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Contents

Preface to the First Edition Preface to the Second Edition Preface to the Third Edition
1

vii ix xi
1
1

Introduction
Fields 1.2 Geophysical Fieldwork 1.3 Geophysical Data 1.4 Bases and Base Networks i.5 Global Positioning Satellites
1.1

10

22 25

Gravity Method 2.1 Physical Basis of the Gravity Method


2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5

29 29
31 38 41

Gravity Meters Gravity Reductions Gravity Surveys Field Interpretation

46
51 51 53 58 62 67 71 71 75 78

Magnetic Method
Magnetic Properties 3.2 The Magnetic Field of the Earth 3.3 Magnetic Instruments 3.4 Magnetic Surveys 3.5 Simple Magnetic Interpretation
3.1

Radiornetric Surveys
Natural Radiation 4.2 Radiation Detectors 4.3 Radiornetric Surveys
4.1

Electric Current Methods


5.1

- General Considerations

Resistivity and Conductivity


Varying Current Methods

83 83
88 91

5.2 DC Methods
5.3
6

Resistivity Methods 6.1 DC Survey Fundamentals


6.2 6.3 6.4

97 97
107 108 113

Resistivity Profiling Resistivity Depth-sounding Capacitative Coupling


V

CONTENTS

7 SPandiP
7.1

117
117 120 122 124 126

7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5


8
8.1

SP Surveys Polarization Fundamentals Time-domain IP Surveys Frequency-domain Surveys IP Data

Electromagnetic Methods
Two-coil CW Systems 8.2 Other CWEM Techniques 8.3 Transient Electromagnetics

129 129 140 144 149 149


155 158

9 VLF and CSAMTIMT


9.1

VLF Radiation Presentation of VLF Results Natural and Controlled-source Audio-magnetotellurics


Radar Fundamentals Data Processing
Seismic Waves Seismic Sources Detection of Seismic Waves Recording Seismic Signals

9.2 VLF Instruments


9.3 9.4
10
10.1

162

Ground Penetrating Radar


10.2 GPR Surveys
10.3

167 167
171 175

11

Seismic Methods - General Considerations


11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4

179
179 183 188 192

12

Seismic Reflection 12.1 Reflection Theory 12.2 Reflection Surveys

197 197 201

13

Seismic Refraction 13.1 Refraction Surveys 13.2 Field Interpretation 13.3 Limitations of the Refraction Method

207 207
211

216 223 225 229

Appendix Terrain Corrections for Hammer Zones B to M

Bibliography Index

vi