cut Research Objectives..
AnaIysis of
the Situation
Symptom Detection
ProbIem Definition
IO)^+/I1O^ IO)^+/I1O^
OI OI
1)OI11^1^ 1)OI11^1^
HYPOTHESIS HYPOTHESIS
A hypothesis is an assumption about A hypothesis is an assumption about relations relations
between between variables. variables.
Hypothesis can be deIined as a logically coniectured Hypothesis can be deIined as a logically coniectured
relationship relationship between two or more between two or more variables variables expressed expressed
in the Iorm oI a testable statement. in the Iorm oI a testable statement.
Relationships are coniectured on the basis oI the Relationships are coniectured on the basis oI the
network oI associations established in the network oI associations established in the theoretical theoretical
Iramework Iramework Iormulated Ior the research study. Iormulated Ior the research study.
VARIABLES VARIABLES
Anything that can vary can be considered as a variable. Anything that can vary can be considered as a variable.
A variable is anything that can take on diIIering or A variable is anything that can take on diIIering or
varying values. varying values.
For example; Age, Production units, Absenteeism, For example; Age, Production units, Absenteeism,
Sex, Motivation, Income, Height, Weight etc. Sex, Motivation, Income, Height, Weight etc.
Note: Note: %he values can diIIer at various times Ior the %he values can diIIer at various times Ior the
same obiect or person (or) at the same time Ior diIIerent same obiect or person (or) at the same time Ior diIIerent
obiects or persons. obiects or persons.
Variable / Attribute Variable / Attribute
A variable is a characteristic that takes on two or more A variable is a characteristic that takes on two or more
values whereas, an attribute is a speciIic value on a values whereas, an attribute is a speciIic value on a
variable (qualitative). variable (qualitative).
For example; For example;
%he variable SEX/GENDER has 2 attributes %he variable SEX/GENDER has 2 attributes - - Male Male
and Female. and Female.
%he variable AGREEMEN% has 5 attributes %he variable AGREEMEN% has 5 attributes
Strongly Agree, Agree, Neutral, Disagree, Strongly Strongly Agree, Agree, Neutral, Disagree, Strongly
Disagree. Disagree.
Types of Variables Types of Variables
Explanatory vs Extraneous Variable Explanatory vs Extraneous Variable
%he variables selected Ior analysis are called explanatory %he variables selected Ior analysis are called explanatory
variables and all other variables that are not related to the purpose variables and all other variables that are not related to the purpose
oI the study but may aIIect the dependant variable are extraneous. oI the study but may aIIect the dependant variable are extraneous.
Dependant vs Independent Variable Dependant vs Independent Variable
%he variable that changes in relationship to changes in %he variable that changes in relationship to changes in
another variable(s) is called another variable(s) is called dependant variable dependant variable..
%he variable whose change results in the change in another %he variable whose change results in the change in another
variable is called an variable is called an independent variable independent variable..
OR OR
An independent variable is the one that inIluences the An independent variable is the one that inIluences the
dependant variable in either a positive or negative way. dependant variable in either a positive or negative way.
HYPOTHESIS HYPOTHESIS
Research Hypothesis is a predictive statement that Research Hypothesis is a predictive statement that
relates an relates an independent variable independent variable to a to a dependant dependant
variable. variable.
Hypothesis must contain atleast one independent Hypothesis must contain atleast one independent
variable and one dependant variable. variable and one dependant variable.
HYPOTHESIS HYPOTHESIS
Hypothesis are tentative, intelligent guesses as to the Hypothesis are tentative, intelligent guesses as to the
solution oI the problem. solution oI the problem.
Hypothesis is a speciIic statement oI prediction. It Hypothesis is a speciIic statement oI prediction. It
describes in concrete terms what you expect to happen describes in concrete terms what you expect to happen
in the study. in the study.
Hypothesis is an assumption about the population oI Hypothesis is an assumption about the population oI
the study. the study.
It delimits the area oI research and keeps the It delimits the area oI research and keeps the
researcher on the right track. researcher on the right track.
PROBLEM (VS) HYPOTHESIS PROBLEM (VS) HYPOTHESIS
Hypothesis is an assumption, that can be tested and Hypothesis is an assumption, that can be tested and
can be proved to be right or wrong. can be proved to be right or wrong.
A problem is a broad question which cannot be A problem is a broad question which cannot be
directly tested. A problem can be scientiIically directly tested. A problem can be scientiIically
investigated aIter converting it into a Iorm oI investigated aIter converting it into a Iorm oI
hypothesis. hypothesis.
CHARACTERISTICS OF HYPOTHESIS CHARACTERISTICS OF HYPOTHESIS
onceptual larity onceptual larity - - It should be clear and precise. It should be clear and precise.
SpeciIicity SpeciIicity - - It should be speciIic and limited in scope. It should be speciIic and limited in scope.
onsistency onsistency - - It should be consistent with the It should be consistent with the
obiectives oI research. obiectives oI research.
%estability %estability - - It should be capable oI being tested. It should be capable oI being tested.
Expectancy Expectancy - - It should state the expected relationships It should state the expected relationships
between variables. between variables.
CHARACTERISTICS OF HYPOTHESIS CHARACTERISTICS OF HYPOTHESIS
Simplicity Simplicity - - It should be stated as Iar as possible in It should be stated as Iar as possible in
simple terms. simple terms.
Obiectivity Obiectivity - - It should not include value iudgments, It should not include value iudgments,
relative terms or any moral preaching. relative terms or any moral preaching.
%heoretical Relevance %heoretical Relevance - - It should be consistent with a It should be consistent with a
substantial body oI established or known Iacts or existing substantial body oI established or known Iacts or existing
theory. theory.
Availability oI %echniques Availability oI %echniques Statistical methods should Statistical methods should
be available Ior testing the proposed hypothesis. be available Ior testing the proposed hypothesis.
Discussions with colleagues and experts about the Discussions with colleagues and experts about the
problem. its origin and objectives in seeking a problem. its origin and objectives in seeking a
solution. solution.
Examination of data and records for possible trends. Examination of data and records for possible trends.
peculiarities. peculiarities.
Review of similar studies. Review of similar studies.
Exploratory personal investigation / Observation. Exploratory personal investigation / Observation.
Logical deduction from the existing theory. Logical deduction from the existing theory.
Continuity of research. Continuity of research.
Intuition and personal experience. Intuition and personal experience.
SOURCES OF HYPOTHESIS SOURCES OF HYPOTHESIS
Descriptive Hypothesis
These are assumptions that describe the characteristics
(such as size. form or distribution) of a variable. The
variable may be an object. person. organisation. situation
or event.
Examples:
~Public enterprises are more amenable for centralized
planning.
TYPES OF HYPOTHESIS
Relational Hypothesis [Explanatory Hypothesis]
These are assumptions that describe the relationship
between two variables. The relationship suggested may be
positive. negative or causal relationship.
Examples:
~Families with higher incomes spend more for recreation.
Causal Hypothesis state that the existence of or change
in one variable causes or leads to an effect on another
variable. The first variable is called the independent
variable and the latter is the dependant variable.
Null Hypothesis
Null hypothesis is the hypothesis which means there is
no difference`. no relationship` hypothesis. ie.. It states
that. no difference exists between the parameter and
statistic being compared to or no relationship exists between
the variables being compared.
It is usually represented as H
0 .
Example: H
0
: There is a no-relationship between family`s
income and expenditure on recreation.
Alternate Hypothesis
It is the hypothesis that describes the researcher`s
prediction that. there exist a relationship between two
variables or it is the opposite of null hypothesis. It is
represented as H
1.
Example:
H
1
: There is a definite relationship between family`s
income and expenditure on recreation.
FORMS OF FORMS OF RELATIONSHIPS RELATIONSHIPS
NON NON- -DIRECTIONAL DIRECTIONAL
W W %here IS a relationship %here IS a relationship
between between
W W X & Y X & Y
W W X..linked..Y X..linked..Y
Vs DIRECTIONAL Vs DIRECTIONAL
W W II X goes up, Y .. II X goes up, Y ..
W W or or
W W As X increases, Y. As X increases, Y.
W W X Independent X Independent
W W variable variable
W W Y Dependent variable Y Dependent variable
DIRECTIONAL HYPOTHESES DIRECTIONAL HYPOTHESES- -
~X causes ~Y to change ~X causes ~Y to change
W W II X changes II X changes
W W (increases (increases
W W decreases) decreases)
W W then then
W W Y will Y will
W W (increase or (increase or
W W decrease) decrease)
W W a causal link a causal link
DIRECTION OF RELATIONSHIP DIRECTION OF RELATIONSHIP
W W II X increases, Y increases II X increases, Y increases
W W A A POSITIVE POSITIVE relationship relationship
W W II X increase, Y decreases II X increase, Y decreases
W W A A NEGATIVE NEGATIVE or or INVERSE INVERSE
relationship relationship
W W As X changes, Y does NO% change...~ As X changes, Y does NO% change...~
W W No hange...~ No hange...~NO RELATIONSHIP NO RELATIONSHIP
Positive correlation Positive correlation
W W When the values oI When the values oI
W W %WO variables %WO variables
W W go together go together
W W or or
W W values on X & Y values on X & Y
W W change in SAME change in SAME
W W DIRE%ION DIRE%ION
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
Hr
work
Earnin
gs
CORRELATIONAL RELATIONSHIP CORRELATIONAL RELATIONSHIP
Negative Correlation Negative Correlation
W W When the values oI When the values oI
two variables two variables
W W O O- -VARY VARY
W W in Opposite direction in Opposite direction
W W (as one goes up, (as one goes up,
W W the other goes down) the other goes down)
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Hrs
work
Earnin
gs
FUNCTIONS OR ROLE OF HYPOTHESIS FUNCTIONS OR ROLE OF HYPOTHESIS
It gives a deIinite point to the investigation and
provides direction to the study.
It determines the data needs.
It speciIies the sources oI data.
It suggests which type oI research is likely to be more
appropriate.
It determines the most appropriate technique oI
analysis.
It contributes to the development oI theory.
Chi square test Chi square test
Chi square test is a very important test
amongst the several test of significance,
development by stasticians.
t is a statistical measures used in context
of sampling analysis for testing the
significance of a population variance.
As a non parametric test,it can be used as
a test of indpendence attributes.
%ypes of chi square test %ypes of chi square test
Chi square test as a test for population
variance.
Chi square test as a non parametric test.
Chi square test as a test for Chi square test as a test for
population variance population variance
Chi sqqare test used to test the
significance of population variance that is
we can use this test to judge if a random
sample has been drown from a normal
population with mean and with a spcified
varance.
!rocdure !rocdure to set up the to set up the hypothsis hypothsis
1. Set up the null hypothesis: H0 :
2. We copmute by using any one of the following
formula _
chi square= (X- X)
3. %o calculate degree of freedom
v=n-1
4. %o check the table value and critical value
xample xample
Random sample of 10 is drawn randomly
from a certain population. the sum of the
squared deviation from the mean of the given
sample is 50. %est the hypothesis variance of
the population is 5.
Sol. n=10,
Chi-square = 50/5 = 10
Degree of freedom = 10-1=9
Critical value = 16.92
Since the calculated value of chi-square is
less than the critical value.
t means we accept the null hypothesis
and conclude that the variance of
population is 5.
Chi Chi- -Square test as a non Square test as a non- -
parametric test parametric test
As a test of goodness of fit
As a test of independence attributes.
example example
A dice is thrown 180 times with the following
results.
No. of turn up : 1 2 3 4 5 6 %otal
Frequency : 25 35 40 22 32 26 180
%est the hypothesis that die is unbiased
1. We set up the null hypothesis that die is
unbiased
2. We calculate the expected frequency =
180/6=30
Applying the Chi Applying the Chi- -square test square test
E E (E)2
(E)2/E
25 30
-5
25 0.833
35 30 5 25 0.833
40 30 10 100 3.33
22 30 -8 64 2.133
32 30 2 4 0.133
26 30 -4 16 0.533
=7.798
Degree of freedom 6-1 = 5
Critical value is 11.07
We Calculated value is less than the
critical value it mean we accept the null
hypothesis and conclude that die is
unbiased.
Chi Chi- -Square test as an Square test as an
independent attributes independent attributes
xp. A survey among the women was
conducted to study the family life. %he
observation are as follows
Happy Not Happy TotaI
ducated 70 30 100
Not ducated 60 40 100
%otal 130 140 200
11 = 100*130/200 = 65
65 35 100
65 35 100
130 70 200
0 E (E)2 (E)2/E
70 65 25 0.385
60 65 25 0.385
30 35 25 0.714
40 35 25 0.714
=2.198
Degree of freedom (2-1)(2-1)=1
%he critical value is 3.84.
%he calculated value is less than the
critical value so can accept the null
hypothesis and conclude that No
association between family and life and
education
Alternative formula for finding the value of
Chi-square in (2*2)
a B A+b
c D C+d
A+c B+d N
Chi-Square=N*{ad-bc2}/ (a+c)(b+d)(a+b)(c+d)
Where n=a+b+c+d
Formula of t Formula of t- -test test
3
$

9
3

X = Mean
= population mean
S= Sample Deviation
N= Sample Size
Summary Summary
n this topic restricted to setting up a
confidence interval around the sample mean
to estimate the population mean, to chi-
square tests to test for significance in the
analysis of frequency distributions, and to Z-
test to test hypotheses about sample
proportion when the sample sizes are
large,and t-test when sample no is less than
30.. As our discussion of the population
proportion suggests, there are other
hypothesis tests concerning population
parameters estimated from sample statistics.
%HANK YOU