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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

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INTRODUCTION
Wireless Integrated Network Sensors (WINS) provide distributed network and Internet access to sensors, controls, and processors that are deeply embedded in equipment, facilities, and the environment. The Wireless Integrated Network Sensors (WINS) network is a new monitoring and control capability for applications in transportation, manufacturing, health care, environmental monitoring, and safety and security, border security. Wireless Integrated Network Sensors WINS networks provide sensing, local control, and embedded intelligent systems in structures, materials, and environments Wireless Integrated Network Sensors combine microsensor technology, low power signal processing, low power computation, and low power, low cost wireless networking capability in a compact system. Wireless Integrated Network Sensors (WINS) combine sensing, signal processing, decision capability, and wireless networking capability in a compact, low power system. Compact geometry and low cost allows WINS to be embedded and distributed at a small fraction of the cost of conventional wire line sensor and actuator systems. On a local, wide-area scale, battlefield situational awareness will provide personnel health monitoring and enhance security and efficiency. Also, on a metropolitan scale, new traffic, security, emergency, and disaster recovery services will be enabled by WINS. On a local, enterprise scale, WINS will create a manufacturing information service for cost and quality control. WINS for biomedicine will connect patients in the clinic, ambulatory outpatient services, and medical professionals to sensing, monitoring, and control. On a local machine scale, WINS condition based maintenance devices will equip power plants, appliances, vehicles, and energy systems for enhancements in reliability, reductions in energy usage, and improvements in quality of service. The opportunities for WINS depend on the development of scalable, low cost, sensor network architecture. This requires that sensor information be conveyed to the user at low bit rate with low power transceivers. Continuous sensor signal processing BORDER SECURITY USING WINS Page 2

must be provided to enable constant monitoring of events in an environment. Distributed signal processing and decision making enable events to be identified at the remote sensor. Thus, information in the form of decisions is conveyed in short message packets. Future applications of distributed embedded processors and sensors will require massive numbers of devices. Conventional methods for sensor networking would present impractical demands on cable installation and network bandwidth. By eliminating the requirements for transmission of all measured data, the burden on communication system components, networks, and human resources are drastically reduced. In this paper we have concentrated in the most important application, Border Security.

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CHAPTER 2 WIRELESS INTEGRATED NETWORK SENSORS (WINS) SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE

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WINS SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE


The primary limitation on WINS node cost and volume arises from power requirements and the need for battery energy sources. As will be described, low power sensor interface and signal processing architecture and circuits enable continuous low power monitoring. However, wireless communication energy requirements present additional severe demands. Conventional wireless networks are supported by complex protocols that are developed for voice and data transmission for handhelds and mobile terminals. These networks are also developed to support communication over long range (up to 1km or more) with link bit rate over 100kbps. In contrast to conventional wireless networks, the WINS network must support large numbers of sensors in a local area with short range and low average bit rate communication (less than 1kbps). The network design must consider the requirement to service dense sensor distributions with an emphasis on recovering environment information. The WINS architecture, therefore, exploits the small separation between WINS nodes to provide multihop communication. Multihop communication (see Figure 2) yields large power and scalability advantages for WINS networks. First, RF communication path loss has been a primary limitation for wireless networking, with received power, PREC, decaying as transmission range, R, as PREC R- (where varies from 3 5 in typical indoor and outdoor environments). However, in a dense WINS network, multihop architectures may permit N communication link hops between N+ 1 nodes. In the limit where communication system power dissipation (receiver and transceiver power) exceeds that of other systems within the WINS node, the introduction of N co-linear equal range hops between any node pair reduces power by a factor of N -1 in comparison to a single hop system. BORDER SECURITY USING WINS Page 5

Multihop communication, therefore, provides an immediate advance in capability for the WINS narrow bandwidth devices. Clearly, multihop communication raises system complexity. However, WINS multihop communication networks permit large power reduction and the implementation of dense node distribution. Conventional wireless networks are supported by complex protocols that are developed for voice and data transmission for handhelds and mobile terminals. These networks are also developed to support communication over long range (up to 1km or more) with link bit rate over 100kbps. In contrast to conventional wireless networks, the WINS network must support large numbers of sensors in a local area with short range and low average bit rate communication (less than 1kbps). The network design must consider the requirement to service dense sensor distributions with an emphasis on recovering environment information. Multihop communication yields large power and scalability advantages for WINS networks. Multihop communication, therefore, provides an immediate advance in capability for the WINS narrow Bandwidth devices. However, WINS Multihop Communication networks permit large power reduction and the implementation of dense node distribution. The multihop communication has been shown in the figure 2. The figure 1 represents the general structure of the wireless integrated network sensors (WINS) arrangement.

Continuous operation low duty cycle

Figure 1. The wireless integrated network sensor (WINS) architecture. The wireless integrated network sensor (WINS) architecture includes sensor, data converter, signal processing, and control functions. Micropower RF communication provides bidirectional network access for low bit rate, short range communication. The BORDER SECURITY USING WINS Page 6

micropower components operate continuously for event recognition, while the network interface operates at low duty cycle.

CHAPTER 3 WINS NODE ARCHITECTURE

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WINS NODE ARCHITECTURE


WINS Node Architectures development was initiated in 1993 at the University of California, Los Angeles; the first generation of field-ready WINS devices and software was fielded there three years later. The DARPA-sponsored low-power wireless integrated micro sensors (LWIM) project demonstrated the feasibility of multihop, self-assembled, wireless networks. This first network also demonstrated the feasibility of algorithms for operating wireless sensor nodes and networks at micropower levels. In another DARPAfunded joint development program (involving UCLA and the Rockwell Science Center of Thousand Oaks, Calif.), a modular development platform was devised to enable evaluation of more sophisticated networking and signal-processing algorithms and to deal with many types of sensors, though with less emphasis on power conservation than LWIM. These experiments taught us to recognize the importance of separating the realtime functions that have to be optimized for low power from the higher-level functions requiring extensive software development but that are invoked with light-duty cycles. The WINS NG node architecture was subsequently developed by Sensor.com, founded by the authors in 1998 in Los Angeles, to enable continuous sensing, signal processing for event detection, local control of actuators, event identification, and communication at low power. Since the event-detection process is continuous, the sensor, data converter, data buffer, and signal processing all have to operate at micropower levels, using a real-time system. If an event is detected, a process may be alerted to identify the event. Protocols for node operation then determine whether extra energy should be expended for further processing and whether a remote user or neighboring WINS node should be alerted. The actuator continuously vigilant operation low-duty BORDER SECURITY USING WINS Page 8

cycle operation WINS node then communicates an attribute of the identified event, possibly the address of the event in an event look-up table stored in all network nodes. These infrequent events can be managed by the higher-level processors in the first version of WINS NG, a Windows CE-based device selected for the availability of lowcost developer tools. By providing application programming interfaces enabling the viewing and controlling of the lower-level functions, a developer is either shielded from real-time functions or is allowed to delve into them as desired to improve applications efficiency. Future generations will also support plug-in Linux devices; other development will include very small but limited sensing devices that interact with WINS NG nodes in heterogeneous networks. These small devices might scavenge their energy from the environment by means of photocells or piezoelectric materials, capturing energy from vibrations and achieving perpetual life spans. A clear technical path exists today, offering increased circuit integration and improved packaging. This path should produce very low-cost and compact devices in the near future. Low power, reliable and efficient network operation is obtained with intelligent sensor nodes that include sensor signal processing, control, and a wireless network interface. The signal processor described here can supply a hierarchy of information to the user ranging from single-bit event detection, to power spectral density (PSD) values, to buffered, real time data. This programmable system matches its response to the power and information requirements. Distributed network sensor devices must continuously monitor multiple sensor systems, process sensor signals, and adapt to changing environments and user requirements, while completing decisions on measured signals. Clearly, for low power operation, network protocols must minimize the operation duty cycle of the high power RF communication system. Unique requirements for the WINS node appear for sensors and micropower sensor interfaces. The WINS network supports multihop communication (see Figure 2) with a wireless bridge connection to a conventional wire line network service. BORDER SECURITY USING WINS Page 9

While unique requirements exist for low power node operation, there is a balancing set of unique operational characteristics that permit low power operation if properly exploited. In particular, WINS applications are generally tolerant to latency. Specifically, in contrast to conventional wireless network applications where latency is not tolerated, the WINS node event recognition may be delayed by 10 100 msec, or longer. This permits low clock rate signal processing and architecture design that minimizes computation and communication power at the expense of latency. For example, in the latency-tolerant WINS system, time division multiple access protocols may be implemented to reduce communication power. Also, it is important to note that sensor signals are generally narrowband signals (bandwidth less than 10kHz) that require only low sample and processing rates. Many of the primary WINS applications require sensor nodes powered by compact battery cells. Total average system supply currents must be less than 30 A to provide long operating life from typical compact Li coin cells (2.5 cm diameter and 1 cm thickness). In addition, these compact cells may provide a peak current of no greater than about 1 mA (higher peak currents degrade the cell energy capacity through electrode damage.) Both average and peak current requirements present unique challenges for circuit design. In this paper, the requirements, architectures, and circuits for micropower WINS systems will be described. The WINS node architecture (Figure 1) is developed to enable continuous sensing, event detection, and event identification at low power. Since the event detection process must occur continuously, the sensor, data converter, data buffer, and spectrum analyzer must all operate at micro power levels. In the event that an event is detected, the spectrum analyzer output may trigger the microcontroller. The microcontroller may then issue commands for additional signal processing operations for identification of the event signal. Protocols for node operation then determine whether a remote user or neighboring WINS node should be alerted. The WINS node then supplies an attribute of the identified event, for example, the address of the event in an event look-up-table stored in all network nodes. Total average system supply currents must be less than 30 A. BORDER SECURITY USING WINS Page 10

Distributed network sensor devices must continuously monitor multiple sensor systems, process sensor signals, and adapt to changing environments and user requirements, while completing decisions on measured signals.

Figure 2. WINS nodes (shown as disks) For the particular applications of military security, the WINS sensor systems must operate at low power, sampling at low frequency and with environmental background limited sensitivity. The micro power interface circuits must sample at dc or low frequency where 1/f noise in these CMOS interfaces is large. The micro power signal processing system must be implemented at low power and with limited word length. In particular, WINS applications are generally tolerant to latency. The WINS node event recognition may be delayed by 10 100 msec, or longer.

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CHAPTER 4 WINS MICRO SENSORS

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WINS MICRO SENSORS


Many important WINS applications require the detection of signal sources in the presence of environmental noise. Source signals (seismic, infrared, acoustic and others) all decay in amplitude rapidly with radial distance from the source. To maximize detection range, sensor sensitivity must be optimized. In addition, due to the fundamental limits of background noise, a maximum detection range exists for any sensor. Thus, it is critical to obtain the greatest sensitivity and to develop compact sensors that may be widely distributed. Clearly, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology provides an ideal path for implementation of these highly distributed systems. WINS sensor integration relies on structures that are flip-chip bonded to a low temperature, cofired ceramic substrate. The sensor-substrate Sensorstrate is then a platform for support of interface, signal processing, and communication circuits. Examples of WINS Micro Seismometer and infrared detector devices are shown in Figure 3. The detector shown is the thermal detector. It just captures the harmonic signals produced by the foot-steps of the stranger entering the border. These signals are then converted into their PSD values and are then compared with the reference values set by the user.

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Figure 3. Thermal Infrared Detector

4.1 REMOTE BATTLE FIELD SENSOR SYSTEM (REMBASS): REMBASS is a ground-based, all-weather, day-and-night, battlefield

surveillance, target development, and early warning system capable of remote operation under field conditions. The basic purpose of REMBASS is to detect, locate, classify, and report personnel and vehicular (wheeled and tracked) activities in real-time within the area of deployment. With a meteorological sensor attached, it will also sense and collect weather information. It uses remotely monitored sensors emplaced along likely enemy avenues of approach. These sensors respond to seismic-acoustic energy, infrared energy, and magnetic field changes to detect enemy activities. The sensors process the data and provide detection of classification information which is incorporated into digital messages and transmitted through short burst transmission to the system sensor monitor programmer set. The messages are demodulated, decoded, displayed, and recorded to provide a time-phased record of enemy activity.

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Figure 4. REMBASS This system complements other manned/unmanned surveillance systems such as ground surveillance radar, unmanned aerial vehicles, and night observation devices. The system provides division, brigade, and battalion commanders with information from beyond the forward line of own troops (FLOT), and enhances rear area protection. It can be deployed anywhere in the world in a tactical environment in support of reconnaissance, surveillance, and target acquisition (RSTA) operations. The system consists of eleven major components: a passive infrared (IR) sensor, magnetic (MAG) sensor, seismic/acoustic (SA) sensor, radio repeater. Sensor Monitoring Set (SMS), radio frequency monitor (referred to as portable monitoring set (PMS)) , code programmer, antenna group, power supply, mounting rack, and Sensor Signal Simulator (SSS). A set consists of eight IR sensors, eight MAG sensors, thirty-two SA sensors, eight radio repeaters, one SMS, three PMS, two code programmers, one antenna group, one power supply, one mounting rack, and one SSS. (1) Magnetic Sensor: This is a hand-emplaced, MAG sensor. The MAG sensor detects vehicles (tracked or wheeled) and personnel carrying ferrous metal. It also provides information on which to base a count of objects passing through its detection zone and reports their direction of travel relative to its location. The monitor uses two different (MAG and IR) sensors and their identification codes to determine direction of travel. (2) Seismic Acoustic Sensor: This is a hand-emplaced SA classifying sensor. It detects targets and classifies them as unknown, wheeled vehicle, tracked vehicle, or personnel. BORDER SECURITY USING WINS Page 15

(3) Passive Infrared Sensor: This is a hand-emplaced, IR detecting sensor. The sensor detects tracked or wheeled vehicles and personnel. It also provides information on which to base a count of objects passing through its detection zone and reports their direction of travel relative to its location. The monitor uses two different (MAG and IR) sensors and their identification codes to determine direction of travel. (4) Radio Repeater: This is an expendable/recoverable, digital/analog radio repeater used to extend the broadcast range of radio messages from anti-intrusion sensors to a monitoring set. It receives, processes and relays messages from either an anti-intrusion sensor or another like radio repeater. Several repeaters may be used in a station-to-station chain, one sending to another, to relay messages over a long distance. (5) Sensor Monitoring Set: The SMS has a dual channel receiver with a permanent hard copy recorder and a temporary visual display (TVD). The SMS receives processes, displays, and records sensor information relating to 60 sensor ID codes. Detections and classification are displayed as: dashes (-) for unknown targets, (T) for tracked vehicles, (W) for wheeled vehicles, and (P) for personnel. The TVD can simultaneously display up to ten sensor ID codes with detection or classification information. A keyboard allows the operator to program the SMS operation: set radio frequency (RF) channels, establish hard copy recorder format, initiate system operational checks or built in test (BIT), and calculate target speed. A separate display shows the keyboard functions and calculations. (6) Radio Frequency Monitor: This is a single-channel PMS with a TVD. The PMS receives, processes, and displays sensor ID codes and detection/classification messages. (7) Code Programmer: The programmer is a portable device used to program sensors and repeaters to the desired operating channel, ID code, mission life, arm mode, and gain. It is also used to condition newly installed batteries in sensors and repeaters. It has a built in visual self test to ensure the proper information programmed into the sensor or repeater. (8) Antenna Group: The antenna group consists of an omni directional unity gain antenna, a mast assembly, a pre-amplifier suitable for mast mounting and an RF multicoupler. It is used with the SMS and the PMS. Up to four monitoring devices can use the antenna group simultaneously. BORDER SECURITY USING WINS Page 16

(9) Power Supply: The power supply is a custom flyback-type switching regulator that converts external power sources (24 volts direct current (dc), 115 or 220 volts alternating current) to 12 volts dc nominal prime power. The power supply can be used to power the SMS, repeater or SSS. (10) Mounting Rack: The mounting rack is an aluminum angle shock mounted rack. It is used to mount the repeaters in helicopters. (11) Sensor Signal Simulator (SSS): The SSS is similar in appearance to the SMS. It has the capability to receive, record, edit, copy, and retransmit an operational scenario involving any two of the 599 REMBASS channels. It also has the capability to transmit pre-recorded scenarios. These functions are accomplished without any additional support equipment. The SSS allows institutional or unit sustainment training in either a classroom or field environment without the use of REMBASS/IREMBASS sensors. The operator can monitor the outputs of the SSS on the PMS or SMS.

CHAPTER 5
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ROUTING BETWEEN NODES

ROUTING BETWEEN NODES


The sensed signals are then routed to the major node. This routing is done based on the shortest distance. That is the distance between the nodes is not considered, but the traffic between the nodes is considered. This has been depicted in the figure 5. In the figure, the distance between the nodes and the traffic between the nodes has been clearly shown. For example, if we want to route the signal from the node 2 to node 4, the shortest distance route will be from node 2 via node 3 to node 4. But the traffic through this path is higher than the path node 2 to node 4. Whereas this path is longer in distance.

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Figure 5. Nodal distance and Traffic

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CHAPTER 6 SHORTEST DISTANCE ALGORITHM

SHORTEST DISTANCE ALGORITHM


In this process we find mean packet delay, if the capacity and average flow are known. From the mean delays on all the lines, we calculate a flow-weighted average to get mean packet delay for the whole subnet. The weights on the arcs in the figure 6 give capacities in each direction measured in kbps.

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Figure 6. Subnet with line capacities

Figure 7.s Routing Matrix

In fig 7 the routes and the number of packets/sec sent from source to destination are shown. For example, the E-B traffic gives 2 packets/sec to the EF line and also 2 packets/sec to the FB line. The mean delay in each line is calculated using the formula

Ti =1/(c-)
Ti = Time delay in sec C = Capacity of the path in Bps = Mean packet size in bits = Mean flow in packets/sec.

The mean delay time for the entire subnet is derived from weighted sum of all the lines. There are different flows to get new average delay. But we find the path, which has the smallest mean delay-using program. Then we calculate the Waiting factor for each path. The path, which has low waiting factor, is the shortest path. The waiting factor is calculated using

W = i /
i = Mean packet flow in path = Mean packet flow in subnet The tabular column listed below gives waiting factor for each path.

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Figure 5. WINS Comparator response

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CHAPTER 7 WINS DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING

WINS DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING


The WINS architecture relies on a low power spectrum analyzer to process all ADC output data to identify an event in the physical input signal time series. If a stranger BORDER SECURITY USING WINS Page 23

enters the border, his foot-steps will generate harmonic signals. It can be detected as a characteristic feature in a signal power spectrum. Thus, a spectrum analyzer must be implemented in the WINS digital signal processing system. The spectrum analyzer resolves the WINS input data into a low-resolution power spectrum. Power spectral density (PSD) in each frequency bins is computed with adjustable band location and width. Bandwidth and position for each power spectrum bin is matched to the specific detection problem. The WINS spectrum analyzer must operate at W power level. So the complete WINS system, containing controller and wireless network interface components, achieves low power operation by maintaining only the micropower components in continuous operation. The WINS spectrum analyzer system, shown in Figure 8, contains a set of parallel filters. Mean square power for each frequency bin, is computed at the output of each filter. Of course, the microcontroller may support additional, more complex algorithms that provide capability (at higher power) for event identification. The WINS spectrum analyzer architecture includes a data buffer, shown in Figure 8. Buffered data is stored during continuous computation of the PSD spectrum. If an event is detected, the input data time series, including that acquired prior to the event, are available to the microcontroller. Low power operation of the spectrum analyzer is achieved through selection of an architecture that provides the required performance and function while requiring only limited word length. First, since high resolution measurements of PSD are required (5 Hz bandwidth passbands at frequencies of 5 50 Hz with a 200 Hz input word rate) FIR filters would require an excessive number of taps and corresponding power dissipation. In contrast, IIR filter architectures have provided adequate resolution with limited word length.

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Figure 8. WINS micro power spectrum analyzer architecture. 7.1 PSD COMPARISION: Each filter is assigned a coefficient set for PSD computation. Finally, PSD values are compared with background reference values. In the event that the measured PSD spectrum values exceed that of the background reference values, the operation of a microcontroller is triggered. Thus, only if an event appears, the micro controller operates. Buffered data is stored during continuous computation of the PSD spectrum. If an event is detected, the input data time series, including that acquired prior to the event, are available to the micro controller. The micro controller sends a HIGH signal, if the difference is high. It sends a LOW signal, if the difference is low. For a reference value of 25db, the comparison of the DFT signals is shown in the figure 9.

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Figure 9. Comparator plot

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CHAPTER 8 WINS MICROPOWER EMBEDDED RADIO

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WINS MICROPOWER EMBEDDED RADIO


WINS systems present novel requirements for low cost, low power, short range, and low bit rate RF communication. Simulation and experimental verification in the field indicate that the embedded radio network must include spread spectrum signaling, channel coding, and time division multiple access (TDMA) network protocols. The operating bands for the embedded radio are most conveniently the unlicensed bands at 902-928 MHz and near 2.4 GHz. These bands provide a compromise between the power cost associated with high frequency operation and the penalty in antenna gain reduction with decreasing frequency for compact antennas. The prototype, operational, WINS networks are implemented with a self-assembling, multihop TDMA network protocol. The WINS embedded radio development is directed to CMOS circuit technology to permit low cost fabrication along with the additional WINS components. In addition, WINS embedded radio design must address the peak current limitation of typical battery sources, of 1mA. It is critical, therefore, to develop the methods for design of micro power CMOS active elements. For LC oscillator phase noise power, S at frequency , offset of way from the carrier at frequency ith an input noise power, Snoise a w and LC tank quality factor, Q, phase noise power is:

Now, phase noise power, Snoise, at the transistor input, is dominated by 1/f noise. Input referred thermal noise, in addition, increases with decreasing drain current and power dissipation due to the resulting decrease in transistor transconductance. The tunability of micropower CMOS systems has been tested by implementation of several VCO systems to be discussed below. The embedded radio system requires narrow band operation and must exploit high Q value components. BORDER SECURITY USING WINS Page 28

CHAPTER 9 CHARACTERISTICS AND APPLICATIONS

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CHARACTERISTICS
The following are the characteristics of the wireless integrated network sensors (WINS) It supports large numbers of sensor. Dense sensor distributions. Low-power signal processing, computation, and low-cost wireless networking. These sensors are also developed to support short distance RF communication. Internet access to sensors, controls and processor is easy.

APPLICATIONS
Wireless integrated network sensors (WINS) provide distributed network and Internet access to sensors, controls, and processors deeply embedded in equipment, facilities, and the environment. The WINS network represents a new monitoring and control capability for applications in such industries as transportation, manufacturing, health care, environmental oversight, and safety and security. WINS combine micro sensor technology and low-power signal processing, computation, and low-cost wireless networking in a compact system. Recent advances in integrated circuit technology have enabled construction of far more capable yet inexpensive sensors, radios, and processors, allowing mass production of sophisticated systems linking the physical world to digital data networks.

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CHAPTER 10 CONCLUSION

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CONCLUSION
A series of interface, signal processing, and communication systems have been implemented in micropower CMOS circuits. A micropower spectrum analyzer has been developed to enable low power operation of the entire WINS system. Thus WINS require a Microwatt of power. But it is very cheaper when compared to other security systems such as RADAR under use. It is even used for short distance communication less than 1 Km. It produces a less amount of delay. Hence it is reasonably faster. On a global scale, WINS will permit monitoring of land, water, and air resources for environmental monitoring. On a national scale, transportation systems, and borders will be monitored for efficiency, safety, and security.

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CHAPTER 11 REFERENCES

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REFERENCES
[1] K. Bult, A. Burstein, D. Chang, M. Dong, M. Fielding, E. Kruglick, J. Ho, F. Lin, T. H. Lin, W. J. Kaiser, H. Marcy, R. Mukai, P. Nelson, F. Newberg, K. S. J. Pister, G. Pottie, H. Sanchez, O. M Stafsudd, K. B. Tan, C. M. Ward, S. Xue, J. Yao, Low Power Systems for Wireless Microsensors, 1996 International Symposium on Low Power Electronics and Design, Digest of Technical Papers, (1996), pp. 17-21. [2] E. Vittoz, Design of Analog-Digital VLSI Circuits for Telecommunications & Signal Processing, Prentice Hall, New York, 1994. [3] M. J. Dong, G. Yung, and W. J. Kaiser, Low Power Signal Processing Architectures for Network Microsensors, 1997 International Symposium on Low Power Electronics and Design, Digest of Technical Papers (1997), pp. 173-177. [4] A. A. Abidi, Low-power radio-frequency ICs for portable communications, Proceedings of the IEEE, 83, (1995), pp. 544-69. [5] D. B. Leeson, A simple model of feedback oscillator noise spectra, Proc. IEEE, 54, (1966), pp. 329-330. [6] J. Craninckx, M. S. J. Steyaert, A 1.8-GHz low-phasenoise CMOS VCO using optimized hollow spiral inductors IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, 32, (1997), pp.736-44. [7] B. Razavi, A Study of Phase Noise in CMOS Oscillators, IEEE J. of Solid-State Circuits, 31, (1996), pp. 331-343.

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[8] S. Vasudevan, A. Shaikh, Microwave Characterization of Low Temperature Cofired Tape Ceramic System, Advancing Microelectronics, (1995), pp.16-25.

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