Seminar -3

DENTAL CERAMICS CONTENT ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ Introduction History Structure Classification Composition Properties Strengthening of dental porcelain Condensation of dental porcelain Firing procedure Stages of maturity Metal -ceramic All ceramics Application of ceramics Conclusion References

INTRODUCTION : Man has been obsessed with duplicating, restoring and replacing various lost body parts like the limbs, ear, nose and eyes with artificial prosthesis and teeth being no exception. The quest for an artificial prosthesis similar to the natural tooth, both in function and aesthetics, in the oral environment still remains as a foremost concern to the dentist, which has led to the use of CERAMICS in dentist. WHAT ARE CERAMICS? The term ceramic is derived from the Greek word “keramos,” which means “potter” or “pottery.” This is related to a Sanskrit term meaning “burned earth,” because the basic components were clays from the earth that were heated to form pottery.1


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Ceramic is an inorganic compound with non-metallic properties typically composed of metallic (or semi metallic) and non-metallic elements (example AI2O3, CaO) - Kenneth J. Anusavice Dental ceramic is an inorganic compound with non-metallic properties typically consisting of oxygen and one or more metallic or semi metallic elements (e.g. Al, Ca, Li, Mg, K, Si, Na, Sn, Ti and Zr) that is formulated to produce the whole or part of a ceramic based dental prosthesis.

HISTORICAL EVOLUTION OF CERAMICS : Till 18th Century dental technologie remian undeveloped . The candidate material for artificial teeth during these days were : • Human teeth • Animal teeth that were carved to size and shape of human teeth but they were unstable towards coorosive agents in saliva • Ivory : elephant ivory and bone contained pores which got stained easily.2 The current dental ceramics are far from the early ceramics that started being used over 200 years ago. Early records of the first ceramics used as dental materials date back to 1774, when french apothecary alexis duchateau and parisian dentist Nicholas dubois De Cheamnat manufactured the first complete ceramic denture.

Nicholas dubois De Cheamnat


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The initial use of ceramics materials in dentistry was in the obtention of complete dentures. Early in the 19th century, Italian dentist Giuseppangelo Fonzi manufactured individual ceramic teeth attached to a metallic substructure which, in turn ,was attached to complete dentures.

Giuseppangelo Fonzi

The restoration of individual ceramic teeth in the oral cavity was delayed until the late 1800s, when Logan constructed ceramic teeth fused to the metallic post so that these posts could function as an intra radicular for the restoration. During last 40 years ,research has foccused on improving metal free systems and developing superior materials regarding esthetics and clinical performances to offer patients several alternatives to restore missing or damaged teeth.3 1958 first dental porcelain for veneering was introduced, which led to the wide spread use of metal –ceramic restoration in the 1960s and beyond, followed by invention of the porcelain jacket crown that was popularized in hte 1960s by Mclean. 1970 saw the advent of the early experiments in CAD/CAM crown fabrication, followed by an influx of ceramic based restoration systems from 1980s through to the present day1 STRUCTURE:

Seminar -3 The structure of ceramic material is dictated by the type of atoms present. and covalent occurs between two nonmetals and involves sharing of atoms. 4 . metals are ductile and ceramics are brittle. the type of bonding between the atoms and the way atoms are packed together.anions at each of the four corners. This structure is characterized by a silica tetrahedran in which a Si4+ cations is positioned at the center of a tetrahedran with O. The atoms in ceramic materials are held together by a chemical bond and two most common bonds for ceramics are ionic bond(occurs between a metal and nonmetal and involves the attraction of opposite charges when electrons are transferred from the metal to the nonmetal). Because of this. The bonding of atoms together is much stronger in covalent and ionic than in metallic bonding. Many dental ceramics contains a crystal phase and a glass phase based on silica structure.

2. and exhibits only short range order in atomic arrangement. 5. 6.4 CLASSIFICATION : 1. which is hardest and strongest oxide known. which is referred to as dental glass ceramics. 5 . Dental porcelain falls in this category. 3. 8. BASED ON COMPOSITION: A) SILICATE CERAMICS: Characterized by an amorphous glass phase with porous structure. The only true crystalline ceramic used at present in restorative dentistry is alumina (Al2O3). ThO2 or. Al2O3. C) NON OXIDE CERAMICS: These are impractical for use in dentistry because of high processing temperatures. is largely non crystalline. ZrO2) with either no glass phase or a small content of glass phase. complex processing methods or unesthetic color and opacity. 4. 7. Based on chemical composition According to type According to use According to firing température According to firing technique According to substrate metal Microstructural classification Processing technique 1.. The regular dental porcelain. ZrO2 and or other oxides. The main components are SiO2 with small addition of crystalline Al2O3. MgO.Seminar -3 The resulting structure is not closely packed and has both covalent and ionic characteristics.g. B) OXIDE CERAMICS: Contain principal crystalline phase (e. MgO. being glassy in nature.

1101 t0 1300C c) Low fusing . ACCORDING TO FIRING TEMPERATURE a) High fusing .4 2.>1300 C b) Medium fusing .<850C4 2.850-1101C d) Ultra low fusing . Diffusible gas firing 2. Cast metal 2. ACCORDING TO TYPE a) b) c) d) e) f) Feldspathic porcelain Leucite reinforced porcelain Aluminous porcelain Glass infiltrated aluminous Glass infiltrated spinell Glass ceramics4 2.Seminar -3 D) GLASS CERAMICS: These are types of ceramics containing a glass matrix phase and atleast one crystal phase. inlay and onlay ceramic Metal ceramic Anterior bridge ceramic 2. Air fired (at atmospheric pressure) 2. Vacuum fired (at reduced pressure) 3. Sintered metal 3. ACCORDING TO USE a) b) c) d) Ceramic for artificial teeth Jacket crown. Swaged metal 6 . ACCORDING TO SUBSTRATE METAL 1. ACCORDING TO FIRING TECHNIQUE 1.

Glass ceramics CAD/CAM. usually crystalline (Typically Leucite or a different high-fusing glass) c) Composition Category 3: Crystalline-based systems with glass fillers (mainly alumina) d) Composition Category 4: Polycrystalline solids (alumina and zirconia) COMPOSITION CATEGORY 1: Glass-Based Systems. and alumina (aluminium oxide).4 2. • Aluminosilicates occurs naturally. ceramics can be defined by their composition of glass-tocrystalline ratio.Seminar -3 4. • Derived from group of mined minerals called feldspar and are based on y silicon dioxide (also known as silica or quartz). • Glasses based on feldspar are ✔ Resistance to crystallization(devitrification) ✔ Have low firing ranges ✔ biocompatible 7 . METAL CERAMICS (PORCELAIN FUSED TO METAL) METAL FREE CERAMICS (ALL CERAMICS) 3. they can be divided into four basic compositional categories with a few subgroups: a) Composition Category 1: Glass-based systems (mainly silica) b) Composition Category 2: Glass-based systems (mainly silica) with fillers. however. are known as feldspars. There can be infinite variability of the microstructures of materials. 5. and contain various quantities of potassium and sodium. Amorphous Glass • Best mimic the optical properties of enamel and dentin. MICROSTRUCTURAL CLASSIFICATION At a microstructural level.

8 . The amount of Leucite may be adjusted in the glass based on the type of core and required CTE Subcategory 2.Seminar -3 COMPOSITION CATEGORY 2 Glass-Based Systems with fillers • Filler particles are added to the glass composition to improve mechanical properties. Leucite ✔ ✔ ✔ coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). thereby improving the material’s strength. It also acts a flux. Subcategory 2. lowering the melting temperature of the material. or fluorapatite. Inhibit crack propagation. Amherst.1 Low-to-Moderate Leucite-Containing Feldspathic Glass These materials have been called feldspathic porcelains by default. and opacity • It is further subdivided into three groups. And to control optical effects such as opalescence . ny) but there are several other products in this category.2 High-Leucite containing glass • Glassy phase is based on an alumino-silicate glass. The difference is varying amounts of crystal types have either been added to or grown in the glassy matrix. ✔ The glass composition is similar to the pure glass Category 1. • The primary crystal types today are leucite. machinable. lithium disilicate. Lithium disilicate crystals are made by adding Li2O (lithium oxide) to the aluminosilicates glass. . • These materials have been developed in both powder/liquid. and pressable forms. • The most widely used version is the original iPs empress® (ivoclar Vivadent. Leucite is created in dental porcelain by increasing the K2O (potassium oxide) content of the aluminosilicates glass. This filler was added to create porcelain that could be successfully fired on to the metal substructures.color.

g. • Several processing techniques allow the fabrication of either a solid-sintered aluminous oxide (alumina.max). • These are relatively opaque and hence these high strength ceramics are used as substructure material upon which glassy ceramics are veneered to achieve pleasing aesthetics. Al2O3) or zirconium oxide (ZrO2) framework5. onlay. with moderately high strength and is used for anterior crowns.g In-Ceram Spinell (alumina and magnesia matrix) is the most translucent. • 9 .Seminar -3 • This material is called a glass ceramic.3 Lithium-Disilicate Glass-Ceramics It is a new type of glass ceramic. where the aluminosilicates glass has lithium oxide added.” Subcategory 2. E. In-Ceram Alumina (alumina matrix) has high strength and moderate translucency and is used for anterior and posterior crowns. IPS Empress II (now called as IPS e. all atoms are densely packed together without any intervening matrix to form a dense. E. and anterior/posterior crowns and bridges. including veneers. COMPOSITION CATEGORY 4: Polycrystalline Solids Have no glassy component. inlays. In-Ceram Zirconia (alumina and zirconia matrix) has very high strength and lower translucency and is used primarily for three-unit posterior bridges. • This structure makes difficult to drive crack through atoms compared to atoms in the less dense and irregular network found in glasses. glass-free polycrystalline structure. COMPOSITION CATEGORY 3: Crystalline-based systems with glass fillers cover the wide scope of all-ceramic restorations. which has had the crystalline phase grown within the glass matrix by a process called “controlled crystallization of glass. air-free.

• The porosity and discontinuous nature of the crystalline phase lead to relatively low strength and a wide variation in strength. opportunity for depth translucency and accuracy of fit. so these materials are usually applied as the esthetic veneer layers on stronger cores and frameworks. and some of the powder particles in the slip become compacted against the walls of the mold forming a thin layer of green ceramic that is to become the framework 10 .Seminar -3 1. Ceramics can be classified as: ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ Powder condensation Slip casting Hot pressing Computer aided design / computer aided manufacturing Powder condensation • This is the traditional method of forming ceramic prosthesis • Moist porcelain powder is applied with an artist brush and excess moisture is removed to compact powder particles together. • This method results in a large amount of residual porosity. CLASSIFICATION BASED ON PROCESSING TECHNIQUE Ceramics having same composition may be fabricated by different laboratory techniques and each method of forming results in a different distribution of flaws. • The porcelain is further compacted by visual flow of the glassy component during firing under vacuum. Slip casting • A slip is a low viscosity slurry or mixture of ceramic powder particles suspended in a fluid (usually water). • Slip casting involves forming a mold or negative replica of the desired framework geometry and pouring a slip into the mold • The mold is made of a material (usually gypsum) that extracts some water from the slip into the walls of the mold through capillary action. • Have greater translucency than can be achieved using other methods [13].

Ceramics fabricated by slip casting can have higher fracture resistance than those produced by powder condensation because the strengthening crystalline Particles form a continuous network throughout the framework.g.max ZirPress (Ivoclar-Vivadent) CAD/CAM • CAD-CAM ceramics are available as prefabricated ingots • CAD-CAM ceramics are available as prefabricated ingots6 Composition: Dental porcelains. onlay. • Advantage is its good accuracy of fit • Used only as core and framework materials. which provide a challenge to achieving accurate fit & may result in internal defects that weaken the material from incomplete glass infiltration The original In-Ceram and some partially stabilized zirconia blocks are fabricated based on slip casting of alumina or zirconia. E. and the framework can be removed from the mold after partial sintering to improve the strength to a point where the framework can support its own weight. • Available from manufacturers as prefabricated ingots made of crystalline particles distributed throughout a glassy material.Seminar -3 • • • • • The remaining slip is discarded. IPS e. and they are slowly pressed into the lost wax mold.g. • Pressable may be used for inlays. Vita Zahnfabrik). • Pressable ingots are heated to a temperature at which they become a highly viscous liquid. and single-unit crowns • E. veneers. Pressable • Lost wax method is used to fabricate molds for pressable dental ceramics. glass infiltration (In-Ceram. Glasses are super-cooled liquids / non-crystalline solids with only a short-range order in their atomic arrangement. molten glass solidifies with a liquid structure 11 . are glassy materials. Limited application is because of complicated series of steps. During cooling. to a large extent.

Feldspars are present in concentrations of 75 to 85% and undergo incongruent melting at temperatures between 1150°C and 1530C. sodium.g. Additional properties like low fusion temperature. which forms very stable bonds with small multivalent cations such as silicon. in silicon glasses. SiO4 tetrahedral are formed which are responsible for the random network of glass). loss of tooth from and Obliteration of surface markings. HIGH FUSING PORCELAINS Traditionally.Seminar -3 instead of a crystalline structure. The pyroplastic flow of dental porcelain should be low in order to prevent rounding of margins.. These ions are termed as glass formers. For dental applications. Soda (Na2O) Alumina (Al2O3) and silica (SiO2). 12 . light potassium based feldspar is generally selected because of its increased resistance to pyroplastic flow and an increased viscosity. calcium. and all porcelains based on feldspar are referred to as FELDSPATHIC PORCELAINS. Hence a glassy phase is formed and suspended inside it are crystalline potassium alumino silicate crystals known as Leucite. Incongruent melting is the process by which one material melts to form a liquid plus a different crystalline material. boron. For dental purposes. boron or aluminium oxides to the glass forming lattice. The principal anion present in all glasses is O2 ion. SiO4. high viscosity. Natural feldspars can be either sodium feldspar (albite) or potassium feldspar (orthoclase / microline) which are minerals composed of potash (K2O). Such a structure is called vitreous and the process of forming it is known as vitrification. These are necessary to increase the thermal expansion compatible with metal coping. the basic ingredients of these types of porcelains are feldspar kaolin (clay) and quartz. phosphorous etc. only two glass forming oxides – silicon oxide and boron oxide are used to develop the principal network. color and resistance to devitrification is obtained by the addition of other oxides like potassium. Feldspar is the primary constituent. (e.

7 13 . It is present in concentrations of 13 to 14%.Seminar -3 KAOLIN / CLAY Kaolin / clay (Al2O3. It also adheres to the framework of quartz particles and shrinks considerably during firing. PURE QUARTZ Pure quartz is used porcelain as a strengthener. 2H2O) serves as a binder. When mixed with water. These additions tend to modify the properties by interrupting the glass network and hence are also known as glass modifiers. For this. it forms a sticky mass. Silica remains uncharged at the usual firing temperatures and hence contributes stability to the mass during heating by providing a framework for other constituents. it is included only in small concentrations of 4 to 5%. On heating. the temperature must be controlled to minimize the pyroplastic flow. 2SiO2. little or no pyrochemical reaction occurs. However. During subsequent firing. which allows the unfired porcelain to be easily worked and molded. The raw ingredients for the low and medium fusing porcelains are basically the same as for the high fusing porcelain powders but in addition contain balancing oxides / fluxes. pure kaolin is white in color and reduces the translucency of porcelain. MEDIUM. LOW AN ULTRA LOW FUSING PORCELAINS The low and medium fusing porcelain powders are glasses which have been ground from blocks of matured porcelain. and a greater translucency. it reacts limitedly with feldspar (known as pyrochemical reaction) and thereby provides rigidly. but the glass phase softens and flows slightly. Traces of iron may be present as impurities in the quartz and must be removed to prevent discoloration of porcelain. Unfortunately. This softening allows the powder particles to coalesce together (sintering) and form a dense solid. the raw ingredients are mixed and fused. Consequently. The brittle material is then ground to a fine powder of almost colloidal dimensions. The main function of quartz (silica) is to impart more strength and firmness. The rapid cooling induces stresses in the glass to the extent that considerable cracks and fractures occur. and the fused mass is the quenched in water. This process is referred to as FRITTING and the product so obtained is called a frit.

magnesium oxide. • These alkali decreases the amount of cross-linking between the oxygen and the glass forming elements like silica i. • To overcome this problem intermediate oxides lie aluminium oxide (Al2O3). In addition the thermal contraction of coefficient of crystalline silica is too low for the alloys. phosphorous pentoxide etc8 INTERMEDIATE OXIDES • The addition of glass modifiers not only lowers the softening temperature but also reduces the viscosity of the glass. These are introduced as carbonates that revert to oxides on heating. sodium and calcium oxides.K and Ca. ✔ Because if too many tetrahedral are disrupted. • Bond between the silica tetrahedral can be broken by addition of alkali metal ion such as Na. at such high temperature metal will melt. • These breakage results in ✔ Increased fluidity ✔ Lower softening temperature ✔ Increases thermal expansion • The modifier concentration should not be too high.Seminar -3 GLASS MODIFIERS • The sintering temperature of silica is too high for use in veneering esthetic layers bonded to metal substructure. Other oxides added lithium oxide.7 BORIC OXIDE • Boric oxide (B2O3) serves as a glass modifier as well as a glass former.acids and alkalis) • The most commonly used glass modifiers are potassium. are added . there may occur crystallization during the porcelain firing operations ✔ reduce the chemical durability (resistance to attack by water . • Decreases viscosity • Lowers softening temperature • Forms own glass network8 14 .e. they disrupt the continuity of the SiO4 network..

8 Different coloring pigments used in dental porcelain Ferric oxide (black). • The different colouring pigments used in dental porcelain are given in the table below.7 COLOURING AGENTS • Pigmenting or colouring oxides are added to obtain various shades needed to simulate natural teeth. • An opacifying agent is generally a metal oxide-ground to a very fine particle size of <5µ m.4 to 0. • This effect depends upon the size as well as the volume distribution of the particles.8 m generate a blue tinge in reflecting light and turn yellowish red in transmitted light. Nickel oxide Titanium oxide Manganese oxide Green Blue Brown Yellowish brown Lavender 15 . Copper oxide Cobalt Salts Ferrous oxide. • This powder is blended with the un-pigmented porcelain powder to obtain the proper hue and chroma.Seminar -3 OPACIFYING AGENTS • The translucency of porcelain can be decreased by using an opacifying agent. platinum gray Gray Chromium oxide. • These pigments are produced by fusing metallic oxides together with fine glass and feldspar and then regrinding to a powder. • Zirconium oxide is the most common opacifiers • The difference between the refractive indices of the glass and the opacifiers is the basic mechanism behind opalescence. • Preferably. Particles in the size range 0. the size of the particle should be nearly the same as the wavelength of visible light. • Different wavelength of visible light are scattered differently by the opacifying particles.

Color modifiers on the other hand are less concentrated than stains and are used to obtain gingival effects or highlight body colours. ✔ Provides transverse strength • Unglazed porcelain ✔ lead to abrasive wear of the opposing dentition or ✔ increase the rate of plaque accumulation 9 Glazing can be of two types: ✔ Self glazing (auto glazing) ✔ Add-on glazing. • Self-glazing ✔ Defined as a vitrified layer that forms on the surface of a dental porcelain ceramic containing a glass phase when the ceramic is heated to a glazing temperature for a specified time. ✔ glazing occurs at temperatures of 955-1065oC. and are best used at the same temperature as the dental porcelain. 7 • The aim of glazing is ✔ Sealing of open pores in the surface of fired porcelain. The wet mix is applied with a brush either on to the surface of porcelain before glazing. 7 GLAZES AND ADD-ON PORCELAIN • Glazing is done so to produce enamel like lustre after occlusal and morphologic corrections have been made in a porcelain restoration. Stains in finely powdered form are mixed with water or glycerine and water or any other special liquid. Internal staining is preferable as it gives more lifelike results and also prevents direct damage to the stains by the surrounding chemical environment. Chromium-alumina Indium Pink Yellow / Ivory STAINS AND COLOR MODIFIERS Stains are generally low fusing colored porcelains used to imitate markings like enamel check lines.Seminar -3 Chromium-tin. 16 . It also seals pores on the surface of fired porcelain. calcification spots. fluoresced areas etc. or built into the porcelain (internal staining).

8 Wiley (1989) stated that many studies have shown that polishing porcelain gives a smooth surface similar to that produced from a natural glaze. • Add-on glazes /over glaze ✔ The surface coating of glass formed by using thin layer of glass powder that matures at a lower temperature than that associated with the ceramic substructure. nonglazed porcelain. ✔ Add-on porcelains should exclusively be used for simple corrections of tooth contour or contact points ✔ Disadvantages of add-on glazes are ○ its low chemical durability.Seminar -3 ✔ These are medium –fusing feldspathic porcelain is much stronger than ground. rough.000 psi 5.000 psi 10X106 psi . ✔ Add-on porcelains are generally similar to glaze porcelains except for the addition of opacifiers and color pigments.the transverse strength is reduced By 40-46% compared to unglazed porcelain.9 17 PROPERTIES Compressive strength Tensile strength Shear strength Elastic modulus 50. This observation is of clinical importance because after the porcelain prosthesis is cemented in the mouth. 8 • • • Many ceramists prefer polishing instead of glazing to control the surface Iustre. as clinician will adjust the occlusion by grinding the surface of the porcelain with diamond bur. ✔ If the glaze is removed by grinding . ✔ These are uncolored glasses whose fusing temperatures have been lowered by the addition of glass modifiers. ○ Difficult to apply evenly and almost impossible to attain a detailed surface characterization. which removes the glaze and markedly weakens the porcelain and surface is left in a rough condition.9 Studies have shown that porcelain with highly polished surface have comparable strength with glazed porcelain.000 psi 16.

Chemically stable. Blebs are internal voids tend to reduce the specific gravity of porcelain.2 to 2. Solubility is less. 7 STRENGTHENING OF DENTAL PORCELAIN METHODS 1. 4. Porcelain: a.0% High fusing Low fusing - Refractive index - 1. c.1% deformation is sufficient to fracture porcelain before fracture. Corrosion resistant. Highly biocompatible. 7. Interruption of crack propagation 18 .3 11. The tensile strength is low because of the unavoidable surface defects. Uranium oxide / cerium oxide is added to match the fluorescence of porcelain to that of the natural tooth. Conducive to gingival health – as it prevents plaque addition. b. 3. Relatively inert. Porcelains extremely hard materials and because of this property offer considerable resistance to abrasion. The shear strength is low because of lack of ductility in the material. This could be a disadvantage in that it causes excessive wear of the opposing natural tooth structure or the restorative material. d. The compressive strength is quite high compare to tensile or shear strength.52 to 1.Seminar -3 Linear coefficient of thermal expansion Specific gravity Liner shrinkage - - 12X10-6 / °C 2. f. 2. e.54 1. 9.5% 14. 8. 5. The brittleness → 0. Voids and blebs greatly reduce the strength of porcelain. 6. Development of residual compressive stresses 2.

veneer. • The potassium ion is about 35% larger than the sodium ion. Three of these methods are discussed below. Al2O3. • However. a common constituent of a variety of glasses. If a sodium-containing glass article is placed in a bath of molten potassium nitrate.Seminar -3 DEVELOPMENT OF RESIDUAL COMPRESSIVE STRESSES: • Strengthening is gained by virtue of the face that the residual stresses must first be negated by developing tensile stresses before any net tensile stress develops. • One study has shown that grinding of only 100 m from an external surface reduces the strength of the treated structure to its original value. this process is best used on the internal surface of a crown. There are several techniques for introducing these residuals compressive stresses into the surfaces of ceramic articles. ✔ Ion exchange ✔ Thermal tempering ✔ Thermal Compatibility: Ion Exchange: The technique also called chemical tempering. potassium ions in the bath exchange places with some of the sodium ions in the surface of the glass article. • This process involves the exchange of larger potassium ions for the smaller sodium ions. DICOR glass-ceramic core material. alumina core materials. • Not all ceramics are amenable to ion exchange.000 psi) in the surfaces of glasses subjected to this treatment. and some conventional feldspathic porcelain that are highly enriched with potash feldspar (K2O. or inlay because this surface is protected from grinding and exposure to acids. The squeezing of the potassium ion into the place formerly occupied by the sodium ion creates large residual compressive stresses (roughly 700 Mpa 100. contact with acidulated phosphate fluoride over a cumulative time of 3 hours removes most of the ion-exchanged layer as well. • Thermal Tempering: • The most common method for strengthening glass is by thermal tempering.6SiO2) cannot be sufficiently ion exchanged with potassium to warrant this treatment. For example. These residual compressive stresses produce a pronounced strengthening effect. Furthermore. 19 .

they have different values in different temperatures ranges. but the outer skin remains rigid. and. Thermal Compatibility: Most metals expand linearly with temperature up to the melting range. ✔ When the layers are bonded together and the bonded structure is allowed to cool to room temperature. • Consider three layers of porcelain: ✔ the outer two of the same composition and thermal contraction coefficient ✔ The middle layer of a different composition and a higher thermal contraction coefficient. the porcelain should be under slight compression in the final restoration. For dental applications. • The metal and porcelain should be selected with a slight mismatch in their thermal contraction coefficients (the metal thermal contraction coefficient is slightly larger). the inner layer produces compressive stresses in the outer layers as previously described for thermal tempering.Seminar -3 • • Thermal tempering creates residual surface compressive stress by rapidly cooling (quenching) the surface of the object while it is hot and in the softened (molten) state. it tends to shrink. the thermal expansion or contraction of the porcelain cannot be precisely matched to that of the alloy. so that the metal contracts slightly more than the porcelain on cooling from • 20 . This objective is accomplished by selecting an alloy that contracts slightly more than the porcelain on cooling to room temperature. As the molten core solidifies. • Dental porcelains behave differently. it is more effective to quench hot glass-phase ceramics in silicone oil or other special liquids rather than using air jets as it may not uniformly cool the surface. • Ideally. as it shrinks. as a result. • A similar rationale applies to porcelains and alloys for metal-ceramic restorations. The pull of the solidifying molten core. Hence. on cooling to room temperature. Thus. This rapid cooling produces a skin of rigid glass surrounding a soft (molten) core. a metal expands approximately the same amount when heated from 50oC to 60oC as it does from 200oC to 210oC. ✔ The inner layer has a higher coefficient of thermal contraction and thus contracts more as it cools. creates residual tensile stresses in the core and residual compressive stresses within the outer surface.

There are two different types of dispersions used to interrupt crack propagation. One type relies on the toughness of the particle to absorb energy from the crack and deplete its driving force for propagation. Another ceramic dental material that uses reinforcement of a glass by a dispersed crystalline substance is Dicor glass-ceramic. When glass-ceramic restorations are subjected to high tensile stresses.8 INTERRUPTION OF CRACK PROPAGATION Disruption of Crack Propagation : A further. The energy required for the transformation of PSZ is taken from the energy that allows the crack to propagate. This mismatch leaves the porcelain in residual compression and provides additional strength for the restoration. The technique has found application in dentistry in the development of aluminous porcelains (A12O3 particles in a glassy porcelain matrix) for PJCs. crystalline material such as alumina (Al2O3) in particulate form is added to a glass. method of strengthening glasses and ceramics is to reinforce them with a dispersed phase of a different material that is capable to hindering a crack from propagating through the material. In most instances. These methods of strengthening are described later Dispersion of a Crystalline Phase: When a tough. The cast glass crown is subjected to a heat treatment that causes micron-sized mica crystals to grow in the glass. yet fundamentally different. these microscopic crystals will disrupt crack propagation. the glass is toughened and strengthened because the crack cannot penetrate the alumina particles as easily as it can the glass. the use of a dispersed crystalline phase to disrupt crack propagation requires a close match between the thermal contraction coefficients of the crystalline material and the surrounding glass matrix. Transformation Toughening: A new technique for strengthening glasses involves the incorporation of a crystalline material that is capable of undergoing a change in crystal structure when placed under stress. thereby strengthening the crown. The crystalline material usually used is termed partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ). The other relies on a crystal structural change under stress to absorb energy from the crack. Experimental work has shown that transformation toughening may be 21 .Seminar -3 the firing temperature to room temperature.

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a viable method for strengthening dental porcelains. One drawback of PSZ is that its index of refraction is much higher than that of surrounding glass matrix. As a result, the particles of PSZ scatter light as it passes through the bulk of the porcelain, and this scattering produces an opacifying effect that may not be aesthetic in most dental restorations. CONDENSATION OF DENTAL PORCELAIN The process of bringing the particles closer and of removing the liquid binder is known as condensation. • Distilled water is the liquid binder used most commonly. However, glycerin, propylene glycol or alcohol has also been tried. • The aim of condensation Is to pack the particles as close as possible in order to ✔ reduce the amount of porosity ✔ Shrinkage during firing. 8 • Two important factors, which determine the effectiveness of condensation, are ✔ The size and shape of the powder particles. ✔ If only one-size particles are used, even the greatest condensation is expected to leave a void space of 45 percent between the particles. ✔ With two sized particles, the void space is reduced to2 5 percent, and with three or more sized particles, the void space comes down to 22 percent. ✔ System that uses three sizes of powder is known as the gap grading system. ✔ The shape of the powder particles also governs the packing density. Round particles produce better packing compared with angular particles. 7 • Several methods of condensation are employed (1) Vibration method; the paste is applied on to the platinum matrix and vibrated slowly. This brings the excess water on to the surface, which is then drawn away with a fine brush or clean tissue. The condensation occurs towards the blotted or brushed area. Excessive vibration should be avoided as it can cause slumping of the mass (2) Spatulation method, a small spatula is used to apply and smooth the wet porcelain. The smoothening action disturbs the particles bringing them closer and also the water rises to the surface, which is removed as described earlier.


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• • • • •

(3) Dry brush technique involves placement of dry powder onto the wet surface. The powder is placed by a brush to the side opposite from an increment of wet porcelain. As the water is drawn towards the dry powder, the wet particles are pulled together. 8 (4) Whipping method, a large soft brush is moved in a light dusting action over the wet porcelain. This brings excess water to the surface and the same brush can be used to remove any course surface particles along with the excess water. (5) A combination of the vibration and the whipping methods can also be used. The mix is first vibrated and then whipped with a brush. The most important factor in condensation is the effect of surface tension. As the liquid is withdrawn, surface tension causes the powder particles to pack closely together. However, sufficient amount of liquid should be present so as to wet all the powder particles.7 CERAMOSONIC CONDENSOR Through its ultrasonic function, it imparts low amplitude, high frequency vibration enabling Condensation of moist porcelain particle. Improves substructure of the porcelain & dispense trapped air & increase density Less shrinkage during firing Enhanced surface and strength

FIRING PROCEDURE/ SINTERING PROCEDURE • Defined as process of heating closely packed particles to achieve interparticle bonding and sufficient diffusion to decrease the surface area or increase density of the structure. The partial fusion or compaction of glass is referred to as sintering • Most of the thermo chemical reactions in porcelain are completed during the manufacturing process. • The role of firing is simply to sinter the particles of porcelain powder together to form a dense restoration. • STAGES ARE • PREHEATING ✔ The condensed mass is placed in front of or below the muffle of a preheated furnace at an approximately 650 C (1200 F) for low fusing porcelain. This


Seminar -3

permits removal of excess water and prevent the sudden production of steam that could result in voids or fractures ✔ After pre heating for approx 5 min, the porcelain is placed into the furnace and firing cycle is initiated. FIRING Can be fired by following methods ✔ Temperature controlled method:furnance temperature is raised at a constant rate until a specified temperature is raised ✔ Temperature –time control method: furnace temperature is raised at a given rate until a preset temperature is reached, after which temperature is maintained for specific time till the reaction is completed .preferred method as produces uniform restoration. ✔ At the initial firing temperature the voids are occupied by the atmosphere of the furnace. As the sintering of the particles begins, the porcelain particles bond at their points of contact .as temperature is raised; the sintered glass gradually flows to fill up the air spaces. Second change occurs with a further rise in temperature when the particles fuse together by sintering. As a continuous mass is formed, there occurs a decrease in volume referred to as firing shrinkage (3237% for low fusing and 28.34% for high fusing). After the mass has been fired, it is cooled very slowly because rapid cooled might result in surface cracking and crazing.

Different media can be employed for firing like: A) Air B) Vacuum C) Diffusible gas AIR FIRING PROCEDURE: Whenever air-firing methods are employed, a very slow maturation period is preferred to allow for the maximum amount of entrapped air to escape. During firing slow heating is done .the porcelain is sintered within a range of atleast 30oC to 50oC below the maximum firing temperature. Such a temperature will mature porcelain without loss of color and high densities can be achieved. POROSITY

and vacuum should be applied before the placement of porcelain in the hot zone of furnace.Seminar -3 Bubbles or voids in the fired porcelain are caused by inclusion of air during firing or in some cases as a by-product of vitrification of feldspar. The interstitial spaces are hence reduced before the surface skin seals off the interior too rapidly. This results in very dense porcelain with very few remaining bubbles and that too of extremely small size. With the increase in temperature and because of surface tension. therefore. Porcelain powders must be dried slowly to eliminate the water vapour. 2. clear that porcelain powders fired in air must be of necessarily coarse nature. VACUUM FIRING This technique is used to reduce porosity in dental porcelains. it exerts a compressive effect on the surface skin. which make them highly opaque. It is. On the other hand. fine sized particles have multiple small air bubbles present in between them. Translucency depends on the number and size of the entrapped air bubbles. Factors to be kept in mind while firing porcelain in vacuum are: 1. It works on the basis of removing air or atmosphere from the interstitial spaces before surface sealing occurs. When air at normal atmospheric pressure is allowed to enter the furnace. high temperatures can cause swelling of these blisters. Large sized particles have fewer but larger air voids between them compared to small sized particles. The vacuum should be broken while the work is still in the hot zone of the furnace. some of it is left behind. Vacuum should not be applied after the surface skin has sealed and the porcelain has matured. give improved translucency. even of large size. which further compresses the internal voids to one tenth of their original size. Fewer bubbles. Porosity reduces both translucency and strength of dental porcelain. This permits the dense skin to hydraulically compress the low-pressure internal voids. 3. 25 . the remaining air spaces assume a spherical appearance. Additionally. Although the vacuum (760 torr) removes most of the air from interstitial spaces. Prolonged application can force the residual air bubbles to rise to the surface and cause surface blistering.

Hence. This occurs because these gases diffuse outward through the porcelain or actually dissolve in porcelain. Low bisque: The surface of porcelain is quite porous. porcelain powders with small sized particles are preferred. High bisque: The flow of glass grains is further increased. the interstitial spaces do not enlarge under the influence of increasing temperature. but decrease in size or disappear.Seminar -3 4. Shrinkage is minimal and the fired body is extremely weak or friable. any entrapped furnace atmosphere that could not escape via the grain boundaries becomes trapped and sphere shaped. In the case of non-Feldspathic porcelains. Vacuum firing cannot reduce the large sized bubbles to any significant degree. but the flow of glass grains is increased. Air is driven out of the porcelain powder bed and replaced by the diffusible gas. a diffusible gas like helium. thereby completely sealing the surface and presenting smoothness to the porcelain. DIFFUSIBLE GAS FIRING In this technique. With these gases. hydrogen or steam is substituted for the ordinary furnace temperature.7-8 VARIOUS STAGES OF MATURITY Several stages of dental porcelain have been identified when it is ‘sintered’ or ‘fired’. a slight shine appears at this stage. Medium bisque: Pores still exist on the surface of porcelain. The common terminology used for describing the surface appearance of unglazed porcelain is ‘bisque’..7-8 26 . A definite shrinkage is evident. it is necessary to avoid porcelains with large interstitial spaces i. The fired body is strong and any corrections by grinding can be made prior to final glazing at this stage. The grains of porcelain begin to soften and ‘lense’ at their contact points.e. As a result.

metal bond and mask the color of substructure. The method by which this disadvantage can be minimized is to bond the porcelain directly to a cast alloy substructure made fit the prepared tooth. Gold –palladium-silver alloys GOLD FREE: 1. are fused to the opaque porcelain.8 TYPES OF METAL CERAMIC SYSTEMS A large number of metal-ceramic systems have been developed for the use in dentistry and they may be classified as follows: NOBLE METAL ALLOY SYSTEM: HIGH GOLD : 1. finished and heat treated (oxidized). Nickel chromium alloy 2. 27 . Gold –platinum-palladium alloys 2. Cobalt –chromium alloys10 THE NATURE OF METAL CERAMIC BOND THE success of metal –ceramic crowns and fixed bridges depends upon the firmness of the bond between metal and ceramic. shaped. To fabricate this restoration. Gold –platinum-tantalum alloys LOW GOLD 1. a metal substructure is waxed.Seminar -3 METAL CERAMICS: The chief objection to the use of dental porcelain as a restorative material is its low strength under tensile and shears stress conditions. staine to improve the esthetic appearance and glazed. Then enamel and dentine porcelains referred as incisal and body porcelains.Palladium silver alloys BASE METAL ALLOY SYSTEM: 1.a thin layer of opaque porcelain is fused to the oxidized metal surface to establish porcelain. cast.

Enhancement of wettability of the metal substrate by porcelain 2. at the metal ceramic interface 2. Chemical MECHANICAL RETENTION: Depends upon good wetting of the metal or metal oxide surface by the porcelain. Advantages of an air abraded surface over smooth surface for noble metal alloys and base metal alloys are: 1. 1.Seminar -3 Therefore metal porcelain bond can be classified into 3 main components: 1. Steep interface angles that may not allow complete wetting and therefore result in air entrapment and voids at the metal ceramic interface. Some additive bond strength because of mechanical interlocking of porcelain under compression. 3. Rough surface enhances the bond resistance against induced shear stresses especially for base metal alloy system. CHEMICAL BONDING: A bulk diffusion of base metal atoms produces an oxide film on the metal surface which forms a chemical bond with porcelain. Mechanical 2. Increased surface area for porcelain chemical bonding Disadvantages are: Excessive roughness resulting in stress conc.8 TYPES OF METAL/ PORCELAIN FAILURE: 28 . COMPRESSIVE STRESSES: COMPRESSIVE STRESSSES Developed during cooling of sintered porcelain veneer will also play a part in improving the bond strength. Compressive 3.

this is the most common frature in the high gold content alloys. Metal oxide – metal oxide: This fracture occurs through the metal oxide at the interface and results from an over production of the oxide causing sandwitch effect between metal and porcelain. 5. glass ceramic. Cohesive within the porcelain: This is the optimum type of fracture in which tensile failure occurs within the porcelain. An ideal situation is created when the oxide film is only a few molecules thick and forms a solid solution with the this case the bond strength exceeds the strength of porcelain. May also be due to conyaminated or porous metal surfaces. 9(2):86 29 . METAL –PORCELAIN: The interfacial fracture occurs leaving a clean surface of metal. Esthetic Dent 1997. 3. Metal –metal oxide: This is an interfacial fracture in which the metal oside breaks away from the metal substrate an d is left attached to the porcelain.Seminar -3 1. Metal –oxide porcelain: The metal oxide porcelain at the metal oxide surface leaving the oxide firmly attached to the metal. alumina core systems and certain combination of these materials J. such as Feldspathic porcelain. Most unlikely type of fracture for the individual metal –ceramic crown. Common in base metal alloy system when there is over production of chromium and nickel oxide athe interface.seen when Metal surface is completely depleted of oxide prior to the baking of porcelain or when no oxides are available. 4. Cohesive within metal This type of fracture would only occur in cases for eg.10 ALL CERAMIC SYSTEMS The term of “All ceramic” refers to any restorative material composed excessively of ceramic. 6. Common in base metal alloy system. Where the joint areas in the bridges breaks. 2.

• Infiltrated Ceramic Systems: They are based on the principle of two infiltrated phases. Castable ceramic • DICOR • Cera Pearl 1. Al 30 . Rosenblum and Schulman 1997): 11 • Castable Ceramic Systems: They are modelled in a wax (Dicor. Pressable ceramic • IPS Empress • Optec Pressable ceramic 1. Conventional powder slurry ceramic • Hi Ceram – Alumina reinforced porcelain • Optec HSP – Leucite reinforced porcelain • Duceram LFC – Hydrothermal low fusing ceramic 1.Seminar -3 Advantages • • • Increased translucency Improved fluorescence Greater contribution of color from the underlying tooth structure Inertness Biocompatibility Resistance to corrosion Low temperature / electrical conductivity • • • • CLASSIFICATION7 1. Infiltrated ceramic • In-Ceram 1. Cerapearl). Mechinable ceramic • Cerec Vitablocs Mark I and II • Celay Blocks • DICOR MGC ACCORDING TO Crispin 1994.

which has the necessary high strength and toughness’ but may lack the desired aesthetics (In-Ceram. In this instance the ceramic provides the necessary aesthetics and the strength is provided by the ability to bond to the tooth tissues. For dental purpose single crystals of alumina are preferred over fine powdered alumina. These are based on the principle of dispersion strengthening i. elasticity and fracture toughness compared to conventional porcelains.e. • Machinable Ceramic Systems: They are based on taking an optical impression of a patient’s oral situation and have a restoration milled from a ceramic block chairside with CAD/CAM and copy-milling systems (Cerec Vitablocks. Dicor MGC.Seminar -3 2 O 3 and a glass (In-Ceram). A core structured is formed that has increased flexure Strength. dispersing alumina Crystals of high strength and elasticity in a glass matrix. by bonding the aesthetic ceramic directly to the enamel and dentine. Conventional powder slurry ceramic ALUMINA REINFORCED PORCELAIN It was introduced by McLean and HUGES in 1965. The materials available for resin. to avoid excessive opacity which occurs because of difference in the refractive index of 31 . Cerec. Procera AllCeram. • Pressable Ceramic Systems: They are produced by molding under pressure and heat (IPS Empress. Celay. Optec) ACCORDING TO supporting structure (Van Noort 2002) • Reinforced ceramic core systems: The support for the aesthetic ceramic is provided by another ceramic material. to improve strength by Prevention of crack propagation. Procera All.bonded ceramic restorations are varieties of glass –ceramics. • Resin-bonded ceramic systems: The support of the ceramic is provided by the tooth structure itself. Celay).Ceram).

Shape: rounded grains are preferable over angular ones as latter interface with the flow of the glass Phase producing flaws around grains and reducing strength. there would occur radial compression and tangential tension in the glass matrix on cooling resulting in decrease in Elasticity and strength. 32 .Seminar -3 glass porcelain and alumina crystals. Glass used for incorporating alumina crystals is BOROSILICATE GLASS Containing: • Silica • Alumina • Potash • Soda • Lime • Boric acid • Strength and opacity of aluminous porcelain is dependent on alumina crystal: • Size • Shape • Concentration SIZE OF ALUMINA CRYSTALS: Finer the grain size: greater is strength . The 2 imp requirements when using these filler reinforced porcelains are: Bond between filler particles and matrix Identical CTE of the two phased If CTE of Glass matrix > alumina crystals. They are opaque.which causes increased scattering of light. Concentration of alumina crystals should range from 40-50% by weight. Higher concentration Prevent complete flow and wetting by the glass matrix. Grain size on average should be 25 µm (max. but results in increased opacity. due to high difference in refractive index of the two component . defeating the esthetics. Coarse grain size: reduces strength because of the “notched effect” created on glass boundaries. being37 µm) that would allow light transmission of atleast 10-15% on 1 mm thick discs and fine enough to give sufficient strengths.

Uses: • Used both for incisal and body portions being more aesthetics Advantages: • Lack of metal or opaque substructure . Uses: Forming refractory framework capable of supporting weaker. condensation and contouring is done using powder slurry technique on special semi permeable die material.higher than conventional Feldspathic porcelains • Ability to be used without any special lab equipments Disadvantages: • Margins inaccuracy caused by porcelains sintering shrinkage • Potential to fracture in posterior teeth • High wear of opposing tooth due to high Leucite content No clinically published studies on Optec HSP DUCERAM LFC: • • Also known as hydrothermal low fusing ceramics.7-8 LEUCITE REINFORCED PORCELAIN: • Commercially available as OPTEC HSP • Leucite conc.Therefore more stronger than conventional Feldspathic porcelains. It is a low fusing ceramic.6% • These porcelains contain dispersed LEUCITE {potassium aluminosilicates} in glassy Matrix. is:50. • Lecuite and glass matix are fused together during the baking process at 1020 C. • The buildup. composed of an amorphous glass containing hydroxyl ions.Seminar -3 Commercially available product is Hi-Ceram (Vita). 33 .good translucency • Moderate flexure strength . more translucent Dentin and enamel Porcelain.  Because of its increased strength it does not require core when used to fabricate All ceramic Restoration as is necessary with aluminous porcelain PJCs.

• However. 34 . and then subjected to a heat treatment to induce partial devitrification (that is loss of glassy structure by crystallization of the glass).Lang BR. • Available in variety of shades and can be characterized by variety of stains and modifiers. Restoration from Duceram LFC is made in 2 layers: The base layer is Duceram metal ceramics (Leucite containing porcelain) which is placed on refractory die using powder slurry technique and then baked at 930 C. Over the base layer is Duceram LFC is applied using powder slurry technique and then baked at 660 C.unpublished data 1990). the result of 1 year clinical study recently conducted for manufacture r seems to indicate that the material wears at a rate equivalent to that of natural tooth enamel ( Showtwell J. veeners. USES: Ceramics inlays.Beard CC. and full contour crowns PRESSABLE GLASS CERAMIC  IPS empress  Optec pressable ceramics A glass ceramics is material that is formed into desired shape as a glass. there are no clinical studies to substantiate the manufactures claim that the material is less abrasive than feldspathic porcelain.Seminar -3 • Properties: compared to Feldspathic porcelain ✔ Greater density ✔ Higher flexure strength ✔ Greater fracture resistance ✔ Lower hardness • Because of the absence of Leucite crystals. the hardness of the materials and its ability to abrade the opposing natural tooth structure is reduced. • It is then strengthened by ion exchange mechanism involving h hydroxyl ions thus decreases the surface micro flaws and increase fracture resistance. Lang B. However.

causing increased strength and toughness. invested and placed in specialized mold that has an aluminium plunger. After molding and baking as described. processed by molding under pressure and heat. In the veneering technique.3 mm. ADVANTAGES : • • • • • Lack of metal Translucent ceramic core Moderately high flexure strength Excellent fit Excellent aesthetics DISADVANTAGES: • Potential to fracture in posterior areas • Use of resin cement to bond crown micromechanically to tooth structure • Require special equipment. OPTEC PRESSEABLE CERAMIC :  Type of Feldspathic porcelain with increased lecucite content.Seminar -3 The crystalline particles. The ingot are heated and molded under pressure to produce the restoration. the entire assembly is heated to 1150C and the plunger presses the molten ceramic into the mold.(pressing oven and die material. 35 . The final shade of the crown is adjusted by staining or veneering. A full contour crown is waxed.) IPS EMPRESS : •        A leucite-reinforced glass-ceramic material was first described by Wohlwend and Scharer12 This type of Feldspathic porcelain is supplied in the ingot form. needles or plates formed during this ceramming process serve to interrupt the propagation of the cracks in the material when intraoral force is applied. feldspathic porcelain is added to the surface to obtain full contour and the correct shade. The ceramic ingots are placed under the plunger. the original wax –up is cut by about 0.

11 INFILTERED CERAMICS: IN-CERAM  SADOUN developed INCERAM in 1985 In-ceram is supplied as one of the three core ceramics: • In-ceram spinnel • In-ceram alumina • In-ceram zirconia The slurry of one of these materials is slip cast on a porous refractory die and heated in the furnace to produce a partially sintered coping and framework. and later infiltrated with a lanthanum-based glass. The partially sintered core is infiltered with glass at 1100 C for 4 hours to eliminate porosity and to strengthen the slip cast core. 4 Thus A porous infrastructure is produced by slip-casting.7.  Crystalline Leucite particle size is reduced and content is increased which result in increase in flexural strength  Because of high Leucite content abrasion of opposing natural teeth is high. sintered. Evidence of grain pull-out.8.Seminar -3  Used for – ✔ Full contour restoration : inlays. Three crystalline phases are available. bridging and crack deflection was reported with this type of 36 . ✔ Can be used as core material. producing two interpenetrating continuous networks. 27 vol % glass and 5 vol % porosity12 The microstructure consists of blocky alumina grains of various sizes and shapes. for veenering conventional powder alurry techniques with high Leucite content Feldspathic porcelain. spinel (MgAl 2 O 4 ) and Zirconia-alumina (12 Ce-TZP-Al 2 O 3 ).8 Alumina-based slip-cast ceramics contain 68 vol % alumina. similar to Optec HSP porcelain. namely alumina (Al 2 O 3). one composed of the glassy phase and the other being the crystalline infrastructure. full crowns. veneers.

The presence of large alumina crystals with a high refractive index. INDICATION: In-ceram spinnel: Anterior single unit inlays. as well as circumferential tensile stresses around the grains. with about 8 vol % residual porosity . Transgranular fracture is difficult in zirconia. (2) Crack deflection. In clinical situations where maximum translucency is needed In ceram alumina: 37 . account for some degree of opacity in this all-ceramic system. Spinel-based slip-cast ceramics offer better translucency . and accounting for mechanical properties in the range of heat-pressed lithium disilicate glass-ceramics. contact shielding and crack bridging are expected from the presence of large alumina grains The combination of these two strengthening mechanisms explains why alumina-zirconia slip-cast ceramics offer the highest flexural strength and fracture toughness of all slip-cast ceramics. The glass phase represents approximately 23 vol % of the final product. It has also been suggested that the coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch between the alumina crystals and the infiltration glass could contribute to strengthening due thermal residual stresses. The dual crystalline reinforcement in this system allows two types of strengthening mechanisms: (1) The stress-induced transformation in zirconia grains produces compressive stresses within the transformed grains and surrounding glassy matrix. at the expense of mechanical properties Zirconia-toughened alumina slip-cast ceramics comprise 34 vol % alumina and 33 vol % of 12 mol % ceria-stabilized zirconia (12Ce-TZP). accompanied by micro crack nucleation. and a non-negligible amount of porosity.onlays crowns and veeners. similar to that of lithium disilicate heat-pressed ceramics.Seminar -3 ceramic indicative of efficient crystalline reinforcement. this represents an efficient strengthening mechanism.

Low viscosity lanthanum aluminosilicate glass is used to fill the pores in the alumina. After the impression is taken the die is poured with special gypsum supplied with INCERAM. The glass becomes molten and flows into the pores by capillary diffusion. This solution of alumina is referred to as “slip” which is then painted onto the gypsum die with a brush. The glass is mixed with water and placed on a platinum – gold alloy sheet. which packs the particles into a rigid network. 38 . The alumina powder is mixed with deionized water supplied in pre-measured container. Dispensing agent is added to create a homogenous mix of alumina in water. The water is removed by the capillary action of the porous gypsum.2% thus an interconnected porous network is created connecting pores on the outer surface with those on the inner surface. Fabrication Procedure An All-Ceramic restoration system INCERAM is based on the slip casting of an alumina core with its subsequent glass infusion. This mixture is sonicated in VITASONIC thus initiating the dispersion process. The alumina is built up to form a core for the ceramic tooth. The external surface of the core is placed on the glass. The cycle involves a slow heating of approximately 2oC/min to 1120oC for 2 hours to produce approximation of the particles with minimal compaction and minimal shrinkage of alumina. which is heated in the IN-CERMET to 1100oC for 4-6 hours. Sintering is only about 0. The aluminous core is then placed in the IN-CERAMET furnace and sintered. Then vacuum is applied to remove the air bubbles.Seminar -3 Anterior and posterior crowns Anterior 3 unit prosthesis Inceram zirconia: Because of high strength and fracture toughness it is indicated for posterior crowns and FPD. The excess glass is removed by sandblasting with alumina particles. then the INCERAM ALUMINA is applied onto the die.

Seminar -3 The last step is fabrication of INCERAM restoration involves application of aluminous porcelain to the core to produce the final form of restoration.  A full contour transparent glass crown is cast at 1350 C then is heat treated at 1075 C for 10 hours. ✔ Crystals are also less abrasive to opposing tooth structure. CASTABLE GLASS CERAMIC The first commercially available castable ceramic material for dental use. In clinical situations where there is a discolored preparation or a cast post and core this increased opacity over the dentin is advantageous were as when maximum translucency is necessary INCERAM ALUMINA is problematic.  These crystals function in 2 ways: ✔ They create a relatively opaque material out of the initially transparent crown and increase the fracture resistance and strength of the ceramic. This heat treatment is known as ceramming causes partial crystallization (55%) of tetrasilic mica like crystals. 39 .Calcium Phosphate  DICOR  A Polycrystalline glass ceramic is a material that is formed into the desired shape as a glass and subsequently heat-treated under controlled conditions to induce partial devitrification. Classification of Castable Dental Glass Ceramics: Flucoromicas Dicor  Apatite glass ceramics pearl  Other glass ceramics Lithia . The INCERAM aluminous glass ceramic produced by lanthanum glass infiltration is about 50% translucent as dentin. Properties The physical properties of DICOR are given in the table. was developed by corning glass works and marketed by Dentsply international.  The fabrication method uses lost wax and centrifugal casting technique similar to those used to fabricate alloy castings. The low viscosity lanthanum glass is used to infiltrate the alumina core in INCERAM. DICOR. This should be in air environment as recommended by the manufacture.

and no opaque substructure exists to impede light scattering. Precision Of Fit The resistance of DICOR to chemicals and staining agents also compares favourably with conventional feldspathic porcelains. In addition. 40 . Little wear of the cast ceramic or the opposing dentition occurs when using DICOR restorations.cm3 Translucency Modulus of rupture psi Compressive strength.0 0.27 11000 25000 12. which closely matches that of natural tooth enamel.56 22000 120000 10. chroma and value. the castable ceramic permits a one-piece restoration made entirely of the same material. psi Modulus of Elasticity. g. The DICOR shading porcelains contain minimal abrasive opacifying agents.48 1500 58000 12. However. Two reasons for this property are: a. as mentioned before.2 343 2.7 0. Closely matching hardness between the cast ceramic material and natural enamel.Seminar -3 PROPERTY Density.4 0. A chameleon effect is seen with DICOR restorations in which the restoration acquires a part of the color from adjacent teeth and fillings as well as the underlying cement lute. there are chances of losing this external layer thereby defeating the best of esthetics. b.0 450 Esthetic Qualities DICOR restorations are highly esthetic because of their translucency.2 362 FELDSPATHIC ENAMEL PORCELAIN 3. psix106 Microhardness DICOR 2. Application of an external coloring system allows independent control over hue. The numerous small mica crystals that constitute castable ceramic closely match the index of refraction to the surrounding glass phase.

Advantages 1. The absence of an opaque layer allows the technician to obtain natural contouring often found in metal ceramic restorations.Seminar -3 Tissue Acceptance DICOR is chemically inert and has shown to pass all the biocompatibility tests. Can reproduce wax patterns precisely by using the lost wax technique 5. These coarse grained opaque porcelains generally promote the adherence of plaque. Uses Inlays. 2. which have been applied for good colour matching. Surface hardness and occlusal wear is similar to enamel 4. Inherent resistance to plaque accumulation (seven times less than on the natural tooth surfaces). which closely matches that of natural enamel. complete crowns and possibly partial tooth coverage restorations. Disadvantages 1. There is no need for opaque porcelains to mask the metal substructure. ceramming and colouring 6. 41 . Excellent marginal fit 2. Ease of adjustment 7. The periodontal tissue reaction to DICOR is considered quite favorable because 1. Excellent aesthetics resulting from natural translucency 8. Simple uncomplicated fabrication from wax up to casting. Chances of losing low fusing feldspathic shading porcelains. onlay. Radiographic Qualities The radiographic density of DICOR is similar to that of enamel allowing proper evaluation of the underlying structures and the margins. Little discomfort occurs on contact with hot or cold foods because of its extremely low thermal conductivity and a coefficient of thermal expansion. It is not indicated for fixed partial denture or removable partial denture abutments with deep rests or internal attachments. Relatively high strength 3.

Further SiO2 regulates the thermal properties. The Young’s modulus.53% • • Flexural strength similar to Dicor • Biological properties – Dense material. P2O5. Because the crystalline constituent is similar to natural enamel. SiO2 and traces of other elements. They are essential for formation of hydroxylapatite crystals as well. CaO(45%) and P2O5 (15%) are the main ingredients in glass formation.0 x 10-6/oC. MgO. Calcium phosphate glass ceramic • Reported by Kihara and others 42 . A12O3. Young’s modulus – 103 Gpa Casting shrinkage – 0. chemically stable. PH similar to natural enamel • Non toxic / biocompatible Lithia based glass ceramic Developed by Urgu Composition: It contains mica crystals and Beta spodumene crystals of LiO.4SiO2 after heat treatment.  Cera Pearl is composed of CaO. tensile strength and compressive strength of Cera Pearl are appreciably higher than conventional porcelains. MgO (5%) helps in the formation of hydroxyapatite and along with CaO decreases the viscosity of the compound when melted. Physical properties • • Coefficient of thermal expansion: 11.Seminar -3 CERA PEARL  Castable apatite ceramic was first developed by Hobo and Bioceram Group as CaO-P2O5-MgO-SiO2 glass ceramic. Cera Pearl is quite biocompatible. SiO2(34%) in combination with P2O5 forms the matrix.

Seminar -3 • Combination of calcium phosphate and phosphosus pentoxide plus trace elements • Cast at 1050°C in gypsum investment mold • Clear cast crown is converted to a crystalline ceramic by heat treating at 645°C for 12 hours Disadvantages • Weaker than other castable ceramics • Opacity reduces the indication for use in anterior teeth SHRINK FREE CERAMIC CERESTORE It is a shrink-free alumina crown developed by the Coors Biomedical Co. It is fabricated using lost wax technique and then injection molding to produce a coping. MACHINABLE CERAMICS: Brief history: Development of CAD-CAM (Computer Assisted Design-Computer Aided Manufacturing) system for the dental profession began in 1970’s with DURET in France. ALTSCHULER in US & BRANDESTINI in Switzerland. The use of a shrink-free ceramic coping formed on an epoxy die by a transfer molding process overcomes the limits and firing shrinkage of conventionally produced aluminous porcelain jacket crowns. Flexural strength: It is approximately 150 Mpa. The Cerestore coping is veneered with conventional aesthetic porcelain. MgAl2O4 spinell and an alpha-alumina oxide make the core replaced by Alceram. he began to fabricate crowns with an optical impression of abutment followed by designing and milling. ✔ From 1971. ✔ 43 . and later sold to Johnson & Johnson.

procuses less abrasive wear. It is a fine grained Feldspathic porcelain with reduced wear of opposing tooth . ✔ This system later developed as a processing center networked with satellite digitizers around the world for the fabrication of all ceramic frameworks13 ✔ Machinable ceramic:   CAD/CAM ceramics: a ceramic restoration fabricated by use of a computer aided design and computer aided milling Copy milled ceramics: a process of milling a structure using a device that traces the surface of a metal. strength and wear properties are similar to Feldspathic porcelain used for PFM restorations • Cerec Vitablocks Mark II This is feldspathic porcelains of increased strength and has finer grain size the mark I composition. an innovative approach to fabricate same day restorations at the chair side in the dental office.its composition.Seminar -3 Later he developed Sopha system. • Dicor MGC (Dentsply L. ✔ Dr. ceramic or a polymer pattern and transfers the traced special positions to a cutting station.D caulk Division): This is a machinable glass ceramic composed of flurosilicic mica crystals in a glass matrix.Anderson developed Procera System He attempted to fabricate titanium copings by spark erosion and introduced CAD/CAM technology into the process of composite veneered restorations. It has greater flexural strength than castable Dicor and Cerec composition. Mormann developed CEREC System. Less abrasive wear of the opposing teeth. ✔ Dr. • Celay: Can be used CAD-CAM produced restorations or used in the copy-milled technique. The different types of ceramic ingots used in the process as follows: 11 • Cerec vitablocks Mark I: This is a feldspathic porcelain which was the first composition used with the Cerec system (Siemens). 44 .

45 . enabling clinician to prepare multiple teeth in same quadrant and create a virtual cast for the entire quadrant. the operator records multiple images within seconds.5 µm) was better compared with cerec 2 (97. ✔ The scanning device converts the shape of the prepared teeth into three dimensional (3-D) units of Information (voxels). The coping is glass infiltrated and veneer porcelain added.0±33. Cerec in-lab is a lab system in which dies are laser scanned and image displayed on screen. With newer Cerec 3-D. Designed restoration is transmitted to a remote milling unit for fabrication. With Cerec 1 and Cerec 2.Cerec introduced in 1980s. improved Cerec 2 introduced in 1996 and the advanced 3-D Cerec 3 in 2000. an optical scanner is used to scan the prepared tooth or impression and a 3-D image is generated on monitor.Seminar -3 CAD/ CAM process: ✔ A CAD/CAM system utilizes a process chain consisting of scanning. In vitro evaluation of marginal adaptation of crown of cerec 3-D (47. designing and milling phases.8 µm) DCS PRECIDENT: Comprises of a Preciscan laser Scanner and Precimill CAM multitool milling centre.5 µm ±19. The computer translates this information into a 3-D map (point could). After designing VITA In-cream blocks are used for milling. ✔ The operator designs a restoration shape using the computer which generates a tool path. A milling unit is used to prepare the restoration. which is used by the milling device to create the shape from a restorative material CAD CAM SYSTEMS: CEREC : An acronym for chair side economic reconstruction of esthetic ceramic .

3µm and 29. According to research data average marginal gap for Procera all Ceram restoration ranges from 54 µm to 64 µm CICERO SYSTEM (COMPUTER INTEGRATED CROWN RECONSTRUCTION) Introduced by Denison et al in 1999. Basic reconstruction includes layered life like ceramic for natural esthetics. PROCERA ALL CERAM SYSTEM Introduced in 1994.Seminar -3 The DCS software automatically suggests connector sizes and pontic forms for bridges.3 µm respectively. Aluminum oxide powder is compacted on the die and coping is milled by a computer controlled milling machines. Marginal adaptation for cercon all ceramic crowns and fixed partial dentures was reported 31. it does not have a CAD component. It can scan 14 dies simultaneously and mill up to 30 frameworks unit in one fully automated operation. which is sintered at 1. It is one of the few systems that can mill titanium and fully dense sintered zirconia. metal and Ceramic sintering and computer assisted milling to obtain restoration. This enlargement compensates for sintering shrinkage. Veneering is done with a low fusing. An in vitro study showed that marginal discrepancies of alumina and ziroconia based posterior fixed partial denture machined by the DCS system was between 60 µm to 70µm CERCON: Commonly referred to as a CAM system. Once the master die is scanned the 3-D images is transferred through an internet link to processing center where an enlarged die is milled by a computer controlled milling machines. it includes optical scanning. leucite free cercon Ceram to provide esthetic contour. The system scans the wax pattern and mills a zirconia bridge coping from presintered zirconia blanks. Aluminum oxide powder is compacted on the die and coping is milled before sintering at a very high temp (>1550°C).350°C for 6-8 hrs. a precision milled occlusal surface and a machined high strength ceramic core. The coping is sent back to the lab for porcelain veneering. This enlargement compensates for sintering shrinkage. it is the first system which provided outsourced fabrication using a network connection. The aim of 46 .

and produces good hemostasis. CAM produces an enlarged framework to compensate shrinkage. A partially sintered ziroconia block is selected for milling. DioDent Micro 980. that result in a narrow band of lased tissue. The soft tissue diode laser offer precision. density and strength. Studies on marginal adaptation of Y-TZP bridges processed with Lava system for 2 milling times (75 mins Vs 56 mins) did not affect the marginal adaptation (61  25 µm Vs 59  21 µm )16 CAD/CAM Restorative Technique: 15 ✔ ✔ ✔ Consists of Handheld scanning device that digitally records the form and margins of the preparation. This system uses yttria stabilized tetragonal zirconia poly crystals (YTZP) which have greater fracture resistance than conventional ceramics. Lava system uses a laser optical system to digitize information.Seminar -3 CICERO is to mass produce ceramic restoration at one integrated site. GENTLEray 980. Ivoclar Vivadent. The scanners require a dry field and soft tissue that must be thoroughly separate at the level of the margin from the hard tissue. The Lava CAD software automatically finds the margin and suggests a pontic. Kavo. LAVA CAD/CAM SYSTEM Introduced in 2002. The soft tissue diode laser (Odyssey Navigator. Milled framework undergoes sintering to attain final dimensions. 47 . It includes rapid custom fabrication of high strength alumina coping and semi finished crowns to be delivered to dental laboratories for porcelain layering / finishing. HOYA ConBio) is used to expose Subgingival margins. used for fabrication of zirconia framework for all ceramic restorations.

D4D TECH). sintering. the clinician must ensure that all margins of the cavity are captured by the scan and visualized. ✔ ✔ Chairside – a single-visit technique ✔ Integrated Chairside—laboratory CAD/CAM Procedure. while the E4D uses a laser in the handheld scanning device ✔ A third system. was developed in The Netherlands and used a pressing. 48 . ✔ For Chairside CAD/CAM restorations. CICERO.Seminar -3 SOFT TISSUE DIODE LASER Alternative soft tissue management techniques include electro surgery and standard manual retraction technique. E4D. strong material requiring minimal post-milling esthetic adjustment to minimize Chairside time is needed. an esthetic. ✔ Depending on the system used. ✔ During scanning. and milling technique prior to laboratory finishing of the restoration. ✔ Prior to scanning. the clinician can see the preparation magnified on the computer screen as the scan is being processed. ✔ The CEREC 3 uses still images. Sirona. a very thin layer of powder is distributed over the preparation using the CEREC system. Chairside CAD/CAM Technique: ✔ The chairside technique involves scanning the preparation and then fabricating the restoration in the milling device (CEREC 3. ✔ Two basic techniques can be utilized for CAD/CAM restorations.

Ivoclar Vivadent. 3M ESPE) lithium disilicate glass ceramics (IPS e.max. ANTERIOR ESTHETIC ZONE15 49 .Seminar -3 Leucite-reinforced glass ceramics (IPS Empress CAD. Ivoclar Vivadent) Advantages ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ One-visit fixed restorative procedure No impression making No temporary restoration required Reduced potential for tooth sensitization No laboratory costs No model or die pouring Accuracy Less opportunity for error compared to traditional technique Aids prep visualization Projects a state-of-the-art image Disadvantages ✔ Less conservative than direct composite fillings ✔ Slightly less exacting fit than laboratory-made ✔ Esthetic capabilities are limited 14 ✔ Soft tissue management more critical than with traditional technique ✔ Depending on the material and patient. Paradigm C. customization may be required ✔ High learning curve ✔ Higher production required to cover capital investment CASE 1.

the CEREC ceramic will recreate a tooth like strength 50 . When using the current generation bonding adhesives according to the manufacturer’s instructions. REPLACEMENT OF FAILING AMALGAMS CAD/CAM conservative preparation design preserves more of the natural tooth structure compared with a crown and offers the clinical longevity of gold without the esthetic drawbacks.Seminar -3 Maxillary incisor pretreatment CAD/CAM milled & finished restoration Finished CAD/CAM placed restoration CASE 2.

Seminar -3 Amalgam restoration and caries pre-treatment preparation. • Chairside scanning of a preparation and digital transmission to the laboratory can be achieved by several systems. • The clinician either can scan the preparation directly and then send the scan to the laboratory. 51 . after which a stone model is poured and the laboratory scans the stone model. or can take a traditional impression. Completed esthetic CAD/CAM restoration (IPSempress CAD) INTEGRATED CHAIRSIDE—LABORATORY CAD/CAM TECHNIQUE • Requires two visits.

• The external ceramic layer can be created either using press ceramics (in the same manner as for a traditional bridge) or layering ceramic material onto the substructure using a !ne brush and powder/liquid. Advantages • • • • • • Automates steps or all of fixed restorative fabrication Accuracy Less opportunity for error compared to traditional technique Opportunity to subcontract CAD/CAM to avoid capital costs Opportunity to focus on artistic ceramics Scanned image transferred directly to the laboratory from the office • Reduced Chairside time • Team approach to fixed restorations Disadvantages • Requires two visits 52 . or for milling of the coping at the manufacturer’s lab (iTero).Seminar -3 • CEREC Connect (Sirona) and iTero (Cadent) scans either take a series of stills and send the digital image either to a laboratory for milling of the restoration (CEREC Connect). • ceramic blocks for laboratory-milled restorations are available as Zirconia (zirconium oxide) and lithium disilicate glass blocks.

Seminar -3 Case Presentation: Integrated Chairside— Laboratory Technique Preoperative view: discolored central incisor with disparity in color crown and veneer preparation 53 .

Seminar -3 Scanning image from dental office CAD/CAM impression milled using In lab image of crown design In lab image of veneer 54 .

 Ability of bonding to tooth structure provides additional strengthening mechanism.  In-ceram has highest flexural strength values for all the ceramic system and can be used for multiple unit bridges. STRENGTH:  All systems have adequate strength for single units but significantly less than that of ceramic metal crowns. 55 .Seminar -3 Poured model and CAD milled wax restoration CAD ceramic blocks used for the Milled restoration ceramic layering in process Final seated crown and veneer COMPARISON OF THE ALL CERAMIC SYSTEMS: 11 1.  Dicor is strengthened through the partial recrystallization of the glass through a ceramming process.

3.  Duceram LFC. 2. 1.  IPS Empress>Optec HSP>Optec OPC>Dicor> Duceram ALL-CERAMIC POSTS AND CORES: Endodontically treated teeth often need a post and core as foundation for the final restoration. especially when nonprecious alloys are used for post-and-core fabrication. So can be considered disadvantage because of the added cost of fabrication. WEAR OF OPPOSING TOOTH STRUCTURE:  All of the Leucite containing all ceramic materials wears opposing natural tooth. FABRICATION TECHNIQUES: With exception of Optec HSP and Duceram system.'' Furthermore.Seminar -3  IPS Empress and Optec pressable ceramic. the use of the all posts and cores was suggested as an alternative to solve the esthetic problems that metal posts and cores exhibit. 56 .' The restoration of anterior nonvital teeth with metal posts and cores and all-ceramic restorations may lead to compromised aesthetics because of the semi translucence of ceramics and the opacious metal substructure of the underlying post and core. the fit of the all ceramic crowns to the underlying tooth structure is extremely accurate. corrosion products may deposit in the gingival tissues or cause root discoloration. strengthened by an ion exchange mechanism involving hydroxyl ions. Almost simultaneously with the introduction of the current all-ceramic systems. the metal post and core may shine through or at least decrease the depth of translucency of the restoration. metal posts may also shine through in the cervical root areas. all ceramic system use specialcialized equipments and techniques. MARGINAL FIT With exception of the machined ceramics restoration. Depending on the thickness and the opacity of the luting cement and the all-ceramic restoration. strengthened by dispersion of Leucite crystals throughout their internal structure.Compenstion for discrepancy or gaps can be made by using resin cements. thus altering the appearance of thin gingival tissue.' In addition.

Procera.Seminar -3 ADVANTAGES: Dentine like shade it is related to the deeper diffusion and absorption of the transmitted light in the ceramic core mass • An all ceramic restorations transmits a certain percentage of the incident light to the ceramic core and the post on which it has been placed thus the color of the final restorations will be derived from an internal shade similar to optical behavior of the natural teeth • Does not reflect intensively through thin gingival tissues.In ceram. Dense sintered alumina ceramic . It provides an essential depth of translucency in the cervical root areas • Excellent biocompatibility and does not exhibit galvanic corrosion • DISADVANTAGE: • Relatively low fracture strength and fracture toughness. Zirconium oxide ceramics Techniques or construction of all ceramic post and core with high toughness ceramic materials Ø Slip casting technique Ø Copy milling technique Ø Two piece technique ➢ Heat press technique SLIP CASTING TECHNIQUE: 57 . Dental Ceramic material used for all ceramic post and core Ø Ø Ø Ø Conventional dental ceramics High toughness ceramic .

until presently.core construction a post made of yttrium oxide-partially stabilized zirconia (ER-Cerapost. After the recent development of zirconia ceramic posts. as an alternative to the slipcasting technique. onlay. The zirconia ceramic posts are commercially available in three ISO sizes (050. well as for copy-milled In-Ceram posts and cores. COPY MILLING RECHNIQUE: the glass-infiltrated alumina ceramic. This method can be used for inlay. Vita Zahnfabrik). for that reason. and its fabrication process have been adapted to the Celay copy-milling method (Mikrona). Brasseler) is used in conjunction with an all-ceramic core made of alumina or alumina-magnesia'-* ceramics. The ceramic substructures are prefabricated blanks made of presintcrcd aluminum oxide ceramic (Celay Alumina Blanks. InCeram ceramic does not seem to provide a sufficient strength. For a 2-piece post-and. an all-ceramic post and core was not recommended for such eases. In-Ceram ceramic restorations made with the Celay method present a 10% higher flexural strength (about 500 iVlPa) than do conventional In-Ceram restorations. In-Ceram. it became possible to combine both materials.and crown-and-bridge framework fabrication. In. • Used only in wide root canals without a crucial reduction of the circumferential dentin structure. TWO-PIECE TECHNIQUE: Because the fracture strength of In-Ceram posts and cores is less than that of metal posts and cores.Ceram posts and cores have only been recommended for wide root canals. fabricated either by the copy-milling or the slip-casing technique. 110} and supplement the existing ER-Post system (Brasseler). The Celay system involves a rnanually guided copy-milling process in which a predesigned resin pattern is surface traced and copied in ceramic. HEAT-PRESS TECHNIQUE 58 .Seminar -3 • described by Kem and Knode in 1991 • core buildup and post are made in 1 piece from the aluminum oxide ceramic material. In-Ceram." The cases of regular root canals (smaller than ISO 110). veneer.

Gadgets for Dental Applications. and other body parts . Ivoclar) is heat. The applications are based on the fact that when used as implants or even as coatings to metal replacements. promote tissue formation and provide protection from the immune system.17 OTHER APPLICATION OF CERAMICS Ceramics in Medical Applications Ceramics are employed in a wide range in the medical specialty such as repair and replacement of human hips.impedance based 3rd generation . These transducers generate the ultrasonic acoustic waves and detect the reflected signals to form the image. Transducers utilizing lead zirconate titanate (PZT) based piezoelectric ceramics are the heart of ultrasonic systems.frequency based. In the heat-press technique. ceramic materials can stimulate bone growth. knees.pressed over a prefabricated zirconium dioxide post (Cosmo Post. Moreover. Piezo Ceramics 59 . In this system. 2nd generation . precerammed Leucite-reinforced glass-ceramic material is heated and pressed in an investment mold after the burnout of the wax analog (lost-wax technique).diseased heart valves. modern ceramic materials play an important role in gadgets used for medical diagnosis including both ultrasonic and X-ray computed tomography (CT) systems. and therefore both materials are fused into a solid post-and-core restoration. a glass-ceramic core (EmpressCosmo.resistance based. Various recently introduced diagnostic and working tools of which ceramics play an integral part include: Radio Visio Graphy (RVG) Pulp tester Apex locators 1st generation . It is based on the well-known IPS Empress system (Ivoclar). a castable.Seminar -3 The heat-press technique has recently found application to an all-ceramic post-and-core construction. Ivoclar).

Rochelle salt and Tourmaline plus manufactured ceramics such as Barium Titanate and Lead Zirconate Titanates (PZT). e. Tricalcium Phosphate4 60 . dense ceramics can be manufactured in almost any given shape or size.e. the structure changes shape producing dimensional changes in the material. Porous Alumina. They are more versatile with physical. The piezoelectric materials use polycrystalline ceramics instead of natural piezoelectric crystals. Hydroxyapatite RESORBABLE Designed to be slowly replaced by bone. SURFACE ACTIVE: Directly attach by chemical bonding with bone. which are biologically active materials rich in calcium and phosphate. Bioceramics Bioceramics are a group of ceramics. The hard. which are chemically inert and immune to moisture and other atmospheric conditions. Bioglass. Conversely.e. These bioactive materials are packed in the required site providing a scaffold for new bone growth and are Osseo-inductive in nature. the crystalline structure produces a voltage proportional to the pressure. granular and injectable forms. when an electric field is applied. e. Alumina. The various forms of bioceramics are Single crystals (Sapphire).g. They are manufactured and are available in block. Carbon POROUS: Attached by vascularisation through pores. Hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate are similar in composition to bone and teeth and can be used for augmentation of alveolar ridges and filling bony defects. chemical and piezoelectric characteristics able to be tailored to specific applications.Seminar -3 Piezoelectricity can be defined as pressure electricity which is a property of certain classes of crystalline materials including natural crystals of Quartz.g. Polycrystalline (Hydroxyapatite) Glass (Bioactive glass) Glass ceramics (Ceravital) Composites (Stainless steel reinforced Bioglass) Types of Bioceramics There are about four types of bioceramics: INERT: Attached by compact morphological fixation.g. When mechanical pressure is applied to one of these materials.g.

Santander SA. J Prosthet Dent 1996 . 9. Recent Advances in Materials for All-Ceramic Restorations. 4. Chapter 21. Khasawneh S. Wahadni AA. such that now all-ceramic restorations can be used both anteriorly and posteriorly. pg692. 75 :18-32. Griggs JA. Dental news 1999.types. 20(1):7-11.72.Pract Proced Aesthet Dent 2005.Organs2006. Campbell SD. Qualtrough AJE . Ahmad I. Ceramics in dental applications.J Am Dent Assoc 1997. 8. Therefore need for dental practitioners to be aware of the rapidly changing field of dental ceramics to ensure that the correct choice is made for each patient. Chu S. Historical perspectives of synthetic ceramics and traditional Feldspathic porcelain.textbook of operative dentistry.1st 10.Seminar -3 CONCLUSION: There has been a revolution in the provision of ceramics for dental restorations in the last 15 years.glazing and clinical applications. The Compendium of Continuing Education in Dentistry 6. 128:297-307 12. 5. Sukumaran VG.Piddock V. Ceramics in Dentistry : historical roots and current perspectives. WB Saunders Company. Dental porcelain: composition. 17(9):593-598.A review of all ceramic restorations. Tamayo LFR.pg439-481.Rosenblum MA. Dyna 2010. Schulman . 2.chapter 19. 7. New Delhi India. Escobar JS. 51(3): 713–727. 77(163):26-36. Kelly JR.Ceramics update.quintessence publ. Monteiro FJ.J Dent 1997. Ceramics for Dental restoration –An introduction.6(3):33-37. Sikri V. McLaren EA Ceramics Overview: Classification by Microstructure and Processing Methods.p. 11th Edition. Anuvanice KJ (Ed) Phillips RW. Vargas AP. Dent Clin North Am.25:91 61 . Pennsylvania.CBS publishers & didtributors. USA.Artif. Phillips Science of Dental Materials. Giordano R. Trend Biomater. Nishimura I.Chicago. 3. 11.There is no doubt that new materials and processing routes will continue to be developed and that ceramics will play a growing role in the provision of aesthetic restorations.vol.1979. Bharadwaj N.Mclean JW: The science and art of dental ceramics. REFERNCES 1. Al-Ajlouni RF. 2007.1.

3. Ritter. All ceramic posts and cores: the state of the art.Chairside CAD/CAM in Dentistry JERD15( 2 ). 30(6):383-392. 2002 15. Abhilasha S.CAD/CAM in dental restorations: an overview Annals and Essences of Dentistry Vol. Quintessence international. Holloway JA.Denry S.Koutayas SO. 351-368. Bhasin.Innovation in Dentistry: CAD/CAM Restorative Procedures 16.Seminar -3 13. 1999. Corrales KV . 17. 62 .II Issue 3 July – Sept. Ceramics for Dental Applications: Review Materials 2010. André V.James Klim.Sneha SM. 2010 14. . Kern M.

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