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ESSAY Chapter 7 1. Which of the four approaches to stress appears most useful in understanding job and work-related stress?

ANS: Of the four approaches (homeostatic, cognitive appraisal, person-environment, and psychoanalytic), the person-environment seems most appropriate to understand job stress producing situations. When one's fit (in terms of skill, ability, and knowledge) with the job is close, distress is less likely to develop and job performance is more likely to be at or above standard.

2. How can job redesign modify a job to prevent excessive stress? ANS: Job redesign can change a number of job characteristics, including the number of tasks and the task completion sequence, job decision latitude or autonomy, production standards (qualitative and quantitative), specificity of information for job completion, and the equipment or technology used. Greater job decision latitude, more emphasis on output quality, unambiguous job descriptions, and flexibility in task sequencing can minimize distressful aspects of the job and possibly lead to greater job performance and success. 3. Briefly indicate how you can prevent distress in preparing for the final exam of the course in which you are using this book. ANS: Throughout the semester a student should remain in good physical health and engage in a regular exercise regime. This will more greatly ensure one's stamina during final exam time. Second, the student can adopt a time management approach to studying the text material each week of the semester. Third, a study group could be formed for exam review purposes as well as a social support network. Finally, positive self-talk and self-confidence building can be practiced to develop the attitude that an exam is an opportunity to achieve success rather than avoid failure. 4. Identify counterpart organizational stress prevention methods to the individual stress prevention methods of learned optimism, time management, leisure time activities, physical exercise, relaxation training, diet, opening up, and professional help. ANS: Positive thinking Time management Leisure time activity Physical exercise Relaxation training Diet Opening up Professional help Identify pessimistic thoughts and then distract yourself from these thoughts. Flextime Sponsored recreation Wellness program Work breaks Nutrition classes Mentoring and social support groups Employee assistance programs

5. What are some of the differences between Type A and Type B personalities? ANS: Type A persons tend to frequently be in a hurry, feel insecure, need to be liked, usually are counting accomplishments, try to exercise control over situations, exhibit tension, and are more prone to heart attacks. Type B persons tend to have an internal locus of control, are more socially secure, less ego involved in their work, are less stress prone, manage distress more effectively, have greater stress coping ability, and are less prone to heart attacks.