You are on page 1of 312

Ministarstvo kulture Republika Hrvatska Ministry of Culture Republic of Croatia

Minislarslvo kulture Republika Hrvatska Ministry of Culture Republic of Croatia

k>
Luka Bemc

Zastitna arheologija u okolici Varazdina


Arheoloska istrazivanja na autocesti Zagreb - Gorican
mm
^^^^i

Luka Bekic

ZASTITNA ARHEOLOGIJA U OKOLICI VARAZDINA Arheoloska istrazivanja na autocesti Zagreb - Gorican i njezinim prilaznim cestama.
s prilozima Darka Komse i Zorka Markovica Luka Beki}

RESCUE ARCHAEOLOGY IN THE VARA@DIN ENVIRONS Archaeological Research on the Zagreb Gori~an Highway and its Access Roads
With Contributions by Darko Komso and Zorko Markovi}

ZAGREB, 2006.

PREDGOVOR
Zastita arheoloskih kulturnih dobara jedan je od vaznijih ciljeva iz djelokruga Ministarstva kulture. Dosljednom primjenom Zakona o zastiti kulturnih dobara otvara se mogucnost da arheoloska nalazista budu istrazena, dokumentirana pa i prezentirana javnosti kao posvjedocenje najdavnijih vremena i povijesti ovih prostora. U vrijeme ubrzane izgradnje i razvoja zemlje, ta zakopana svjedocanstva ne smiju se ugroziti strojevima, pa se tako njima u posljednje vrijeme u njih pridaje znatna paznja i briga, sto je desetljecima nedostajalo. Ubrzana gradnja cestovne infrastukture nakon Domovinskog rata pokrenula je brojna zastitna arheoloska iskopavanja na mnogim dionicama. Isprva skromnije, danas se ova istrazivanja vode organizirano i sustavno na svim dionicama u izgradnji, prema najvisim standardima struke. Ova knjiga prva je u nizu izdanja koje opsirno predocuju znanstvenoj i siroj javnosti rezultate zastitnih arheoloskih istrazivanja provedenih prilikom izgradnji cesta i autocesta. Tema knjige su istrazivanja prilikom gradnje Autoceste Zagreb - Gorican, te novih obilaznica gradova Varazdinske i Medimurske zupanije koji su izravno povezani s tom vaznom prometnicom Serija ce se nastaviti izdanjem koje ce predociti vazne nalaze sa dionica koje vode kroz Karlovacku i Lickosenjsku zupaniju, a potom i s novih cesta kroz Dalmaciju, Slavoniju i Istru. Vrijedni arheoloski nalazi i otkrica ugledali su svjetlo dana kao jos jedan pozitivni ucinak izgradnje cesta i autocesta. Ti arheoloski nalazi svjedocanstvo su veza s ostatkom Europe, dokaz da su komunikacije i povezivanje bile uspostavljene od davnih vremena. Povezivanje kultura i suradnja bili su sastavni dio zivljenja, bas kao sto nam to i danas omogucuju novoizgradene prometnice. Vozeci se autocestom lijepim predjelima Hrvatske, nismo ni svjesni da su se pod novim asfaltom nalazila brojna arheoloska bogatstva. Ova knjiga dat ce nam uvid u jedan dio tog bogatstva i ispricati pricu kako su ona sacuvana za buduce narastaje. Ministar kulture EH mr.sc.Bozo Biskupic

FOREWORD
The preservation of archaeological cultural wealth is one of the foremost goals in the Ministry of Cultures sphere of activity. The consistent implementation of the Cultural Goods Preservation Act allows for the research and documentation of archaeological sites, and their presentation to the public as a testimony to the deepest past and history of the region. In a time of increased construction and development in the country, these bur ied testimonies must not be threatened by machinery considerable attention and care has been afforded them in recent times, which had been lacking for decades. The accelerated construction of road infrastruc ture that has followed the Homeland War has launched numerous rescue archaeology excavations on many sec tions of new roadways. At first on a modest scale, today these excavations, being undertaken on all sections under construction, are well organised and systematic, fol lowing the highest standards of the profession. This book is the first in a series of editions that offer the scientific and wider public detailed results of rescue archaeology research undertaken during the con struction of roads and highways. The book focuses on research made during the construction of the Zagreb Gorican highway and new bypasses of the towns of the Varazdin and Medimurje counties that are directly linked to this vital roadway. The series will continue with an edition presenting the key finds from road sec tions running through the Karlovac and Lika-Senj coun ties and then from the new roads through Dalmatia, Slavonia andlstria. Valuable archaeological finds and discoveries have come to the light of day as yet another positive effect of the construction of roads and highways. These archaeo logical finds bear witness to links with the rest of Eu rope, proof that communications and associations have existed since the distant past. Linking cultures and cooperation were a part and parcel of the way of living, just as is facilitated today by the newly constructed roadways. Driving on highways through stunning parts of Croatia, we were not even aware that there were nu merous archaeological treasures under the new asphalt. This book will offer us a window to one part of that wealth and tell the story of how they were preserved for future generations. Minister of Culture of the Republic of Croatia Bozo Biskupic, MSc

IMPRESSUM
Izdavac / Publisher: Ministarstvo kulture RH Ministry of Culture RH Suizdavac / Copublisher: Hrvatski restauratorski zavod Croatian conservation Institute Za izdavaca / For publisher: mr.sc. Bozo Biskupic / M.A. Urednik /ttfor: mr. Jasen Mesic/ MA. Izvrsni urednik / Managing Editor: mr.sc.Luka Bekic / MA. Tekstovi / Texts:: mrsc.Luka Bekic / M.A., Darko Komso, dr.sc.Zorko Markovic /Ph.D. Recenzenti / Consultant Editors: : red.prof.drAleksandar Durman, Odsjek za arheologiju, Filozofski fakultet, Sveuciliste u Zagrebu red.prof.dr.Mitja Gustin, Institut za dediscino Sredozemlja, Univerza na Primorskem, Kopar Professor Aleksandar Durman Ph.D., Department for Archaeology, Faculty of Philosophy University of Zagreb Professor Mitja Gustin Ph.D., Institute for Mediterranean Heritage, University ofPrimorska, Kopar Lektura / Language Editor: Salih Isaac Prijevod na engleski / English translation: Neven Ferencic Crtezi / Drawings: keramika / Ceramics: Luka Bekic metal / Metals: Luka Bekic kamen / Stone: Darko Komso, Ivo Juricic i Luka Bekic Fotografije / Photographs:: terenske / Field photos: Luka Bekic, Ante Vrankovic manji predmeti / Small objects: Luka Bekic veci predmeti / Larger objects: Vid Barac, Natalija Vasic Nacrti proffla / Section drawings: Robert Cimin, Igor Miholjek, Helena Nodilo Geodetske izmjere i izrada tlorisa / Geodetic surveying and ground plans: Damir i Biserka Ostrek Ante Jukic (Ciglenica) Restauracija keramickih nalaza / Restoration of ceramic finds: Mladen Mustacek, Sluzba za arheolosku bastinu, Hrvatski restauratorski zavod, Zagreb Mladen Mustacek, Archaeological Heritage Service, Croatian Conservation Institute, Zagreb Restauracija metalnili nalaza / Restoration of metal finds: : Damir Doracic, Arheoloski muzej u Zagrebu Damir Doracic, Archaeological Museum in Zagreb Odredenje kamenili izradevina / Identification of stone artefacts: Darko Komso, Arheoloski muzej Istre u Puli Darko Komso, Archaeological Museum qflstra, Pulei Odredenje zivotinjskih kostiju / Identification of animal bones:: prof.dr.sc.Kresimir Babic, mr.sc.Tajana Trbojevic Vukicevic. Ana Stilinovic, Laboratorij za arheozoologiju, Veterinarski' fakultet Sveucilista u Zagrebu drsc.Mario Jurisic, Sluzba za arheolosku bastinu, Hrvatski restauratorski zavod, Zagreb Professor Kresimir Babic Ph.D., Tajana Trboievic Vukicevic MA., Ana Stilinovic, Laboratory for Arckaeoaoology Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Zagreb Mario JurisiePh.D., Areh. al Heritage Service, Croatian Conservation Institute, Zagreb Odredenje ljudskih kostiju / Identification of human bones: drsc.Mario Slaus, Mario Novak, Odsjek za arheologiju, Hrvatska akademija znanosti i umjetnosti Mario Slaus PKD., Mario Novak, Division for Archaeology Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts Reljefna karta / Relief map: Damir Jurkovic, Mladen Kolarek Koncept i dizajn / Concept and design: GLOBALDOTHR, Zagreb Tisak / Print: Kratis, Zagreb Naklada/ Print run: 1000 Zagreb 2006.

CIP - Katalogizaoija u piiblikaoiji Naoionalna i svenoflisiia kiijiznioa - Zagreb UDK 902.2(497.5-37 Varazdin) BEKIC, Luka Zastitoa arheologija u okolioi Varazdina : arheoloska istrazwanja na autooesti Zagreb - Goriean i njezinim prilaznim eestama = Rescue archology in the Varazdin Environs : areheologieal research on the Zagreb Gxirican highway and its access roads / Luka Bekic ; s prilozima Darka Komse i Zorana MarkoYica ; <prijevod na engleski NeYen Ferencic ; crtezi i fotografije Luka Bekic ... et al>. Zagreb : Ministarstvo kulture BH : Hrvatski restauratorski zavod, 2006. Tekst usporedo na hrv. i engl. jeziku. ISBN 953-6240-57-2 (Ministarstvo kulture) I. Varazdin i okolica Arheoloska istrazwanja II. Varazdin i okolica Arheoloska nalazista 300811069

UVOD
U ljeto 2002.g., tadasnji Odjel za zastitu arheoloske bastine MMstarstva kulture, preuzeo je nadzor nad izgradnjom autoceste Zagreb - Gorican, na dionici Breznicki Hum - Varazdin, te prikljucnim obilaznicama obliznjih gradova. Za organizaciju i vodenje arheoloskog nadzora i iskopavanja bio je zaduzen autor ove knjige. Tijekom visegodisnjih arheoloskih radova na ovim cestama izveden je niz arheoloskih iskopavanja, sondiranja i pregleda. Vrlo zanimljivi arheoloski nalazi, poradi njihova povijesnog znacenja, prikazuju se strucnoj, ali i siroj javnosti u opseznom monografskom izdanju. Ovom su knjigom obuhvaceni rezultati zastitnih arheoloskih radova na novim prometnicama kroz Varazdinsku i Medimurskuzupaniju. Na prostoru autoceste Zagreb - Gorican i prikljucnih obilaznica nije poduzet prethodni arheoloski pregled prije gradnje, niti preliminarna arheoloska sondiranja. Iznimku cini prostor izmedu Drave i Plitvice te iskopavanja dvaju nalazista na torn prostoru, Semovec-Kupinje i Zbelava-Pod lipom iz 1997.godine. Stoga je trebalo je obaviti pomni i zurni pregled dionica od Breznickog Huma do Varazdina, ali istodobno i voditi arheoloska iskopavanja novopronadenih nalazista, sto je, s obzirom da su se gradevinski radovi gotovo po cijeloj trasi vodili vec mjesecima, i to istovremeno, bilo veoma tesko kvalitetno realizirati. Dodatno opterecenje prouzrocili su i radovi, primjerice izgradnja visekilometarskih prilaznih cesti, obilaznica naselja, regulacija rijeka i potoka, kamenolomi, stovarista materijala, gradnja dalekovodne, vodovodne, k a n a l i z a c i j s k e , telekomunikacijske mreze te razliciti dragi iskopi povezani s izgradnjom trase. Za nadzor gradevinsMh radova na dionicama od Breznickog Huma do Varazdina bio je uz autora dodatno zaduzen apsolvent arheologije Ante Vrankovic. S obzirom na opisane uvjete u kojima se trebalo raditi, sastavljen je mali, opremljeni arheoloski mobilni tim. Ovaj tim reagirao je na trenutacna dogadanja na trasama i pristupio iskopavanjima cim se ustanovilo da su gradevinski radovi ostetili neko novo nalaziste. Arheoloski radovi zapocinjali su u roku od dva dana od pronalaska, kako se gradevinski radovi ne bi pretjerano dugo obustavljali. Prilikom pronalaska takvih nalazista, neosteceni prostori iskopavani su standardnim arheoloskim iskopom i sondama, a gradevinskim radovima

PREFACE
In the summer of 2002 the Ministry of Cultures former D e p a r t m e n t for the P r o t e c t i o n of Archaeological Heritage took over supervision of the construction of the Zagreb - Gorican highway on the Breznicki Hum to Varazdin section and its bypasses of nearby cities. The author of this book was charged with organising and leading the archaeological supervision. A series of archaeological excavations, exploratory trenches and surveys were carried out during several years of archaeological works on these roads. Very interesting archaeological finds, on account of their historical significance, are presented to the expert and wider public in a comprehensive monograph. This book covers the results of rescue archaeology carried out on the new roads passing through the Varazdin and Medimurje Counties. Prior archaeological surveys were not undertaken prior to construction on the area covered by the Zagreb - Gorican highway and its connecting bypasses, nor were preliminary archaeological exploratory trenches dug. The exception was on the area between Drava and Plitvice and the 1997 excavation of two sites in that area, Semovec-Kupinje and Zbelava-Pod lipom. Careful and quick surveys had, therefore, to be carried out, of the area from Breznicki H u m to Varazdin, and concurrent archaeological excavations had to be made of newlydiscovered sites that, considering the fact that c o n s t r u c t i o n work h a d been u n d e r w a y simultaneously along practically the entire route for months, was very difficult to carry out properly. A further burden was caused by works on, for example, the construction of many kilometres of access roads, bypasses of settled areas, the regulation of rivers and creeks, quarries, material dumps, the construction of a high power line, waterways, a sewage network and various other excavations related to the routes construction. Undergraduate archaeology student Ante Vrankovic was, along with the author, charged with overseeing construction work on the Breznicki Hum to Varazdin section of the route. Given the described conditions for this undertaking a small, equipped, mobile archaeological team was assembled. This team reacted to events as they happened on the route and carried out excavations as soon as it was established that construction work had damaged some new find. Archaeological works commenced within two days of unearthing a find so that construction work would

izbacena zemlja je pregledana kako bi se skupilo sto vise pokretnih nalaza. Pristup iskopavanju prilagodavan je razlicitim situacijama u kojima su nalazista zatecena. Svi prikupljeni nalazi (metal, keramika, kamen itd.) konzervirani su i po mogucnosti rekonstruirani. Prikupljana je i odredena kolicina uzoraka zemlje i ugljena koji su kasnije analizirani, kao i zivotinjske te ljudske kosti. Svi iskopi te pronadeni nepokretni nalazi dokumentirani su totalnom geodetskom stanicom, a na osnovi toga izradeni su tlorisi. Karakteristicni profili dokumentirani su klasicnim tehnickim crtanjem na milimetarskom papiru i potom digitalno obradeni te georeferencirani. Unatoc tome sto je u strucnim krugovima vladalo uvjerenje da na podrucju autoceste Zagreb - Gorican ne mozemo ocekivati brojna arheoloska nalazista, pomni nadzor nad izvodenjem gradevinskih radova dokazao je upravo suprotno. Prilikom izgradnje pronadena su mnogobrojna arheoloska nalazista, sto na samoj trasi, a sto uz nju. Neka su velika i viseslojna, a druga mala ili u tragovima, ali sveukupno cine potpuno novu i znatno dublju sliku naseljavanja ovog prostora od kamenoga do danasnjega doba. Nazalost, vecina nalazista ostecena je provodenim gradevinskim radovima, no na svima su provedena istrazivanja u skladu s mogucnostima pa su tako barem djelomicno dokumentirana. Buduci da nisu bila izvedena prethodna rekognosciranja i time kvalitetnija prethodna istrazivanja od pronalazenja do samih terenskih iskopavanja, ovdje prikazani radovi zapravo vise spadaju u domenu spasilacke arheologije nego zastitne. I zato je sve sto se nalazi u ovoj knjizi zapravo neocekivani i veliki dobitak za nasu struku, kojeg ne bi bilo bez osobnog entuzijazma svih koji su bili ukljuceni u te projekte. Luka Bekic

not be overly delayed. During the locating of such sites, the undamaged areas were excavated using standard archaeological excavation procedures and exploratory trenches while the earth displaced by the construction work was examined in order to gather as many finds as possible. The approach to excavation was adjusted to the varying states in which the sites were found. All gathered finds (metal, ceramics, stone, etc.) were conserved and, if possible, reconstructed. A quantity of soil and charcoal samples were gathered for later analysis, as were animal and human bones. All digs and the located features were documented by a complete geodetic survey based on which ground plans were drawn. Characteristic sections were documented by the classic method of drawing on millimetre-grid graph paper, later to be digitalised and geo-referenced. Despite the reigning opinion in expert circles that we could not expect numerous archaeological sites on the area of the Zagreb - Gorican highway, detailed supervision of the construction work being carried out proved precisely the opposite. Many archaeological sites were uncovered during the construction, on the route itself and around it. Some are large and multi-layered, some small and in traces, but in all they form a new picture of significant depth of this areas inhabitation from the Stone Age to the present. Most of the finds were, unfortunately, damaged by the construction works, but research was carried out on all of them as the circumstances allowed and they were, at least in part, documented. Since prior surveying had not been carried out, and thereby better prior research from the point of discovery to the field digs themselves, the works presented here fall more into the category of salvage archaeology rather than rescue. This is why everything in this book is actually an unexpected and great profit to our profession, unimaginable without the personal enthusiasm of all those who took part in this project. Luka Bekic

GROMACE 1 KOD VARAZDINSKIH TOPLICA Rimska cesta

GROMACE 1 NEAR VARAZDINSKE TOPLICE Roman Road

Prilikom obilaska gradevinskih radova na During an August 14, 2002, archaeological su obilaznici Varazdinskih Toplica kod danasnjeg pervision of construction work on the Varazdinske groblja, 14.kolovoza. 2002.g., na prostoru koji je Toplice bypass construction site near the presentpoljoprivredno obraden i uglavnom su to day cemetery, on an area under agricultural cultiva kukuruzista, zamijeceni su ostaci stare gradnje, kqji tion, mostly of corn fields, the remains of an old su tada izgledali kao trag zida izradenog od kamena structure were observed that at the time looked like lomljenca s mnogo primjesa vapna. Na prostoru the trace of a wall constructed of broken stone tem istocno i zapadno od gradnje nalazili su se sitni pered with large amounts of mortar. In the area to komadi anticke i srednjovjekovne keramike, sve the east and west of the structure there were small unisteno prelascima bagera i valjka. Gradevinski fragments of Roman period and medieval ceramics, su radovi obustavljeni od stacionaze 1+075 do all destroyed by the passing of excavators and roll 1+100, a prostor je ograden kako bi se sprijecio ers. Construction was stopped from kilometre mark svaki prelazak strojevima i vozilima preko nalazista ers 1 +075 to 1 +100, and the area fenced off in do probnog arheoloskog sondiranja. S obzirom na order to prevent any further passing of machines vaznost ove buduce prometnice i ubrzanost radova, and vehicles over the site until a trial archaeological 22.kolovoza 2002.g. zapoceto je istrazivanje koje je sondage could be carried out. Given the significance zavrsilo 4.rujna. 2002.^ of this future thruway and the high tempo of con Na samom pocetku sondiranja uoceno je da su struction, excavation commenced on August 22, jake kise i njihove bujice dodatno ostetile nalaziste. 2002 and ended September 4 of that same year.1 Neke vododerine su bile duboke i do 15 centimetara. At the very start of the sondage it was discovered Izabran je dosad neosteceni dio uz samu trasu, te je that heavy rain and the subsequent torrents had s juzne strane zapoceto kopanje u jos neiskopanom further damaged the site. Some of the gullies formed cestovnom profilu da bi se lakse pristupilo by the torrents were as much as 15 centimetres deep. ostecenom dijelu nalazista. Ubrzo je ustanovljeno An area along the route that had not yet been dam da je rijeco rimskoj cesti. aged was chosen and digging started on the still

Nalaziste tijekom usporednih arheoloskih i gradevinskih radova. The site during parallel archaeological and construction works.
1 U arheoloskim radorima su osim autora kao voditelja sudjelovali i arheolog Krunoslav Zubcic i student arheologije Igor Milioljek. Arheologinji Dorici Nemeth i ostalim kolegama Arheoloskog muzeja u Zagrebu zaliYaljujem na korisnoj pomoei koju su nam pruffli prilikom ovog arheoloskog sondiranja. Participating in the archaeological works besides the author, a dig leader, were archaeologist Krunoslav Zubcic and archaeology undergraduate student Igor Milioljek. To archaeologist Dorica Nemeth and to the other colleagues at the Zagreb Archaeological Museum, go thanks for their useful assistance during this archaeological sondage.

Cesta je radena od razlicitih slojeva sljunka te slojeva lomljenog kamena vapnenca koji je dodatno vezan vapnom. Uz zapadni dio ceste otvoren je velik prostor kako bi se provjerilo postojanje mozebitnih rimskih grobova. Nije pronadeno nista, a svi nalazi keramike pojavljuju se uglavnom uz rubove ceste. 5 obje strane ceste, koja je u svojoj sirini oko 4,20 m zbijeno sagradena od kamena i vapna, nalaze se pjescani nasipi u sirini od 1 do 2 metra. Njih je tesko pratiti, jer se sitni pijesak mijesao sa zemljom, pa nije bilo moguce dobiti cvrste rubove cijelog sklopa. Na kraju je rimska cesta probijena istraznim rovom u sirini od 1,20 m, dubini od 1 m i duzini od 6 m, kako bi se dobio uvid u njezinu gradu. Tako su nacrtno dokumentirana oba vidljiva profila ceste. Na kraju je bager zlicom sirine 2 m iskopao kontrolnu sondu na dubinu od gotovo 2 m od danasnje visine oranice, i to cijelom sirinom trase nove obilaznice - oko 10 metara. U toj kontrolnoj sondi, koja se nalazila oko lOm zapadno od rimske ceste, nije pronadeno nista i time su terenski radovi na sondiranju rimske ceste bili zavrseni. NALAZI Dio rimske ceste bio je ostecen prilikom gradevinskih radova. Nasi zastitni arheoloski radovi bili su usredisteni na prostor same trase obilaznice, a uspjeli smo otkopati i jedan neosteceni dio ceste na juznoj strani, izvan same trase na podrucju predvidenom za odvodni jarak. Na torn dijelu ustanovili smo da se gornja povrsina rimske ceste nalazila na dubini od samo 20-ak cm od danasnje razine zemljane povrsine. Brdo Selnice (k 263 m) uzdize se iznad polja sa ostacima rimske ceste, sacinjeno je od kamena vapnenca i posumljeno. Pri vrhu su vidljivi opsezni tragovi nekadasnjeg vadenja kamena vapnenca. Cini se da je bas taj kamen koristen i za izgradnju ove ceste, a takve prilike slikovite su i za druge krajeve Europe (CHEVALIER 1997, 111; PAHIC 1964/ 5, 310). Odredeno je 9 slojeva koji sacinjavaju cestu. Cesta nije gradena posve pravilno i uocljive su mnoge nestalnosti u njezinom uslojenju. Vjerojatno cesta od svojeg pocetka nije gradena posve pravilno, ft je gradena ubrzano tako da nisu pratacena i postovana pravila izgradnje. U pravilu su prilikom gradnje rimskih cesta osnovnacetiri slqja: siatumen, nidus, nucleus i summum dorsum, a prema mjesnim prilikama odreduje se koji ce materijali, debljine i raspored slojeva biti koristeni. Za usporedbu je korisno pregledati razlicite presjeke nekih istrazenih rimskih cesta (CHEVALIER 1997, 110, 111; QUILICI 1990, 27; PAHIC 1964/5; PATSCH 1997; PATSCH 1996.). Kao prvi cestovni sloj nasipan je tanki nanos smedecrvenkastog sljunka (S 4) koji je vjerojatno donesen s rijeke Bednje. To je sloj ciscenja terena i preduvjet podloge. Zatim je navozen drukciji sloj sljunka kojim se nivelirao teren i dobila cvrsta podloga za cestu (S 3). Nakon toga slijed gradnje nije najjasnije definiran. Da li je ovaj sloj neko

unexcavated section of road in order to provide better access to the damaged part of the site. It was soon established that the structure was a Roman road. The road was constructed of various layers of gravel and broken limestone further bonded by mortar. Along the western part of the road a large area was opened to check for a possible Roman gravesite. Nothing was found there with all ceramic finds appearing for the most part along the edges of the road. On both sides of the road, whose 4.20 metres width is constructed of tamped stone and mortar, there are embankments of sand about 1 to 2 metres wide. These embankments are difficult to follow as the fine sand has mixed with the surrounding soil making it impossible to define firm boundaries of the entire complex. The Roman road was penetrated by an exploratory trench 1.20 m wide, 1 m deep and 6 m long in order to get a cross-section of its construction. Both visible road sections were documented with sketches. Finally an excavator using a 2 m wide shovel dug a control trench to a depth of almost 2 m from the present day elevation of the ploughed fields, across the entire breadth of the new bypass - around 10 metres. Nothing was found in this exploratory trench, located about 10 metres west of the Roman road and fieldwork on the Roman road sondage was closed. FEATURES Part of the Roman road was damaged during construction works. Our rescue archaeology works were focused on the route of the bypass, and we succeeded in uncovering an undamaged part of the road on the southern side, outside of the bypass route on an area foreseen for a drainage ditch. At that section we established that the upper surface of the Roman road was located at a depth of only about 20 cm from the present-day ground level. The Selnice Hill (elev. 263 m) rises above the field containing the remains of the Roman road, is composed of limestone and covered in forest. Near the top there are many traces of a former limestone quarry. It appears that it was this stone that was used for the construction of the road, the use of local materials for the construction of Roman roads being typical also to other parts of Europe (CHEVALIER 1997, 111; PAHIC 1964/5, 310). It was established that the road consisted of 9 layers. The road was not constructed altogether regularly and many inconsistencies can be made out in its layering. It is likely that the road from its start was not constructed uniformly, or that it was built quickly so that the rules of construction were not followed. As a rule there are four basic layers used when constructing Roman roads: the statwmen, rudus, nucleus and summum dorsum, with the materials to be used, thicknesses and ordering of the layers designated based on local availability. As a comparison it is useful to review various crosssections of already researched Roman roads (CHEVALIER 1997, 110, 111; QUILICI 1990,

Pogled na isje~ak presjeka rimske ceste. A view of a segment of the cross-section of the Roman road.

vrijeme koristen kao vozna povrsina i bio popravljan drugim nepravilno uslojenim materijalimaflije rijec o vise-manje stihijskom navozenju materijala (S 9, 2...), ostaje pitanje. Zabiljezili smo i sporadicne nalaze lomljenih tegula i rimskih opeka u tim slojevima. Ipak, nakon toga, promatrajuci vise slojeve, ocigledno je da je krajnji sloj ucvrscen vapnom. Da li je rijec o pravom vapnuflije to mrvljen kamen vapnenac koji je utjecajem atmosferilija poprimio svojstva cvrstog vapnenog sloja, ostaje otvoreno. Vrlo cvrst i zbijen vapneni sloj poznat je i s dragih cesta (CHEVALIER 1997, 112; QUILICI 1990, 27). Nalazi se (S 1) pravilno utemeljen na sloju ponovno nasipanom crvenkastim sitnim sljunkom. U taj najcvrsci i najvisi sloj bilo je ugradeno, odnosno usidreno nepravilno kamenje kojim je cesta nekad bila poplocena. Lijep primjer ceste poplocane nepravilnim kamenjem raznih velicina sacuvan je u Wheeldale Moora, Yorkshire, Engleska. I ta cesta je uslojena u 9 razina i smatra se da je rijec o tri popravka trase (SCULLAED 1994, 138, 139). Patch je kod Narone kopao rimske ceste na nekoliko mjesta, te je registrirao vrlo slicno stanje. U njegovoj sondi 1, taj najvisi sloj bio je nacinjen od gusto slozenoga grabog kamena, velicine do dvostrake sake (PATSCH 1996, 39). Pronadena su samo 4 komada takvog kamenja. Ostali su odneseni vremenom i posebice oranjem polja koja su se nalazila nad rimskom cestom. Zanimljiv je i sloj popravljanja u profflu 1. Vjerojatno je posrijedi udarna rupa koja je zapunjena sljunkom (S 3). Cvrsti, kamenom poplocan dio ceste u torn slucaju bio je rezerviran za promet zapreznim Mima. Sirina zbijenog dijela ceste u nasem slucaju je oko 4,20 m, a cini se da su pjescane piste s obje strane ceste iznosile oko 2 m. Dakle, vjerojatno je rijec o oko 8 m povrsine predvidene za promet. Quilici navodi najceseu sirinu od 4,1 m zbijenog

27; PAHIC 1964/5; PATSCH 1997; PATSCH 1996). The roads first layer is a thin layer of brownishred gravel (S 4) most likely transported from the River Bednja. This is a terrain-clearing layer and a prerequisite for the base. A different type of gravel was then superimposed that levelled out the terrain and created a firm base for the road (S 3). The order of construction is not clearly defined from this point on. Whether this layer was used for a time as a road and repaired with other irregularly lay ered materials or whether there was a more or less unorganised layering of material (S 9, 2...), remains unknown. We noted sporadic finds of broken roof tiles and Roman bricks in these layers. Neverthe less, after that, observing the higher layers, it is ob vious that the final layer was reinforced with mor tar. Whether this is real mortar or crushed lime stone that has under the influence of weathering factors taken on the characteristics of a firm layer of mortar, remains unknown. A very firm and com pacted mortar layer is known from other roads (CHEVALIER 1997, 112; QUILICI 1990, 27). Layer S 1 is uniformly founded on a layer of superimposed fine reddish gravel. Built into, or rather anchored into, this firmest and highest layer are irregular stones with which the road was once paved. A nice example of a road paved with irregular stones of varying sizes is preserved in Wheeldale Moor, Yorkshire, England. This road too was layered in 9 levels - it is held that these are three repairs of the route (SCULLARD 1994, 138, 139). Patsch dug Roman roads at several locations near Narona and registered very similar situations. In his trench 1, this top layer was made of densely arranged rough stone, up to the size of a double fist (PATSCH 1996, 39). Only four such pieces of stone were located. The rest have been removed over time, especially by the ploughing of the fields

sloja za promet zapreznih kola, te sa svake strane po 3 m prostora za kretanje pjesaka. To iznosi oko 10 m sirine prosjecne rimske ceste (QUILICI 1990, 29, 30). Uz cestu, s obje strane, nalazili su se pjescani nasipi (piste), koji su sluzili za prolaz konjanika i pjesaka. Takve pjescane piste vec su prepoznate na stanovitim iskopavanjima rimskih cesta (CHEVALIER 1997, 114; PATSCH 1997, 27). Prave mjere nasipa nisu mogle biti ustanovljene, jer se nasip jos u doba koristenja ceste ispirao, te bio ponovno navozen, sigurno u vise navrata. Njegove granice odredene su samo prema postocima zastupljenosti pijeska u zemlji. Nisu pronadeni tragovi jarka uz cestu, pa se moze pretpostaviti da ga na ovom dijelu ceste nije bilo. Doduse, jarci uz ceste i nisu obavezni, a razlikuju se oni uz samu cestu, za vodoodvodnju te oni udaljeni dvadesetak metara od same ceste. Potonji su sluzili za obranu od zasjeda, a prostor do njih bio je prohodan, te u nekim slucajevima nasipan pijeskom

located on the Roman road. The repair layer in sec tion 1 is interesting. It is likely a pot hole filled with gravel (S 3). The firm, stone paved, part of the road was in this case reserved for cart traffic. The width of the compacted part of the road in our case is around 4.20 m, and it appears that the sand runways on both sides of the road were about 2 m wide. There fore, there was likely about 8 m of surface foreseen for traffic. Quilici cites a most frequent width of 4.1 m for the compacted area for traffic and a further 3 m on each side for pedestrians. That comes out to about 10 m width for an average Roman road (QUILICI 1990, 29, 30). Along the road, on both sides, there were sand embankments (runways) that served for the pas sage of mounted riders and pedestrians. Sand run ways of this sort have already been observed on excavations of Roman roads (CHEVALIER 1997, 114; PATSCH 1997, 27). The exact dimensions of the embankments could not be ascertained as the

Pogled na ostatke rimske ceste i proboj. A view of the remains of the Roman road and the breach.

kao vec spomenute piste (CHEVALIER 1997, 114). Izgleda da je cesta na ovom dijelu bila uzdignuta iznad tadasnje razine terena. Pahic u okolici Ptuja izvjestava kako je u vecini primjera rijec o uzdignutim cestama, i to ne samo u dolinama vec i na obrezjima brda (Pusenci, Godeninci, PAHIC 1965, 310).

embankment was, while still in use, washed away and repaired, certainly on several occasions. Its outer borders were determined only based on the percentage of sand in the soil. Traces of a ditch along the road were not found so that it may be assumed that there was no ditch on this part of the road. Roadside ditches were not mandatory and vary in type, from those beside the road for water drainage to those some twenty metres

POKRETNI NALAZI
S obzirom na karakter nalazista i dimenzije sonde, bilo je zacudujuce mnogo sitnih nalaza: mnostvo ulomaka raznovrsnih keramickih posuda, tegula, dijelovi staklene zdjelice, zeljezni cavli te - sto je posebno zanimljivo - dva rimska novca nadena u vapnu koje je koristeno za gradnju ceste. 2 Vecina nalaza potjece iz prostora neposredno uz cestu, tako da je nadena u sastavu pjescanih nasipa koji su se nalazili s obje strane. Dakle, rijec je o predmetima odbacenim uz kraj ceste. Neki nalazi pronadeni su i malo dalje od rimske ceste, razbacani po polju ili su se nalazili na dubini od 20 do 30 cm, u obliku malih skupina vrlo usitnjenih komada razne keramike. S obzirom na raspored till skupina u zemlji, vjerojatno je rijec o nalazima koji su ispiranjem kisa dospjeli u nekadasnje rovove nastale oranjem, pa su bili kasnije zatrpani.

from the road. The latter were used to defend from ambush, with the area up to them being clear and in some cases covered in sand like the already men tioned runways (CHEVALIER 1997, 114). It appears that the road at this section was raised above the ground level of the time. Pahic reports that most of the roads in the Ptuj area were raised, not only in valleys but also on hillsides (Pusenci, Godeninci, PAHIC 1965, 310).

SMALL FINDS
Given the character of the site and the size of the trench, there were a surprisingly large number of small finds: numerous shards of varied ceramic ves sels, roof tiles, parts of glass bowls, iron nails and which is particularly noteworthy - two Roman coins found in the mortar used in the construction of the road.2 Most of the finds come from the area in the direct vicinity of the road, found in the sand em bankments located on both sides. These are, there fore, objects discarded at the roadside. Some finds were found a little further on from the Roman road, dispersed across the field or located at a depth of about 20 to 30 cm, in the form of small groups of finely fragmented pieces of varied ceramic objects. Given the distribution of these groups in the soil it is likely that these finds were washed by rainfall into the troughs created in the past by ploughing and later covered by soil.

Keramicki nalazi
Medu mnogobrojnim ulomcima sive, dobro prociscene keramike, izdvajaju se dva ulomka gotovo jednake grade T l - 2 . i Tl-16, ali najvjerojatnije nisu dijelovi iste posude. Prvi ulomak je obod nekog veceg lonca, a u drugi rucka nekog jednorukog vrca ili mozda kantarosa. Oba primjerka ocituju izrazito kasnolatensku tradiciju, ali su proizvodnje ranorimskog razdoblja. Bojena keramika zastupljena je sa cetiri primjerka patvorine sigilate, ali rijec je o vrlo losim pokusajima. Prvi ulomak T l - 5 pripadao je crveno obojenoj zdjelici kakva je, gotovo j e d n a k a , pronadena u grobu 24 u Gornjoj Vasi (GREGL 1997, k.br. 77), te grobu 122 iz Beletova vrta u Novome Mestu (KNEZ 1992, T.45-6). Ulomak Tl-4 a mozda i Tl-6 vjerojatno su pripadali loncima fine grade s veoma razgrnutim rubovima, kakvi su takoder poznati s Gornje Vasi (GREGL 1997, k.br 40, 69, 70). Samo dijelovi sirokog tanjura kvalitetne izrade Tl-12 pripadaju pravoj terri sigilati. Kod njega se fini premaz nalazi samo na vidljivim dijelovima posude, dakle nije ga bilo na dnu i na unutrasnjoj strani noge. Vrlo je neobicno da ovaj tanjur ima nogu visu od gornjeg ruba - oboda, te da se noga nalazi blizu ruba tanjura. Keramika s metlicastim ukrasom mjesnog je postanka. Obicno je nacinjena od slabije prociscene zemlje, te pecena u razlicitim bojama, ali je kvaliteta pecenja uglavnom tako dobra, da su posude dosta cvrste. Na nasim primjercima nalazimo cetiri razlicita nacina ukrasavanja. Ulomak T l - 1 4 ima plitko urezan cik-cak ukras, koji je inace cest na urnama C tipa, prema Vikic-Belancic (VIKIC-BELANCIC 1975/6, 25 - 54). Ulomak T l - 1 7 pripada malo starijoj tradiciji jer ima okomito ugreben ukras, koji

Ceramic Finds
Among the numerous sherds of grey, well-refined ceramic, two sherds of almost identical structure stand out, T l - 2 and Tl-16, but are probably not parts of the same vessel. The first sherd is the rim of a larger pot, while the second is the handle of a single-handled jug or perhaps a Kantaros. Both specimens reveal strong late La Tene traditions, but are products of the early Roman period. Coloured ceramics are represented by four speci mens of very poor attempts at imitating sigillata. The first sherd, T l - 5 , was part of a red-coloured bowl like that, almost identical, found in grave 24 at Gornja Vas (GREGL 1997, k.br. 77), and at grave 122 in Belets garden in Novo Mesto (KNEZ 1992, T.45-6). Sherd T l - 4 and perhaps also T l - 6 prob ably were parts of finely structured pots with very flared rims, like those known from Gornja Vas (GREGL 1997, k.br. 40, 69, 70). Only parts of a wide dish of good production Tl-12 are true terra sigillata. On this piece there is a fine slip only on the visible parts of the vessel, that is to say there was none on the bottom and inside of the feet. It is very unusual that this dish has a foot higher than the upper edge - rim, and

2 Uzgred spominjemo i nalaz nekoliko komada odbitaka od kvalitetnijeg roznjaka, od kojilije jedan vjerojatno sluzio kao priru&ia alatka Oni su uglamom pronadeni u sloJCTimasljuiAa rimskeeestefli uz trasu. U vrijeme istrazivanjaeeste nismo bui svjesni kako je u blizmi i nalaziste DiO neobicnog Sigilatnog pladnja. lasinjske kulture, o eemu je rijee u prilogu Gromaee 2. /j1 _12) The finding of severalflakesof goodflintshould be mentioned in passing, ofwhich one probably served as a hand tool They werefound mostly in the gravel Pa t f unusual sigillata platter layers of the Roman road or along the route. During the excavation we were not aware that a Lasinja culture site was located . (T1-12). mention in the section covering Groma/je 2.

10

Ulomak oboda lonca. (T1-1). Jar rim sherd. (T1-1).

Rekonstruirana kasnoanti~ka zdjelica. (T1-10). A reconstructed late Roman period bowl. (T1-10).

je vjerojatno prekrivao cijelu posudu. Ulomak Tl20 ukrasen je uglavnom povlacenjem vodoravnih crta, ali su mjestimice postavljeni ukrasi koji sijeku crte okomito. Na kraju ulomak Tl-18 na sacuvanom dijelu ima samo vodoravan ukras. S obzirom da su nasi ulomci relativno mali, ne mogu se najtocnije datirati, no vjerojatno je da su pripadali posudama iz 1. i 2. stoljeca. Ukrasi, oblici a vjerojatno i tehnika izradnje potjecu iz iliro-keltske bastine, ali su u antickoj keramografiji ostali do kraja tog doba. Keramika s ocaklinom svoj je najveci procvat dosegla u 3. i 4.stoljeeu. Prilikom dugogodisnjih iskopavanja u Varazdinskim Toplicama (VIKICBELANCIC, GORENC 1958, 110) pronadeno je vise posuda koje su, poput dna naseg primjerka, bfle ukrasene postojanom i debelom ocaklinom smede (Tl-22) ili zelenkaste boje. Nije sigurno kakvoj je posudi pripadao ulomak Tl-8. Mozda je rijec o posudi koja je imala dvije iznad ruba uzdignute usice, koje su sluzile za ovjes iznad vatre. No, ulomak je mogao pripadati i veoma zatvorenom loncu. S obzirom na nacin izrade, ovu posudu mozda mozemo datirati u doba kasne antike. Grubo je izradena zdjelica Tl-10, s primjesama mrvljenog kamena, koju bi takoder trebalo datirati u doba kasne antike. Uglavnom se moze uvrstiti medu zdjelice tipa 3 prema Cigleneckom (CIGLENECKI 2000, sl.79), te jqj se takvqj mogu naci brojne usporedbe na kasnoantickim nalazistima. Ulomak Tl-9 mogao je pripadati obodu tanjura, ali i zdjelici sto je, s obzirom na njegove dimenzije, tesko zakljuciti. Ulomak Tl-11 mogao je takoder pripadati tanjuru, ili pak veoma razvracenom obodu zdjele. Na Tl-15 prikazan je najzanimljiviji komad pronaden prilikom ovih istrazivanja. S obzirom na polozaj dijelova posude, uocljivo je da je posuda bila razbijena prije gradnje obilaznice, a njezini dijelovi lezali su okupljeni na prostora od 1 m2. U gradi ove posude gotovo je vise primjesa drobljenih kamencica nego same gline. Rijec je o nekoj vrsti dolije, odnosno kasnoantickoj inacici, kakva se u vrlo I gruboj izradi, f s mnogo pri mjesa, ukrasena valovnicom i r vodoravnim crtama, pronalazi na nekim visinskim kasnoantickim pribjezistima. Mozda najbliza usporedba je s nalazima s Rifnika i Tinja (CIGLENECKI 2000, sl.84-1, donekle sl.83-10; t.24-5). Preostali ulomci Tl-1,3 proizvod su kasne antike ili mozda ranog srednjeg vijeka. Metalni nalazi Od metalnih predmeta prepoznatljivi su samo

that the leg is located near the plates edge. Brushed surface ceramics are of local origin. They are commonly manufactured from less refined soil and baked in various colours. The quality of the baking is mostly very good so that the vessels are quite firm. There are four different kinds of decora tion on our specimens. Sherd Tl-14 has a shallow engraved zigzag decoration, otherwise quite frequent on C type urns according to Yikic-Belancic (VIE3CBELANCIC1975/6, 25 - 54). Sherd Tl-17 comes from a slightly older tradition as it has verticallyplaced etched decorations that likely covered the entire vessel. Sherd Tl-20 was decorated for the most part by drawing horizontal lines, but there are also in places decorations that cut the lines verti cally. Finally, sherd Tl-18 has on the preserved part only horizontal decoration. Considering that our sherds are relatively small they cannot be dated precisely but it is likely that they were parts of ves sels from the 1st and 2nd centuries. The decora tions, shapes and probably the technique of manu facture originate from the Elyro-Celtic heritage but remained in use in Roman ceramography to the end of that period. Glazed ceramic saw its peak in the 3rd and 4th centuries. Long-term excavations at Varazdinske Toplice (VIFJC-BELANCIC, GORENC 1958, 110) unearthed several vessels that, like our speci mens, were decorated by a lasting, thick glaze of brown (Tl-22) or greenish colour. It is not certain of what kind of vessel sherd Tl8 was a part of. Perhaps it was a vessel that had two lugs raised above its edge that served to hang it over a fire. It could also have been part of a jar with a closed-in rim. Given the method of manufacture we can date this vessel to the late Roman period. Bowl Tl-10 is of rough construction and tem pered with crushed stone and should also be dated to the late Roman period. For the most part it can be counted among type 3 bowls according to Ciglenecki (CIGLENECKI 2000, sl.79), and as such many comparative examples can be found in late Roman sites. Sherd Tl-9 may have been part of the rim of a dish or of a bowl, but it is difficult to be certain based on its size. Sherd Tl-11 may also have been part of a dish or the very flared rim of a bowl. At Tl-15 the most interesting piece found dur ing this excavation is shown. Given the position of the fragments, it is evident that the vessel was bro ken prior to the construction of the bypass - its parts were compactly strewn in a space of 1 m2. The structure of this vessel contains almost more crushed pebble than clay. This is some kind of Dolium, or a late Roman period version like those found, of rough manufacture with a high percent age of temper, decorated by wavy and horizontal lines, at some high-elevation late Roman period refugium. Perhaps the closest comparison can be made to the finds of Rifnik and Tinj (CIGLENECKI 2000, sl.84-1, to some extent sl.83-10; t.24-5).

vrlo korodirani zeljezni cavli, po svom obliku tipicni za rimsko doba, te novae. Novci su za razliku od ostalih nalaza pronadeni u gradi same ceste. 1. Domicijan, sestercij, kovan u Rimu 86. godine. PN2. avers [IMP CAES DOMIT AVG] GERM COS XII [CENS PER PP] Poprsje cara nadesno, ovjencan. revers [IOVI / VICTORI] SC Jupiter gol do pasa, sjedi nalijevo, drzi Viktoriju na ispruzenoj desnoj ruci i okomiti skeptar u lijevoj raci. BMC RE 11/373; RIC 313. 2. Marko Aurelije, denar,3 kovan u Rimu od 179. do 180. godine. PN1. avers [ANT / ONINVS] Poprsje cara nadesno, ovjencan, u plastu i oklopu. revers [TRPXXXIIII.IMP / X] COS HI PP Viktorija s krilima u plastu stoji nalijevo na kugli. Drzi vijenac u ispruzenoj desnoj ruci, lijeva s trofejem okomito. BMC RE IV/808; RIC III/411. Novae PN1 pronaden je u sloju 5, dok je novae PN2 pronaden u najvisem (najmladem) 1. sloju ceste. To nas upueuje na zakljucak kako je cesta gradena ili obnavljana u barem dva razlicita razdoblja, potkraj prvog (Domicijan) i potkraj 2. stoljeca (Marko Aurelije). Prilikom istrazivanja anticke vile blizu Jalzabeta (Varazdin), u tri sonde pronadeni su ostaci rimske ceste. Zanimljivo je da je u dvije sonde (broj 9 i 11), u samoj gradi ceste, pronaden po jedan rimski novae. U sondi 11, rijec je o novcu Klaudija Gotika (268-270.g), pronadenom u temeljnom sloju kamena lomljenca ceste na dubini od oko 60 centimetara. U sondi 9 je pak rijec o novcu Valentinijana (364-375.g), pronadenom u gornjem sloju valuca ceste na dubini od 40 do 80 centimetara. Unatoc dubinama, treba napomenuti da sloj kamena lomljenca prethodi sljunkovitom sloju i cini njegovo temeljenje ili stariji hodni sloj. Na osnovi till nalaza datirana je izgradnja ceste na tome mjestu (VIE3C-BELANCIC1968, 76, 82, T.IV-1; VIKIC, GORENC 1969, 9). Prilikom istrazivanja rimskog naselja u Petrijancu pokraj Varazdina, u sondi B pronadena je rimska cesta (SARIC1977, s.50,51). Kopanjem proflla ustanovljeno je vise slojeva ceste, a u sloju utisnutog lomljenog kamena, pronaden je broncani novae Licinija (308-324.g). I u sastavu rimske ceste kod Narone, u sondi 5, pronaden je novae. Nalazio se u u visim slojevima ceste, a rijec je o Vespazijanovu zlatniku iz 79.godine. Prema tome podatku, Patsch izvlaci zakljucak kako je cesta popravljana vec oko 100. g (PATSCH 1996, 41).

The remaining sherds Tl-1,3 are products of the late Roman or possibly the early medieval pe riod. Metal Finds Of metal objects only highly corroded iron nails, by their shape typical of the Roman era, and coins are identifiable. Unlike the otherfindsthe coins were found within the very structure of the road. 1. Domitian, sestertius, minted in Rome in the year 86. PN2. avers [IMP CAES DOMIT AVG] GERM COS XII [CENS PER PP] Bust of the Emperor facing right, laureate. revers [IOVI / VICTORI] SC Jupiter naked to the waist, seated, facing left, holding Victory in extended right hand and vertical sceptre in left hand. BMC RE 11/373; RIC 313. 2. Marcus Aurelius, denarius,3 minted in Rome from the year 179 to 180. PN1. avers [ANT / ONINVS] Bust of the Emperor facing right, laureate, bear ing mantle and armour. revers [TRPXXXIIII.IMP / X] COS HI PP Winged Victoria bearing mantle standing to the left on a sphere. Holding a wreath in extended right hand, left bearing a trophy vertical. BMC RE IV/808; RIC IH/411. The coin PN1 was found in layer 5 while coin PN2 was found in the highest (youngest) 1st layer in the road. This leads us to the conclusion that the road was constructed or repaired in at least two different periods, at the end of the 1st (Domitian) and 2nd centuries (Marcus Aurelius). During the exploration of a Roman period villa near Jalzabet (Varazdin) three trenches revealed remains of a Roman road. What is interesting is that a coin was found in each of two of the trenches (no. 9 and 11) within the structure of the road itself. In trench 11 the coin was of Claudius Gothicus (year 268-270) found in the roads foundation layer of broken stone at a depth of about 60 centimetres. In trench 9 the coin was of Valentinianus (year 364375) found in the pebbled upper layer at a depth of 40 to 80 centimetres. Despite the depth, it should be noted that the layer of broken rock precedes the gravel layer and forms its foundation or older occu pational layer. The roads construction at this loca tion was dated based on these finds (VIKTCBELANCIC 1968, 76, 82, T.IV-1; VIKIC, GORENC 1969, 9). During the exploration of a Roman settlement in Petrijanci near Varazdin, trench B revealed a Roman road (SARIC 1977, pgs.50,51). Excavation of a section revealed sev-

11

Avers i revers Domicijanova sestercija. PN2. Avers and revers of a Domitian sestertius. PN2.

Revers novca kasnog 2.st. s prikazom Viktorije. PN1. Revers of a coin from the late 2nd century with depiction of Victoria. PN1.

' Novae bas i nije pravi denar Sni se da je zapravo samo presvu&n srebrom. No; takvi slueajevi poznati su i u literaturi kao limes denari. S obzirom na slabu oeuvanost ovog primjerka, nije posve sigumo da je rijec o Marku Aureliju, ali je s obzirom na tip reversa, najslieniji njegovima kovovimaE^o god bilo, rijec je o nekom od vladara kasnog 2.stoljeea. The coin is not exactly a true denarius and appears only to have been coated with silver Cases like these are however known in literature as limes denari. Given that the coin is poorly preserved it is not altogether certain that the depiction is of Marcus Aurelius, but is, given the revers, most similar to his mints. In any event it is from some late 2nd century ruler

12

Ove podudarnosti nalaza novca ugradenoga u same slojeve ceste svakako su znakovite, s obzirom da u gradi nase ceste, osim dva novca, nisu otkriveni nikakvi drugi nalazi (ulomci posuda ili slicno). Nalazi kalcificiranih grancica i ugljena ispod prvog sloja izuzeti su kako bi se podvrgli 14C ispitivanju, u nadi kako ce se datirati vrijeme probijanja trase ceste. Takvo datiranje izgradnje trase ceste probijene kroz podrucje zarasteno drvecem i grmljem uspjelo je francuskim arheolozima na Agrippinoj cesti od Lyona prema Saintesu (CHEVALIER R. 1997, 112). Ishodl4C uzorka uputio nas je na otprilike 3.st.pr.Kr. (231 96 cal BC)4, tako da bi trebalo ove organske ostatke radije pripisati prirodnom uslojavanju, a ne prvim tragovima trasiranja ceste, premda se ni ta pretpostavka ne smije iskljuciti. Stakleni nalazi Prilikom iskopavanja pronadena je - s obzirom na boju, oblik, debljinu i ostalo - najvjerojatnije jedna posuda. Na tabli je prikazan jedan karakteristican ulomak (Tl-21), koji pripada rabu zdjelice od prozirnog stakla u blago zelenkastom tonu. Opcenito su slicne staklene zdjelice ceste i datiraju se u siroko razdoblje od 1. do 4.stoljeca. ZAKLJUCAK Istrazivanje je pokazalo da je Vikic-Belancic ispravno utvrdila polozaj rimskog juznog puta od Novog Marofa do Varazdinskih Toplica preko Gromaca, jos 1961.g., ako zanemarimo spomen Koscevca (VIKIC-BELANCIC 1961, 47; VIE3C, GORENC 1969, 14). Naime, tocan polozaj ove rimske ceste dosad nije bio poznat, tako da je otkrice kao fizicki dokaz same trase koristan prilog utvrdivanju znanja o povijesti Aquae Iasae (danasnje Varazdinske Toplice). Smjer, koji bi iz

eral layers in the road. A bronze coin of Licinius (year 308-324) was found in the layer of tamped broken stone. A coin was also found within the struc ture of the Roman road at Narona, in trench 5. It was located in the upper layers of the road. The gold coin was of Vespasian from the year 79. Based on this data Patsch concluded that the road was repaired around the year 100 (PATSCH 1996, 41). These corresponding finds of coins built into the roads layers are certainly significant, considering that in the structure of our road, besides the two coins, no other finds were unearthed (potsherds or the like). Finds of calcified branches and charcoal under the first layer were removed for C14 testing in the hope that they might date the initial ground clear ing on the roads route. A dating like this of a road constructed through an area overgrown with trees and bushes was used successfully by French archae ologists on the Via Agrippa from Lyon to Saintes (CHEVALIER R. 1997, 112). The results of the samples C14 dating points to about the 3rd cen tury BC (231 96 cal BC)4, so that these organic remains should sooner be attributed to natural layer ing, and not to the initial tracing of the roads route, even though this possibility should not be ruled out. Glass Finds Given the colour, shape and other attributes of the located fragments a single vessel was most likely located during the excavation. The table shows a characteristic shard (Tl-21) that comes from the rim of a bowl of light greenish toned transparent glass. Similar glass bowls are frequent and are gen erally dated to a wide period from the 1st to 4th centuries. CONCLUSION The excavation showed that Vikic-Belancic was correct in establishing the position of the Roman southern route from Novi Marof to Varazdinske Toplice by way of Gromace, back in 1961, if we ignore the mentioning of Koscevac (VIKICBELANCIC 1961, 47; VIFJC, GORENC 1969, 14). The exact position of this Roman road, namely, was unknown up to now so that the discovery, as a physical proof of the route itself, is a useful contri bution to establishing our knowledge of the history of Aquae Iasae (present day Varazdinske Toplice). Unlike the northern direction towards Aquae Viva and Populus, the direction of the route that would lead southwards from this Roman settlement was not studied by other authors (KLEMENC-SARIA 1936, KLEMENC 1953, FULIR 1970). A Ro man period cemetery was not located along the ex plored part of the Roman road; it should, perhaps, be sought closer to the settlement. Indeed, archaeological literature mentions in passing the finding of Roman period graves at the

Pogled na rimsku cestu. A view of the Roman road.

AMS-14C dataeija izradena je na Centrum voor Isotopen Onderzoek, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen (GrA-23356, BP 2155 + 40). Skraeena kalibraeija putem CalPal Online Radiocarbon Calibration izradena na Sveuaistu u Kolnu. AMS-14C dating was done at the Centrum voor Isotopen Onderzoek, Rijksuniversiteit Groninge using CalPal Online Radiocarbon Calibration done at the University ofKoln.

13

ovog rimskog naselja vodio prema jugu, drugi autori Gromace position, but this toponym is used vari Juzni i sjeverni profil rimske ceste. 1Cvrsto nabijen sloj gusce rasporedenog nisu proucali, za razliku od sjevernog smjera prema ably by the local inhabitants today to designate the vapnenackog kamena promjera do 5cm Aquae Viva i Populusu (KLEMENC-SAEIA 1936, entire area of the eastern slopes of Selnice all the rezan vapnom bez primjesa. 2- Cvrsto KLEMENC 1953, FULIR 1970). Anticko groblje way to the River Bednja so that the exact location of nabijen sloj rjede rasporedenog nije pronadeno uz istrazen dio rimske ceste; mozda these graves is today unknown. All written data vapnenackog kamena promjera do 4cm rezan vapnom bez primjesa. 3- Cvrsto ga treba traziti blize naselju. on an Roman necropolis are only carried over nabijen sloj sljunka sivoplavicaste boje Doduse, u arheoloskoj literaturi uzgred se (VIKIC-BELANCIC 1961, 49; VIKIC- promjera 0,5 do 2 cm vezan s manje spominju pronalasci antickih grobova na polozaju BELANCIC 1972/3, 75), without stating the loca- vapna. 4- Cvrsto nabijen sloj zemlje Gromace, ali tim toponimom domaci ljudi danas tion and are based on data recorded by Ivan Tkalcic smedecrvenkaste boje mijesan s kamencicima sitnije granulacije. 5- Sloj razlicito oznacavaju sav prostor istocnih obronaka back in 1869. The gravesite was found by the Irish pjescane zemlje zuckasto oker boje s Selnice sve do rijeke Bednje, pa je tocan polozaj tih Count Karlo McDonell andlvan Kukuljevic in 1867 primjesama sitnog sljunka. 6- Sloj ciste grobova danas nepoznat. Svi pisani podaci o and since this data is to this day considered valid, I zemlje tamno smede boje, zdravica. 7antickoj nekropoli samo se prenose (VIKIC- give here Tkalcic's report of their discovery: From Sloj zemlje zuckasto oker boje s primjesama pijeska. 8- Cvrsto nabijeni BELANCIC 1961, 49; VIKIC-BELANCIC1972/ here (the centre of Toplice) they made their way to sloj zemlje tamno smede boje gusto 3, 75), bez navodenja polozaja i temelje se na the Gromacefield,about ofan hourfrom the place, mijesane s vapnenackim kamenjem podacima koje je zabiljezio jos Ivan Tkalcic because people had said that their were ruins there. promjera do 5 cm. 9- Sloj vapna s vrlo 1869.godine. Groblje su pronasli irski grof Karlo They had not dug up the entire field as corn was malo primjesa sitnog sljunka. A- Kamen vapnenac. McDonell ilvan Kukuljevic 1867.g., a s obzirom da growing on it, but from what had been unearthed, The southern and northern section of se ti podaci do danas smatraju valjanim, navodima they discovered that there had once been a Roman Roman road. 1- Hard-packed layer of the Tkalcicevo izvjesce o njihovima otkricima: Odavde cemetery there, and from the graves, teeming with densely arranged limestone up to 5cm in (srediste Toplica) zaputili se u polje Gromacu, scorched human bones and broken bricks, jugs, oil diameter bonded by untempered mortar. udaljeno 1/4 sata od mjesta, jer su ljudi pripovijedali, lamps and glass, they concluded that this eternal 2- Hard-packed layer of loosely arranged 4cm in diameter bonded da ondje ima rusevinah. Svega polja prekopali nisu, resting place had been defiled by barbarian hands limestone up tomortar. 3- Hard-packed by untempered jer je kukuruz rasao na njem, nu iz onoga, sto su (TKALCIC 1869, 23). Whether the remains of layer of gravel of grey-blue colour 0.5 to 2 izkopali, pronadjose da je ondje njekocbilo rimsko this necropolis will be found by chance during some cm in diameter bonded by a little mortar. grobje, a iz grobovah, koji vrve izgorjelimi ljudskimifuture construction work in the citys south side or 4- Hard-packed layer of reddish-brown kostmi, zatim satrtimi opekami, vrcevi, uljenicami by some systematic archaeological survey remains a soil mixed with small-granulate pebbles. 5- Layer of sandy soil of yellowish-ochre i staklom, zakljucili su, da je i u taj viecni pocinak, question. Nevertheless, in the archaeological works colour tempered with fine gravel. 6- Layer dirnula barbarska ruka. (TKALCIC 1869, 23). Da related to the bypass in the Gromace area (covering of clean soil of dark brown colour, li ce se na ostatke nekropole naici slucajem prilikom about 1 km2) another Roman period site was un subsoil. 7- Layer of soil of yellowishnekih buducih gradevinskih radova na jugu grada covered. This was not, however, a grave site but ochre tempered with sand. 8- Hardpacked layer of soil of dark brown colour ffi sustavnim arheoloskim pregledima, ostaje pitanje. rather the remains of a villa rustica, to date un densely mixed with limestone up to 5 cm Ipak, slijedom arheoloskih radova u vezi s known to archaeologists. in diameter. 9- Layer of mortar tempered obilaznicom na podrucju Gromaca (prostor velicine The Roman road is located near the present day with very little small-grain gravel. oko l x l kilometar) pronadeno je jos jedno anticko road leading from the centre of Varazdinske Toplice A- Limestone. nalaziste. No, niti ovo nalaziste nije groblje, vec je from the south side. It runs parallel to it from the rijec o ostacima vile rustice, dosada nepoznate southeast to northwest, but with a slight deviation arheolozima. to the west. The distance from the present day road

14 ~

Rimska cesta nalazi se u blizini danasnje ceste prema sredistu VarazdinsMh Toplica s juzne strane. Uglavnom ide paralelno s njom smjerom jugoistok - sjeverozapad, ali s blagim otMonom prema zapadu. Udaljenost od danasnje ceste iznosi pedesetak metara (na zapad), te je postavljena na malo visem polozaju. Godine 2003. provedeno je i geofizikalno istrazivanje, da bi se stekao bolji uvid u smjer i ocuvanost ceste izvan nase sonde, jer ostaci ceste nisu vidljivi u izoranim poljima u okolici. U pet profila potvrden je slijed ceste i ispred i poslije iskopanog dijela. Smjer ceste i prema snimljenim profilima ima blagi otklon od danasnje te dalje prati smjer sjeverozapada.6 Ipak, smatram da je upravo ta cesta u rimsko doba vodila u srediste rimskog naselja Aquae Iasae, a njezin odmak u smjeru Koscevca vezan je uz nastavak trase kroz Varazdinbreg. Sigurno se moze reci da je gradena prije 86. g., sto nam jasno govori nalaz novca iz nizih slojeva ceste. I za gornju granicu imamo vrlo tocan pokazatelj, a to je novae iz 180.g., odnosno kraja 2.stoljeca. Ipak, cesta je koriststena nadalje, a za to moramo uzeti u obzir i keramicke nalaze otkrivene uz nju, kao dokaz da se njome prometovalo i u doba kasne antike te u ranom srednjem vijeku. Najmladi nalazi u vezi sa cestom mogli bi datirati do 12. stoljeca. Nakon tog doba, vjerojatno se trasa ceste premjestila na nize padine brda. Zasto je pravac ceste pomaknut za pedesetak metara istocnije tesko je reci, ali je vjerojatno rijec o nekoj obnovi te komunikacije. Izgradnja novog smjera ceste mozda odgovara dogadajima iz 1181.g., kada je kralj Bela III napokon Zagrebackom kaptolu potvrdio ovaj posjed, ili dogadajima u neko jos kasnije doba (CABRIAN 1973, 15 - 17). Uzgred, primjeri s rimskih cesta u okolici Ptuja govore da su i tamo neke trase napustene u razdoblju oko 13.stoljeca. Doduse, razlozi su mjesne prirode i ne mogu se na jednak nacin prenrjeti na nas slucaj (PAHIC1964/ 5, 317, 318). Ovo kratko i terenski ograniceno zastitno arheolosko istrazivanje ipak je mnogo pridonijelo poznavanju povijesti VarazdinsMh Toplica, i to posebno njezine slavne anticke mijene. Ujedno je iskoristena prilika da se sama cesta, odnosno njezina grada, sto tocnije dokumentira, te je i to koristan prilog buducem proucavanju gradnje rimskih cesta u Hrvatskoj. Doista je zanimljiva okolnost da su upravo Hrvatske autoceste kao investitor sudjelovale u ovom pothvatu istrazivanja jedne rimske ceste koja je u svoje doba imala znacenje danasnje autoceste.

is about fifty metres (to the west), and it is set on a slightly higher position. Geophysical research was carried out in 2003 to get a better insight into the direction and level of preservation of the road out side our trench, as the remains of the road are not visible in the surrounding ploughed fields. Five sections confirmed the roads route before and after the excavated portion. The recorded sections also confirm the roads slight deviation from its contemporary counterpart and has it following the northwest direction.6 I nevertheless feel that it was precisely this road that in the Roman period lead to the centre of the Roman settlement olAquae Iasae, and that its deviation in the direction of Koscevac is related to the continuation of the route through Varazdinbreg. It can with certainty be said that it was built prior to the year 86, this been clearly witnessed by the uncovering of coins in the roads lower layers. We also have a very exact indicator for the upper level, a coin from the year 180, i.e. the end of the 2nd century. Nevertheless, the road was used beyond that date, and in this regard we must take into consideration the ceramic finds discovered in its vicinity it as evidence that traffic moved along it in the late Roman period and during the early middle ages. The youngest finds related to the road could date from the 12th century. After that period the route was probably moved to the hills lower slopes. Why the roads route is offset fifty metres to the east is hard to say, but it probably has something to do with a repair of this road communication. The construction of a new road route may relate to events from 1181 when King Bela III finally confirmed the Zagreb Kaptols possession of the land or events from some earlier period (CABRIAN 1973, 15 17). Incidentally, examples from Roman roads in the Ptuj area indicate that, there too, some routes were abandoned in the period around the 13th century. The reasons, admittedly, were of a local nature and cannot in an identical fashion be transposed to our case (PAHIC 1964/5, 317, 318). This rescue archaeology, of short duration and covering a limited terrain, has nevertheless contributed much to our knowledge of the history of Varazdinske Toplice, especially of its glorious Roman phase. The opportunity was also taken to, as precisely as possible, document the road itself, that is its structure, which is a further useful contribution to the future study of the construction of Roman roads in Croatia. It is a truly remarkable circumstance that the Croatian Motorways Company took part as a financier in this exploration of a Ro-

5 Geofizikalno istrazivanje 29.4.2003.godine proveli su Goran Skelae i Krunoslav Zubeie. U dostavljenom izvjestaju pise: .. Istrazivanje je provedeno georadarom Gssi Sir 2, koristena je antena od 400 mliz, sa vremenskim intervalom od 50 ns, tj do dubine od 2,5 m. Prikazano je 5 radarskili profila na kojima se uoeava jaka anomalija sa pojaeanim vrijednostima koja predstavlja ostatke rimske eeste. Profili pl-p3 prikazuju situaeiju sa jakom superstrukturom (Jake liorizontalne plave linije), koja je reeentna eesta i prilazni put za kamione. Ispod till vrijednosti vidljiva je pojaeana vrijednost u sirini 4-5 m, a to su ostaei rimske eeste. Profili p4-p5 su napravljeni na polozaju na kojem nije bilo veeili reeentnili aktivnosti (livada i oraniea) i na njima je rimska eesta bolje uoeljiva i nalazi se blize povrsini... Geophysical survey done April 29, 2003, by Goran Skelac and Krunoslav Zubcic. The delivered report reads: ...The survey was performed using the Gssi Sir 2 Georadar, using a 400 MHz antenna, at 50 ns intervals, i.e. to a depth of 2.5 m. 5 radar sections a strong anomaly with increased values that represents the remains of the Roman road. Sections p1-p3 show the situation with a strong superstructure (strong horizontal blue lines) that is the contemporary road and access roads for trucks. Incre readings are visible under these at a width of 4-5 m, and t remains ofthe Roman road. Sections p4-p5 were recorded at positions without recent large-scale activity (pastures and plough-fields) and the Roman road is there more discernable and closer to the surface...

15 /

Tloris rimske ceste. Veci dio ceste izgreben je bageram, pa se ukazala grada ceste. Juzno u isjecku je neosteceni dio ceste. Opis slojeva jednak kao za profit Ground plan of the Roman road. A larger part of the road was cleared by a excavator revealing the roads structure. South in the segment is the undamaged part of the road. Description of layers identical to the cross-section.

TLORIS RIMSKE CESTE KOD VARAZDINSKIH TOPLICA

KATALOG TABLA 1- Gromace 1: Slojevi (polozaj uz cestu) / Slucajni nalazi bez konteksta

man road that in its time had the same significance as a modern highway. CATALOGUE TABLE 1- Groma~e 1: Layers (position along the road) / Chance find without context 1- Potsherd manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with numerous pebbles and quartzite. Light brown inside and out, orange at the break. Southwest. 2- Potsherd manufactured on a fast potters wheel, of well-refined clay, of dark grey colour that leaves a mark. Southwest. A part of T1-16? 3- Potsherd manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with numerous pebbles and quartzite. Black inside and out, of brown colour at the break. Chance find. 4- Potsherd manufactured on a fast potters wheel, of well-refined clay, of orange colour that leaves a mark. Traces of red colouring outside? Chance find. 5- Potsherd manufactured on a fast potters wheel, of well-refined clay, of harder fabrication. Light brown inside and out, of light grey colour at the break. Traces

1- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama brojnih kamencica i kvarcita. Izvana i iznutra svijetlo smede, a u prijelomu narancaste boje. Jugozapad. 2- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, dobro prociscene gline, tamno sive boje koja ostavlja trag. Jugozapad. Dio T1-16? 3- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama brojnih sitnih kamencica i kvarcita. Izvana i iznutra crne, a u prijelomu smede boje. Slucajni nalaz. 4- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, dobro prociscene gline, narancaste boje koja ostavlja trag. Izvana tragovi bojenja u crveno?. Slucajni nalaz. 5- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, dobro prociscene gline, tvrde izrade. Izvana i iznutra svijetlo smede, a u prijelomu svijetlo sive boje. Izvana tragovi bojanja u crveno?. Jugoistok. 6- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu,

16

dobro prociscene gline, narancaste boje koja ostavlja trag. Izvana tragovi bojanja u crveno?. Jugoistok. 7- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, dobro prociscene gline, svijetlo narancaste boje koja ostavlja trag. Slucajni nalaz. 8- Ulomak posude izradene na kolu?, s primjesama brojnih sitnih kamencica i kvarcita. Izvana svijetlo smede, u prijelomu erne, a iznutra tamno smede boje. Unutrasnja strana zagladena i s tragovima crnog gara - zapecene hrane?. Mozda je zapravo rijec o veoma zatvorenom obodu. Slucajni nalaz. 9- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama sitnih kamencica tvrde izrade. Narancaste boje Slucajni nalaz 10- Zdjelica izradena na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama mrvljenih kamencica koji se truse. Sive boje. Rekonstruirana. Sjeverozapad. 11- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, dobro prociscene gline, narancaste boje koja ostavlja trag. Izvana tragovi bojenja u crveno?. Mozda je rijec o veoma razvracenom obodu posude. Jugozapad. 12- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, dobro prociscene gline. Narancaste boje koja ostavlja trag, s tragovima svijetlo crvenog premaza na vanjskoj strani. Terra sigilata. Jugozapad. 13- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, dobro prociscene gline, tvrde izrade. Izvana i u prijelomu smede, a iznutra svijetlo smede boje. Ispod oboda nekoliko vodoravnih ureza. Slucajni nalaz. 14- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno?, s primjesama brojnih kamencica i kvarcita, grube izrade. Tamno smede boje s kosim metlicastim ukrasom. Slucajni nalaz. 15- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama vrlo brojnih kamencica i kvarcita koji se truse. Smede do crvenskaste boje. Ukras izveden cesljem. Djelomicno rekonstruirana. Slucajni nalaz. 16- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, dobro prociscene glinctamno sive boje koja ostavlja trag. Jugozapad. Dio Tl-2? 17- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s malo primjesa pijeska. Izvana svijetlo smede, iznutra i u prijelomu tamno sive boje. Izvana pravilni okomiti metlicasti ukras. Slucajni nalaz. 18- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama brojnih sitnih kamencica i kvarcita koji se truse. Izvana i iznutra sivkasto-smede, a u prijelomu sive boje. Izvana vodoravni metlicasti ukras. Slucajni nalaz. 19- Bras od sivog tvrdog kamena pjescenjaka u obliku plocice. Jedna strana lagano istrosena, zamijetljivi zarezi od ostrice na vise mjesta. 20- Ulomak posude izradene na kolu?, s primjesama kamencica i kvarcita, tvrde izrade. Sivkastosmede boje. Izvana vodoravni i okomiti metlicasti ukras. Sjeverozapad. 21- Ulomak posude izradene od svijetlo zelenkastog prozirnog stakla. Sjeverozapad. 22- Ulomak posude izradene na kolu, dobro prociscene gline, tvrde izrade. Sive boje, s tamnosmedom, debelo nanesenom caklinom na vanjskoj strani. Sjeveroistok.

of red colouring outside? Southeast. 6- Potsherd manufactured on a fast potters wheel, of well-refined clay, of orange colour that leaves a mark. Traces of red colouring outside? Southeast. 7- Potsherd manufactured on a fast potters wheel, of well-refined clay, of light orange colour that leaves a mark. Chance find. 8- Potsherd manufactured on a wheel? Tempered with numerous pebbles and quartzite. Light brown outside, black at the break, and of dark brown colour inside. The inside is smoothed and has traces of black charcoal - burnt food? Perhaps actually a very flared rim. Chance find. 9" Potsherd manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with small pebbles of harder fabrication. Orange m colour. Chance find. 10- Bowl manufactured on a fast potters wheel,
tempered with crumbling crushed pebbles. Of grey colour. Reconstructed. Northwest. 11- Potsherd manufactured on a fast potters wheel, of well-refined clay, of orange colour that leaves a mark. Traces of red colouring outside? Perhaps the very flaring rim of some vessel. Southwest. 12- Potsherd manufactured on a fast potters wheel, of well-refined clay, of orange colour that leaves a mark, with traces of light red glazing on the outside. Terra sigillata. Southwest. 13- Potsherd manufactured on a fast potters wheel, of well-refined clay, of harder fabrication. Brown at the break outside, and of light brown colour inside. Several horizontal engravings under the rim. Chance find. 14- Handmade potsherd? Tempered with numer ous pebbles and quartzite, of rough fabrication. Of dark brown colour with diagonal brushed decora tion. Chance find. 15- Potsherd manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with numerous crumbling pebbles and quartzite. Of brown to reddish colour. Comb-im pressed decoration. Partly reconstructed. Chance find.

i6_Potsherd manufactured on a fast potters wheel, of well-refined clay, of dark grey colour that leaves a mark. Southwest. A part of Tl-2? i7- Potsherd manufactured on a fast potters wheel, te d with a little sand. Li ht brown outside; inside and at the break of dark grey colour. Eegolar vertical brush decoration outside. Chance find. 18_ Potsherd manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with numerous crumbling pebbles and quartzite. Greyish-brown inside and out, of grey colour at the break. Horizontal brush decoration outside. Chance find. 19- Small tile-shaped whetstone of hard grey sandstone. One side slightly worn, discernable blade incisions on several spots. 20- Potsherd manufactured on a potters wheel? Tempered with pebbles and quartzite, of harder fabrication. Of greyish-brown colour. Horizontal and vertical brush decoration outside. Northwest. 21- Shard of a vessel made of transparent lightgreenish glass. Northwest. 22- Potsherd manufactured on a potters wheel, of well-refined clay, of harder fabrication. Of grey colour, with a dark brown thickly applied glaze on the outside. Northeast.

Varazdinske Toplice - Gromace 1

-1

GROMACE 21
1!IIH-+ 0 5

Q?^h

PN1

189,76

/h

D02/2003
10

GROMACE 2 KOD VARAZDINSKIH TOPLICA Tragovi obitavanja iz ranog bakrenog doba


Radovi na obilaznici Varazdinskih Tbplica - 2 faza, zapoceli su u travnju 2003.godine. Prvi dio, od same autoceste u dolini Koscevec pa do novog raskrizja kod danasnjega groblja u Toplicama zavrsen je jos 2002.godine. Za drugu fazu predviden je nastavak proboja nove ceste kroz polja juzno od grada sve do istocnog izlaza prema Tuhovcu. Buduca trasa pregledana je u cijeloj duzini nakon iskolcenja, aJi nisu zamijeceni arheoloski nalazi, osim sitnih ulomaka uglavnom novovjeke keramike. Prvo su zapoceli gradevinski radovi na istocnom dijelu ove trase. Kako je rijec uglavnom o ravnoj dolini, izvrseno je samo humusiranje na dubini od dvadesetak centimetara. I ti radovi su nadzirani, ali ni tada nisu zamijeceni nalazi. No, nakon kopanja jaraka za odvodne kanale uz cestu ukazala su se dva zanimljiva mjesta na ovoj trasi. Prvo je nazvano Polje i ovdje predstavljeno u poglavlju (Mala nalazista, a drugo Gromace 2. Kako su gradevinski radovi na izgradnji obilaznice vec zavrsili, nije bilo moguenosti provesti zastitna arheoloska iskopavanja, pa se prislo samo prikupljanju obliznjih nalaza i praznjenju ostecene jame.1 Nalaziste Gromace 2 nalazi se tik uz novo raskrizje obilaznice i stare ceste prema Toplicama. Prema rijecima mjestana, toponim Gromace oznacava blagi obronak brijega Selnica koji se proteze sve do doline Bednje, a zauzima prostor od oko 1 x 1 kilometar. Polozaj Gromace 2 nalazi se priblizno po sredini opisanog podrucja uz ostatak sada suhe i plitke vododerine.
NALAZI

GROMA^E 2 NEAR VARA@DINSKE TOPLICE Traces of Habitation from the Early Copper Age
Construction on the Varazdinske Tbplice bypass - Phase 2, was launched in April of 2003. The first part, from the highway itself in the Koscevec vaUey up to the new crossing at the present day cemetery in Tbplice was completed earlier, in 2002. The second phase foresaw the continuation of ground breaking for the new road through thefieldssouth of the city right up to the eastern exit heading towards Tuhovac. The future route was surveyed along its entire length after being staked out, but no archaeologicalfindswere noticed, outside of small sherds of mostly New Age ceramics. Construction work started on the eastern portion of this route. Since this was predominantly a low-lyingfiatplain, only humus-depth excavating was done to a depth of about twenty centimetres. These works were also supervised, but then too finds were not noticed. After digging had been done of ditches for roadside drainage canals two places of interest appeared on this route. The first was called Polje and is here presented in the Other Sites chapter, the second being Gromace 2. As construction work on the bypass had already been completed it was not possible to carry out rescue archaeology excavation so that work was carried out only on gathering nearby finds and emptying the damaged pit.1

21

varazdinske Toplice-Gromace 2. Jama J1 prije praznjenja u odvodnom jarku. Varazdinske Toplice-Gromace 2. Pit J1 f>mr to emptying.

Sto se tice arheoloskih struktura, pronadena je jedna prapovijesna jama, ukopana u geoloski sloj zdravicu. Jama je dijelomice ostecena strojnim iskopom a nalazila se u kracem dijelu novog kanala koji prati staru cestu prema jugu. Kako nije bilo drugih jama, te se u iskopanoj zemlji i izoranim poljima u blizini pronaslo izrazito malo daljnih nalaza, a osobito sto su u blizini vec i provodena iskopavanja rimske ceste, vjerojatno nije rijec o nekom vecem naselju. Mozda se vise nalaza krije u poljima juzno od pronadene jame, gdje se sada prostira poljoprivredne povrsine. Pronadena jama ispraznjena je u cijelosti te dokumentirana. Punjenje jame nije bilo izrazito razlicito po boji od geoloskog sloja u koji je ukopana. Rijec je o svijetlo smedoj ispuni unutar zuckastog
1

Arheoloske radove oba je autor. Tt> author earned mi the archaeological work

22

The Gromace 2 site is located directly next to the new crossing on the bypass and the old road heading towards Toplice. According to the local inhabitants the toponym Gromace refers to the gentle slope of the Selnice Hill that stretches all the way to the Bednja valley, covering about 1 square kilometre. The Gromace 2 site is located approximately in the centre of the described area along the remains of a now dry and shallow water-worn gully. FEATURES As far as archaeological structure is concerned, a prehistoric pit was found, buried in a geological layer - subsoil. The pit was partially damaged by mechanised excavation and was located in the shorter part of the new canal following the old road southbound. As there were no other pits, and as very fewfindswere discovered in the excavated earth and in the nearby ploughedfields,and especially as excavations on a Roman road had already been carried out nearby, it is probable that there was no larger settlement at this site. Perhaps more finds sloja, zdravice. Ispunu jame cinili su rijetki i vrlo are hidden in the fields south of the discovered pit usitnjeni ulomci keramike i ljepa te ponesto kamenih where there are presentlyfieldsunder cultivation. The located pit was emptied and completely odbitaka. Sporadicno su pronalazeni i vrlo mali documented. The pitsfillingwas not exceptionally komadi gara. Izgleda kako je rijec o srednje velikoj otpadnoj jami, koja je sacuvana u dvije trecine, a different in colour from the colour of the geological ostalo je izbacio bager. Gar prikupljen u jami J1 layer in which it was buried. It was a light brown datiran je AMS-14C metodom, u 43.st.pr.Kr. filling within a yellowish layer of subsoil. The pits filling was of rare and very fragmented ceramic (calBC 429333). 2 Prilikom pomnog pregleda najblize okolice, sherds and daub and some stoneflakes.There were nedaleko od jame pronadena je i suplja noga posude sporadicfindsof very small pieces of charcoal. This koja je virila iz zemljanog profila kanala. Na tome appears to be a mid-sized midden, of which twomjestu nije prepoznata jama niti su pronadeni drugi thirds are preserved while a third had been removed nalazi, pa vjerujem kako je rijec o dijelu posude by an excavator. The charcoal gathered in pit J1 koji nije bio dublje ukopan u vrijeme odbacivanja. was dated using the AMS-14C method to 43 2 Prilikom iskopavanja rimske ceste pronadeno je centuries BC (calBC 429333). During a detailed survey of the direct vicinity, nekoliko roznjackih odbitaka koji su lezali u raznim slojevima u samoj cesti i oko nje, kao i dva veca the hollow foot of a vessel was found not far from ulomka grube bakrenodobne keramike. S the pit, protruding from the earthen profile of the pronalaskom ove jame jasniji nam je njihov canal. No pit or any otherfindswere located here so kontekst na ovome mjestu. Stoga su kameni nalazi that I believe that this was part of a vessel that was iz okolice rimske ceste, Gromace 1, prikazani u ovom not deeply buried when discarded. Several flint flakes izvjestaju. were found during the excavation of the Roman road lying in various layers of the road itself and around it, as were two larger sherds of Copper Age POKRETNI NALAZI ceramics. With the discovery of this pit their context Keramicki nalazi Na polozaju Gromace 2 pronadeno je zapravo in this place is now clearer to us. The stone finds vrlo malo nalaza. Gotovo svi keramicki nalazi potjecu located in the environs of the Roman road, Gromace iz ostecene jame J1. Cini se kako je ostala sacuvana 1, are, therefore, presented in this report. u dvije trecine, iz kojih potjece prikazano gradivo. FINDS Na prvi pogled ulomci pripadaju lasinjskoj kulturi, Ceramic Finds ali se zapravo na vecini ocrtavaju ukrasi i oblici koji Very few finds were in fact discovered at the su karakteristicni za raniju, tzv. Sece fazu lasinjske Gromace 2 site. Almost all ceramic finds originate kulture (Sece-kultura, MARKOVIC 1994 s.89). Za Sece su karakteristicni ukrasi u obliku malih from the damaged pit J1. It appears that some twotrokuta (ovdje T1-8,4; Sece MARKOVIC 1994, thirds of it were preserved, from which the presented t.19-5,6,12,13), zatim usporedni urezi koji padaju material originates. Atfirstglance the sherds appear
2

Vara`dinske Toplice-Groma~e 2. Jama J1 tijekom pra`njenja. Vara`dinske Toplice-Groma~e 2. Pit J1 during emptying.

Vara`dinske Toplice-Groma~e 2. Ukrasi (T1-6,5,7) Vara`dinske Toplice-Groma~e 2. Decorations (T1-6,5,7)

14c datacija AMS izradena je u Leibniz Labor fiir Altersbestimmung und Isotopenforschung, Christian-Albrechts-Universitat u Kielu (KIA 25317, BP 543025). Skraeena kalibracija putem CalPal Online Radiocarbon Calibration izradena na Sveueilistu u Kolnu. Carbon HAMS dating was done at the Leibniz LaborfiirAltersbestimmung und Isotopenforschung, OmsiianAlbreehis-Universitdt in Kiel (KLA-25317, BP 5430 25). Shortened calibration using CalPal Online Radiocarbon Calibration done at the University ofKoln.

preko bikoniteta posude (ovdje T2-6,7; Sece MARKOVIC 1982b, t.XVII-1), pa jedva vidljive plitke jamice pod obodom (ovdje T2-3; Sece MARKOVIC 1982b, t.XVII-2; MARKOVIC1994, t.l9a-l) te razbacane kruzne rupice na povrsini (ovdje Tl-5; Sece MARKOVIC 1995, t.6-4 ). Medutim, osim usporedbi sa Secern, trebalo bi navesti i primjer posude s urezima uz obod (T2-1), sto je vrlo cest ukras na Resnikovu prekopu (HAREJ 1975, t.I-4, t.VI-5 i druge posude). Izdvojena iz jame J l , iz profila u iskopu kanala virila je u pedesetak ulomaka razbijena suplja noga visoke zdjele, PN1. Usporedbom s drugim nalazima zamjetljivo je kako je ova posuda izradena s tanjim stijenkama i gracilnije nego mladi primjerci, (prema AMS-14C dataciji), pronadeni u Gornjem Pustakovcu (Pustakovec T3-1 i dr.). Ipak, nema sumnje kako je osnovni oblik srodan klasicnim lasinjskim. Zdjela na nozi, keramicka zlica, pa i neki vec spomenuti ukrasi pojavljuju se i u lasinjskoj kulturi. Zbog takvih mogucih zabuna, bilo bi potrebno objaviti mnogo veci broj dobro ilustiranih nalaza, putem kojili bi se mogla jasno odrediti razlika izmedu Sece i lasinjske kulture. Kako god bilo, keramicki nalazi s Gromaca 2 zamjetljivo su razlicitiji negoli oni koji pripadaju lasinjskoj kulturi a pronadeni su na Blizni, Gornjem Pustakovcu i Staroj vesi u sklopu ovih istrazivanja. Datacija metodom AMS-14C takoder je za ovu jamu dala najraniji rezultat, pa je ocigledno kako se ova keramika moze donekle izdvojiti iz repertoara standardne lasinjske kulture. Kameni nalazi - Darko Komso Viseslojno arheolosko nalaziste Gromace smjesteno je u neposrednoj blizini Varazdinskih Toplica. Otkriveno je i djelomice istrazeno 2002. g., prilikom radova na trasi zaobilazne ceste. Tijekom i nakon navedenih radova, prikupljena je manja kolicina kamenih izradevina. Nalazi, prikupljeni na dvije pozicije oznacene kao Gromace 1 i Gromace 2, pripadaju istom nalazistu te su obradene zajedno. Gromace - Analiza cijepanih kamenih izradevina Na nalazistu Gromace prikupljene su 23 kamene izradevine od cijepane litike, ukupne tezine 56,68 grama. Nadene su uglavnom izvan konteksta, kao slucajni nalazi. Samo jedna je kamena izradevina nadena u jami 1 (Gromace 1) i 4 kamene izradevine u Jamil (Gromace 2). Sirovinski materijal je raznolik, a najcesce se javljaju crni sjajni i neprozirni roznjaci osrednjih osobina cijepanja, zatim zelenosivi roznjaci osrednjih osobina cijepanja, prozirni sivi i sivi sa crvenim uklopljenim mrljama dobrih osobina cijepanja, te sivi, smedi, svijetlo smecti i crni neprozirni roznjaci osrednjih osobina cijepanja. Cjelokupni sirovinski materijal potjece od malih rijecnih oblutaka, dostupnih lokalno. Medu ukupno 23 prikupljene kamene izrade vine, 13 ih je neobradeno, 6 ih ima rubove ostecene koristenjem, a 4 su obradene u alatke. Navedene

to belong to the Lasinja culture, but on most, in fact, we find decorations and forms that are characteristic of an earlier phase, the so-called Sece phase of the Lasinja culture (Sece-culture, MARKOVIC 1994 pg.89). Decorations in the shape of small triangles are characteristic of the Sece (here Tl-8,4; Sece MARKOVIC 1994, t.19-5,6,12,13), as are parallel engravings that faU over the vessels carination (here T2-6,7; Sece MARKOVIC 1982b, t.XVII-1), barely visible shallow pits under the rim (here T2-3; Sece MARKOVIC 1982b, t.XVII-2; MARKOVIC 1994, t.l9a-l) and scattered small circular holes on the surface (here Tl-5; Sece MARKOVIC 1995, t.64). However, besides the comparison with the Sece, the example of a vessel with engravings on its rim should also be mentioned (T2-1), which is a very frequent decoration on Resnikov prekop (HAREJ 1975, t.I-4, t.VI-5 and other vessels). Separated from pit J l , the hollow foot of some high vessel, PN1, protruded, broken into somefiftysherds, from the profile in a ditch excavation. In comparison with otherfindsit is noticeable that this vessel had thinner walls and was more graceful than younger specimens (based on AMS-14C dating) found in Gornji Pustakovec (Pustakovec T3-1 and others). There is, nevertheless, no doubt that the basic form corresponds to classic Lasinja. A bowl on feet, a ceramic spoon, and some of the already mentioned decorations also appear in the Lasinja culture. Because of this i possible confusion it would be beneficial to publish a much larger number of ' well illustratedfinds,as an aid to clearly delineating the difference between the Sece and Lasinja cultures. At any rate, the ceramic finds from Gromace 2 are noticeably more different than those that belong to the Lasinja culture that were discovered in the framework of this research at Blizna, Gornji Pustakovec and Stara ves. Dating using the AMS-14C method also gave for this pit the earliest result so that it is evident that these ceramics can to a certain extent be set apart from the repertoire of standard Lasinja culture. Lilhic assemblage - Darko Komso The multi-layer Gromace archaeological site is located in the direct vicinity of Varazdinske Toplice. It was discovered and partly researched in 2002 during construction work on a bypass. During and following the mentioned construction a smaller amount of stone artefacts were collected. The finds, collected at two positions designated as Gromace 1 and Gromace 2 belong to the same site and are dealt with here together.
Varazdinske Toplice-Gromace 2. Djelomicno rekonstruirana zdjela na supljoj nozi. PN1 (T1-12) Vara`dinske Toplice-Groma~e 2. A partially reconstructed bowl on a hollow foot. PN1 (T1-12)

23

24

Vara`dinske Toplice-Groma~e 2. Slu~ajni nalazi ro`nja~kih izra|evina iz okolice rimske ceste (Groma~e 1). Vara`dinske Toplice-Groma~e 2. Chance finds of flint artefacts from the vicinity of the Roman road (Groma~e 1).

alatke obuhvacaju jedno prikupljeno grebalo na slomljenom odbojku (T2-17), jedno obradeno malo sjecivo (T2-14), jedan iskrzani komadic (T2-13) i jedan zambljeni odbojak (T2-16). Uocljiva je velika ucestalost izradevina s rubovima ostecenim koristenjem. Tragovi gorenja zamjetljivi su na jednoj izradevini, a jedna izradevina ima zatupljene rubove, prouzrocene mehamckim utjecajem vode. Plohak je sacuvan na 11 izradevina. Ucestalost ravnih i diedricnih plohaka, te plohaka s okorinom upucuje na pretezno koristenje tehnologije direktnog cijepanja jezgri s jednostavnim platformania bez posebne obrade, uglavnom uz uporabu tvrdog cekica. Samo na jednom obradenoj izradevini javlja se obradeni plohak, koji upucuje na koristenje jezgri s prethodno pripremljenom platformoni. Takoder, samo se na jednom obradenom malom sjecivu javlja linearni plohak, koji upucuje na koristenje tehnologije direktnog odbijanja uz pomoc mekog cekica ili tehnologije pritiskom uz pomoc prsnog pritiskaca, odnosno indirektnog odbijanja od jezgri s prethodno pripremljenom platformom. Morfoloski, ova grupa nalaza sastoji se od 13 odbojaka, 4 lomljevine,3 2 mala sjeciva,4 te od po jednog sjeciva, 6 spaljene lomljevine,6 male lomljevine7 i izradevine neodredenog oblika. Jezgre nisu zastupljene u ovom skupu nalaza. Okorina je vidljiva na 9 izradevina. Na 7 ih pokriva manje od 5% njihove povrsine, dok na dvije izradevine okorina pokriva vise od 50% povrsine. Pribavljanje, proizvodnja i upotreba cijepane litike Potrebno je naglasiti kako je ova grupa kamenih

Groma~e - An Analysis of Knapped Stone Artefacts 23 stone artefacts of knapped lithics were collected at the Gromace site, with a total weight of 56.68 grams. They were found mostly without a contexts, as surface finds. Only one stone artefact was found in pit 1 (Gromace 1) and a further 4 stone artefacts in pit 1 (Gromace 2). The raw material is varied, most often appearing as black glossy and opaque flints with intermediate knapping characteristics, then greenish-grey flints of intermediate knapping characteristics, transparent grey and grey with red inclusions of good knapping characteristics, and grey, brown, light brown and black opaque flints of intermediate knapping characteristics. The entire lithic assemblage was produced from small, locally available, river pebbles. Among the total of 23 collected stone artefacts, 13 are not retouched, 6 have edges damaged by use, and 4 have been transformed into tools. The mentioned tools include the endscraper on a broken flake (T2-17), a retouched bladelet (T2-14), one small splinter (T2-13), and one truncated flake (T2-16). There is a high frequency of artefacts with use-wear. Traces of burning are visible on one artefact, while another has dulled edges, caused by the mechanical wearing of water The platform is preserved on 11 artefacts. The frequency of flat and dihedral surfaces with a cortex indicates the predominate use of a direct core knapping technology using simple platforms without any special preparation, mostly with the use of a hard hammer. The prepared surface appears only on one tool that would indicate the use of a core with a previously prepared platform. Also, a linear surface appears only on one retouched bladelet, indicating the use of direct flaking with a soft hammer, or the method of applying pressure using a chest crutch, that is indirectflakingfrom the core from a previously prepared platform. Morphologically, this group of finds consists of 13flakes,4 pieces of knapping debris,3 2 bladelets,4 and one of each of the following: a blade,6 a piece of burned debris,6 a small piece of knapping debris7 and a artefact of undefined shape. Cores were not present in this assemblage. There is cortex visible on 9 artefacts. On 7 of them it cover less than 5% of their surface area while on two artefacts the it covers more than 50% of their surface.

a U ovom skupu nalaza lomljevina se definira kao smrskani roznjak veei od 10 mm koji se ne moze odredenije klasifieirati. Knapping debris in this assemblage are defined as shattered flint larger than 10 mm that cannot be more exactly classified. 4 U ovom skupu nalaza mala sjeciva se definiraju kao sjeciva cija je sirina uza ili jednaka 11 milimetara. Bladelets are defined in this assemblage as blades whose width is smaller than or equal to 11 millimetres.

U ovom skupu nalaza sjeciva se definiraju kao odbojci cija je duzina dva ili vise puta veca od sirina, s vise ili manje paralelnim rubovima, sira od 11 milimetara. Blades are defined in this assemblage asflakeswhose length is twice as much or more than its width, with more or less parallel edges, wider than 11 millimetres.
6 U ovom skupu nalaza spaljena lomljevina definira se kao roznjak smrskan nekontroliranim izlaganjem visokim temperaturama, koji se ne moze odredenije klasifieirati. Burnt debris is defined in this assemblage as a flint shattered by uncontrolled exposure to high temperatures, that cannot be more exactly classified. 7 U ovom skupu nalaza mala lomljevina definira se kao smrskani roznjak manji od 10 mm koji se ne moze odredenije klasifieirati. Small knapping debris is defined in this assemblage as a shatteredflintsmaller than 10 mm that cannot be more exactly classified.

nalaza iznimno malobrojna, te je sve zakljucke potrebno uzimati s velikim oprezom. Unatoc tomu, moguce je odrediti osnovne tehnoloske karakteristike. Prikupljeni sirovinski materijal pokazuje znacajne razlike u boji, prozirnosti, boji okorine i kvaliteti. Usprkos navedenim razlikama, sav prikupljeni materijal opcenito je malih dimenzija. Zajednicke karakteristike sirovinskog materijala, primjerice mehanicka istrosenost okorine, zaobljenost i opcenito mala velicina sirovine, iskazuju teziste na prikupljanju kremenih oblutaka iz sekundarnih aluvijalnih nanosa, dopremljenih iz primarnih, vjerojatno razlicitih lezista djelovanjem rijeka i natalozenih na obalama. Teziste na koristenju lokalno dostupne kamene sirovine iz sekundarnih rijecnih nanosa, osim na navedenim nalazistima, ocituje se i na drugim nalazistima u regiji, a to su Blizna, Hardek (FORENBAHER U TISKU-a), Log pri Vipavi (FORENBAHER U TISKU-b), Siman (FORENBAHER U TISKUc) i Zemono (FORENBAHER U TISKU-d). Uglavnom su koristene ad hoc strategije cijepanja za proizvodnju malih odbojaka, koje ne iziskuju posebnu vjestinu niti specijalni pribor Najcesca je tehnologija malih odbitaka, kod koje je teziste na cijepanju malih odbojaka od bezoblicnih jezgara te tehnologija bipolarnog cijepanja, koja se cesto primjenjivala u iskoristavanju malih oblutaka, koji su cijepani upotrebom tvrde podloge, koja je sluzila kao nakovanj. Snaga udarca prenosila se na nakovanj i odbijala, stvarajuci nasuprotnu energiju za rascijep ili rasprsnuce oblutka. Tu tehnologiju ocituje je iskrzani komadic prikupljen na nalazistu Gromace 2. Odbojci prikladnih oblika obradom su nadalje pretvarani u jednostavne alatke ili su koristeni bez obrade, te nakon uporabe odbacivani. Rjede je koristena zahtjevna tehnologija za dobivanje prizmaticnih sjeciva, za ciju je izradu bila potrebna slozena garnitura alata, te visoka razina umjesnosti. Na tu tehnologiju upucuje nalaz prizmaticnog obradenog malog sjeciva s linearnim plohkom (T2-14). Uocljiva je velika ucestalost izradevina s rubovima ostecenih koristenjem, koje su brojnije od formalnih, obradenih alatki. Alatke su zastupljene s po jednim grebalom, zarupkom, iskrzanim komadicem i obradenim malim sjecivom. Navedeni nalazi upucuju kako je teziste tehnologije izrada i koristenje jednostavnih alatki (tzv. expedi ent tools) i izradevina bez formalne obrade, koje se ne cuvaju, vec se nakon uporabe odbacuju. Za odredivanje vremenskog nastanka ove grupe nalaza kamenih izradevina presudno je vise cimbenika. Glavni problem pri datiranju je u kolicini prikupljenog kamenog materijala i nacinu prikupljanja. Trinaest izradevina s nalazista Gromace 1 i deset izradevina s nalazista Gromace 2 ne zadovoljavaju osnove za kvalitetnu statisticku i komparativnu analizu. Takoder, vecina nalaza prikupljena je izvan konteksta, kao slucajni nalaz, te se ne moze

25

Procurement, Production and Use of Knapped Lithics It ought to be pointed out that this group of stone finds is exceedingly small in number, and that all conclusions ought to be taken with great caution. It is, nevertheless, possible to identify the basic technological characteristics. The collected raw material shows significant differences in colour, transparency, cortex colour and quality. In spite of these differences, all of the collected material is generally small in size. The common characteristics of the raw material, for example the mechanical wear of the cortex, roundedness and the generally small size of the raw material tells of a tendency towards gathering flint pebbles from secondary alluvial drifts, transferred from primary, probably different accumulation, by the action of the river and deposited on the shores. The tendency towards the use of locally available raw stone material from secondary river deposits, besides at the mentioned sites, is also visible at other sites in the region. These are Blizna, Hardek (FORENBAHER IN PRESS-a), Log pri Vipavi (FORENBAHER IN PRESS-b), Siman (FORENBAHER IN PRESS-c) and Zemono (FORENBAHER IN PRESS-d). Ad hoc strategies of knapping were mostly used for the production of small flakes, not requiring any particular skills or special tools. The most frequent technology is of small flakes, where the tendency is towards knapping small flakes from shapeless cores and the technology of bipolar knapping, applied often in the use of small pebbles, knapped with the use of a hard surface that served anvil. The force of the impact was transferred to the anvil and returned, creating a return force for the knapping or the shattering of the pebble. The presence of this technology is confirmed with the single splinter collected at the Gromace 2 site. Flakes of appropriate shape were then further transformed into simple tools or were used unmodified, and discarded after use. The use of more demanding technology for production of prismatic blades, whose production

Vara`dinske Toplice-Groma~e 2. Ro`nja~ke izra|evine iz Jame J1. Vara`dinske Toplice-Groma~e 2. Flint artefacts from Pit J 1 .

26 ~

ustanoviti prava slika kamene industrije ovih nalazista. Osim kolicine i nacina prikupljanja nalaza, problem je i u nedostatku detaljnih analiza cijepane litike u siroj regiji. Kamene izradevine cesto su obradene selektivno, uglavnom samo spomenute u objavama, a najcesce potpuno zanemarene. Sukladno tome, nasa saznanja o promjenama u pribavljanju, proizvodnji i koristenju cijepane Utike su minimalna. Iz razdoblja neolitika sjeverozapadne Hrvatske nalazi polirane i cijepane kamene industrije su brojni. Neoliticka cijepana kamena industrija temelji se na dobivanju prizmaticnih sjeciva/malih sjeciva i prikupljena je u naseljima u velikom broju (MINICHREITER 1992, TEZAK-GREGL 1991, TEZAK-GREGL 1993). Bakrenodobne kulture na podrucju sjeverozapadne Hrvatske do sada su uglavnom poznate po nalazima keramike, a kamena industrija nije bila posebno obradivana (SIMEK, KURTANJEK ET AL. 2002). Kamena industrija lasinjske kulture je slabo proucena, a sastoji se od cijepanih i glacanih izradevina. U izvorima se u pravilu nalazi cijepane litike samo spominju, uglavnom kao strugaci, nozici, busila i siljci za strelice (TOMICIC 1969; TOMICIC 1969; MARKOVIC 1974; SIMEK 1978; DIMITRIJEVIC 1979; SIMEK 1981; MARKOVIC 1983; MARKOVIC 1985; MARKOVIC 1986; MARKOVIC 1994), te poluizradevine i kremene grude (TOMICIC 1969; TOMICIC 1969). Jedina detaljnija objava potjece iz Vmkovaca (Trznica/hotel), gdje je potkraj 1977. godine pronaden vrc s ostavom cijepanih kamenih izradevina, koja se sastojala od 48 obradenih i neobradenih izradevina, medu kojima treba istaknuti tri izradevine od opsidijana, jedne bifacijalno obradene strelice s krilcima i udubljenom bazom za nasad, te vise alatki s zarubljenim krajevima (DIMITRIJEVIC 1979B; MARKOVIC 1994). Glacane izradevine ove grape dijele se na plosnate sjekire i klinove, te na sjekire s rupom za nasad (TOMICIC 1969; TOMICIC 1969; MARKOVIC 1974; SIMEK 1978; DIMITRIJEVIC 1979; HOMEN 1981; SIMEK 1981; SIMEK, KURTANJEK ET AL. 2002). Kamene industrije ostalih istovremenih kultura, primjerice Retz-Gajary i Baden, takoder su slabo proucene (DURMAN 1982; TEZAK-GREGL 1985). Novije analize cijepanih kamenih izradevina s podrucja sjeveroistocne Slovenijcpodnozja istocnih Alpi, kao i sjeverozapadne Hrvatske upucuju kako tijekom bakrenog doba dolazi do promjena u tehnologiji, te da postaje dominantna jednostavna ad hoc industrija za proizvodnju malih odbojaka (Porenbaher in press-a, Lubsina-Tusek 1993). Kamena industrija jos se rijetko javlja tijekom rane bronce (MARTINEC 2002), iscezava tijekom srednje bronce, dok se iznimno javlja unutar kultura kasnog broncanog, zeljeznog doba i kasnije, kao dio pribora za paljenje vatre ili kao simbol bozanskog porijekla sa simbolicnim znacenjem zastite od groma.

needing a complex set of tools and a high level of skill, was less common. A find of a prismatic dressed bladelet with a linear surface points to the use of this technology (T2-14). A high frequency of artefacts whose edges are damaged by use is visible, more numerous than the formal, retouched tools. Tools are represented by one endscraper, a truncation, a splinter and a retouched bladelet. The aforementioned finds indicate that the technological tendency was to produce and use simple tools (expedient tools) and artefacts without formal retouching, not to be kept, but rather discarded after use. Several factors are vital in dating the production of this group of stone artefacts. The major difficulty in dating is in the amount of stone material collected and the method of its collection. Thirteen artefacts from the Gromace 1 site and ten artefacts from the Gromace 2 site are a too small assemblage for a good statistical and comparative analysis. Also, most of thefindswere collected as surface finds, so that a true picture of the stone industry at these sites cannot be ascertained. Besides the amount and method of collecting, the difficulty also lies in a lack of detailed analysis of lithics knapping in the wider region. Research on stone artefacts is most often poorly published, usuaUy with only a mention in reports, and usually disregarded. Our knowledge of the changes in the procurement, production and use of knapped lithics are, at the current stage of research, minimal. Finds of polished and knapped stone industry from the Neolithic period are numerous in northwestern Croatia. The Neolithic knapped stone industry was based on the production of prismatic blades/bladelets, which have been collected in settlements in large quantities (MINICHREITER 1992, TEZAK-GREGL 1991, TEZAK-GREGL 1993). The Copper Age culture in north-western Croatia has to date been known mostly for its ceramic finds, while the stone industry was not given special attention (SIMEK, KURTANJEK ET AL. 2002). The stone industry of the Lasinja culture has been poorly studied and consists of knapped and burnished artefacts. Sources, as a rule, only cite knapped lithics in passing, mostly as scrapers, smaU knives, drills, and points for arrows (TOMICIC 1969; TOMICIC 1969; MARKOVIC 1974; SIMEK 1978; DIMITRIJEVIC 1979; SIMEK 1981; MARKOVIC 1983; MARKOVIC 1985; MARKOVIC 1986; MARKOVIC 1994), and semi-artefacts andflintlumps (TOMICIC 1969; TOMICIC 1969). The only more detailed report is from Vinkovci (Market / Hotel), where at the end of 1977 a jug was found with a hoard of knapped stone artefacts, consisting of 48 tools and unretouched artefacts, among which three artefacts of obsidian, one bifacialy retouched arrowhead with wings and notched base deserve special notice, as do several tools with truncations (DIMITRIJEVIC

Kako bi se moglo izvrsiti datiranje ovog skupa 1979B; MARKOVIC1994). The polished artefacts nalaza, zbog navedenih problema potrebno je uzeti in this group are divided into flat axes and wedges, u razmatranje i popratne nalaze. U jami J l , and shaft-hole axes (TOMICIC 1969; TOMICIC istrazenoj na nalazistu Gromace 2, prikupljeni su 1969; MARKOVIC 1974; SIMEK 1978; ostaci keramike lasinjske kulture, iz razdoblja DIMITRIJEVIC 1979; HOMEN 1981; SIMEK bakrenog doba, sto je potvrdeno i analizom 1981; SIMEK, KURTANJEK ET AL. 2002). radioaktivnog ugljika iz ove jame (KIA 25317) The stone industry of other cultures of the same kojom je dobijena starost 543025 BP, odnosno time period, like the Retz-Gajary and Baden, are 429333 kalibrirano pr.Kr. also poorly studied (DURMAN 1982; TEZAKTemeljem ovih popratnih nalaza, apsolutne GREGL 1985). Newer analysis of knapped stone datacije te osnovnih informacija o tehnologiji artefacts from north-eastern Slovenia, the feet of dobivenih analizom kamenih izradevina, moze se the eastern Alps, and north-western Croatia indicate pretpostaviti kako najveel dio prikupljenih kamenih that there was a shift in technology during the izradevina datira iz razdoblja bakrenog doba, te kako Copper Age, and that a simple ad hoc industry ih se na osnovi ostalih prikupljenih nalaza treba became dominant in the production of small flakes pripisati lasinjskoj kulturi. (Forenbaher in press-a, Lubsina-Tusek 1993). Stone industry appears rarely during the Early ZAKLJUCAK Bronze Age (MARTINEC 2002), and dwindles Mali broj nalaza ne daje nam mogucnosti vise out in the Middle Bronze Age, while it appears reel o karakteru naselja. Pitanje je da li je rijec o sporadically within the cultures of the Late Bronze manjem naselju ili prostora na kojem se samo and Iron Ages and later as part of a fire-making povremeno boravilo. Ulomci kamenih alatki i apparatus or as a symbol of divine origin with the keramickih ulomaka nalaze se i do 100 metara symbolic significance of protectionfromlightning. udaljeni od jame pa bi se moglo zakljuciti da nije In order to carry out the dating of this group of rijec o usamljenoj strukturi. No, prema onome sto finds, given the aforementioned difficulties, it is se zna o lasinjskoj kulturi, ovo nalaziste bi prema necessary to take additionalfindsinto consideration. svojem topografskom polozaju odgovaralo ostalima In pit J l , examined at the Gromace 2 site, the (DIMITRIJEVIC 1979, 147). Rijec je o blagim remnants of Copper Age Lasinja culture ceramics padinama iznad plavne doline i obilnog vodotoka. were coUected, which was confirmed by an analysis Svakako bi bilo korisno izvrsiti sondiranja na of radioactive carbon from this pit (KIA 25317) poljima juzno od jame, na sadasnjim oranicama. that produced an age of 543025 BP, that is Sudecl prema dokumentiranoj jami, oranje nije 429333 calibrated BC. unistilo nalaziste, pa bi se mozebitne druge jame Based on these additional finds, an absolute mogle pronacl neostecene. Daljnja istrazivanja bila dating and basic information on the technology used bi nuzna kako bi se sa sigurnoscu odredila garnered by an analysis of stone artefacts, it can be kulturoloska pripadnost nalaza, a u slucaju da je assumed that the major part of the collected stone uistinu rijec o Sece kulturi, da se ista bolje artefacts date from the Copper Age and that, based dokumentira, cime bi se to zasad jos otvoreno pitanje on other coUectedfinds,they come from the Lasinja privelo blize razrjesenju. Kako god bilo, Gromace 2 culture. su prvo bakrenodobno nalaziste u dolini Bednje, pa su neovisno od malog broja nalaza izvanredan CONCLUSION arheolosko povijesni podatak. The small number of finds does not afford u s the possibility of concluding much as regards the KATAL0G nature of the settlement. It is a question whether it TABLA 1 - Gromace 2, Jama J1 / SlUCajni nalazi was only a smaller settlement or an area on 1-Ulomak prostorucno izradene posude, s malo intermittently used for habitation. The shards of primjesa sitnih kamencica koji se truse, blago glacane stone tools and potsherds are located as much as povrsine, smede boje. 100 metres from the pit so that it could be concluded 2- Ulomak prostorucno izradene posude, dobro that it is not an isolated structure. But based on prociscene gline, uglacane povrsine, odlicne izrade, what is known of the Lasinja culture, this site would, tamno smede boje. by its topographic position, fit in with the others 3- Ulomak prostorucno izradene posude, s (DIMITRIJEVIC 1979, 147). The positions are primjesama kamencica koji se truse, grube izrade, gently sloping and situated abovefloodplainsand izvana i iznutra svijetlo smede a u prijelomu erne an abundant waterway. A sondage on the fields boje. south of the pit, at the present day plough fields, 4- Ulomak prostorucno izradene posude, dobro would certainly be useful. Judging by the prociscene gline, odlicne izrade, narancaste boje. documented pit, ploughing has not destroyed the 5- Ulomak prostorucno izradene posude, dobro site, so that other undamaged pits might be located. prociscene gline, odlicne izrade, tamno sive boje. Further research is needed to pin down with 6- Ulomak prostorucno izradene posude, dobro certainty the culture the finds hail from, and if it prociscene gline, odlicne izrade, prijelom tamno sive were proven that they did in fact belong to the Sece boje, p r e m a z a n a crnom bojom i dobro uglacane culture, the same should be better documented in

27

28

povrsine. 7- Ulomak prostoracno izradene posude, dobro prociscene gline, odlicne izrade, tamno sive boje. 8- Ulomak prostoracno izradene posude, dobro prociscene gline, odlicne izrade, narancaste boje. 9- Ulomak prostoracno izradene posude, dobro prociscene gline, uglacane povrsine, odlicne izrade, zuckaste boje. 10- Ulomak prostoracno izradene posude, s primjesama kamencica koji se truse, grube izrade, izvana i iznutra svijetlo smede a u prijelomu erne boje. 11- Ulomak prostoracno izradene posude, dobro prociscene gline, odlicne izrade, tamno sive boje. 12- Donji dio prostoracno izradene posude, dobro prociscene gline, tamno smede do erne boje. Posebni nalaz PNl. 13- Roznjak. Gromace 2, jama J l . 14- Roznjak. Gromace 1, slucajni nalaz. 15- Roznjak. Gromace 1, slucajni nalaz. 16- Roznjak. Gromace 2, slucajni nalaz. 17- Roznjak. Gromace 1, slucajni nalaz.

order to bring this, still open issue, closer to its conclusion. Whatever the case may be, Gromace 2 is the first Copper Age site in the Bednja vaUey, and is as such, regardless of the smaU number offinds,an exceptional archaeological and historical source.
CATALOGUE TABLE 1 - Gromace 2, Pit J1 / Chance finds

l-Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, tempered slightly with crumbling crushed pebbles, with slightly burnished surface, of brown colour. 2- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of well-refined clay, with burnished surface, of excellent manufacture, dark brown in colour. 3- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, tempered with crumbling crushed pebbles, of rough manufacture, of light brown colour inside and out with black colour at the break. 4- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of well-refined clay, of excellent manufacture, of orange colour. 5- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of well-refined clay, of excellent manufacture, of dark grey colour 6- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of well-refined clay, of excellent manufacture, dark grey colour at the break, glazed with black colour and of wellburnished surface. 7- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of well-refined clay, of excellent manufacture, of dark grey colour 8- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of well-refined clay, of excellent manufacture, or orange colour. 9- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of well-refined clay, with burnished surface, of excellent manufacture, of yellowish colour. 10- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, tempered with crumbling crushed pebbles, of rough manufacture, of light brown colour inside and out with black colour at the break. 11- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of well-refined clay, of excellent manufacture, of dark grey colour 12- Lower part of a hand-made vessel, of wellrefined clay, of dark grey to black colour. Special find PNl. 13- Splinter. Gromace 2, pit J l . 14- Retouched bladelet. Gromace 1, chance find. 15- Flint. Gromace 1, chance find. 16- Truncation. Gromace 2, chance find. 17- Endscraper on a flake. Gromace 1, chance find.

Tabla 1. Varazdinske Toplice-Gramace 2. 1-11,13 J1, 429333 calBC. / 12 PN1. / 14-17 Slucajni nalazi. Tablet Varazdinske Toplice-Gromace 2. 1-11,13 J1, 4293+33 calBC. 112 PN1.114-17 Chance finds.

INTRODUCTION Numerous potsherds of medieval ceramic vessels and stove tiles were found during a December 3 2003,fieldsurvey and supervision near Varazdins UVOD ke Toplice. A survey was carried out that day in the Prilikom terenskog pregleda i nadzora dana Koscevec valley (on the map Veliki potok) in the 3.12.2003.g., kod Varazdinskih Toplica, pronadeni area of the future Varazdinske Toplice interchange su brojni ulomci srednjovjekovnih keramickih (58+198). The site stretches from the 58+100 to posuda i pecnjaka. Taj je dan pregled obavljan u 58+300 kilometre markers of the future Zagreb dolini Koscevec (na karti Veliki potok), na prostom Gorican highway, that is, on a small elevation that buduceg cvora Varazdinske Toplice (58+198). was to serve as an overpass ramp. Temporary Nalaziste se proteze na stacionaze 58+100 do access roads for heavy machinery had just been 58+300 buduce autoceste Zagreb - Gorican, completed as had the first phase of cementing odnosno na manju uzvisinu koja je trebala posluziti support posts for the overpass. The ceramic za izgradnju nadvoznjaka. Privremene prilazne potsherds were located in the excavated soil and ceste za strojeve bile su upravo probijene te zavrsena the profiles. The construction work completed up prva faza betoniranja potpornih stupova za to that point has damaged the site considerably, nadvoznjak. Keramicki ulomci pronadeni su u but an undisturbed area remained on the outer iskopanoj zemlji i profilima. Provedeni gradevinski sections. Archaeological work commenced March radovi znatno su ostetili nalaziste, ali je ostao dio 10 2003, as soon as weather conditions allowed, netaknutog prostora na rubnim dijelovima. Dana and were completed by March 23 2003.1 10.3.2003.g., cim su vremenski uvjeti to dopustili, The ridge known as Ciglenica is situated in a zapoceli su arheoloski radovi, koji su zavrseni ravine that the inhabitants of Toplice caU Koscevec. 23.3.2003.g.1 The Veliki or Mrzli creek (depending on which map Mala brdska greda Ciglenica nalazi se u klancu you are reading) runs through the valley bound for koji mjestani Toplica zovu Koscevec. Dolinom tece Toplice. We learned of the toponym Ciglenica from Veliki ili Mrzli potok (ovisno o karti koju State) u the former owners of the land, they say that bricks

CIGLENICA KOD VARAZDINSKIH TOPLICA Srednjovjekovno seliste

CIGLENICA NEAR VARAZDINSKE TOPLICE Medieval settlement

31

Varazdinske Toplice-Ciglenica. Dolina Koscevca i ostaci uzvisine Ciglenica tijekom izgradnje autoceste i arheoloskih istrazivanja. Vara`dinske Toplice-Ciglenica. The Kosevec valley and the remains of the Ciglenica elevation during the construction of the highway and archaeological research.
1 Osim autora kao yoditelja, u arheoloskim radoyima sudjeloyali su arheolozi i student! dr.se.Zorko Marko, Krunoslay Zubfie, Helena Nodilo, Ante Vranko, Marija Drazanfie i Igor Miholjek. Zahvaljujem Stjepanu Hajduku, ramatelju Gradskog muzeja Varazdinskih Toplica na toploj dobrodosliei i pruzenoj pomoei. Besides the author, acting as team leader, also participating in the archaeological work were archaeologists and students Zorlw Marlaroic D.Sc, Krunoslav ZubUi, Helena Nodilo, Ante Vranhwic, Marija Drazaneic and Igor Miholjek. I wish to thank Stjepan Hajduk, Director of the VaraUinske Toplice Municipal Museum for his warm welcome and the assistance offered.

32

were once manufactured here (trans. note: cigla = brick). There are visible holes in the ground in the forest about 50 m south of our elevation that might be the remains of pits where clay was extracted. The younger inhabitants of Toplice call this elevation Nebo. This elevation was not cultivated prior to the construction work, but was rather overgrown with high grass and smalls shrubs. Geologically, the chain of hiUs is composed of limestone of white-purplish colour and a layer of yellow marl that sits on the stone chain from the east. A variably deep or shallow layer of sandy clay and a thin layer of surface humus stretches over these geological layers. The Ciglenica elevation is not particularly high, but it dominates the central part of the valley, bordered by high hills. The waterway is profuse and there is a smaU lake nearby, probably once a fishpond.
Varazdinske Toplice-Ciglenica. Izgradnja autoceste privremeno je zaustavljena arheoloskim iskopavanjima. Vara`dinske Toplice-Ciglenica. Construction of the highway was temporarily stopped for archaeological excavations.

Potsherds originating from the Roman Era were found at Ciglenica and in the nearby surroundings. These finds were located in the lowest levels of the exploratory trenches, but were, in some cases, found mixed with later materials (for example in trench G). All of the Roman finds are highly fragmented, but typological identification of some of the shapes was simple, while other potsherds were identified based on their fabrication. The finds date from the early and middle Imperial Era. Several small RIMSKO DOBA potsherds of brick were located at the site that are NALAZI Prilikom istrazivanja ni na jednome mjestu nisu probably from the Roman period, or might have otkrivene strukture, niti je uspjesno izdvojen neki been carried from the ruins of the nearby Roman jasno odredivi sloj iz rimskog doba. Unatoc zabilje- city (Aquae Iasae) during the construction of the zenim polozajima nekih pokretnili nalaza, uglavnom medieval settlement. Most of the potsherds of ceramic vessels are je rijec o slucajnim nalazima. standard type. Pot Tl-2 can be compared with similar specimens from Ptuj (VOMERPOKRETNI NALAZI GOJKOVIC1993, t.5-2). A small bowl of grey clay, Kerami~ki nalazi Na Ciglenici i u blizoj okolici pronadeni su neki Tl-7, with an engraved decoration of a series of ulomci koji potjecu iz rimskog razdoblja. U sondama lines similar to those found at the Ptuj site (TUSEK ovi nalazi potjecu iz najnizih slojeva, ali se u nekim t.25-9) dated to the 2nd century. The most slucajevima nalaze i pomijesani s kasnijim fascinating find is a well-made small (sigillata) materijalom (npr. sonda G). Svi rimski nalazi vrlo vessel, for which I was unable tofinda comparative su usitnjeni, ali neki oblici su tipoloski lako example. An uncompleted spindle whorl (Tl-13) prepoznatljivi, a ostali su ulomci prepoznati prema made from a part of a Roman period brick should izradi. Nalazi datiraju u rano i srednje doba Carstva. be mentioned. It was ground diagonally and then Na nalazistu je pronadeno vise manjih ulomaka discarded before the hole was fully penetrated. As opeke koji su vjerojatno anticki, a mozda su doneseni is known from other specimens, it did not have to s rusevina obliznjeg rimskoga grada (Aquae Iasae) be worked as a spindle whorl during the Roman period itself; rather, it might have been made as one u vrijeme gradnje srednjovjekovnog naselja. Ulomci keramickih posuda uglavnom su during the medieval period from an old brick standardni. Lonac Tl-2 moze se usporediti sa potsherd.

pravcu Tbplica. Za toponim Ciglenica saznali smo od nekadasnjih vlasnika zemljista, a oni smatraju da je tu nekad izradivana opeka. U sumi oko 50 m juzno od nase uzvisine postoje vidljive mpe u zemlji, koje bi mogle biti ostatak jama za kopanje gline. Mladi stanovnici Tbplica ovo uzvisenje zovu Nebo. Prije gradevinskih radova, ova uzvisina nije obradivana, vec je bila zarasla visokom travom i sitnim grmljem. Geoloski, greda je sastavljena od vapnenackog kamena bijeloljubicaste boje te sloja zutog lapora koji sa istocne strane nasjeda na kamenu gredu. Preko tih geoloskih slojeva, prostire se dublji ili plici sloj pjescane gline te tanak sloj povrsinskog humusa. Uzvisina Ciglenica nije posebno visoka, ali dominira sredisnjim dijelom doline, koja je omedena visokinibrdinia. Vodotok je obilan, a u blizini postoji i malo jezero, vjerojatno nekadasnji ribnjak.

THE ROMAN ERA FEATURES

Structures were not unearthed anywhere during the research nor was a clearly definable Roman Era layer successfully determined. In spite of the marked positions of some finds, they are predominantly chance finds.
FINDS Ceramic finds

sUcnima iz Ptuja (VOMER-GOJKOVIC 1993, t.52). Zdjelica od sive gline, Tl-7, s urezanim ukrasom crtica u nizu slici takoder ptujskom nalazu (TUSEK t.25-9) datiranom u 2.stoljece. Najzanimljiviji je nalaz vrlo kvalitetne male (sigilatne) posudice, kojoj nisam pronasao usporedbu. Treba spomenuti i nalaz nedovrsenog prsljena (Tl-13) koji je izradivan od dijela rimske opeke. Izbrusen je ukoso i odbacen, prije nego je rapa probijena dokraja. Kao sto je poznato prema drugim primjerima, on nije morao biti raden kao prsljen u rimsko doba, vec ga je netko mogao izraditi u srednjem vijeku od starog ulomka opeke.
Ostali nalazi

33
Other finds

A part of a bracelet made of black glass (PN1, Tl-11) was found at Ciglenica. Similar bracelets were used in various periods, and in these parts they are frequent in the Laten and Roman periods. They were also used in the late Middle Ages (Ruzica RADIC, BOJCIC 2004 pg.224), but of different, irregular, shape. Given the uniform D crosssection and colour (KOSCEVIC 1993, 82, t.22,3,4), and the already located Roman period finds, it is safer to assign it to this period.
THE MIDDLE AGES FEATURES

Na Ciglenici je pronaden i dio namkvice od crnog The already mentioned large-scale construction stakla (PN1, Tl-11). Slicne narukvice work, predefined the possible scope of upotrebljavane su u raznim razdobljima, a u ovom archaeological research. As can be seen on the map kraju ceste su u latenskom i rimskom razdoblju. of the site, done in a complete geodetic survey, the Upotrebljavale su se i u kasnom srednjem vijeku outer limit of construction excavation is marked in (Ruzica RADIC, BOJCIC 2004 s.224), all green, and it predefined the location of the drukcijeg, nepravilnog oblika. S obzirom na pravilan archaeological trenches to the edges of the site. D presjek i boju (KOSCEVIC 1993, 82, t.2- These were the only undisturbed areas. 2,3,4), te vecpronadene rimske nalaze, sigurnije ju In exploratory trench A we endeavoured to je opredijeliti u to doba. ascertain what had taken place on the eastern slopes of the elevation. We hoped for traces of a defensive SREDNJI VIJEK wooden fence around the highest point of the NALAZI elevation, but this trench did not produce tangible Vec spomenuti opsezni gradevinski radovi, structural results. The layer of soil was relatively predodredili su mogucnosti koje su postojale za shallow, and contained only sporadic pieces of arheolosko istrazivanje. Kao sto se vidi na karti ceramic and other small finds. Under the soil, as nalazista nacinjenoj totaJnom geodetskom stanicom, subsoil there was yellow marl that had never been zelenom bojom oznacena je granica gradevinskog dug. iskopa, koja je predodredila polozaje arheoloskih Exploratory trenches B and C were dug along sondi zapravo na rabovima nalazista. To su bila the newly constructed cement gutter. Numerous jedina nedirnuta mjesta. finds were found during the excavation of this Sondom A pokusali smo ustanoviti sto se zbivalo channel so that these trenches aimed to ascertain na istocnom obrezju uzvisine. Nadali smo se from which layers they originated. tragovima obrambene drvene ograde oko najviseg Exploratory trench C had a relatively high earth dijela uzvisine, ali ova sonda nije dala opipljivih embankment. Quite a fewfindswere uncovered in strukturnih rezultata. Zemljani sloj bio je relativno it, carried here byfloodwatersfrom the top of the plitak, i u njemu su se nalazili samo sporadicni komadi keramike i dragih sitnih nalaza. Ispod zemlje, kao sloj zdravice nalazio se zuti lapor, u koji se nikad nije ukopavalo. Sonde B i C kopane su uz novosagradeni betonski propust za vodu. U njegovom iskopu pronadeno je mnostvo nalaza pa se ovim sondama htjelo ispitati iz kojih slojeva oni potjecu. Sonda C imala je relativno visok nasipni sloj zemlje. U njemu je pronadeno dosta nalaza, a oni su ovdje doplavljeni s vrha uzvisine. Na dnu sonde se kao zdravica nalazila ziva stijena, koja se lako mrvi. Stijena je bila prekrivena tanjim ili debljim slojem gara pomijesanim s nalazima. U samom sjeverozapadnom dijelu sonde pronaden je i zatrpan tok vodotoka, kroz koji je uskoro izbila voda. U najvecoj sondi na Ciglenici, sondi B, otkriveno je zanimljivo stanje. Na samom dnu, otkriven je nekadasnji vodotok u zdravici (S17). U njegovoj ispuni nalazili su se sporadicni nalazi keramike i zivotinjske kosti (S16). Keramicki ulomci sa samog

Vara`dinske Toplice-Ciglenica. Kamena stijena s tragovima pale`a u sondi C. Vara`dinske Toplice-Ciglenica. Stone with burn traces in trench C.

34

Vara`dinske Toplice-Ciglenica. Pogled na sondu B. U prvom planu vodotok sa spaljenim drvom, na zemljanom bloku ostaci podnice ku}e i pored ispra`njena jama J3. Vara`dinske Toplice-Ciglenica. A view of trench B. A waterway with burnt wood in the foreground, on a soil block the remains of a houses floor and next to emptied pit J3.

Vara`dinske Toplice-Ciglenica. Sonda H, jama J 1 , uklesana u `ivu stijenu, tijekom pra`njenja. Vara`dinske Toplice-Ciglenica. Trench H, pit J1, carved into solid rock, during emptying.

elevation. At the bottom of the trench there was a subsoil of easily crumbled solid rock. The rock was covered with a layer of charcoal of variable thickness mixed with finds. At the north-western end of the trench a former waterway was located through which water soon flowed. In the largest of the Ciglenica exploratory trenches, trench B, an interesting situation was unearthed. A former waterway was unearthed, in the subsoil, at the very bottom of the trench (Sl7). There were sporadic finds of ceramics and animal bones in its deposit (Sl6). The ceramic potsherds from the very bottom of the channel were very small, but are, by their structure likely from the Roman period. Besides this, a larger group of burnt wooden material - branches and parts of a trunk that had not been worked, were found. Carbon 14 dating of the layer that finally filled this waterway put it at the end of the 11th to the beginning of the 12th dna korita bili su vrlo sitni, ali prema fakturi century (111668 calAD).2 The following layer vjerojatno su rimskodobni. K tome, pronadena je has a straightened level and contains finds of veca nakupina spaljenog drvenog materijala - grana ceramic potsherds and other finds (Sl5). The next i neobradenih dijelova debla. Datacijom 14C sloj level is sharply delineated, with slightly more varied konacnog zatrpavanja tog vodotoka datiran je u finds (Sl3). It is probably synchronous with layer 2 prijelaz iz 11.st. u 12. st. (111668 calAD). Slijedi 4, in which are located the modest remains of an sloj u kojem je razina izravnata i u njemu se nalaze above ground house. This is part of the floor ulomci keramike i drugih nalazi (Sl5). Ostro odvojen structure once founded on stone pebbles and pieces je sljedeci sloj, s nesto vise razlicitih nalaza (Sl3). of broken brick that may be Roman period. Located Njemu je vjerojatno istovremen sloj 4, u kojem se on this foundation was the former floor of baked nalaze skromni ostaci nadzemne kuce. Rijec je o earth with levelled occupational layer. Thefloorhas, dijelu podnice koja je bila temeljena kamenim unfortunately, become entirley fractured, probably oblucima i dijelovima lomljene opeke koja bi mogla the effect of root growth so that its parts have biti anticka. Na tom temeljenju nalazio se nekadasnji become mixed with small ceramic potsherds. Small pod od pecene zemlje sa zaravnatim hodnim slojem. pieces of charcoal from this layer date the structure, Nazalost, vjerojatno djelovanjem korijenja, pod je using the C14 method, to the 16th century posve popucao, te su njegovi dijelovi bili pomijesani (154365 calAD).3 Midden (J3), dug from this sa sitnim keramickim ulomcima. Sitni komadi gara layer into the previous one, probably belongs to this iz tog sloja datiraju nam ovaj objekt 14C metodom structure (OB). Several ceramic potsherds were located in the pitsfillas was charcoal and animal bones. The structure and pit and the corresponding former occupational layer are topped by the next layer, with fewer ceramicfinds(Sl2). Further above is a thin layer of humus, with sporadic ceramic finds and several pieces of New Age roof tile (Sl1). A drawing of the profile shows clearly that construction workers removed part of this layer from above one part of the exploratory trench. Exploratory trenches D, F and G were dug on the eastern, more gradually sloped side of the elevation. 3 layers were established here. There is subsoil layer on the bottom of hard yellow marl followed by the once medieval layer, rich in clay with relatively few finds and finally a present day layer of humus with sporadicfinds.Nevertheless, a former deep entrenchment into the subsoil was recognised in exploratory trench G in the form of a ditch (OJ1). In this ditchsfill,in the lowest layer, finds of Roman and medieval ceramic were
14C klasi&na datacija izradena je u Laboratoriju za mjerenje niskih aktivnosti Instituta Ruder Boskovi u Zagrebu (Z-3276, BP 920 + 65). Skracena kalibracija putem CalPal Online Radiocarbon Calibration izradena na Sveueilistu u Kolnu Classic C14 dating was done at the Ruder Boshivic" Institutes Low Activities Measuring Laboratory in Zagreb (Z-3276, BP 920 65). Shortened calibration using CalPal Online Radiocarbon Calibration done at the University Koln.
2

u 16. st. (154365 calAD).3 Ovom objektu (OB) najvjerojatnije pripada i otpadna jama (J3) koja se nalazila ukopana iz ovog sloja u prethodni. U ispuni jame pronadeno je nekoliko keramickih ulomaka i gara te zivotinjskih kostiju. Objekt i jamu te njima pripadajuci nekadasnji hodni sloj nadvisuje sljedeci sloj, s manje keramickih nalaza (S12). Iznad njega nalazi se tanki humusni sloj, s mjestimicnim keramickim nalazima te nekoliko komada novovjekovnog crijepa (Sll). Na crtezu profila zamjetljivo je kako su gradevinari ovaj sloj ogulili iznad jednog dijela sonde. Sonde D, F i G kopane su na istocnoj, blagoj strani uzvisine. Ovdje su prepoznata 3 sloja. Na dnu se nalazi zdravica od zutog, tvrdog lapora, zatim nekadasnji srednjovjekovni glinoviti sloj s relativno brojnim nalazima te na kraju suvremeni humusni sloj sa sporadicnim nalazima. Ipak, u sondi G prepoznat je nekadasnji duboki ukop u zdravicu u obliku jarka (0J1). U ispuni jarka, u najnizem sloju, pronalazeni su nalazi rimske keramike ali i srednjovjekovne keramike. Bezoblicni ulomci opeke mogli bi biti anticki. Pri zavrsetku nasih radova, bager je probijao sredisnji prostor kako bi se izbacila nakupljena voda u stupovima vijadukta, prema betonskom propustu. Na tome mjestu otkrio se vrlo slican ukop (OJ2) jarka iz sonde G. Prosirivsi ga rucno (Sonda I), potvrdili smo postojanje dvaju nasuprotnih obrambenih jaraka. Sonda E iskopana je na uskom sacuvanom dijelu uzvisine. Iz gradevinskog profda virio je zeljezni predmet s ruckom za nasad. Sondiranjem je ustanovljeno kako je zeljezni kosir lezao u tankom zemljanom sloju na ljubicastoj stijeni. Iznad njega nalazila su se jos dva zemljana sloja s malo keramickih nalaza. Rub uzvisine prema zapadu prosiren je kasnijim zasipom. Mozda je rijec o srednjovjekovnom zaravnavanju vrha uzvisine. Sonda H nalazi se na krajnje sjevernom dijelu uzvisine koji je bio netaknut. Na ovome mjestu spajaju se kao geoloski slojevi zdravice zuti lapor sa istoka i blijedo ljubicasta porozna stijena sa zapada. U tankom humusnom sloju pronadeni su brojni ulomci keramike. Najvredniji nalaz su dvije duboke jame, uklesane u zivu stijenu (Jl,2). Izgledaju kao jame za masivne drvene stupove, a u ispuni su pronadeni ulomci keramike. U jednoj (Jl) je pronaden gar koji je ispunu opredijelio u 16.st. 14C metodom (156052 calAD).4 Posljednja sonda, sonda X, bila je na krajnje juznom dijelu nalazista, vec na obroncima visokog brda iz kojeg uzvisina Ciglenica izlazi kao niza greda. Na dnu sonde nalazio se sloj s mjestimicnim nalazima smrvljene keramike koja bi se mogla odrediti kao rimska. Iznad njega nalazi se omedeni

unearthed. Shapeless fragments of brick may originate from the Roman period. After our work was done an excavator breached the central area in order to drain water that had gathered in the viaducts arches, towards the concrete culvert. An entrenchment (OJ2) was unearthed there very similar to the ditch in trench G. Widening it by hand (Trench I), we confirmed the existence of two facing defensive ditches. Trench E was excavated on a narrow preserved portion of the elevation. An iron object with a setting handle protruded from the construction profde. A sondage established that the iron billhook lay in a thin layer of soil on purplish rock. Above it were a further two layers of soil with few ceramicfinds.A later fill widened the westward edge of the elevation. This may have been a medieval levelling of the top of the elevation. Trench H is located to the untouched far north of the elevation. Joined here as a geological subsoil layer are yellow marl from the east and porous pale purple rock from the west. Numerous potsherds were collected in the thin layer of humus. The most valuable features are two deep pits, carved into solid rock (Jl,2). They appear to be post holes for massive wooden posts. Potsherds were found in the pits fill. Charcoal was found in one (Jl) that dated the fill to the 16th century using the C14 method (156052 calAD).4 Thefinalsondage, trench X, was at the far south of the site, right off the slopes of a tall hill from which the Ciglenica elevation spreads as a lower ridge. At the bottom of the trench was a layer scattered finds of shattered ceramics that could be designated as Roman. Above it was a well-defined and dense layer of charcoal, burnt earth, crushed

Vara`dinske Toplice-Ciglenica. Ostaci objekta u gra|evinskom profilu sonda X prije po~etka iskopavanja. Vara`dinske Toplice-Ciglenica. Remains of a structure in a construction cross section - trench X prior to excavation.

14C dataeija AMS izradena je u Leibniz Labor fur Altersbestimmung undlsotopenforsehung, Christian-Albreehts-Unwersitat u E e l u (KIA21272, BP 366+27). Skraeena kalibraeija putem CalPal Online Radiocarbon Calibration izradena na Sveueilistu u Kolnu. Carton 14 AMS dating was done at the Leibniz Laborfur Altersbestimmung und Isotopenforschung, Christian-AIbrechts- Vniversitdt in Kiel (KIA21272, BP 36627). Shortened calibration using CalPal Online Radiocarbon Calibration done at the University ofKoln .
1 14C dataeija AMS izradena je u Leibniz Labor fiir Altersbestimmung und Isotopenforseliung, Cliristian-Albreelits-Universitat u Eelu (KIA21270, BP 33523). Skraeena kalibraeija putem CalPal Online Radiocarbon Calibration izradena na Sveucilistu u Kolnu. Carbon 14 AMS dating was done at the Leibniz Laborfur Altersbestimmung und Isotopenforschung, Christian-AIbrechts- Vniversitdt in Kiel (KLA21270, BP 33S23). Shortened calibration using CalPal Online Radiocarbon Calibration done at the University ofKoln .

36

Varazdinske Toplice-Ciglenica. Ulomak lonca s trnastim obodom. 12796 calAD. (T2-10) Vara`dinske Toplice-Ciglenica. Potsherd of a pot with thorny rim. 1279+6 calAD. (T2-10)

sloj gustoga gara, paljene zemlje, smrvljenog ljepa te mnostvo ulomaka keramike. Kako se sve to nalazilo u gusto pomijesanom sloju dubljine do 10 cm, nije jasno da li je ovdje rijec o spaljenoj drvenoj kuci ili o ostacima jame za susenje keramike. Pronadeni su i bezoblicni veci i manji komadi pecene zemlje koji bi mogli biti ostaci ljepa kuce ali i dijelovi peel Ostaci posuda ne upucuju na radionicki otpad a slicni su primjerci rjecti na drugim dijelovima ovog nalazista. Gar je datiran 14C metodom u 13. st. (12796 calAD).6 Iznad ovog sloja nalazila su se jos dva podeblja zemljana sloja s mnogo nalaza mlade keramike. Kako je ovdje rijec o strmini, svi slojevi prate nagib, pa se istanjuju prema zdravici. U kutu sonde pronaden je ponovno ostatak vodotoka koji je prepoznat i u sondi B i C, koje bi se nalazile nizvodno. No, on ima svoj vrh iznad razine gara, pa tako s obzirom na obje datacije mozemo zakljuciti kako je objekt u sondi X bio ukopan. Opsezni gradevinski radovi i nizbrdica na kojoj smo se nalazili onemogucili su prosirenja ove zanimljive sonde. POKRETNI NALAZI Keramicki nalazi Na Ciglenici je pronadena velika kolicina keramike koja se treba datirati u razvijeni i kasni srednji vijek. Nazalost, nije pronadena ni jedna cijela posuda, ali se vrlo pazljivim pristupom iskopavanju te kasnijem razvrstavanju gradiva uspjelo rekonstruirati nekoliko posuda, koje uspjesno oprimjeruju kasnije faze ovog naselja. Najranije srednjovjekovne nalaze prikupili smo uglavnom u sondi X, odnosno u spaljenom objektu (ili peci) na obroncima brda na juznoj strani, izvan pretpostavljenog sredista naselja. Nesto istodobnih ulomaka pronaslo se i u dubljim slojevima u ostalim sondama ili su otkriveni kao slucajni nalazi u hrpama zemlje na gradilistu. Unatoc tome sto je u objektu u sondi X pronadena veca kolicina ulomaka, kasnijom obradom pokazalo se kako posude nisu bile razbijene unutar te zatvorene cjeline, vec su tu naknadno ubacene. Naime, od nekoliko stotina ulomaka visednevnim pregledavanjem pronadeno je samo nekoliko spojeva, pa se ni jedna posuda nije mogla rekonstuirati. Ta zatvorena cjelina datirana je u drugu polovinu 13.st. metodom 14C, a sama keramika prema tipoloskim obiljezjima odgovara razdoblju od 12. do 13. stoljeca. Za to razdoblje karakteristicni su odrezani rubovi oboda, koji su tada trakasto prosirivani, za razliku od uskih u razdoblju 9. i 10.
5

daub and numerous potsherds. As all this was located in a densely mixed layer of up to 10 cm thickness, it is not altogether clear whether these are the remains of a burnt house or the remains of a ceramic drying pit. Also found were larger and smaUer shapeless fragments of fired earth that could be the remains of a houses daub or of parts of a kiln. The remains of vessels do not point to workshop refuse and similar specimens are rarer in other parts of this site. The charcoal was dated using the C14 method to the 13th century (1279 6 calAD).6 Above this layer were another two thick layers of soil with many finds of younger ceramics. As this is a slope, all of the layers follow the slopes inclination, as become thinner towards the subsoil. The remains of the waterway located in trenchs B and C was again located in a corner of this trench, which would be located down water. Its apex is, however, above the level of charcoal so that, based on both datings, we can conclude that the structure in trench X was buried. Extensive construction work and the downhill slope we were located on did not allow us to widen this interesting trench. FINDS Ceramic finds A large quantity of ceramics was located at Ciglenica that should be dated to the developed and late Middle Ages. Unfortunately, not a single intact vessel was located, but very careful excavation and later sorting of the collected material saw the reconstruction of several vessels, that successfully characterise the later phase of this settlement. Most of the earliest medievalfindswere coUected in trench X, that is, in the burnt structure (or kiln) on the southern slopes of the hill, outside of the assumed centre of the settlement. Some concurrent potsherds were located in deeper layers in other trenches or were unearthed as chancefindsin piles of soil on the construction site. Despite there being a larger quantity of potsherds located in the feature in trench X, later analysis showed that these vessels were not broken within the closed structure, but were jettisoned there subsequently. Namely, many days of sifting through several hundred potsherds did not yield more than a few connections, and not a single vessel could be reconstructed. This closed structure was dated to the second half of the 13th century using the C14 method, while the ceramic itself, based on its characteristics, belongs to the period from the 12th to 13th century. Trimmed rim edges are typical for the period, that were then widened in ribbon fashion, unlike their narrow counterparts from the 9th to 10th century periods.

Vara`dinske Toplice-Ciglenica. Rekonstruirani lonac. (T7-1) Vara`dinske Toplice-Ciglenica. Reconstructed pot. (T7-1)

14C dataeija AMS izradena je u Leibniz Labor fiir Altersbestiimmmg und Isotopenforsehung, Christian-Albreelits-Universitat u Eelu (KIA21271, BP 725 19). Ishod postigmit klasi&iom metodom na Institutu Ruder Bosko" donio je mladi ishod, ali s veeom greskom (Z-3275, BP 515 + 65). Arheoloski nalazi iz sloja pripadaju ranijoj dataeiji. Skraeena kalibraeija putem CalPal Online Radiocarbon Calibration izradena na Sveueilistu u Kolnu. Carton 14 AMS dating was done at the Leibniz Laborfur Altersbestimmung und Isotopenforsehung, Christian-Albrechts- Vniversitat in Kiel (KIA-21271, BP 72519). Result obtained using the classic method at the Ruder Boskovic" Institute g^ve a younger dating, Jmt with greater error margin (Z-3275, BP 515 d5J. Ills archaeological finds from the layer belong to an earlier dating. Shortened calibration using CalPal Online Radiocarbon Calibration done at the University ofKoln.

stoljeca. Za razdoblje 12. i 13. st. karakteristican je i tzv. trn, odnosno izbocenje na donjem rubu trake oboda, koji u presjeku izgleda kao trn (vidi npr. T2-10-15). Dio nalaza iz objekta u sondi X moze se usporedititi sa istovremenima s Magdalensberga ( J E R N E J 2001, 466, t.1-1,2) i s posudom u kojoj je pronadena pseca glava s nalazista Torcec Crkvisce ( S E K E L J - I V A N C A N , K U Z I R , BAUER, MARKOVIC 1999). Kasnosrednjovjekovna keramika, s odlikama gotickog razdoblja najcesci je nalaz na Ciglenici. Odnosi se na razdoblje kasnog 14.st. pa sve do kraja 16.stoljeca. Kao i dmgdje, keramika ovog razdoblja na Ciglenici uglavnom je odlicno ili bar vrlo dobro pecena, posude su cvrste i ne osipaju se. Glina u to doba nije bila jos potpuno prociscavana prije pecenja, pa je zato kao primjesa u gradi ostao sitan kamen i pijesak. Najveci dio posuda je smedesivo pecen, u svim tonovima, dok su crvenkaste posude izrazito rijetke. S obzirom na karakter nalazista, iznenadujuce raznolik je repertoar oblika i funkcija keramickih p r e d m e t a . P r o n a d e n i su ostaci pravokutnih pecnjaka (Ofenkachel), lonaca za kuhanje, cepova, casa, pehara, vrceva, boca i vrlo sirokih posuda za pohranu hrane. Vecina posuda upueuje na isti radionicki krug, ali nalazimo i nesto materijala uvezenoga iz daljih prostora. Upozoriti treba kako su ipak vrlo rijetki ili potpuno nedostaju neki oblici p o s u d a koje cesto nalazimo na kasnosrednjovjekovnim i ranonovovjekovnim starim gradovima u Sloveniji i sjevernoj Hrvatskoj. Rijec je o tronoznim zdjelama i tavama, sirokim i uskim zdjelama sa supljom ruckom, ocakljenim reljefnim pecnjacima, tanjurima itd. Vecina spomenutih oblika uglavnom je ocakljena, a na Ciglenici postoji tek nekoliko ulomaka sa caklinom. Slicno stanje je i s posudama ukrasenim bojenim crtama. Takoder posve nedostaje ukras u vidu plasticne trake isprekidane utorima jagodica prstiju, docim postoje trake sa uskim urezima. Ovu cinjenicu opravdao bill razvojem spomenutih oblika u vremenu kasnijem od nalaza na Ciglenici, sto zorno predocuje kronoloski razvoj posuda na prijelazu iz kasnosrednjovjekovnog razdoblje u ranonovovjekovno razdoblje (npr. Leipzig: SCHMITT, WESTP H A L E N 1994: abb.l59). Na Ciglenici je pronadeno mnogo keramickih pehara i casa raznih oblika (T4-10, T5-1, T7-4,5, T8-11, T9-l,2,5, T10-6, T l l - 7 , 9 , T12-5, T135); medutim, skroman je broj izravnih usporedbi s gradivom sa ostalih nalazista. Casa trbusastog oblika T5-1 moze se usporediti s nalazom iz Sokolovca, a casa na visokoj nozi T12-5 s primjerkom iz Kraljeve Velike koji se datiraju u 14-15.st. ( S E K E L J IVANCAN 2002, t.2-6, t.4-5). Pehari i case uglavnom su lijepo ukraseni i ubrajaju se medu najkvalitetnije keramicke proizvode na Ciglenici, a s obzirom na nacine izrade, za vecinu se moze reel kako su uvezeni iz nekih daljih radionica. Medu uvezeno posude treba uvrstiti i bojenu keramiku (T8-4), rucku s urezima (T8-14), ulomak s pecatnim ukrasom (T4-2) i ulomak s

Also typical for the 12th to 13th century period was the co-called thorn, that is, a projection on the lower edge of the rim ribbon that in a crosssection resembles a thorn (see for example T2-1015). Part of finds in the structure in trench X can be c o m p a r e d to c o n c u r r e n t ones from Magdalensberg ( J E R N E J 2001, 466, t.1-1,2) and with a vessel in which a dogs head was found at the Torcec - Crkvisce site (SEKELJ-IVANCAN, K U Z I R BAUER, MARKOVIC 1999). Late medieval period ceramics, with traits of the Gothic period, are the most numerous finds at Ciglenica. This covers the period from the late 14th century to the end of the 16th century. As elsewhere, the ceramics of this period is at Ciglenica predominantly very well or at least well fired, the vessels are firm and do not crumble. Clay at the time was still not fully refined prior to firing, so that the material is stiU tempered by tiny fragments of stone and sand. The lions share of the vessels are fired brownish-grey, in grey tones, while reddish vessels are very rare. Given the kind of site this is, the repertoire of shape and function of these ceramic objects is surprisingly diverse. Remains were found of rectangular stove tiles (Ofenkachel), cooking pots, stoppers, drinking vessels, goblets, jugs, bottles and very wide vessels for food storage. Most of the vessels point to a single workshop, but there is some material imported from distant areas. It should be pointed out however, that some vessel types often found in late medieval or early New Age towns in Slovenia and northern Croatia are nevertheless exceedingly rare or not present. These are three-legged bowls and pans, wide and narrow bowls with hollow handles, glazed relief stove tiles, plates and so forth. Most of the mentioned forms are glazed, while Ciglenica yielded only a few potsherds sporting glaze. The situation is similar with vessels decorated with coloured lines. Also completely missing are decorations like plastic ribbons with intermittent depressions made by impressed fingertips, while there are ribbons with narrow grooves. I would attribute this fact to the development of the mentioned forms in a period later than that of the Ciglenica finds, vividly shown the chronological development of vessels at the transition from the late medieval period to the early New Age period (for example, Leipzig: S C H M I T T , W E S T P H A L E N 1994: abb.l59). Many ceramic goblets and drinking vessels of varied shapes were located at Ciglenica (T4-10, T5-1, T7-4,5, T8-11, T9-l,2,5, T10-6, T l l - 7 , 9 , T12-5, T13-5); the number of direct correlations, however, with the material of other sites is meagre. T5-1, a bulge-shaped drinking vessel can be compared with a find from Sokolovac, while T125, a high-legged drinking vessel can be related to a specimen from Kraljevo Veliko that date from the 14th-15th centuries (SEKELJ-IVANCAN 2002, t.2-6, t.4-5). Both goblets and drinking vessels are mostly nicely decorated and can be counted among the highest-quality ceramic products at Ciglenica

37

Varazdinske Toplice-Ciglenica. Dio pehara? (T12-5) Vara`dinske Toplice-Ciglenica. Part of a goblet? (T12-5)

Varazdinske Toplice-Ciglenica. Ulomak velike spremisne posude. (T12-9) Vara`dinske Toplice-Ciglenica. Potsherd of a large storage vessel. (T12-9)

38

Varazdinske Toplice-Ciglenica. Rekonstruirani lonac. 156052 calAD. (T9-8) Vara`dinske Toplice-Ciglenica. Reconstructed pot. 1560+52 calAD. (T9-8)

Vara`dinske Toplice-Ciglenica. Djelomi~no rekonstruirana kerami~ka boca. (T12-13) Vara`dinske Toplice-Ciglenica. Partially reconstructed ceramic bottle. (T12-13)

crticama od kotacica (T13-8). Ovi su ulomci na Ciglenici izdvojeni kao jedinstveni nalazi, a na ostalim okolnim n a l a z i s t i m a nisu brojnije zastupljeni. Keramicki ulomak bojen s dvije tamne crte na svijetloj pozadini slican je pronadenima na utvrdi Mende (MIKLOS 1981, t.19, t.16) a autor ih datira u 12 - 13.st. Nasi ulomci vjerojatno potjecu iz razmjerno kasnijeg vremena. Pronaden je ulomak siroke racke s paralelnim urezima u nizu, T8-14. Veci broj takvih rucki s urezima pronaden je na Gradiseu sjeverno od Nedelisca (TOMICIC 1990, sl.10) koje autor pripisuje ukrasima 13.st., a pronalaze se i drugdje u sredisnjoj Europi u doba 13 - 14.st. (Auersperk, POLACEK 1989, t.4-8). U istrazivanjima nalazista S t a r a ves kod Nedelisca pronadena je i otpadna jama (Kl) s keramickim gradivom koje vjerojatno pripada loncarskoj radionici 16. do 17.st., a u blizini je pronaden ulomak slicne racke koji bi takoder valjalo datirati u 16.st. (Stara ves T15-1). U skladu s time, a i prema stratigrafskom polozaju, ulomak sa Ciglenice je najbolje pripisati 16.stoljecu. Ulomci boca T7-7, T12-13 mogu se postaviti u 15. i 16.st. i usporediti s nalazom iz Sokolovca (SEKELJ-IVANCAN 2002, t.72). Nekoliko ulomaka pripada vrcevima ili bocama s ruckom(ama) (T7-8, T8-12). Cest nalaz su i cepovi (T6-9, T7-10, T8-7,10, T 1 2 - 7 , l l , T13-6,7), kojih je vjerojatno i vise, ali ih je tesko odrediti u slucaju kada im obodi slice obodima lonaca, sto je na ovom nalazista dosta cesto. Vrlo zanimljiv nalaz su i velike spremisne posude, na ceskome zasobnice, od kojih je pronadeno nekoliko ulomaka. Postoje vrlo grube, od slabo prociscene gline, s tragovima pljeve i citavih sjemenki na vanjskom dijelu stijenki (T6-7, T139) i vrlo kvalitetne, od tvrdo pecene gline s ukrasom - crtama na obodu (T5-3). Ove posude zbog svojih velikih mjera nisu izradivane na kolu, pa primjerice T5-3 s vanjske strane ima vidljive tragove nanosenja slojeva i ravnanja povrsine. Takoder je tesko odrediti promjer otvora, a jos teze samu zapreminu kqja je sigurno bila zamasna. U Ceskqj su pronadene na mnogim nalazistima (Mstenice, NEKUDA 1985, s . l 0 9 , s . l l l ; MECHUROVA 1997, s.63, t.LXV-13, t.LXVI-1) a datiraju se u razdoblje od 14. do 15. stoljeca. Na Canjevu su pronadeni primjerci u nekadasnjoj ostavi koja je L prigradena uz starije zidove, pa mislim da kt bi se kod nas mogle datirati u 16. st. (objekt 2, BEKIC, SEKULA 2005, 79). Ovu dataciju potvrduje i 14C datacija objekta na Ciglenici. Bolje izradeni primjerak (T5-3) pomalo slici i na veliku zdjelu pronadenu u Bratislavi (HOSSO 1997, obr.2-1) pa nije sigurno jeli rrjec o istom tipu kao kod prethodna dva. Nazalost, ni na Ciglenici, niti na Canjevu nisu pronadena dna ovih

and, given the method of manufacture, it can be said of most that they were imported from some distant workshops. Coloured ceramics (T8-4), grooved handles (T8-14), fragments with stamped decoration (T42) and potsherds with lines made by small wheels (T13-8) should be counted among the imported vessels. These potsherds have been separated as unique finds at Ciglenica, and are not frequent at other nearby sites. A ceramic potsherd coloured with two dark lines on a lighter background is similar to those found at the Mende fortress (MIKLOS 1981, t.19, t.16) with the author dating them to the 12th - 13th century. Our potsherds probably hail from a relatively later date. A potsherd of a wide handle with a series of parallel engravings, T8-14, was found. A larger number of engraved handles like this one were found in Gradisce north of Nedelisce (TOMICIC 1990, sl.10) that the author attributes to 13th century decoration, and are found elsewhere in Central Europe in the 13th - 14th century period ( A u e r s p e r k , P O L A C E K 1 9 8 9 , t . 4 - 8 ) . In researching the Stara ves site near Nedelisce a midden was found (Kl) with ceramic material that probably hails from a pottery workshop from the 16th to 17th century, while a potsherd of a similar handle was found nearby that ought also to be dated to the 16th century (Stara ves T15-1). In line with this, and given the stratigraphic position, the Ciglenica potsherd is best attributed to the 16th century. Bottle potsherds T7-7, T12-13 can be attri buted to the 15th and 16th centuries and compared to finds from Sokolovac (SEKELJ-IVANCAN 2002, t.7-2). Several potsherds belong to jugs or bottles with one or more handles (T7-8, T8-12). Stoppers are a frequent find (T6-9, T7-10, T87, 10, T 1 2 - 7 , l l , T13-6,7), there likely being even more, but difficult to identify when their rims are similar to the rims of bowls, quite frequent at this site. Very interesting finds are large storage vessels, called zasobnic in the Czech language, of which several potsherds where found. There are very rough specimens, made of poorly refined clay, with traces of chaff and entire seeds on the outer wall (T6-7, T13-9) but also very well made ones, of hard-fired clay with decorations in the form of lines on the rim (T5-3). These vessels were not, on account of their great size, made on a potters wheel, so that T5-3 for example, has on its outside visible traces of applied layers and surface evening. It is also difficult to ascertain the diameter of the opening, and even harder to determine the vessels volume, although it must have been considerable. They have been unearthed in the Czech Republic at many sites (Mstenice, NEKUDA 1985, pg.109, p g . l l l ; MECHUROVA 1997, pg.63, t.LXV-13, t.LXVI-1) and have been dated to the period from the 14th to 15th centuries. Specimens were located at Canjevo in a former storage room that was built

posuda, pa im pravi oblik mozemo samo naslucivati prema usporedbama. Pecnjaci sa Ciglenice redovito pripadaju neukrasenim cetverouglatim tipovima (T6-16, T13-2,4, T10-4, T8-2,3). Kako reljefni pecnjaci uopce nisu pronadeni, moze se pretpostaviti kako je stanovnicima Ciglenice za njih nedostajao novae, odnosno da su takve peci bile neprimjerene drvenim kucama kakve tu pretpostavljamo. Proizvodnje klasicnih neukrasenih cetverouglastih peenjaka pocela je prije proizvodnje onih reljefnih, ali je nastavljena i nadalje, usporedo s raskosnijim, sto se moze pratiti i na kasnijim nalazistima. Primjerice, pecnjaci na Canjevu, identicni ovima sa Ciglenice, usporedni su raznim inacicama cakljenih i necakljenih reljefnih peenjaka (BEKIC 2004, 18,19; BEKIC, SEKULA 2005, t.l). Najvecim postotkom medu posudem zastupljeni su, naravno, lonci. Na vecini su izvedeni siroki obodi rasclanjeni s vise rebara i utorima s unutrasnje strane ruba, te sa srednje tankim stijenkama. To su sve odlike razdoblja od 14. do 16. st. (JERNEJ 2001, 466). Zanimljiva je posebna vrsta lonaca s urezanom oznakom X s unutrasnje strane oboda (T3-2,3, T6-1, T12-12). Oznaka je bila urezana u vlaznu glinu, a vecina ulomaka ima ukras u vidu lazne pletene trake i valovnice na ramenu. Za razliku od krizne oznake na dnu posude (npr. T36, T5-1, T6-14 itd.), koja je trag loncarskog kola i dio tehnickog procesa, ovi X urezi namjerna su oznaka u pravom smislu te rijeci. S obzirom na srodnost ovih posuda, zasigurno je rijec o odredenoj radionici, koja se zasad ne moze locirati. Jedini lonac s urezanom oznakom X s unutrasnje strane oboda za koji znam, pronaden je u Celju (GUSTIN, JEZERSEK, PROSEK 2001, s.212-32). Prilikom istrazivanja nalazista Nedelisce-Gradisce pronadene su dvije rucke koje takoder imaju urezan znak X, a autor ih datira u 13.st. (TOMICIC1990, sl.10-9,10). Nije pronadeno mnogo gradevinskog materijala. Ulomci opeke pronadeni su vrlo usitnjeni. Za dio se moze opravdano pretpostaviti kako su anticki, ali dio bi mogao biti i srednjovjekovni. Takoder nije bilo ostataka vapna ili zbuke, pa valja zakljuciti kako su srednjovjekovni objekti u cijelosti bili izgradeni od drva. Kao slucajni nalaz pronaden je i mali ukraseni ulomak koji je vjerojatno dio casice lule (T14-5). Nacin izrade podsjeca na madarske proizvode 18. i 19. st. (BEKIC 2000, 252). Metalni nalazi Na Ciglenici je pronadeno relativno mnogo metalnih nalaza. Najcesci su kovani cavli raznih velicina i oblika, tipicni za srednjovjekovno razdoblje. Pronadeno je i dosta zeljeznih nozeva u razlicitom stanju sacuvanosti (T4-3, T6-17, T142,3,4?). Najbolje ocuvana je drska noza T6-17, s dvije bakrene zakovice na drsci za uevrscivanje drva, koje je i sacuvano u tragovima. Na jabucici (peti) drske nalaze se tri bakrene plocice, izmedu kojili su drvene

as an annex on older walls, so that I am of the opinion that they could be dated to in our case to the 16th century (structure 2, BEKIC, SEKULA 2005, 79). This dating is confirmed by C14 dating of the structure at Ciglenica. A better-made specimen (T5-3) is slightly similar to a large bowl found in Bratislava (HOSSO 1997, obr.2-1) so that it is uncertain if this is the same type as with the previous two. Unfortunately, the bottoms of these vessels were not located, neither at Ciglenica nor at Canjevo, so that their true shape can only be surmised based on comparison. Stove tiles at Ciglenica regularly are of the undecorated four-cornered type (T6-16, T13-2,4, T10-4, T8-2,3). As stove tiles with relief were not found at aU, it can be surmised that the inhabitants of Ciglenica had not the level of wealth needed to acquire them, or that stoves of that kind were not suited to the wooden houses we have assumed were located here. The production of classic, undecorated, four-cornered stove tiles started before the production of those bearing relief impressions but continued later on, concurrent to the more luxurious models, which can be followed at later-period sites. Jbr example, the unglazed stove tiles at Canjevo, identical to these at Ciglenica, are found together with glazed and relief versions (BEKIC 2004, 18,19; BEKIC, SEKULA 2005, t.l). The greatest percentage of vessels present here are, of course, pots. Most have wide rims, divided with several ribs and grooves on the inside of the edge, and having walls of medium thickness. These are all traits typical of the period from the 14th to 16th centuries (JERNEJ 2001, 466). A particular type of pot with an X mark engraved into the inside of the rim is interesting (T3-2, 3, T6-1, T12-12). The sign was engraved into wet clay, and most fragments have a false pleated ribbon decoration and wavy lines on the shoulder. Unlike the cross mark on the bottom of a vessel (for example T3-6, T5-1, T6-14 etc.), that is a trace of the potters wheel and a part of the technical process, these X engravings are a deliberate mark in the true sense of the word. Given the correlation of these vessels, it is surely from a single workshop that can, for the moment, not be identified. The only pot with an engraved X mark on the inside of the rim that I know of was found at Celje (GUSTIN, JEZERSEK, PROSEK 2001, pg.212-32). While researching the NedelisceGradisce site two handles were found that also have an engraved X mark, and are dated by the author to the 13th century (TOMICIC 1990, sl.10-9,10). Not much construction material was found. Only very fragmented potsherds of brick were collected.

39

varazdinske Toplice-Ciglenica. Rekonstruirani lonac. (T10-7) Varazdinske Toplice-Ciglenica. Reconstructed pot. (110-7)

40

Vara`dinske Toplice-Ciglenica. Ulomak lonca s urezanom oznakom X. (T3-3) Vara`dinske Toplice-Ciglenica. Potsherd of a pot with engraved X mark. (T3-3)

plocice istili mjera. Gotovo identicni nozevi pronadeni su u Ruzici kod Orahovice (RADIC, BOJCIC 2004, s.92) a autori su ih datirali u 15 - 16.stolece. Vjerqjatno istom tipu pripada i ostecena drska T14-2 (PN2), koja ima urezane utore kao i primjerak s Ruzice (RADIC, BOJCIC 2004, s.92-71). Vrh strijele, T14-1, u obliku lista sa zadebljanjem pred trnom, tipican je za ovo razdoblje. Slicne strijele, ali romboidnog oblika, pronadene su u Podumcima kod Unesica (KRNCEVIC 2000, t.-5,t-6); potjecu iz borbi s Turcima i datiraju u prvu polovinu 15. stoljeca. Vrlo slicna strelica pronadena je i u Veletinu na Kosovu (SHUKRIU 1988, s.107, sl.5).6 Neobican je u cijelosti ocuvan kosir, T14-19, kovan od masivnog zeljeza. Kosiri s drugih nalazista (Ruzica RADIC,BOJCIC 2004, s.105; Konuvky MECHUROVA 1997, t.LII-4) nisu istog oblika kao nas primjerak. Medutim, kosir je pronaden u stratigrafski netaknutom sloju i nedvojbeno pripada vremenu oko 15.st. Od ostalih predmeta moze se spomenuti i jedno osteceno dlijeto T10-10. Ostali nalazi Dosta istrosen i napukao kameni bras (T8-6), treba prema stratigrafskom polozaju datirati u 16.stoljece. Kosti Prilikom sondiranja Ciglenice pronadeno je 160 ulomaka zivotinjskih kostiju i provedeno je njihovo odredivanje. Na osnovi arheozooloskog izvjestaja, dobivena je bolja slika privrednih prilika na nasem srednjovjekovnom naselju. Medu kostima, koje su barem donekle bile cjelovite, prepoznat je 1 ulomak kosti velikog prezivaca, 5 ulomaka kostiju malih prezivaca, 10 ulomaka kostiju goveda, 8 ulomaka kostiju jelena te 11 ulomaka kostiju svinje. Na nekim kostima uocljivi su tragovi zuba mesozdera pa se smatra da je u naselju bilo i pasa koji su se hranili ostacima ljudske ishrane. Mnogobrojne kosti pronadene su u zemlji vec prekopanoj prilikom gradevinskih radova, a ostale su uglavnom iz raznih slojeva. Ono sto I vrijedi izdvojiti kao zanimljivo u [ stratigrafskom pogledu jest to da u sondi X nisu pronadeni ulomci ' kostiju, pa niti u nasem neodredenom objektu. U sloju zatrpavanja po' toka u sondi B (ll/12.st.) pronadeni su veliki dijelovi kostiju goveda. U objektu OB sonde B (16.st.) pronadene su kosti, doduse neprepoznate, ali su izvan objekta u pripadajucem hodnom sloju (4) prepoznate kosti goveda i svinje. U njima pripadajucoj jami (J3) prepoznate su kosti goveda i jelena. I u sloju koji datacijski prethodi

Fbr some it is tenable to surmise that they hail from the Roman period, while another part are likely medieval. There were no remains of mortar or wall plaster, so that it can be concluded that the medieval structures were entirely constructed of wood. A small, decorated potsherd was located as a chance find that is probably part of a pipe bowl (T14-5). The method of manufacture is reminiscent of Hungarian production in the 18th and 19th centuries (BEKIC 2000, 252). Metal finds Relatively large quantities of metal finds were coUected at Ciglenica. The most frequent are forged iron nails of various sizes and shapes, typical of the medieval period. A large quantity of iron knives was found in various levels of preservation (T4-3, T6-17, T14-2, 3, 4?). The best preserved is the handle of a knife T6-17, with two copper rivets on the handle for affixing the wood, itself preserved in traces. There are three copper plates on the hilts pommel, between which are wooden plates of the same dimensions. Almost identical knives were found at Ruzica near Orahovica (RADIO, BOJCIC 2004, pg.92), dated by the authors to the 15th to 16th centuries. A damaged handle T14-2 (PN2) is probably of the same type, and has engraved groves like the specimen from Ruzice (RADIC, BOJCIC2004, pg.92-71). An arrowhead, T14-1, leaf-shaped and widened before the tip, is typical of this period. Similar arrowheads, but of rhomboid shape, were located in Podumci near Unesic (KRNCEVIC 2000, t.5,t-6); their origin is from battles done with Turkish forces and date to the first half of the 15th century. A very similar arrowhead was located at Veletino in Kosovo (SHUKRIU 1988, pg.l07, sl.5).6 An unusualfindis an entirely preserved biUhook, T14-19, forged of solid iron. Bill-hooks from other sites (Ruzica RADIC, BOJCIC 2004, pg.105; Konuvky MECHUROVA 1997, t.LII-4) are not of the same shape as our specimen. The billhook was, however, found in a stratigraphicaUy untouched layer and undoubtedly belongs to a time around the 15th century. Of other objects we can mention one damaged chisel, T10-10. Other finds A quite worn and cracked whetstone (T8-6) that based on its stratigraphic position should be dated to the 16th century. Bones 160 fragments of animal bone were located and classified at the Ciglenica sondages. A more complete picture of the reigning economic conditions in our medieval settlement was gotten from an archaeozoological report. Identified among the

Vara`dinske Toplice-Ciglenica. Rekonstruirani lonac. (T8-1) Vara`dinske Toplice-Ciglenica. Reconstructed pot. (T8-1)

6 Autor je datira u starije zeljezno doba; medutim, trebalo bi je pripisati srednjem yijeku, jer uostalom iz toga doba na Veletinu i postoje ostaei utvrde. The author dates it to the early Iron Age; it should however, by attributed to the Middle Ages, because there are remains of a fortification from that period at Veletino.

ovima, pronadene su kosti jelena te svinje i goveda. Prema tome proistjece to da je osim klasicnog stocarstva duze vrijeme bio zastupljen lov, i to na visoku divljac. Kakve su bile pravne pretpostavke za takvu vrstu lova ili krivolova u kaptolskim sumama od 14. do 16. st., tek treba istraziti. Veterinari u svom izvjestaju jos dodaju kako veci broj ulomaka dugih kostiju upueuje na namjerno razbijanje. Takvi postupci provodeni radi pristupa kostanoj srzi koja je mogla nadopuniti ishranu ljudi u razdobljima nestasice i smanjene ishrane, ili radi dobivanja manjih komada koji su podlozniji za izradu oruda. Takvi p r e d m e t i doduse nisu pronadeni, osim sto su na nekim kostima prema misljenju veterinara namjerno izvedeni urezi.

ZAKLJUCAK
U n a t o c velikom broju i s k o p a n i h sondi, mnogobrojnim sitnim nalazima te izvrsenim ispitivanjima, ovo nalaziste ipak nije moguce sa sigurnoscu rastumaciti. Ocigledno je da se na ovome mjestu zivjelo u srednjem vijeku, a bilo je posjecivano i u ranorimsko, novovjeko i moderno doba. Polozaj je, premda bez velikog vojnostrateskog znacenja, ipak vrlo istaknut u ovoj dolini. Osim mjestimicnih rimskih nalaza koji se ne mogu tumaciti, sigurno je kako je nekadasnji vodotok na zapadnoj strani uzvisine bio u 12.st. zatrpan ili (i) premjesten. Iznad uzvisine, na obroncima viseg brda, nalazila se drvena kuca ili jama (OX) za pecenje keramike iz 13.st. Nakon toga, iskopana su dva obrambena jarka, koji su sluzili kako bi se uzvisina odvojila od viseg brda (OJl,2). Jarak, dakle, nije bio prokopan cijelom duzinom, vec samo u obliku dva usjeka, koji su suzavali prolaz prema naseljenom zaravanku. Njihovo zatrpavanje datirano je keramickim nalazima od 14. do lG.stoljeca. Sto se nalazilo na sredisnjem dijelu zaravanka uzvisine, necemo saznati jer je taj dio vec bio gradevinski iskopan. Ipak,

bones, that are at least in part intact, were 1 bone fragment from a large ruminant, 5 bone fragments from small ruminants, 10 bone fragments from cattle, 8 bone fragments from deer and 11 bone fragments from swine. The teeth marks of a carnivore are recognisable on some of the bones so that it is likely that there were dogs in the settlement that were fed with the leftovers of a human diet. Numerous bones were located in the soil already excavated during construction work, the rest being predominantly from various layers. What deserves to be singled out as interesting in the stratigraphic sense is that there were no bone fragments located in t r e n c h X, not even in our unidentified structure. In the creek filling layer of trench B (llth/12th century) there were a large fragments of cattle bone. Bones were found in structure OB of trench B (16th century), admittedly unidentified, but outside the structure in the corresponding occupational layer (4) of identified cattle and swine bones. The bones of cattle and deer were identified in their corresponding pit (J3). And again in the layer that dating has preceding these ones, the ones of deer, swine and cattle were found. This means that, besides classic cattle breeding, big game hunting too was present for a longer period of time. What the legal conditions were for this kind of hunting or poaching in forests owned by the Kaptol were from the 14th to 16th centuries has yet to be researched. Veterinarians have in their report added that a larger number of the bone fragments indicate deliberate breaking. This was done in order to get to the bone marrow during periods of privation or in order to procure smaller pieces suitable for tool making. Objects like that were, admittedly, not found, outside of some bones on which, in the opinion of veterinarians, engravings were made deliberately.

41

Varazdinske Toplice-Ciglenica. Ulomak lonca. Slucajni nalaz. Vara`dinske Toplice-Ciglenica. Potsherd. Chance find.

CONCLUSION

Vara`dinske Toplice-Ciglenica. S obzirom na kratke rokove, radilo se do kasno u ve~ernje sate. Vara`dinske Toplice-Ciglenica. Given the short period of time available work went on late into the night.

42

Vara`dinske Toplice-Ciglenica. Ostaci objekta (na postolju) u sondi X. Vara`dinske Toplice-Ciglenica. Remains of a structure (on a pedestal) in trench X.

znamo kako se na krajnje sjevernom dijelu zaravanka nalazio neki objekt utemeljen jakim drvenim gredama. Da li je rijec o kuci, drvenoj kuli ili cardaku, ne moze se zasigurno reei. Ti stupovi prestali su biti u uporabi u 16.st., kako je datiran gar iz ispune. Odmah ispod uzvisine, na zapadnoj strani, u 16.st., nalazila se barem jedna nadzemna kuca s uredenim temeljenim podom i pripadajucom otpadnom jamom izvan zgrade. Mjestimicne nalaze iz rimskog doba ne mozemo sa sigurnoscu tumaciti. S obzirom kako se datiraju u rano rimsko doba, oni se mogu dovesti u vezu samo s naseljem Aquae Iasae (same Toplice). Mozda su se u ovoj dolini nalazila obradena polja ili pasnjaci koje su iskoristavali stanovnici tog vaznijeg rimskog naselja, pa su dijelovi posuda odbaceni prilikom cestog boravka na ovoj uzvisini. Nakon tog razdoblja, nema tragova ljudske djelatnosti sve do pocetka 12.stoljeca. Tada se ovoj uzvisini promijenio karakter nekim nivelacijama (sonda B), no pravi trag ljudske aktivnosti seze u 13.stoljece. Poznato nam je iz povijesnih izvora kako je toplicki kraj u tome razdoblju bio u vlasti Kaptola zagrebackog. Naime, u ispravi koju je kralj Bela III izdao Kaptolu doznajemo da je ban Aleksije poklonio toplicki posjed Kaptolu zagrebackom izmedu 1110. i 1116. godine. U toj ispravi se prvi put spominju Toplice (CABRIAN 1973a, 16). U 12.st. Kaptol je imao problema u upravljanju ovim posjedom. U borbama nakon Kolomanove smrti, kaptolski posjed prisvojio je varazdinski zupan Belec, a nakon njegove smrti posjed je pripao zupanu Mocmeru. Tek potkraj 12 st. prilike su se ponovo razvijale u korist Kaptola. U prvoj polovini 13.st. darivanjima zemljista posjed se i uvecao. Nakon mongolske provale sredinom 13.st., kada je, vjeruje se, stradao i toplicki kraj, uslijedila je obnova i daljnji razvoj. Iz toga doba datiraju prvi brojniji nalazi na nasem naselju (sonda X). Vjerojatno je u to doba provedena i organizacija

Despite a large number of excavated trenches, numerous small finds and research, this site can nevertheless not be with certainty interpreted. It is evident that the place was inhabited during the Middle Ages, and was visited in the early Roman period, New Age and Modern Era. The position is, despite not possessing significant military-strategic significance, nonetheless quite prominent in this valley. Outside of scattered Roman period finds that cannot be identified, it is certain that the former waterway to the west side of the elevation was filled up in the 12th century or (and) relocated. Above the elevation, on the slopes of a taller hill, there was a wooden house or a pit (OX) for firing ceramics dated to the 13th century. Two defensive ditches were dug that served to divide the elevation from the taller hill (OJ1,2). The ditch, then, was not dug the entire length, but rather only in the form of two cuttings that narrowed the passage towards the inhabited plateau. Theirfillingwas dated by ceramic finds to the period from the 14th to 16th century. What was on the central part of the elevations plateau, we cannot ascertain as that part already saw construction excavation. Nevertheless, we know that there was a structure founded on strong wooden beams at the far northern part of the plateau. Whether this was a house, wooden tower or a guard tower, cannot be said for certain. These posts were not in use after the 16th century, the dating of the charcoal in the fill. Directly under the elevation, to the west, there was in the 16th century at least one above-ground house with a foundation floor and corresponding midden outside the structure. Scattered finds from the Roman period cannot be with certainty interpreted. Given that they are dated to the early Roman period, they can be connected to Aquae Iasae (the town of Toplice itself). Perhaps there were cultivated fields in this valley, or pastures used by the inhabitants of this important Roman settlement, and parts of vessels were discarded during the frequent stays on this elevation. There are no traces of human activity from this period right up to the 12th century. The appearance of this elevation was then altered by some sort of levelling (trench B), but true traces of human activity go back to the 13th century. We know from historical sources that the Toplice area was at the time in the power of the Zagrebs Kaptol. In an document issued by Kng Bela III to the Kaptol we discover that Viceroy Aleksije made a gift of the Toplice holdings to Zagrebs Kaptol sometime between the years 1110 and 1116. Toplice are mentioned for the first time in this document (CABRIAN 1973a, 16). The Kaptol had problems managing this property in the 12th century. In the battles that followed the death of Koloman, the Kaptol property was appropriated by the Varazdin Zupan (prefect) Belec, and after his passing the possession fell to Zupan Mocmer. Only after the 12th century did the wind turn again to the Kaptols

toplickog posjeda sustavom predijalnog upravljanja. Prema Kaptolskom statutu Ivana Arcidakona Gorickog iz 1334. g. poznati su nam nazivi 15 predija na toplickom posjedu. Svaki predij Kaptol je podijelio pojedinom slobodnjaku - vazalu, uz obavezu vjernosti, sluzbovanja i placanja odredene godisnje svote. Josip Cabrian je swjim istrazivanjem povezao imena nekih predija s danasnjim selima te ih tako barem okvirno locirao, ali ostalo ih je jos nekoliko do danas neubiciranih (CABRIAN 1973a, 16). Mozda je i Ciglenica bila jedan od till predija, a staro ime mu nije sacuvano. Nalazi raskosnije robe (pehari, case i slicno) te ostaci divljaci daju naslutiti da na ovome mjestu nisu zivjeli samo siromasni kmetovi vec i oni koji su si je takve proizvode mogli priustiti. Dakle, mozda je na ovoj uzvisini stajala i bolje izgradena kuca u kojoj je stanovao kaptolski predijalac - upravitelj imanja. Draga moguenost koja ne mora pobijati prethodno izlaganje, jest pretpostavka da se na sjevernom dijelu uzvisine tijekom 16.st. nalazio drveni cardak koji je sluzio haramijama iz Toplica kao predstraza samom kastelu. Propast Ciglenice kao organiziranog naselja zbila se vjerojatno sredinom 16.st. (sonda B, H). U to doba ucestale su provale Turaka u ove krajeve, a poznato je kako su oni zapalili i same Tbplice 12. svibnja 1540.godine. Tada su opljackali i okolicu trgovista, te u ropstvo odveli oko 500 ljudi. Jos jedno vece pustosenje zabiljezeno je 1545.godine. Njihova neprijateljstva u torn kraju nastavljena su do kraja 16.st., pa je u kastel Varazdinske Toplice smjesteno 59 granicara koji su trebali braniti tamosnje pucanstvo. Ipak, toplicki je posjed opustosen, a mnoga su naselja napustena, kako svjedoci jedna isprava iz 1600. g. (CABRIAN 1973b, 17, 18; HAJDUK 1981, 26). Da li je Ciglenica spaljena u istom pohodu kada i Tbplice ili su njezini stanovnici tijekom druge polovine 16.st.

favour. The possession was widened in the first half of the 13th century with further land grants. After the Mongol incursions of the 13th century when, it is believed, the Tbplice area was also hit, there was a period of reconstruction and further development. The first more numerous finds in our settlement (trench X) date from this period. It is likely that the organisation of the Tbplice property was carried out at this time using the system of predial management. According to the Kaptol Statutes of Ivan Arcidakon Goricki of 1334, we know the names of 15 predials on the Tbplice possession. Every predial was granted to a freemanvassal with the obligation of loyalty, service and the payment of certain annual sums. Josip Cabrian in his research connected the names of some of the predials with those of present-day villages, and in doing so at least roughly established their location, but a few have remained to this day undetermined (CABRIAN 1973a, 16). Ciglenica too, perhaps, was one of these predials, and its old name not preserved. Finds of more luxurious goods (goblets, drinking vessels and the like) and remains of hunted game hint at the possibility that not only poor peasants lived here but also those that could afford themselves these kinds of goods. In short, perhaps a better-constructed house stood on this elevation in which a Kaptol predial - a property manager, had his home. Another possibility that does not necessarily refute the previous exposition, is the assumption that there was a wooden guard house on the northern part of the elevation in the 16th century that was used by the Haramijas (border guards) from Tbplice as a fore guard to the keep itself. The fall of Ciglenica as an organised settlement occurred most likely in the mid 16th century (trenches B, H). Turkish incursions into the area were frequent at the time, and it is known that they

43

Varazdinske Toplice-Ciglenica. Iskopavanje sonde H, najviseg dijela uzvisine, gdje su pronadene jame za stupove uklesane u stijenu. Vara`dinske Toplice-Ciglenica. Excavation of trench H, the highest point on the elevation, where the post holes carved in rock were located.

44

Varazdinske Toplice-Ciglenica. Sjeverni profil sonde B. (donji je izravni nastavak gornjega). 1- Zemlja s primjesom pijeska zute oker boje. 2- Zemlja tvrdo nabijena tamno smede i erne boje. 3- Zemlja s fragmentima drobljene keramike i nalaza gara, tamno oker i erne boje. 4- Zemlja s fragmentima drobljene keramike (podnica kuaee) oker i erne boje. 5- Zemlja Qute oker boje. 6- Zemlja zelenkaste boje s mnogo nalaza gara. A- Gar erne boje. BKeramika.C- Kamen. Vara`dinske Toplice-Ciglenica. North profile of trench B. (the lower is a direct continuation of the upper one). 1- Soil with an admixture of ochre-yellow coloured sand. 2- Hard tamped soil of dark brown and black colour. 3- Soil with fragments of crushed ceramics and finds of charcoal, of dark ochre and black colour. 4- Soil with fragments of crushed ceramics (floor of a house) of ochre and black colour. 5- Soil of ochre-yellow colour. 6- Soil of greenish colour with many charcoal finds. A- Charcoal of black colour. B- Ceramics. C- Rock.

sami odselili u relativno sigurniji kastel ili drugdje, ostaje pitanje. Kako god bilo, tragova naseljavanja od tada na Ciglenici vise nema. Pronalazak nekoliko ulomaka porculanskih tanjura i keramicke lule svjedoci kako su ovdje piknike imali i dobrostojeci gosti kupalista tijekom 19.stoljeca. Stara vojna zvizdaljka i nekoliko puscanih cahura daju naslutiti kako se ovdje u Drugome svjetskom ratu nalazila neka predstraza Toplicama, koje su u to doba bile vazno vojno uporiste (CABRIAN 1973c, 29, 30).

KATAL0G TABLA 1 - Ciglenica, antika: Slojevi Slucajni nalazi


1- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama kamencica koji se truse, sive, a u prijelomu tamno smede boje. Sonda G, Sloj 2. 2- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama kamencica koji se truse, svijetlo sive boje. Sonda X, Sloj 3, podnica. 3- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, prociscene gline, sive boje. Slucajni nalaz. 4- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama kamencica koji se truse, tamno sive boje. Sonda B, Sloj 3. 5- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, slabije izrade, povrsine tamno smede i prijeloma svijetlo smede boje. Sonda G, Sloj 2. 6- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s posve malo primjesa sitnog pijeska, sive boje. Slucajni nalaz.

burnt Toplice itself May 12th, 1540. They at that occasion also looted the surroundings of the marketplace, spiriting off 500 to serve as slaves. Another even greater plundering took place in 1545. Conflict lasted in the area up to the 16th century, so that the keep in Varazdinske Toplice had a complement of 59 Granicari (border guards) whose task it was to defend the local i n h a b i t a n t s . T h e Toplice p r o p e r t y was, notwithstanding, devastated, and many settlements abandoned, as is witness by a document from the year 1600 (CABRIAN 1973b, 17, 18; H A J D U K 1981, 26). Was Ciglenica burnt during the campaign in which Toplice suffered this fate, or did its inhabitants leave of their own account during the second half of the 16th century to the relative safety of the keep or elsewhere, remains to be answered. Whatever the case, there are no further traces of inhabitation from then on. The finding of several potsherds from porcelain plates and ceramic pipes bears witness to picnics held here by better-situated guests of the bathing grounds during the 19th century. An old military whistle and several rifle cartridges hint at a fore guard to Toplice here during the Second World War, at the time an important military stronghold (CABRIAN 1973c, 29, 30).

CATALOGUE TABLE 1 Ciglenica, Roman period: Layers / Chance finds 1- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with crumbling pebbles,

7- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, bez primjesa, tvrde izrade, crne povrsine i prijeloma narandaste boje. Slucajni nalaz. 8- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, bez primjesa, mekse izrade, svijetlo sive boje. Sonda G, Sloj 2. 9- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama kamencica koji se truse, svijetlo smede boje. Slucajni nalaz. 10- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, bez primjesa, tvrde izrade, crvene povrsine, u prijelomu i iznutra narancaste boje. Sigilatta ili kopija. Slucajni nalaz. 11- Ulomak narukvice od crne neprozirne staklene paste, relativno pravilnog oblika. PN 1, Sonda A, Sloj 1. 12- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, bez primjesa, tvrde izrade, crvene povrsine, u prijelomu i iznutra narancaste boje. Terra sigilatta. Sonda G, Sloj 2. 13- Nedovrseni prsljen izraden od dijela posude?, bez primjesa, mekse izrade, svijetlo smede boje. Sonda B, Sloj 3. 14- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, vrlo dobro prociscena glina, tamno sive boje. Sonda B, Sloj 3. 15- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, bez primjesa, narancaste boje koja ostavlja trag. Sonda G, Sloj 2.

TABLA 2 - Ciglenica, Sonda X, Sloj 3, Podnica OX


1- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama kamencica koji se truse, sive boje. 2- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama kamencica koji se truse, svijetlo smede boje. 3- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama kamencica koji se truse, svijetlo smede boje. 4- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama kamencica koji se truse, svijetlo smede boje. 5- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama kamencica koji se truse, svijetlo smede boje. 6- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama kamencica koji se truse, svijetlo smede boje. 7- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama kamencica koji se truse, svijetlo smede boje. 8- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama kamencica koji se truse, tamno smede i crne boje. 9- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama kamencica koji se truse, svijetlo smede boje. 10- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama kamencica koji se truse, svijetlo smede boje. 11- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama kamencica koji se truse, sive boje. 12- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama kamencica koji se truse, svijetlo smede boje. 13- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu,

grey, and of dark brown colour at the break. Trench G, Layer 2. 2- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with crumbling pebbles, of light grey colour. Trench X, Layer 3, floor. 3- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, of refined clay, of grey colour. Chance find. 4- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with crumbling pebbles, of dark grey colour. Trench B, Layer 3. 5- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, of inferior fabrication, dark brown surface colour and of light brown colour at the break. Trench G, Layer 2. 6- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, with very little temper of fine sand, of grey colour. Chance find. 7- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, without temper, of harder fabrication, with black surface colour and with orange colour at the break. Chance find. 8- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, without temper, of softer fabrication, of light grey colour. Trench G, Layer 2. 9- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with crumbling pebbles, of light brown colour. Chance find. 10- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, without temper, of hard fabrication, with red surface, of orange colour inside and at the break. Terra sigillata or a copy. Chance find. 11- Shard from a bracelet of black opaque glass paste, of relatively regular shape. PN 1, Trench A, Layer 1 . 12- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, without temper, of hard fabrication, with red surface, of orange colour inside and at the break. Terra sigillata. Trench G, Layer 2. 13- An incomplete spindle whorl made from part of a vessel?, without temper, of softer fabrication, of light brown colour. Trench B, Layer 3. 14- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, of very well refined clay, of dark grey colour. Trench B, Layer 3. 15- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, without temper, of orange colour that leaves a trace. Trench G, Layer 2. TABLE 2 Ciglenica, Trench X, Layer 3, Floor OX 1- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with crumbling pebbles, of grey colour. 2- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with crumbling pebbles, of light brown colour. 3- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with crumbling pebbles, of light brown colour. 4- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with crumbling pebbles, of light brown colour. 5- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with crumbling pebbles, of light brown colour. 6- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with crumbling pebbles, of light brown colour. 7- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast

45

46

s primjesama kamencica koji se truse, svijetlo smede boje. 14- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama kamencica koji se truse, svijetlo smede boje. 15- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama kamencica koji se truse, svijetlo smede boje. 16- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama kamencica koji se truse, svijetlo smede boje. 17- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama kamencica koji se truse, svijetlo smede boje.

TABLA 3 - Ciglenica, Sonda X, Sloj 2 / Sonda X, Sloj 3, Podnica OX


1- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama pijeska, grube izrade, tamno smede boje. 2- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama pijeska, smede boje. 3- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama pijeska, smede boje. 4- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama pijeska, grube izrade, tamno smede boje. 5- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama pijeska, tamno smede boje. 6- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama pijeska, svijetlo sive boje. 7- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama kamencica koji se truse, erne boje. 8- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama kamencica koji se truse, svijetlo smede boje. 9- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama kamencica koji se truse, svijetlo smede boje. 10- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama kamencica koji se truse, narancaste boje. 11- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama kamencica koji se truse, narancaste boje. 12- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama kamencica koji se truse, svijetlo smede boje. 13- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama kamencica koji se truse, svijetlo smede boje.

potters wheel, tempered with crumbling pebbles, of light brown colour. 8- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with crumbling pebbles, of dark brown and black colour. 9- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with crumbling pebbles, of light brown colour. 10- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with crumbling pebbles, of light brown colour. 11- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with crumbling pebbles, of gray colour. 12- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with crumbling pebbles, of light brown colour. 13- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with crumbling pebbles, of light brown colour. 14- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with crumbling pebbles, of light brown colour. 15- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with crumbling pebbles, of light brown colour. 16- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with crumbling pebbles, of light brown colour. 17- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with crumbling pebbles, of light brown colour. TABLE 3 Ciglenica, Trench X, Layer 2 / Trench X, Layer 3, Floor OX 1- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with sand, of rough fabrication, of dark brown colour. 2- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with sand, of brown colour. 3- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with sand, of brown colour. 4- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with sand, of rough fabrication, of dark brown colour. 5- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with sand, of dark brown colour. 6- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with sand, of light grey colour. 7- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with crumbling pebbles, of black colour. 8- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with crumbling pebbles, of light brown colour. 9- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with crumbling pebbles, of light brown colour. 10- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with crumbling pebbles, of orange colour. 11- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with crumbling pebbles, of orange colour. 12- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with crumbling pebbles, of light brown colour. 13- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast

TABLA 4 - Ciglenica, Sonda G, Sloj 2 / Sonda G, Sloj 3 / Sonda C, Sloj 3


1- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama pijeska, smede boje. 2- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama pijeska, narancaste boje. 3- Ulomak zeljeznog nozica. 4- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama pijeska, smede boje. 5- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s vrlo malo primjesa pijeska, tvrde izrade, svijetlo smede i zuckaste boje. Mozda dio od T4-11. 6-Zeljeznicavao.

7-Zeljeznicavao. 8- Zeljezm okov. 9- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama pijeska, tamno smede boje. 10- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama pijeska, narancaste boje. 11- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s vrlo malo primjesa pijeska, tvrde izrade, svijetlo smede i zuckaste boje. Mozda dio od T4-5.

potters wheel, tempered with crumbling pebbles, of light brown colour. TABLE 4 Ciglenica, Trench G, Layer 2 / Trench G, Layer 3 / Trench C, Layer 3 1- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with sand, of brown colour. 2- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with sand, of orange colour. 3- Shard of a small iron knife. 4- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with sand, of brown colour. 5- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with very little sand, of harder fabrication, of light brown and yellowish colour. Perhaps a part of T4-11.

47

TABLA 5 - Ciglenica, Sonda B, Sloj 5 / Sonda B, Sloj 6


1- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama pijeska, tvrde izrade, smede boje. 2- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama pijeska, tvrde izrade, tamno smede boje. 3- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s doradom na brzovrtecem kolu?, izvana tragovi doljepljivanja gline s vanjske strane, s primjesama krupnog pijeska, tvrde izrade, svijetlo sive do smede boje. Polumjer otvora 32,5 cm.

6- Iron nail. 7- Iron nail.

8- Iron studs. 9- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with sand, of dark brown colour. 10- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with sand, of orange colour. TABLA 6 - Ciglenica, Sonda B, Sloj 4, Podnica OB 11- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast 1- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s potters wheel, tempered with very little sand, of malo primjesa pijeska, tvrde izrade, svijetlo smede harder fabrication, of light brown and yellowish colour. Perhaps a part of T4-5. boje. 2- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s malo primjesa pijeska, tvrde izrade, svijetlo smede boje. 3- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s malo primjesa pijeska, tvrde izrade, svijetlo smede boje. 4- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s malo primjesa pijeska, tvrde izrade, tamno smede boje. 5- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s malo primjesa pijeska, tvrde izrade, svijetlo sive boje. 6- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s malo primjesa pijeska, tvrde izrade, tamno smede boje. 7- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s mnogo primjesa vecili kamencica i pljeve, lagane i porozne izrade, narancaste boje. 8- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s malo primjesa pijeska, tvrde izrade, svijetlo smede boje. 9- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s malo primjesa pijeska, tvrde izrade, svijetlo smede boje. 10- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama pijeska, svijetlo smede boje. 11- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama pijeska, tamno smede boje. 12- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama pijeska, svijetlo smede boje. 13- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama pijeska, smede boje. 14- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s mnogo primjesa sitnog pijeska, svijetlo smede do narancaste boje. 15- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama pijeska, svijetlo smede, iznutra sive boje. 16- Ulomak pecnjaka izradena na brzovrtecem kolu, s malo primjesa pijeska, tvrde izrade, svijetlo TABLE 5 Ciglenica, Trench B, Layer 5 / Trench B, Layer 6 1- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with sand, of harder fabrication, of brown colour. 2- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with sand, of harder fabrication, of dark brown colour. 3- Potsherd of a vessel made by hand, finished on a fast potters wheel?, with traces on the outer surface of clay application from the outside, tempered with rough sand, of harder fabrication, of light grey to brown colour. Opening radius of 32.5 cm. TABLE 6 Ciglenica, Trench B, Layer 4, Floor OB 1- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with little sand, of harder fabrication, of light brown colour. 2- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with little sand, of harder fabrication, of light brown colour. 3- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with little sand, of harder fabrication, of light brown colour. 4- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with little sand, of harder fabrication, of dark brown colour. 5- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with little sand, of harder fabrication, of light grey colour. 6- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with little sand, of harder fabrication, of dark brown colour. 7- Potsherd of a vessel made by hand, tempered with a large quantity of larger pebbles and chaff, of light and porous fabrication, of orange colour. 8- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with little sand, of harder fabrication, of light brown colour. 9- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast

48

smede boje. 17- Drska zeljeznog noza s jabucicom. Uocljivi su tragovi bakrenih zakovica na drsci, te sacuvane kombmirane drvene i bakrene plocice koje cme jabucicu. Na drsci je takoder donekle sacuvano drvo TABLA 7 - Cigle.lica, Sonda B, Sloj 3 1- Ulomak posude izradene na sporovrtecem kolu, s primjesama kamencica, tamno boje. 2- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama sitnog pijeska, tamno smede, izvana crvenkaste boje. 3- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama pijeska, tamno smede boje. 4- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama pijeska, tamno sive boje. 5- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama pijeska, narancaste boje. 6- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama pijeska, tamno smede, iznutra narancaste boje. 7- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s

potters wheel, tempered with little sand, of harder fabrication, of light brown colour. 10- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with sand, of light brown colour. H- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with sand, of dark brown colour. 12- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with sand, of light brown colour. 13- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with sand, of brown colour. 14- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with a large quantity of fine sand, of light brown to orange colour. 15- Potsherd of a vessel with sand, of light a fast potters wheel, tempered manufactured on brown col of colour m s l de. 16_ Potsherd of a stove t l le manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with little sand, of harder fabrication, of light brown colour. 17- Hilt of an iron knife with pommel. Discernable traces of copper rivets on the handle and copper plates that form the pommel. The wood is partially preserved on the handle.

primjesama pijeska, svijetio smede boje.


8- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, bez primjesa, narancaste boje sa svijetio zelenom caklinom na vanjskoj povrsini. 9- Ulomak zeljeznog cavla. 10- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama pijeska, svijetio smede boje.

TABLE 7 - Ciglenica, Trench B, Layer 3


1- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a slow potters wheel, tempered with pebbles, of dark colour. 2- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with fine sand, of dark brown colour, of reddish colour outside. 3- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with sand, of dark brown colour. 4- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with sand, of dark grey colour. 5. Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with sand, of orange colour. 6. Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with sand, of dark brown colour, of orange colour inside. 7- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with sand, of light brown colour. 8- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, without temper, of orange colour with light green glaze on the outer surface. 9- Shard of an iron nail. 10- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with sand, of light brown colour. TABLE 8 Ciglenica, Trench B, Layer 2 / Trench B, Layer 2 (northern part) 1- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with little sand, of harder fabrication, of orange colour. 2- Potsherd of a stove tile manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with sand, of yellowish colour. 3. Potsherd of a s t w e t U e manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with sand, of orange colour ^ dark green glaze m s l d e and a l l ttle on the outside 4- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, without temper, of orange colour with colour red ribbons. 5- Iron nail. 6- Whetstone of finely granulated sandstone, of light brown colour, used on all sides. 7- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters

TABLA 8 - Ciglenica, Sonda B, Sloj 2 / Sonda B, Sloj 2 (sjeverni dio)


1- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s malo primjesa pijeska, tvrde izrade, narancaste boje. 2- Ulomak pecnjaka izradena na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama pijeska, zuckaste boje. 3- Ulomak pecnjaka izradena na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama pijeska, narancaste boje s tamno zelenom caklinom iznutra i pomalo izvana. 4- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, bez primjesa, narancaste boje s bojenim crvenim trakama 5- Zeljezm cavao. 6- Brus od sitno granuliranog pjescenjaka, svijetio smede boje, upotrebljavan sa svih strana. 7- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama pijeska, tamno sive boje. 8- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama pijeska, tamno smede boje. 9- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s malo primjesa pijeska, izvana sive a iznutra tamno smede boje. 10- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama pijeska, narancaste do svijetio smede bJe11- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama pijeska, narancaste boje. 12- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s malo primjesa pijeska, tvrde izrade, narancaste boje s bojenim bijelim crtama. 13- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama pijeska, tamno sive boje. 14- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama pijeska, tvrde izrade, narancaste do

smede boje.

TABLA 9 - Ciglenica, Sonda H, Sloj 1 / Sonda H, Sloj 2 / Sonda H, Jama 1


1- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s malo primjesa sitnog pijeska, izvana narancastosmede, a iznutra erne boje. Vjerojatno dio posude T9-2. 2- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s malo primjesa sitnog pijeska, izvana narancastosmede, a iznutra erne boje. Vjerojatno dio posude T9-1. 3- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s malo primjesa pijeska, narancaste boje. 4- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s malo primjesa pijeska, smede boje. 5- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s malo primjesa pijeska, narancaste boje. 6-Zeljeznicavao. 7- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s malo primjesa pijeska, smede boje. 8- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama pijeska, tvrde izrade, tamno smede boje. 9- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s malo primjesa pijeska, tamno smede boje. 10- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama krupnijeg pijeska, tvrde izrade, bjelkaste boje. 11- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama pijeska, smede boje. 12- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, dobro prociscene gline, svijetlo smede boje sa zelenom caklinom s unutrasnje strane i po obodu. Caklina svijetlo zelene boje, s mjestimicno tamno zelenim tockicama.

wheel, tempered with sand, of dark grey colour. 8- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with sand, of dark brown colour. 9- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with little sand, outside of grey and inside of dark brown colour. 10- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with sand, of orange to light brown colour. 11- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with sand, of orange colour. 12- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with little sand, of harder fabrication, of orange colour with colour white lines. 13- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with sand, of dark grey colour. 14- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with sand, of harder fabrication, of orange to brown colour. TABLE 9 Ciglenica, Trench H, Layer 1 / Trench H, Layer 2 / Trench H, Pit 1 1- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with little fine sand, of orange-brown colour outside, and black colour inside. Probably part of vessel T9-2. 2- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with little fine sand, of orange-brown colour outside, and black colour inside. Probably part of vessel T9-1. 3- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with little sand, of orange colour. 4- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with little sand, of brown colour. 5- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with little sand, of orange colour.

49

TABLA 10 - Ciglenica, Sonda X/2 (slucajni nalazi) / Sonda D (slucajni nalazi) / Sonda D, Sloj 1 / Sonda F, Sloj 1
1- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama pijeska, smede boje. 2- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama pijeska, smede boje. 3- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama pijeska, bjelkaste, a iznutra svijetlo smede boje. 4- Ulomak peenjaka izradena na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama pijeska, smede boje. 5- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama pijeska, tamno smede boje. 6- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama pijeska, smede boje. 7- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama pijeska, tvrde izrade, smede boje. Sonda D (slucajni nalaz). 8- Zeljezm cavao. Sonda D (slucajni nalazi). 9- Zeljezm cavao. Sonda D (slucajni nalazi). 10- Ulomak zeljeznog dlijeta. Sonda D, Sloj 1. 11- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama pijeska, nepravilne izrade, tamno smede do erne boje. Sonda F, Sloj 1.

6- Iron nail.
7- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with little sand, of brown colour. 8- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with sand, of harder fabrication, of dark brown colour. 9- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with little sand, of dark brown colour. 10- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with rough grained sand, of harder fabrication, of whitish colour. 11- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with sand, of brown colour. 12- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, of well refined clay, of light brown colour with green glaze on the inside and along the rim. Glaze of light green colour, with scattered dark green dots. TABLE 10 Ciglenica, Trench X/2 (chance finds) / Trench D (chance finds) / Trench D, Layer 1 / Trench F, Layer 1 1- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with sand, of brown colour. 2- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with sand, of brown colour. 3- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with sand, of whitish colour, and inside of light brown colour. 4- Potsherd of a stove tile manufactured on a fast potters

TABLA 11 - Ciglenica, Sonda B/P (slucajni nalazi)


1- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama pijeska, tvrde izrade, smede boje.

50

2- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama pijeska, tvrde izrade, narancaste boje. 3- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama pijeska, tvrde izrade, smede boje. 4- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama pijeska, tvrde izrade, svijetlo smede i sive boje. 5- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama pijeska, tvrde izrade, svijetlo smede i sive boje. 6- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama pijeska, tvrde izrade, tamno smede boje. 7- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama pijeska, tvrde izrade, crvenkastosmede boje. Vjerojatno dio posude T l l - 9 . 8- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama pijeska, tvrde izrade, bjelkaste boje s tragovima crnog bojenja. 9- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama pijeska, tvrde izrade, crvenkastosmede boje. Vjerojatno dio posude T l l - 7 .

wheel, tempered with sand, of brown colour. 5- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with sand, of dark brown colour. 6- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with sand, of brown colour. 7- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with sand, of harder fabrication, of brown colour. Trench D (chance find). 8- Iron nail. Trench D (chance finds). 9- Iron nail. Trench D (chance finds). 10- Shard of an iron chisel. Trench D, Layer 1 . 11- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with sand, of irregular fabrication, of dark brown to black colour. Trench F, Layer 1 . TABLE 11 Ciglenica, Trench B/P (chance finds) 1- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with sand, of harder fabrication, of brown colour. 2- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with sand, of harder fabrication, of orange colour. 3- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with sand, of harder fabrication, of brown colour. 4- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with sand, of harder fabrication, of light brown and grey colour. 5- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with sand, of harder fabrication, of light brown and grey colour. 6- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with sand, of harder fabrication, of dark brown colour. 7- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with sand, of harder fabrication, of reddish-brown colour. Probably part of vessel T11-9. 8- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with sand, of harder fabrication, of whitish colour with traces of black colouring. 9- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with sand, of harder fabrication, of reddish-brown colour. Probably part of vessel T11-7. TABLE 12 Ciglenica, Trench X/P (chance finds) 1- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with sand, of brown colour. 2- Bent iron plate. 3- Shard of an iron nail.

TABLA 12 - Ciglenica, Sonda X/P (slucajni nalazi)


1- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama pijeska, smede boje. 2- Presavinuta zeljezna plocica. 3- Ulomak zeljeznog cavla. 4-Zeljeznicavao. 5- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s malo primjese sitnog pijeska, tvrde izrade, tamno narandasto - crvene boje. 6- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama pijeska, svijetlo smede boje. 7- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama pijeska, tamno smede boje. 8-Zeljeznicavao. 9- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama pijeska, smede boje. 10- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s malo primjesa pijeska, tvrde izrade, svijetlo smede boje. 11- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s malo primjesa pijeska, tvrde izrade, svijetlo smede boje. 12- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s malo primjesa pijeska, tvrde izrade, tamno smede boje. 13- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama pijeska, tvrde izrade, svijetlo smede boje. 14- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s malo primjesa pijeska, tvrde izrade, narancaste boje. 15- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s malo primjesa pijeska, tvrde izrade, svijetlo smede boje.

4- Iron nail.
5- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with little fine sand, of harder fabrication, of dark orange-red colour. 6- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with sand, of light brown colour. 7- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with sand, of dark brown colour.

TABLA 13 - Ciglenica, slucajni nalazi


1- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama pijeska, smede boje. 2- Ulomak pecnjaka izradena na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama pijeska, tvrde izrade, bjelkaste boje. 3- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama kamencica, narancastosmede boje. 4- Ulomak pecnjaka izradena na brzovrtecem kolu,

8- Iron nail.
9- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with sand, of brown colour. 10- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with little sand, of harder fabrication, of light brown colour.

s primjesama pijeska, tvrde izrade, narancaste boje. 5- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama pijeska, svijetlo sive boje. 6- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama pijeska, tvrde izrade, tamno smede boje. 7- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama pijeska, tvrde izrade, narancaste boje. 8- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama pijeska, tamno sive boje. 9- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s mnogo primjesa vecili kamencica i pljeve, lagane i porozne izrade, narancaste boje.

TABLA 14 - Ciglenica, Slojevi / Slucajni nalazi


1- Vrh zeljezne strelice s trnom. Slucajni nalaz. 2- Ulomak zeljeznog nozica. PN2, Sonda A. 3- Ostrica zeljeznog noza. Slucajni nalaz. 4-Zeljezm predmet. Slucajni nalaz. 5- Ulomak keramicke lule?, dobro prociscene gline, narancaste boje. Slucajni nalaz. 6-Zeljezmcavao. Slucajni nalaz. 7-Zeljezmcavao. Slucajni nalaz. 8-Zeljezmcavao. Slucajni nalaz. 9-Zeljezmcavao. Slucajni nalaz. 10- Zeljezm cavao. Slucajni nalaz. 11- Ulomak zeljeznog cavla. Slucajni nalaz. 12- Ulomak zeljeznog cavla. Slucajni nalaz. 13- Ulomak zeljeznog cavla. Slucajni nalaz. 14- Ulomak zeljeznog cavla. Slucajni nalaz. 15- Ulomak zeljeznog cavla. Slucajni nalaz. 16- Ulomak zeljeznog cavla. Slucajni nalaz. 17- Ulomak zeljeznog cavla. Slucajni nalaz. 18- Ulomak zeljeznog cavla. Slucajni nalaz. 19- Zeljezm kosir. Sonda E, Sloj 3. Posebm nalaz PN3.

11- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with little sand, of harder fabrication, of light brown colour. 12- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with little sand, of harder fabrication, of dark brown colour. 13- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with sand, of harder fabrication, of light brown colour. 14- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with little sand, of harder fabrication, of orange colour. 15- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with little sand, of harder fabrication, of light brown colour. TABLE 13 Ciglenica, chance finds 1- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with sand, of brown colour. 2- Potsherd of a stove tile manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with sand, of harder fabrication, of whitish colour. 3- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with pebbles, of reddishbrown colour. 4- Potsherd of a stove tile manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with sand, of harder fabrication, of orange colour. 5- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with sand, of light grey colour. 6- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with sand, of harder fabrication, of dark brown colour. 7- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with sand, of harder fabrication, of orange colour. 8- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with sand, of dark grey colour. 9- Potsherd of a hand made vessel, tempered with a large quantity of larger pebbles and chaff, of light and porous fabrication, of orange colour. TABLE 14 Ciglenica, Layers / Chance finds 1- Tip of an iron arrowhead with thorn. Chance find. 2- Shard of a small iron foot. PN2, Trench A. 3- Blade of an iron knife. Chance find. 4- Iron object. Chance find. 5- Potsherd of a ceramic pipe?, of well refined clay, of orange colour. Chance find. 6- Iron nail. Chance find. 7- Iron nail. Chance find. 8- Iron nail. Chance find. 9- Iron nail. Chance find. 10- Iron nail. Chance find. 11- Shard of an iron nail. Chance find. 12- Shard of an iron nail. Chance find. 13- Shard of an iron nail. Chance find. 14- Shard of an iron nail. Chance find. 15- Shard of an iron nail. Chance find. 16- Shard of an iron nail. Chance find. 17- Shard of an iron nail. Chance find. 18- Shard of an iron nail. Chance find. 19- Iron billhook. Trench E, Layer 3. Special find PN3.

51

52

Tabla 1 . Vara`dinske Toplice-Ciglenica. Slu~ajni nalazi, antika. Table 1 . Vara`dinske Toplice-Ciglenica. Chance finds, Roman period.

53

Tabla 2. Varazdinske Toplice-Ciglenica. Sonda X, OX, 12796 calAD. Table 2 Varazdinske Toplice-Ciglenica. Trench X OX, 1279+6 calAD.

54

Tabla 3. Varazdinske Toplice-Ciglenica. 1-6 Sonda X, sloj 2. / 7-13 Sonda X, OX, 12796 calAD. Table 3. Varazdinske Toplice-Ciglenica. 1-6 Trench X layer 2 I 7-13 Trench X OX, 1279+6 calAD.

55

Tabla 4. Vara`dinske Toplice-Ciglenica. 1-3 Sonda G, sloj 2. / 4 Sonda G, sloj 3. / 5-9 Sonda C, sloj 3. Table 4. Vara`dinske Toplice-Ciglenica. 1-3 Trench G, layer 2. / 4 Trench G, layer 3. / 5-9 Trench C, layer 3.

56

Tabla 5. Vara`dinske Toplice-Ciglenica. 1-2 Sonda B, sloj 5. / 3 Sonda B, sloj 6. Table 5. Vara`dinske Toplice-Ciglenica. 1-2 Trench B, layer 5. / 3 Trench B, layer 6.

57

Tabla 6. Varazdinske Toplice-Ciglenica. Sonda B, sloj 4, OB, 154365 calAD. Table 6. Varazdinske Toplice-Ciglenica. Trench B, layer 4, OB, 1543+65 calAD.

58

Tabla 7. Vara`dinske Toplice-Ciglenica. Sonda B, sloj 3. Table 7. Vara`dinske Toplice-Ciglenica. Trench B, layer 3.

59

Tabla 8. Varazdinske Toplice-Ciglenica. 1-7 Sonda B, sloj 2. / 8-14 Sonda B, sloj 2SS. Table 8. Varazdinske Toplice-Ciglenica. 1-7 Trench B, layer 2.18-14 Trench B, layer 2SS.

60

/ /

Tabla 9. Varazdinske Toplice-Ciglenica. 1-2 Sonda H, sloj 1. / 3-7 Sonda H, sloj 2. / 8-12 sonda H, jama J1, 156052 calAD. Table 9. Varazdinske Toplice-Ciglenica. 1-2 Trench H, layer 1.13-7 Trench H, layer 2.18-12 trench H, pit J1, 1560+52 calAD.

61

Tabla 10. Varazdinske Toplice-Ciglenica. 1-6 Sonda X/2, (slucajni nalazi). / 7-11 Sonda D i F, slojevi. Table 10. Vara`dinske Toplice-Ciglenica. 1-6 Trench X/2, (chance finds). / 7-11 Trench D and F, layers.

62

Tabla 1 1 . Vara`dinske Toplice-Ciglenica. Sonda B, slu~ajni nalazi. Table 11. Vara`dinske Toplice-Ciglenica. Trench B, chance finds.

63

Tabla 12. Varazdinske Toplice-Ciglenica. Sonda X, slucajni nalazi. Table 12. Vara`dinske Toplice-Ciglenica. Trench X chance finds.

64

Tabla 13. Vara`dinske Toplice-Ciglenica. Slu~ajni nalazi. Table 13. Vara`dinske Toplice-Ciglenica. Chance finds.

Tabla 14. Vara`dinske Toplice-Ciglenica. Metalni nalazi iz sondi i slu~ajni nalazi. Table 14. Vara`dinske Toplice-Ciglenica. Metal finds from the trench and chance finds.

CIGLENICA 2003
," ^ .'

i
i f i

OJ2

10m

0J1

BUKOVJE KOD BANJSCINE (VARAZDINBREG) Privremeno pastirsko staniste mladeg zeljeznog doba
Prilikom pregleda gradevinskih radova na polozaju Bukovje, gdje se osim trase autoceste gradio i buduci vijadukt, uz odlagaliste iskopanog materijala, u novoiskopanom pokosu uz trasu pronadeni su keramicki ulomci. Pomnijim pregledom, na sirem podrucju ovoga gradilista nisu pronadeni daljnji ulomci, ali se neovisno od toga odredilo izvodenje sondaznog istrazivanja. Iskopavanje je izvedeno kroz tri ciljane sonde, od kojih su dvije dale arheoloski pozitivne nalaze. Bukovje je visoki zaravnati brijeg prekriven obradenim poljima. Na njegovu obrezju nalazilo se malo terasasto zaravnanje, preko kojeg je prolazila trasa autoceste u izgradnji. Ovaj zaravanak nalazi se nad dolinom kojom tece potok iz pravca juga, na sjever, u sliv rijeke Plitvice i dolinu Varazdina. Na suprotnom brijegu nalazi se selo Banjscina. Zaravanak se nalazi na nadmorskoj visini od oko 197 - 200 metara.

BUKOVJE NEAR BANJSCINA (VARAZDINBREG) A Temporary Herdsmans habitation of the Late Iron Age
During archaeological supervision of construction work at the Bukovje location where construction was underway on the route of the future highway and the future viaduct, potsherds were found along a deposit of excavated material, in a newly excavated slope along the route. A more detailed inspection, on the wider area of the construction site, did not yield further potsherds, but a sondage was carried out independent of this fact. Excavation was carried out through three targeted trenches, of which two were archaeologically positive. Bukovje is a high level-topped hill covered in cultivated fields. On its slopes is a small flat terrace like area, over which the future highways route passed. This plateau is located over a vaUey through which a creek flows from the south heading northwards, to the Plitvica River basin and the Varazdin valley. On the opposite hill is the village

69

Banjscina-Bukovje. Radovi na sondi A. U prrom planu novoprabijena trasa autoceste, a u pozadini stovariste zemlje. Banjs~ina-Bukovje. Work on trench A. In the foreground is the newly broken ground of the highway route, and in the background the earth dump.

' Mjestani sam wh Bukovja ZOTO i Vugleniea, a okolno polje Gmajno. The local inhabitants refer to the peak of Bukovje as Vuglenica, and to the surroundingfieldas Gmajno.

70

MLA0EZELJEZNO DOBA NALAZI Na sjeverozapadnom profilu gradevinskog iskopa, na malom, omedenom prostom, pronadeni su ulomci prapovijesne keramike. Pregledom okolnog prostora nisu pronadeni dragi tragovi naseljavanja. Posebno je p r e g l e d a n a veca, poljoprivredno obradena uzvisina Bukovje, 1 koja se doimala arheoloski izgledno, ali nije dala nikakvih nalaza, osim sporadicnih ulomaka novovjeke keramike, kakvi su uobicajeni za sve poljoprivredne povrsine. Stoga je istrazivanje zapoceto iskopavanjem sonde oko mjesta na kojem je pronadena prapovijesna keramika. 2 Sonda A trebala je odrediti porijeklo ulomaka keramike. Otkopavanjem nisu otkriveni obrisi neke jame, ali je zabiljezena veca gustoca ulomaka keramike u sredini sonde. Prapovijesna keramika nalazila se odmah ispod plitkog humusnog sloja koji je sadrzavao mnogo suvremenih nalaza (ulomci modernih opeka, keramike, stakla, dijelova vinogradske zeljezne zice i slicno). Nas arheoloski sloj samo je povrsinski bio ostecen oranjem, ali ipak u cjelini nedirnut. S obzirom na nezabiljezenu susu u proljece 2003.g., iskopavanje je bilo otezano, pa postoji moguenost da se obrisi jame u tako zasusenoj zemlji i nisu mogli prepoznati. Ipak, kao sto je receno, u sondi A je iskopan manji, jasno omeden prostor gusto razbacane keramike koja se nalazila in situ. Taj sloj, koji uvjetno mozemo nazvati jamom ( J l ) sadrzavao je i nesto gara koji je datiran AMS14C metodom. Ishod ispitivanja uzorka upueuje na sam kraj 2. st.pr.Kr. ili vec pocetak l.st.pr.Kr. (9842 calBC). 3 Nedaleko od toga, iskoristen je nedavni gradevinski iskop bagerom, koji je dodatno

of Banjscina. The plateau is located at about 197 200 metres above sea level. THE LATE IRON AGE FEATURES Prehistoric potsherds were found on the north west profile of the construction excavation, on a small, restricted area. An investigation of the surrounding area did not yield further traces of habitation. Special care was given to the inspection of the larger, agriculturally cultivated, elevation of Bukovje, 1 t h a t a p p e a r e d archaeologically promising, but did not provide any finds outside of sporadic potsherds of New Age ceramics, typical of all agricultural areas. Research was therefore started with the excavation of a trench around the place in which the prehistoric ceramic was found.2 Trench A was to establish the origin of the potsherd. Excavation did not reveal the outlines of some pit, but a greater frequency of potsherds was noted in the middle of the trench. The prehistoric ceramic was located directly under a thin layer of humus t h a t c o n t a i n e d m a n y c o n t e m p o r a r y finds (potsherds of modern brick, ceramics, glass, parts of iron v i n e y a r d wire a n d so f o r t h ) . Our archaeological layer was only superficially damaged by ploughing, but otherwise quite undisturbed. Given the record drought of the spring of 2003 excavation was rendered more difficult, so that there is a possibility that the outlines of a pit in soil that dry could not be recognised. Notwithstanding, as has been stated, a smaller, clearly delineated, area was unearthed in trench A of densely scattered ceramics located in situ. This layer, that we can conditionally call a pit ( J l ) , also contained some

Banjscina-Bukovje. Rasciscavanje jame J1. Zbog velike suse bilo je tesko odrediti rubove jame. Banjs~ina-Bukovje. Cleaning out pit J1. The edges of the pit were difficult to make out on account of the intense drought.

Uz autora teksta, inaee voditelja, sudjelovali su artieolozi i studenti Ante Vranto, Helena Nodilo, Marija Drazaneie i Igor Miholjek. Joining the author and dig leader were archaeologists and students Ante Vranhmic, Helena Nodilo, Marija Drazaneie and Igor Miholjek. AMS-14C dataeija izradena je u Leibniz Labor fiir Altersbestimmung und Isotopenforselmng, Christian-Albreehts-Universitat u Eelu (KIA21268, BP 2073+27). Skraeena kalibraeija putem CalPal Online Radiocarbon Calibration izradena na Sveueilistu u Kolnu. Carbon MAMS dating was done at the Leibniz Lahwfur Altersbestimmung und Isotopenforschung, ChnstianAlbrechts- Vniversitdt in Kiel ( KIA21268, BP 2073 27 ) . Shortened calibration using CalPal Online Radiocarbon Calibration dene at the University of Koln .
3

iskopan i ureden u obliku sonde. Ta sonda B trebala je na obliznjemu mjestu dati suvisli profil, kako bi se prepoznalo mozebitne arheoloske slojeve. Nazalost, oni nisu ustanovljeni, i u profilu su bill vidljivi samo prirodni geoloski slojevi zutog lapora, laporaste zemlje i povrsinskog humusa bez ijednog arheoloskog nalaza. Nakon drugog, vrlo pomnog pregleda obrezja i zaravanka Bukovja pronadena je na prvi mah slabo vidljiva jama u istom, vec spomenutom pokosu. Na tome mjestu postavljena je treca sonda, C. Iskopavanjem je ustanovljeno kako je veci dio oranice na tome mjestu strojno vec bio skinut, te se tako nasa jama, ukopana u zdravicu, nalazila na relativno maloj dubini. Jama (J2) posve je ispraznjena, a sadrzavala je ulomke keramike te nesto razbacanog gara. Gar je datiran 14C metodom, a ishod upueuje na pocetak 1.st.pr.Kr. (86 86 calBC).4 Jama je izduzenog ovalnog oblika i malo duza od dva metra, dubine do pola metra. S obzirom da je gornji dio jame bio unisten, moze se pretpostaviti i da je bila nesto veca. Svi daljnji pokusaji da se pronade bilo koji ulomak keramike ili neka arheoloska struktura tada i nakon nastavka gradevinskih radova na torn polozaju ostali su bez uspjeha. Tako su ovo vjerojatno svi nalazi koji su se tu i nalazili.
POKRETNI NALAZI Keramicki nalazi Keramicki nalazi iz obje jame pripadaju mladem zeljeznom dobu. Dio nalaza oblicima podsjeca na tipicne keltske posude - rucno izradene zdjele (Tl2,6,16,17,20), te porozne situlaste lonce ( T l 7,8) pronadene na Blizni i Husti. Medutim, ovi ulomci zasigurno nisu proizvedeni na Blizni. Materijal i nacin izrade zdjela je grublji i nepravilniji,

charcoal that was dated using the AMS-14C method. The result of the samples testing points to the very end of the 2nd century BC or the very beginning of the 1st century BC (98 42 calBC).3 Not far from there, a recent construction excavation was used, further excavated and arranged into the form of an exploratory trench. This trench B was to have given a coherent profile at a nearby location so that possible archaeological layers could be recognised. They were not, unfortunately, determined and only natural geological layers of yellow marl, marly soil and surface humus were visible in the profile. After a second, very thorough inspection of the hillsides and plateau of Bukovje a pit was found in the same, already mentioned slope, at first barely discernable. A third exploratory trench, C, was opened here. Excavation revealed that a larger part of the ploughfieldhad here already been removed by heavy machinery so that our pit, dug into the subsoil, was located at a relatively shallow depth. The pit (J2) was completely emptied, and contained potsherds and some scattered charcoal. The charcoal was dated using the C14 method with the outcome indicating the start of the 1st century BC (8686 calBC).4 The pit was of extended oval shape and a little over two metres in length, up to half a metre deep. Given that the upper part of the
pit had been destroyed, it can be surmised that it was somewhat larger. All further attempts to find any potsherds or some archaeological structure at that position then and after the continuation of construction work were fruitless. These are then probably all of the finds present there. FINDS Ceramic finds

71 ~

a obodi nisu toliko zatvoreni kao kod onih s Blizne. Takav slucaj je i s poroznim loncima, koji takoder samo imitiraju svoje uzore na Blizni. Znakovito je i da na Bukovju nema sivih, na brzovrtecem kolu izradenih zdjela karakteristicnih za Kelte. S druge strane, ovdje se, kao i na Husti javlja ukras ruba zdjele ili rucke s jasno izbocenim rogovima, sto je karakteristika starijezeljeznodobnih nalazista ili mladezeljeznodobnih a naseljenih panonskim plemenima (Kiringrad BALEN-LETUNIC1987, t.7; Krcana RAUNING 1996, t.2-13, t.3-2,4; Kaptol-Gradca, Sv.Petar Ludbreski BALENLETUNIC 1996b, k.br.20,21,24,25; Kaptol POTREBICA 2003, s.65; Batina-Gradac SIMIC 2004, k.br.26). Osim rogova ovdje imamo i ulomak manje posudice (Tl-18), koja po svojem obliku opet podsjeca na dio starijezeljeznodobnog kernosa ili samostojece posudice (PavlovcaniJastrebarsko SKOBERNE 2002, sl.31; Kucar DULAR J., CIGLE-NECKI, DULA-R A. 1995, t.28-10, t.11-13). I preostali keramicki nalazi (Tl-

Ceramic finds from both pits hail from the late Iron Age. Part of the finds are, by their shape, reminiscent of typical Celtic vessels - hand made bowls (Tl-2, 6, 16, 17, 20), and porous Situlalike pots (Tl-7, 8) found at Blizna and Husta. The vessels this potsherds came from were certainly not manufactured at Blizna. The material and method of fabrication is rougher and more irregular, and the rims are not as closed as those from Blizna. This is also the case with the porous pots that also only imitate their models at Blizna. It is significant that there are at Bukovje none of the grey bowls made on fast potters wheels characteristic of the Celts. On the other hand, here, like at Husta, there are decorations on the edges of bowls or handles with clearly protruding horns, which is characteristic of early Iron Age sites or late Iron Age sites settled by Pannonian tribes (Kiringrad BALEN-LETUNIC 1987, t.7; Krcana RAUNING 1996, t.2-13, t.3-2,4; Kaptol-Gradca, Sv.Petar Ludbreski BALEN-LETUNIC 1996b,

* 14C klasi&ia dataeija izradena je u Laboratoriju za mjerenje niskili aktimosti Institute Ruder Bosko u Zagrebu (Z-3281, BP 2065 + 70). Skraeena kalibraeija putem CalPal Online Radiocarbon Calibration izradena na Sveueilistu u Kolnu. Classic Cl 4 dating was done at the RvJer Boskooic" Institutes Low Activities Memuring Laboratory in Zagreb (Z-3281, BP 206570). Shortened calibration using CalPal Online Radiocarbon Calibration done at the University of Koln.

72

Banjscina-Bukovje. Rekonstruirana zdjela, 9842 calBC. (T1-1). Banjs~ina-Bukovje. A reconstructed bowl, 98 42 calBC. (T1-1).

1,5,11) ne predstavljaju tipicnu keltsku ostavstirm. Prema tome, moze se izvuci zakljucak kako su keramicki poizvodi s Bukovja djelo panonskih Jasa, koji inzistirajuci na nekim svojim domacim oblicima i ukrasima (rogovi itd.) prihvacaju i nove, jednostavnije oblike keltskog posuda, koje i sami mogu izraditi. Metalni nalazi Na Bukovju su pronadena dva metalna predmeta. Izduzeni zeljezni predmet (Tl-15) je osteceno silo, s obzirom na masivnost, pogodno za busenje koze. Drugi ulomak je dio zeljeznog predmeta nepoznate namjene (Tl-14). Ne moze se iskljuciti ni da je ovaj predmet upao u sloj iz nekog mnogo kasnijeg konteksta. Kameni nalazi Tijekom istrazivanja arheoloskog nalazista Bukovje, u jami J l prikupljen je manji skup kamenih nalaza, koji se sastoji od jednog ulomka glacane izradevine i jednog ulomka brusa.6 Glacana izradevina je ulomak plohka, svijetlo zelene boje. Sacuvana je samo siroka baza, s dosta ostecenja. Tipoloski je vjerovatno rijec o sjekiri - cekieu (Tl10). Ulomak brusa je izraden od pjescenjaka smedecrvene boje, (Tl-13). Brus je karakteristican nalaz na latenskim nalazistima. Glacana izradevina je manje uobicajena, ali moguce da je koristena kao brusni kamen, a mozda je imala i odredenu simbolicnu, apotropejsku vrijednost.

k.br.20, 21, 24, 25; Kaptol POTREBICA 2003, s.65; Batina-Gradac SIMIC 2004, k.br.26). Besides these horns we have here a potsherd of a smaller vessel (Tl-18), which by its shape is again reminiscent of part of an early Iron Age Kernos or a small freestanding vessel (PavlovcaniJastrebarsko SKOBERNE 2002, sl.31; Kucar DULAR J., CIGLENECKI, DULAR A 1995, t.28-10, t.11-13). The remaining ceramic finds (Tl-1,5,11) also do not represent typical Celtic heritage. A conclusion can therefore be arrived at that the ceramic products from Bukovje are the work of the Pannonian Iasi that, while insisting on some of there own shapes and decorations (the horns etc.) also accept the new, simpler shapes of Celtic vessels they are able to produce themselves. Metal finds Two metal objects were found at Bukovje. An elongated iron object (Tl-15) is a damaged awl, given its size, suitable for piercing holes into leather. The second shard is part of an iron object of unknown use (Tl-14). The possibility that this object fell into the layer from some much later context cannot be ruled out. Lithic Assemblage During the research of the Bukovje archaeological site, a smaller lithic assemblage was collected in pit J l consisting of one shard of polished artefact and one shard of a whetstone.6 The polished artefact is a shard of a platform, of light green colour. Only a wide base is preserved, with a great deal of damage. By type it is probably a hammer - axe (Tl-10). The shard of whetstone is made of reddish-brown sandstone (Tl-13). A whetstone is a typical find at Laten sites. The polished artefact is less common but it may have been used as a whetstone, and might even have had a certain symbolic, apotropaic value. CONCLUSION Despite there not being, in trench A, a pit identified based on the colour of the interment, the dense assemblage of potsherds on one spot indicates that there was here nevertheless some sort of pit, perhaps a midden. Pit J2 in trench C probably indicated a dwelling. It is very likely a shelter in the shape of a smaller dugout house made ad hoc for the needs of a shorter stay at the place. Namely, given that the surrounding terrain has not yielded other traces of settlement, ceramics and the like, this site was probably a one-time or part-time dwelling for people from some other, permanent residence. Even a single family who remains at one spot at least a year, as a permanent residence, would leave behind itself a much greater quantity of material remains, something already proven in archaeology through the research of isolated medieval homes. It was therefore, most likely the part time dwelling of one or more herdsmen who

Banjscina-Bukovje. Jama J2 prije praznjenja. Humusni sloj odnesen je bageram i vidljivo je ostecenje na desnoj strani. Banjs~ina-Bukovje. Pit J2 prior to emptying. The layer of humus was carried away by an excavator and is visibly damaged on the right side.

ZAKLJUCAK

Unatoc tome sto u sondi A nije prepoznata jama prema boji ukopa, gusti skup ulomaka keramike na jednome mjestu govori nam kako je ovdje ipak rijec o nekoj jami, i to mozda otpadnoj. Jama J2 u sondi C ima vjerojatno stambeno znacenje. Vrlo vjerojatno je rijec o zaklonu u izgledu manje poluzemunice nacinjene ad hoc i potrebe kraceg boravka na ovome mjestu. Naime, s obzirom da se na okolnom terenu ne mogu naci dragi tragovi naseljavanja, keramika i slicno, ovo je nalaziste vrlo vjerojatno bilo jednokratno ili povremeno obitavaliste ljudi iz nekog dragog, stalnog naselja. Cak i jedna obitelj koja boravi barem godinu dana na jednome mjestu, kao stalnom boravistu, ostavila bi iza sebe mnogo vise materijalnih ostataka, sto je vec u arheologiji i dokazano, istrazivanjima srednjovjekovnih kuca izdvojenih na osami. Dakle, najvjerojatnije je rijec o povremenom stanistu jednog ili vise pastira, koji su na padinama Bukovja napasali svoju stoku. Zeljezno silo svjedoci kako su u dokolici sivali svoje kozuhe, a prsljen o obradi vune na lieu mjesta. Kako se prsljen u arheologiji obicno povezuje s zenskim poslovima, nadodaje se pitanje da li je s nazocnim pastirom na Bukovju boravila i neka zena, ili je on sam namatao vunu pomoeu prsljena. Djelomicna obrada vune znacila bi korisno iskoristeno vrijeme do povratka u naselje, pa bi i ta mogucnost imala smisla. Uz ove zanimljive podatke, ponovno se treba osvrnuti i na pronadene sitne nalaze. Ocite starijezeljeznodobne tradicije u kombinaciji s grubim kopijama kasnolatenskih posuda ne mogu a da ne navedu na razmisljanje kako su ovdje boraveci pastiri bili zapravo Jasi, koji su docekali l.st.pr.Kr. na sjevernoj granici prema podrucju koje su cvrsto preuzeU Taurisci - Kelti, nastanjeni u doUni Plitvice i Drave. Pravo keltsko naselje, danasnja Blizna, nalazilo im se nadohvat, u oko kilometar udaljenoj dolini. Apsolutne datacije oba nalazista svjedoce da su zivjeli u isto vrijeme, pa je izmedu njih zasigurno postojalo i neko medudjelovanje.6 Ova pretpostavka ce se naravno dokazati ili opovrgnuti vremenom, ali prema svim prikupljenim podacima dosad, cini mi se kako smo vec pomalo na pocetku took their flock to pasture on the slope of Bukovje. razrjesavanja pitanja medusobnog suzivota The iron awl bears witness that they stitched their panonskili Jasa i doseljenili Kelta na ovom podrucju. sheepskin coats to pass the time, while the spindle
KATALOG TABLA 1 - Bukovje, Jama 1 / Jama 2 whorl tells of wool working on the spot. As the spindle whorl is in archaeology usually associated with women, the question arises as to whether a woman also resided at Bukovje in the company of a herdsman, or if he himself spun wool with the aid of the spindle whorl. Partially wool working would indicate the useful use of the time available until the return to a settlement, giving that possibility probable. With these interesting bits of information we need again to turn to the located small finds. An evident early Iron Age tradition in combination with rough copies of late Laten vessels cannot but lead to the thought that the herdsmen who stayed here where in fact Iasi, situated in the 1st century BC on the

Banjscina-Bukovje. Jama J2 tijekom praznjenja. Banjs~ina-Bukovje. Pit J2 during emptying. Banjscina-Bukovje. Zavrsno stanje jame J2. Manja rupa u prrom planu vjerojatno pripada nekadasnjem kolcu od bivseg vinograda. Banjs~ina-Bukovje. Final state of pit J2. The smaller hole in the foreground is probably from some former vineyard post.

1- Ulomak prostorucno izradene posude, prociscene gline, svijetlo smede boje. 2- Ulomak prostorucno izradene posude, prociscene gline, tamno smede boje. 3- Ulomak prostorucno izradene posude, prociscene gline, tamno smede boje. 4- Ulomak prostorucno izradene posude, prociscene gline, tamno smede boje. 5- Ulomak prostorucno izradene posude, prociscene gline, tamno smede boje. 6- Ulomak prostorucno izradene posude, prociscene gline, tamno smede boje.

slabije slabije slabije slabije slabije slabije

74 ~

7- Ulomak prostorucno izradene posude, s tragovima primjese organskog materijala, porozne izrade, izvana zute, iznutra crne boje. 8- Ulomak prostorucno izradene posude, s tragovima primjese organskog materijala, porozne izrade, tamno smede boje. 9- Ulomak prostorucno izradene posude, slabije prociscene gline, svijetlo smede boje. 10- Dio glacane sjekire od svijetlo zelenog kamena. 11- Ulomak prostorucno izradene posude, slabije prociscene gline, crvenkaste boje. 12- Ulomak prsljena?, slabije prociscene gline, crvenkaste boje. 13- Dio kamenog brusa. 14- Dio zeljeznog predmeta. 15- Zeljezno silo. 16- Ulomak prostorucno izradene posude, slabije prociscene gline, smede boje. 17- Ulomak prostorucno izradene posude, slabije prociscene gline, smede boje. 18- Ulomak prostorucno izradene posude, slabije prociscene gline, smede, u prijelomu crne boje. 19- Ulomak prostorucno izradene posude, slabije prociscene gline, smede boje. 20- Ulomak prostorucno izradene posude, slabije prociscene gline, smede boje.

northern border facing the area firmly under the control of the Taurisci - Celts, settled in the Plitvica and Drava river valleys. A true Celtic settlement, modern-day Blizna, was in reach, in a valley about a kilometre away. Absolute dating of both sites indicates that they lived in the same time, so that there was certainly some sort of interaction between them. 6 This assumption will, naturally, be proven or refuted in time, but based on all of the evidence collected to-date, it appears that that we are already at the beginning of a solution to the issue of the coexistence in this area of Pannonian Iasi and the newly settled Celts. CATALOGUE TABLE 1 - Bukovje, Pit 1 / Pit 2 1- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of poorly refined clay, of light brown colour. 2- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of poorly refined clay, of dark brown colour. 3- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of poorly refined clay, of dark brown colour. 4- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of poorly refined clay, of dark brown colour. 5- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of poorly refined clay, of dark brown colour. 6- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of poorly refined clay, of dark brown colour. 7- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with traces of organic admixture, of porous fabrication, yellow outside, of black colour inside. 8- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with traces of organic admixture, of porous fabrication, of dark brown colour. 9- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of poorly refined clay, of light brown colour. 10- Part of a polished axe of light green stone. 11- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of poorly refined clay, of reddish colour. 12- Shard of a spindle whorl?, of poorly refined clay, of reddish colour. 13- Part of a whetstone. 14- Part of an iron object. 15- Iron awl. 16- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of poorly refined clay, of brown colour. 17- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of poorly refined clay, of brown colour. 18- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of poorly refined clay, of brown colour, of black colour at the break. 19- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of poorly refined clay, of brown colour. 20- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of poorly refined clay, of brown colour.

75

2 W

^H)
5 \J

1JE Q
15

ii-D

Tabla 1. Banjscina-Bukovje. 1-15 J1, 9842 calBC. / 16-20 J2, 8686 calBC. Table 1. Banjseina-Bukovje. 1-15 J1, 98+42 calBC. 116-20 J2, 86+86 calBC.

197.38^

197,26 196,93

197Kr

" \ J1

197 33\

197,31 X

196,79

196,73/

197,13 ,

BUKOVJE 2003.
0 5 10

X v<fc
% % % .

1S9.99

200.11

HUSTA KOD JAKOPOVCA Tragovi obitavanja iz mladeg zeljeznog doba i kasnog srednjeg vijeka
Prilikom pregleda gradevinskih radova na trasi buduce autoceste, na manjem posumljenom brezuljku Husta, pronadeni su ulomci kasnosrednjovjekovne keramike te nekoliko roznjackih odbitaka i alatki. Pomnijim pregledom otkriven je i trag bagerom ostecene jame u kojoj su se nalazili prapovijesni nalazi. Jama se nalazila na pokosu uz trasu autoceste. Iskopavanje je provedeno vecim brojem sondi koje su trebale otkriti arheoloske strakture iz kojih potjecu sitni nalazi. Brdasce Husta posljednja je uzvisina prije doline rijeke Plitvice i Drave s izmjerenom nadmorskom visinom od oko 190 - 192 m. Nalazi se odmah nad mjesnom cestom koja uz krajnji rub doline iz Kneginca vodi prema Jalzabetu. Sa istocne strane nalazi se potok i zasuti izvori Blizne. Brdasce je sustavno posumljeno crnogoricnim stablima prije nekoliko desetaka godina.
MLA0E ZELJEZNO DOBA - RANO ANTICKO DOBA NALAZI

HUSTA NEAR JAKOPOVEC Traces of Habitation from the Late Iron Age and Late Middle Ages
Potsherds of late medieval ceramics and several flint flakes and tools were found on the smaller forested hillock of Husta during archaeological supervision of construction work on the route of the future highway. A more detailed examination revealed the traces of a pit, damaged by an excavator, in which prehistoric finds were unearthed. The pit was located on the slope running along the route of the highway. Excavation was carried out in a large number of trenches with the goal of uncovering archaeological structures from which the small finds originated. The Husta hiUock is the last elevation before the Plitvica and Drava river valleys with a measured altitude of about 190 - 192 m above sea level. It is situated directly above the local road that follows the very edge of the valley heading from Kneginec towards Jalzabet. To the east is thefilled-upsource of the Blizna creek and the waterway itself. The hillock was systematically reforested with coniferous trees several decades ago.
THE LATE IRON AGE - EARLY ROMAN PERIOD FEATURES

79

Jedina pronadena prapovijesna struktura bila je prapovijesna otpadna jama, koja se nalazila u sondi C.1 Jama J l je manjeg promjera, ali zato relativno duboka, te je bila prepuna gara i keramickih ulomaka. Sloj iz kojeg je bila ukopavana

The only located prehistoric structure was a midden, found in trench C.1 Pit J l is small in

Jakopovec-Husta. Pogled na brdasce Husta (stup dalekovoda). Krajnje desno je nalaziste Blizna. Jakopovec-Husta. A view of the Husta hillock (high power line tower). To the far right is the Blizna site.
Osim autora ovog teksta kao yoditelja, u radoyima su sudjelovali i arheolozi te student! Ante Vranko, Marija DraSanfie, Helena Nodilo ilgor Miholjek. Joining the author and dig leader were archaeologists and students Ante Vranhwic, Marija Drazancic, Helena Nodilo and Igor Miholjek.
1

80

Jakopovec-Husta. Jama J1 u trenutku pronalaska u pokosu trase. Jakopovec-Husta. Pit J1 when it was found on the route.

bio je poremecen vec^pomenutim posumljavanjem, tako da su neki sitni nalazi i ispuna gornjeg dijela jame bili razvuceni u dva smjera. Ipak, veci, donji dio jame bio je neporemecen, te su njezino dno i bocni dijelovi jasno odredeni. Gar iz jame datiran je 14C metodom u pocetak 1. st. (4079 calAD).2 Oblik jame naslucuje kako je rijec o manjem trapu, odnosno o nekadasnjem spremistu hrane, kasnije iskoristenom kao otpadnoj jami. Drugih prapovijesnih nalaza nije bilo mnogo, osobito ne u iskopanim slojevima nasih sondi, vec je pronadeno nekoliko ulomaka kao povrsinski nalaz na brezuljku.
Jakopovec-Husta. Rekonstruirana ranorimska zdjelica, 4079 calAD. (T1-14) Jakopovec-Husta. A reconstructed early Roman period bowl, 40+79 calAD. (T1-14)

POKRETNI NALAZI Keramicki nalazi Premda je jama J l metodom 14C datirana u prvu polovinu l.st., pronadeno arheolosko gradivo ocito pripada starosjedilackom, predrimskom stanovnistvu. Iznimku cini manja, kvalitet! no i na brzovrtecem kolu izradena zdje lica (Tl-14). Vrlo slicne zdjelice pronadene su i prilikom nedavnih iskopavanja u Sloveniji (Nova Tabla - Murska Sobota GUSTIN 2003, s.201; Slivnica Maribor STRMCNIK-GULICM. 2003, s.238), gdje se odreduju kao rimsko posude.
2

diameter, but relatively deep, and was full of charcoal and potsherds. The layer into which it had been dug was disturbed by the already mentioned reforestation so that some small finds and the fill of the upper portion of the pit were spread in two directions. Most of the pit was, nevertheless, pristine, and its sides and lower extremities are clearly defined. The charcoal from the pit was dated using the C14 method to the start of the 1st century (4079 calAD).2 The pits shape appears to be that of a former food storage dugout, later converted into a midden. There were not many other prehistoric finds, especially not in the excavated layers of our trenches, but several surface finds were located on the hillock. FINDS Ceramic finds Although pit J l was dated using the C14 method to the 1st half of the 1st century, the located archaeological material evidently belongs to an indigenous, pre-Roman population. The exception is a smaU, well-made bowl, manufactured on a fast potters wheel (Tl-14). Very similar bowls were found during recent excavations in Slovenia (Nova Tabla- Murska Sobota GUSTIN 2003, s.201; Slivnica - Maribor STRMCNIK-GULIC M. 2003, s.238), where they are identified as being Roman period vessels. The lions share of the vessels are porous and roughly fabricated pots with impressed ribbons executed as groove under the rim. Some have decorations in the form of a series of engravings

14CHasiena dataeija izradena je u LaboratorijuZa mjerenje niskiliaktiTOosti Instituta Ruder Bosko" u Zagrebu (Z3282, BP 1960 + 70). Skrataia kalibracija putem CalPal Online Radiocarbon Calibration izradena na Sveueilista u Kolnu. Classic GU dating was done at the "B-uOer Boslayoic''Institutes Low Activities Measuring Laboratory in Zagreb (Z3282, BP 196070). Shortened calibration using CalPal Online Radiocarbon Calibration done at the University ofKoln.

Najveci broj posuda cine porozni i grubo izradeni lonci s utisnutom trakom izvedenom kao utor pod obodom. Poneki imaju ukras od niza ureza pod spomenutim utorom ili bojeni obod. 0 ovim loncima vise je napisano u poglavlju o mladezeljeznodobnim nalazima s Blizne, a ovdje je dovoljno spomenuti kako je rijec o kasnolatenskim keltskim loncima kucne proizvodnje (Gomolava, JOVANOVIC B., JOVANOVIC M.,1988 t.XXVII-2, t.XXIX-16,15, t.XXXVI-3,2,8 itd. Vinkovci DIZDAR 2001, t.261, t.31-1-8 itd. Ilok DIZDAR, SOSTARIC, JELINCIC 2003, t l - 1 ; Mitrovacke livade BRUKNER 1988, t.-7-10,11; Stradonice RYBOVA, DRDA 1994, f.31-1-8 itd. NitraSindolka BREZINOVA 2000, t.1-4,5, t.29-13, t.102-13; Olmouc-Neredin KALABEK 2001, pic.l35, itd.). U jami ima i ulomaka za to razdoblje tipicnih zdjela (Tl-13,17), takoder u velikom broju zastupljenih na Blizni. Posebnost su dva ulomka s urezanim linijama (Tl-10,11). Uzorak trokuta omedenih crtama na Tl-10 moze se pronaci u keltskome gradivu iz Nitre (Nitra-Sindolka BREZINOVA 2000, t.104-17) gdje datira u LtB2-Dl, ili u Stradonicama (Hradiste-Stradonice RYBOVA, DRDA 1994, t28-14,16) gdje datira u LtC2-D2. Najzanimljiviji je nalaz keramickih rogova (Tl-15,16) kakvi su nam poznati sa starijezeljeznodobnih nalazista. U klasicnom keltskom repertoaru oblika ovakav ukras nije upotrebljavan, pa mozemo postaviti pitanje kojem je etnikumu pripadao tvorac ovog ukrasa. Vrlo slicne, ako ne i jednake ukrase nalazimo posvuda u gradivu povezanim sa starijim zeljeznim dobom (RMngrad BALEN-LETUNIC1987, t.7; Krcana RAUNING 1996, t.2-13, t.3-2,4; Kaptol-Gradca, Sv.Petar Ludbreski BALEN-LETUNIC 1996b, k.br.20,21,24,25; Kaptol POTREBICA 2003, s.65; Batina-Gradac SIMC 2004, k.br.26). Nalazi iz Krcane u vezi su s panonskim plemenom Kolapijana i mladini zeljeznim dobom, pa vjerujem da se u nasem slucaju rogovi s Huste i Bukovja mogu povezati s panonskim plemenom Jasa, koje je ovdje granicilo s Keltima. Medu keramickim nalazima iz jame J l na Husti postoji i jedan u cijelosti ocuvan masivan prsljen (Tl-12), razlicit od onih pronadenih na Blizni, a koji bi pripadali ovome razdoblju. Ostali nalazi Tijekom iskopavanja prikupljeno je ukupno 9 komada razlicitog kamenja. U jami Jlnadeno je 6 manjih rijecnih oblutaka i jedan mali odbojak glacane izradevine, tipoloski neodrediv, zelene boje (Tl-19). Kao slucajni nalaz prikupljene su dvije izradevine od cijepanog kamena. Prva je odbojak, izraden od crvenosmedeg neprozirnog roznjaka dobrih karakteristika cijepanja. Druga izradevina je prizmaticno sjecivo, izradeno od smedeg prozirnog roznjaka dobrih karakteristika cijepanja (T2-18).

under the mentioned groove or a coloured rim. As these pots have been dealt with in the chapter on the late Iron Age finds at Blizna, it suffices here to say that they are late Laten Celtic pots of home make (Gomolava, JOVANOVIC B., JOVANOVIC M., 1988 t.XXVII-2, t.XXIX-16,15, t.XXXVI3,2,8 etc. Vinkovci DIZDAR 2001, t.26-1, t.31-18 etc. Ilok DIZDAR, SOSTARIC, JELINCIC 2003, tl-1; Mitrovacke livade BRUKNER 1988, t.-7-10,ll; Stradonice RYBOVA, DRDA 1994, f.31-1-8 etc. Nitra-Sindolka BREZINOVA 2000, t.1-4,5, t.29-13, t.102-13; Olmouc-Neredin KALABEK 2001, pic.135, etc.). There are also potsherds in the pit of bowls typical of the period (Tl-13,17), also represented in large quantity at Blizna. Of interest are two potsherds with engraved lines (Tl-10,11). A triangle pattern bordered by lines on Tl-10 can also be found in the Celtic material from Nitra (Nitra-Sindolka BREZINO VA 2000,1.104-17) where they are dated to LtB2Dl, or in Stradonice (Hradiste-Stradonice RYBOVA, DRDA 1994, t28-14,16) where they date from LtC2-D2. Also of interest is afindof ceramic horns (Tl15,16) known to us from early Iron Age sites. As this kind of decoration is not used in the classic Celtic repertoire of shapes, we can speculate as to the ethnicity of this decorations creator. Very similar, if not identical, decorations are found everywhere in material associated with the early Iron Age period (Kringrad BALEN-LETUNIC 1987, t.7; Krcana RAUNING 1996, t.2-13, t.32,4; Kaptol-Gradca, Sv.Petar Ludbreski BALENLETUNIC 1996b, k.br.20,21,24,25; Kaptol POTREBICA 2003, s.65; Batina-Gradac SIMIC 2004, k.br.26). Finds from Krcane are connected to the Pannonian tribe of Kolapijana and the late Iron Age, so that I believe that in our case the horns from Husta and Bukovje can be connected to the Pannonian tribe of Iasi that bordered here with the Celts. Among the ceramic finds from pit J l there is one entirely preserved massive spindle whorl (Tl12), different from those found at Blizna and belonging to this period. Other finds A total of nine pieces of various stone were collected during the excavation. 6 smaller river pebbles and one smaU flake from a polished artefact were found in pit J l , of unidentifiable type and green colour (Tl-19). Two artefacts of knapped lithics were located as surface finds. The first is a flake made of reddish-brown opaque flint of good knapping characteristics. The other artefact is a prismatic blade made of transparent brown flint of good knapping characteristics (T2-18). Although the context is uncertain there are, based on the characteristics of the stone artefacts such as the fragment of a polished axe and the prismatic blade, two possible scenarios. The first is that the site is of a, for the moment unconfirmed,

81

Jakopovec-Husta. Ulomak keltskog lonca, 4079 calAD. (T1-2) Jakopovec-Husta. Potsherd from a Celtic pot, 40+79 calAD. (T1-2)

Jakopovec-Husta. Dio keramickog roscica, 40+79 calAD. (T1-6) Jakopovec-Husta. Part of a small ceramic horn, 40+79 calAD. (T1-6)

82

Not many bones were found in pit J l , and the only identifiable one is the tooth of a pig (Sus sp.). A large sample of soil (about 100 kg) from pit J l Kosti did not, unfortunately, yield remains (seeds and U jami J l nije se pronaslo mnogo kostiju, a the like) that would help us identify the state of Jakopovec-Husta. Ulomak keramicke jedini odredivi nalaz je zub svinje (Sus sp.). Velik flora at the time or the agricultural base of the posude s urezima, 4079 calAD. (T1-10) uzorak zemlje (oko 100 kg) iz jame J l nazalost inhabitants of Husta in the late Iron Age. Jakopovec-Husta. Potsherd of an nije razotkrio ostatke (sjemenke i si.) koje bi nam THE engraved ceramic vessel, 40 79 calAD. pomogle 0CLrecliti tadasnje stanje biljnog pokrova LATE MIDDLE AGES j FEATURES ^ " ili poljoprivrednu osnovu stanovnika Huste u Given the dense surface finds of late medieval mladezeljezno doba. ceramics the existence of some late medieval building KASNI SREDNJI VIJEK on this elevation was presumed. Excavation was NALAZI organised into four trenches, but they did not yield S obzirom na guste povrsinske nalaze concrete archaeological results. Subsoil, of sandy kasnosrednjovjekovne keramike, pretpostavljalo clay, was found at a depth of about 50 cm, while the se postojanje neke kasnosrednjovjekovne zgrade humus layer is very muddled by the dense tree na ovoj uzvisini. Iskopavanje je organizirano kroz planting. Besides further finds of late medieval 4 sonde, ali one nisu dale konkretne arheoloske ceramics, scattered sporadically at various depths rezultate. Zdravica, pjeskovita glina, nalazi se na without any particular order, nothing was found that dubini od oko 50 cm, a humusni sloj vrlo je might indicate a structure belonging to that period. poremecen gustom sadnjom stabala. Osim daljnih nalaza kasnosrednjovjekovne keramike, koja se FINDS mjestimicno nalazila na raznim dubinama bez Ceramic finds nekog reda, nije pronadeno nista sto bi upucivalo Medieval finds are the most frequent ones on na neke strukture koje bi pripadale torn dobu. the hillock of Husta. Most of the ceramicfindswere found as very small fragments, so that there were POKRETNI NALAZI very few identifiable potsherds. Characteristics Kerami~ki nalazi shapes, nevertheless, allow us to make a basic Srednjovjekovni nalazi su na brdascu Husta typological identification and dating. These are najbrojniji. Vecina keramickih nalaza pronadena ceramics from the 14th and 15th centuries that are je u sitnim ulomcima, pa je preostao relativno mali marked by a temper of rough sand, thinner walls, broj odredivih ulomaka. No, ipak, karakteristicni ribbon-like pot rims and so forth. The fragments of oblici dopustaju nam njihovo osnovno tipolosko vessels that have been collected are predominantly odredenje i datiranje. Rijec je o keramici 14. i 15. of poor manufacture. The exception is potsherd St., koju obiljezavaju primjese grubog pijeska, tanje T2-13, made of hard-baked whitish clay and stijenke, trakasti obodi lonaca itd. Dijelovi decorated with a regular pattern of engravings that pronadenih posuda uglavnom su razmjerno lose does not originate from local production. The rim izrade. Iznimak je ulomak T2-13, izraden od tvrde of pot T2-1 resembles those found in Delovi
> Na torn odredenju zahvaljujem restauratoru Damiru Dorafieu iz Arheoloskog muzeja u Zagrebu. I wish to thank restorer Damir Doraeic of the Archaeological Museum of Zagreb for this identification.

Iako je upitan kontekst, na osnovi karakteristika kamenih nalaza, kao sto su ulomak glacane sjekire i prizmaticno sjecivo, moguce su dvije pretpostavke. Prva je kako je na nalazistu za sada nepotvrdena faza boravka tijekom mladeg kamenog ili (i) bakrenog doba, a draga je kako je roznjak koriste kao dio naprave za paljenje vatre, a glacana izradevina kao brasni kamen, odnosno da je imala i odredenu simbolicnu, apotropejsku vrijednost tijekom razdoblja mladeg zeljeznog doba. Ono sto je posebno zanimljivo na ovom nalazistu jest nalaz jantara. Na gradevinski ostecem dijelu jame pronaden je nalaz koji je u prvi mail slicio na crvenu perlu, koja se prilikom prihvacanja raspala u posve sitne dijelove, vjerojatno zato sto je neko vrijeme bila na povrsini izlozena jakom suncu. Mikroskopskom provjerom preostalog sacuvanog dijela, ustanovljeno je kako je uistinu rijec o jantara.3 Premda unistena, ova perla? ipak je nalaz koji se u buducnosti moze uvrstiti u karte kasnolatenskih jantarnih nalaza radi proucavanja tzv. jantarnog puta (BOZIC 1998).

phase of habitation during the new Stone or (and) Copper Age, and the second is that the flint was used as part of a fire starting kit, and the polished artefact as a whetstone, that is to say, that it had a certain symbolic, apotropaic value during the late Iron Age period. What is particularly interesting at this site is a find of amber. In the part of the pit damaged by construction work afindwas located that initially appeared to be a red pearl. It disintegrated into veryfineparts during removal, likely on account of having been exposed for a time to the strong sunlight on the surface. A microscopic examination of the remaining preserved portion established that is was in fact amber.3 Although destroyed, this pearl (?) is nevertheless afindthat in the future might be entered into the map of late Laten amberfindsin researching the so-called amber route (BOZIC 1998).
Bones

pecene bjelkaste gline i ukrasen pravilnim nizom ureza, koji ne pripada mjesnoj proizvodnji. Obod lonca T2-1 slici pronadenima u Delovima (MARKOVIC 1984 t.l0-5,8) koje autor datira u razdoblje od 14. do 16. st. Dosjed cepa T2-14 slici nekim primjercima iz Windsheima (JANSSEN 1995, t.45, itd.) koji se datiraju oko 1500.godine.

(MARKOVIC 19841.10-5,8) dated by the author from the 14th to 16th centuries. The plug receptacle on T2-14 resembles some of the specimens from Windsheim (JANSSEN 1995, t.45, etc.) that are dating to about the year 1500.
CONCLUSION

83

Pit J l probably served initially as a food storage ZAKLJUCAK dugout, judging by its shape, and was later used as Jama J l vjerojatno je u pocetku sluzila kao a midden. The structure it belonged to must have spremnik hrane, sudeci prema svojem obliku, da bi been located nearby, but we have not found traces kasnije bila iskoristena kao otpadna jama. Objekt of it. It was most likely destroyed by the excavator kojemu je pripadala morao se nalaziti u blizini, ali working on the route. Considering the small quantity nismo mu pronasli trag. Najvjerojatnije je unisten offindsoutside of the pit itself, it appears that only radom bagera na pokosu trase. S obzirom na malu a single late Iron Age structure stood on the Husta kolicinu nalaza izvan same jame, cini se kako je na hillock, and for only a short period of time. This brezuljku Husta stajao samo jedan mladezeljezno- structure was placed in the direct vicinity of the dobni objekt, i to krace vrijeme. Taj objekt bio je Celtic settlement at Blizna, we could say, on its outer postavljen u samoj blizini keltskog naselja na Blizni, edges. Based on its absolute dating we can say that mozemo reci, na njegovu obodnom dijelu. Prema it is synchronous to the settlement. The question apsolutnoj dataciji, mozemo reci i kako je arises as to why it was isolated on the smaU elevation istovremen naselju. Namece se pitanje zasto je bio and separated from the chef settlement on the plain. osamljen na manjoj uzvisini i odvojen od glavnog It is impossible at the moment to answer that naselja u ravnici. Na to pitanje zasada je nemoguce question, but certain characteristics have been noted odgovoriti, ali u zastupljenom arheoloskom gradivu in the archaeological material found at Husta that na Husti zabiljezene su stanovite znacajke koje nisu are not found at Blizna. Was there in fact here, as zastupljene na Blizni. Da li je uistinu i tu, kao na in Bukovje, perhaps a group that differed ethnically Bukovju, mozda rijec o skupini etnicki nepri- from the Celts at Blizna, that is to say of Pannonian padajucoj Keltima s Blizne, odnosno panonskim Iasi? Perhaps this question will be addressed when Jasima? Mozda ce se i na to moci odgovoriti kada Blizna is researched in its entirety. se Blizna istrazi u cijelosti. The later medieval finds also pose more Kasnosrednjovjekovni nalazi takoder upucuju questions than they answer. The settlement of vise pitanja negli daju odgovora. Naselje Jakopovec Jakopovec already existed at the time, and is located je u to doba vec bilo poznato, a nalazi se na oko about a kilometre from the hillock as the crow flies. kilometar zracne crte udaljenom brdu. Mozda je Perhaps the prehistoric and Roman period road prapovijesna i anticka cesta kroz doUnu Blizne bila running through the Blizna vaUey was still in use at jos prometna, a danasnja lokalna cesta Turcin - the time, while the modern day local road from Ludbreg dobivala sve vece znacenje. Izvori vode Turcin to Ludbreg was gaining in importance. bili su pod brdascem Husta, a plodna polja prema There were springs of water under the Husta hillock sjeveru takoder. Po svemu sudeci, moze se and fertile fields to the north. Judging by all it can

Jakopovec-Husta. Tijekom radova na sondi A. Jakopovec-Husta. During work on trench A.

84

pretpostaviti kako je na Husti izmedu 14. i 16.st. bila barem jednalmca, ili neko imanje, kojem zasad nismo nasli gradevinskih ostataka.
KATALOG TABLA 1 - Husta, Jama 1 / Slucajni nalaz

be surmised that there was on Husta at least one house or a property between the 14th and 16th centuries of which we have as yet found no remains.
CATALOGUE TABLE 1 - Husta, Pit 1 / Chance find

1- Ulomak prostorucno izradene posude, s tragovima primjese organskog materijala, porozne izrade, trusi se, crvenkastosmeckaste boje, na obodu crno bojena. 2- Ulomak prostorucno izradene posude, s tragovima primjese organskog materijala, porozne izrade, trusi se, tamno smede do erne boje. 3- Ulomak prostorucno izradene posude, s tragovima primjese organskog materijala, porozne izrade, trusi se, izvana zute, iznutra erne boje. 4- Ulomak prostorucno izradene posude, s tragovima primjese organskog materijala, porozne izrade, izvana sivkastosmede, iznutra erne boje. 5- Ulomak prostorucno izradene posude, s primjesama kamencica, smede boje. 6- Ulomak prostorucno izradene posude, s tragovima primjese organskog materijala, porozne izrade, trusi se, izvana tamno smede, iznutra erne boje. Vjerojatno dio posude Tl-19. 7- Ulomak prostorucno izradene posude, s tragovima primjese organskog materijala, porozne izrade, svijetlo i tamno smede boje. 8- Ulomak prostorucno izradene posude, s tragovima primjese organskog materijala, porozne izrade, trusi se, izvana zute, iznutra erne boje. 9- Ulomak prostorucno izradene posude, slabije prociscene gline, narancastosmede boje. 10- Ulomak prostorucno izradene posude, slabije prociscene gline, tamno smede boje. 11- Ulomak prostorucno izradene posude, slabije prociscene gline, svijetlo smede boje. 12- Prsljen, slabije prociscene gline, zuckaste boje. 13- Ulomak prostorucno izradene posude, slabije prociscene gline, svijetlo smede boje. 14- Posuda izradena na brzovrtecem kolu, dobro prociscene gline, tvrde izrade, svijetlo smede boje s tragovima premaza crnom bojom. 15- Ulomak prostorucno izradene posude, slabije prociscene gline, tamno smede boje. Dragi dio od Tl-16. 16- Ulomak prostorucno izradene posude, slabije prociscene gline, svijetlo smede boje. Dragi dio od Tl-15. 17- Ulomak prostorucno izradene posude, slabije prociscene gline, tamno smede boje. 18- Ulomak prostorucno izradene posude, s tragovima primjese organskog materijala, porozne izrade, trusi se, izvana tamno smede, iznutra erne boje. Vjerojatno dio posude Tl-6. 19- Ulomak kamene glacane izradevine, zelene boje.
TABLA 2 - Husta: Slojevi / Slucajni nalazi
J J

1- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with traces of an admixture of organic material, of porous fabrication, crumbling, of reddish brown colour, colour black on the rim. 2- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with traces of an admixture of organic material, of porous fabrication, crumbling, of dark brown to black colour. 3- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with traces of an admixture of organic material, of porous fabrication, crumbling, yellow outside, of black colour inside. 4- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with traces of an admixture of organic material, of porous fabrication
greyish brown outside, of black colour inside. 5- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with temper of pebbles, of brown colour. 6- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, w i t h traces of an a d m i x t u r e of organic m a t e r i a l , of porous fabrication, crumbling, dark brown outside, of black colour inside. Probably a part of vessel T1-19. 7- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, w i t h traces of an a d m i x t u r e of organic m a t e r i a l , of porous fabrication, of light and dark brown colour. 8- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, w i t h traces of an a d m i x t u r e of organic m a t e r i a l , of porous fabrication, crumbling, yellow outside, of black colour inside. 9- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of poorly refined clay, of orange-brown colour.

10_ Potsherd of a hand.made vessel> of poorly refined clay, of dark brown colour. n . Potsherd of a hand.made vessei; of pooriy reflned d ay ) of iight brown coiour. 12. Spindle whorl, of poorly refined clay, of yellowish colour. 13- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of poorly refined clay, of light brown colour. 14- Vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, of well refined clay, of harder fabrication, of light brown colour with traces of a coating of black colour. 15- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of poorly refined clay, of dark brown colour. The other part of Tl-16. 16- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of poorly refined clay, of light brown colour. The other part of Tl-15. 17- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of poorly refined clay, of dark brown colour. 18- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with traces of an admixture of organic material, of porous fabrication, crumbling, dark brown outside, of black colour inside. Probably part of vessel Tl-6. 19- Shard of a polished stone artefact, of green
colour

S| v . i oje. ucajm na az.

1- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with a large quantity of crumbling sand, of light brown colour. Chance find.

2- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s mnogo primjesa pijeska koji se trusi, svijetlo smede boje. Slucajni nalaz. 3- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s mnogo primjesa pijeska koji se trusi, svijetlo smede boje Slucajni nalaz 4- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s mnogo primjesa pijeska kqji se trusi, svijetlo smede boje Slucajni nalaz 5- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s mnogo primJesa pijeska koji se trusi, svijetlo smede boje Slucajni nalaz 6- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s mnogo primjesa pijeska koji se trusi, erne boje. Slucajni nalaz. 7- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s mnogo primjesa pijeska koji se trusi, svijetlo smede boje. Sonda C, Sloj 2. 8- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s mnogo primjesa pijeska koji se trusi, tamno smede boje. Slucajni nalaz. 9- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s mnogo primjesa pijeska koji se trusi, svijetlo smede boje. Slucajni nalaz. 10- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s mnogo primjesa pijeska koji se trusi, crvenkaste boje. Slucajni nalaz 11- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s mnogo primjesa pijeska koji se trusi, svijetlo smede boje. Slucajni nalaz. 12- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s mnogo primjesa pijeska koji se trusi, svijetlo smede boje. Slucajni nalaz. 13- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama pijeska, tvrde izrade, bjelkaste boje. Slucajni nalaz. 14- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s mnogo primjesa pijeska koji se trusi, svijetlo smede boje. Slucajni nalaz. 15- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s mnogo primjesa pijeska koji se trusi, svijetlo sive boje. Slucajni nalaz. 16- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s mnogo primjesa pijeska koji se trusi, svijetlo smede boje Sonda C Sloj 2 17- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s puno primjesa pijeska koji se trusi, svijetlo smede boje Slucajni nalaz 18- Obradeni smeckasti roznjak. Slucajni nalaz. 19- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s puno primjesa pijeska koji se trusi, svijetlo smede boje. Sonda C, Sloj 2. 20- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s puno primjesa pijeska koji se trusi, svijetlo smede boje. Slucajni nalaz.

2- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with a large quantity of crumbUng sand, of light brown colour. Chance find. 3- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with a large quantity of crumbUng sand, of light brown colour. Chance find. 4- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with a large quantity of crumbUng sand, of Ught brown colour. Chance find. 5" Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with a large quantity of crumbUng sand, of Ught brown colour. Chance find. 6" Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with a large quantity of crumbling sand, of black colour. Chance find. 7- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with a large quantity of crumbUng sand, of Ught brown colour. Trench C, Layer 2. 8- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with a large quantity of crumbUng sand, of dark brown colour. Chance find. 9- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with a large quantity of crumbUng sand, of Ught brown colour. Chance find. 10- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with a large quantity of crumbling sand, of reddish colour. Chance find n _ Potsherd 0 f a vessei manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with a large quantity of cramb]ing sand, of Ught brown colour. Chance find. 12_ Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheei; tempered with a iarge quantity of crambUng sand, of Ught brown colour. Chance find. 13_ Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with sand, of harder fabrication, of whitish colour. Chance find. 14- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with a large quantity of crumbUng sand, of Ught brown colour. Chance find. 15- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with a large quantity of crumbling sand, of light grey colour. Chance find. 16- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with a laige quantity ofcrambling sand, of light brown colour. Trench C, Layer 2. 17- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with a large quantity of crumbUng sand, of Ught brown colour. Chance find. 18" Retouched brownish flint. Chance find. 19- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with a large quantity of tumbling sand, of light brown colour. Trench C, Layer 2. 20- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with a large quantity of crumbling sand, of light brown colour. Chance find.

85 ~

86

Tabla 1. Jakopovec-Husta. Jama J1, 4079 calAD. Table 1. Jakopovec-Husta. Pit J1, 40+79 calAD.

87

Tabla 2. Jakopovec-Husta. Kasnosrednjovjekovni slucajni nalazi i nalazi iz slojeva. Table 2. Jakopovec-Husta. Late medieval chance finds and finds from the layers.

C 0)
Ul

O O W

'2

00

BLIZNA KOD JAKOPOVCA (VARAZDIN) Viseslojno naselje


Prilikom arheoloskog nadzora gradilista buduce autoceste Zagreb - Gorican, na krajnje sjevernom dijelu dionice Novi Marof - Varazdin, pred samim cvoristem Varazdin, u svibnju 2003.g. otkriveno je novo arheolosko nalaziste. Tijekom pregleda polozaja Blizna, otkriveno je nekoliko stotina keramickih i metalnih ulomaka koji upueuju na razlicita razdoblja - mlade kameno doba, bakreno doba, kasno broncano doba, mlade zeljezno doba, rano, zrelo i kasno Rimsko Carstvo, velika seoba naroda te rani, razvijeni i kasni srednji vijek. Zahvaljujuci takvom usiljenom slijedu naseljavanja, ovo nalaziste ukljucuje se medu rijetka nalazista toga tipa u sjevernoj Hrvatskoj. Time je ovo nalaziste, cini se, najzanimljivije i najznacajnije dosad pronadeno na ovom smjera autoceste.

BLIZNA NEAR JAKOPOVEC (VARA@DIN) Multi-layer Settlement

91

A new archaeological site was discovered in May of 2003 during archaeological supervision of the construction site of the future Zagreb - Gorican high way, on the far northern part of the Novi Marof Varazdin section, just before the Varazdin junction. Several hundred potsherds and metal shards were found during a survey of the Blizna site that indi cate various periods - the new Stone Age, the Cop per Age, the late Bronze Age, the late Iron Age, the early, high and late periods of the Boman Empire, the Migration Period and the early, high and late medieval periods. Thanks to this dense succession of habitation this site can be counted among the rare ones of its kind in northern Croatia. This site is, it appears, the most interesting and most signifi cant yet found on this part of the highway. The Blizna site (about 175 - 177 m above sea Polozaj Blizna (oko 175 - 177 m.n.v) nalazi se na kraju klanca koji iz pravca juga, odnosno kroz level) is located at the end of a gorge that opens to obronke Varazdinbrega, izbija u dolinu rijeke Plitvice the Plitvica and Drava river valleys from the south, i Drave. Tok istoimenog potoka ovdje skrece prema i.e. from the slopes of Varazdinbreg. A creek of the zapadu jer se pred njim izdize visoka pjescana greda. same name turns west here as it hits a high sandy Na istome mjestu presijeca ga lokalna cesta ridge. The local road heading from Kneginec to Kneginec - Jalzabet. Trasa autoceste prilazi nalazistu Jalzabet cuts through it at the same location. The sa zadnjeg brezuljka Husta (oko 190 - 192 m.n.v.) route of the highway approaches the site from the i betonskim mostom (prijelazom) nadilazi last hillock of Husta (about 190 - 192 m above sea spomenutu lokalnu cestu. Zbog toga trasa na level) and passes over the mentioned local road with pocetku doline nije ukopavana, vec nasuta sljunkom a concrete bridge (overpass). The route is on this do potrebne visine, kako bi se blago izjednacilo account not dug into the head of the valley, but spustanje ceste iz brdovitog smjera u dolinu. rather raised with gravel to the needed height in Prilikom nasipavanja trase nije bilo opseznijih order to gently make the drop in elevation from the iskopa na tome mjestu, nego se pravac samo hiU country to the valley. There were no large-scale humusirao, odnosno zaravnavao strojevima, sto excavations in the area during the levelling of the ukljucuje ukop na dubinu od najvise 20 centimetara. route. The route was only humused, that is to say Naknadno su vrseni i radovi na iskopima za odvodne levelled out by machine, which here meant digging jarke uz trasu, a promijenjen je i tok potoka koji je skrenut uz trasu autoceste. Tek u ovim duboko ukopanim jarcima ukazale su se brojne jame i ostaci prapovijesnih objekata. Takvo stanje objasnjava nam i cinjenicu da je nalaziste dosad bilo posve nepoznato cak i mjestanima, jer su se prvi arheolosM ostaci na nekim mjestima nalazili na relativnoj dubini tek od oko 75 cm, pa i nisu mogli biti zahvaceni plugom prilikom obrade brojnih polja na torn polozaju. Nalaziste se prostire uz obje strane trase autoceste, od prijelaza Jakopovec prema cvoristu Varazdin, u duzini od oko 200 metara. Procijenjena sirina nalazista je oko 150 metara. Prema rijecima mjestana Jakopovca, na Blizni su se nalazila cak tri izvora vode koji su zatrpani kada je selo dobilo vodovod. Taj prostor nalazi se izmedu spomenutih brezuljka Husta i pjescane grede. Ocigledno je kako je rijec o nizem i mocvarnom terenu u koji je utjecao i potok s

Jakopovec-Blizna. Odvodni kanal (jarak) pralazi cijelom duzinom kroz nalaziste, a ostaci jama zamijetljivi su u bocnim pokosima. Jakopovec-Blizna. A drainage canal (ditch) runs the entire length of the site, and remains of pits can be made out on its lateral planes.

92

Jakopovec-Blizna. Dogovor oko strategije iskopavanja. Kopalo se prema kvadratnoj mre`i s pra`njenjem ukopa po kvadrantima. Jakopovec-Blizna. Working out the excavation strategy. Digs were made based on a network of quadrants with the fill being deposited quadrant by quadrant.

Jakopovec-Blizna. Iskopavanje sonde C na dubinu od gotovo 3 m. U sondama B i C nije bilo nalaza. Jakopovec-Blizna. Excavation at trench C at a depth of almost 3 m. Trenches B and C did not yield finds.

obronaka Varazdinbrega. Ta mocvara sustavno je zatrpavana, a bageri su prilikom gradnje ceste prevrnuli mnostvo smeca u kojem je bilo isluzenih stednjaka, autodijelova i inoga. Kao i prije, za vrijeme gradnje ceste, ovo je mjesto iskoristavano za odvoz gradevinskog materijala, sute te starog asfalta. Zbog toga razloga nije moguce predociti nekadasnji izgled mocvare i izvora vode, pa ni sa sigurnoseu reei da li i tu ima arheoloskih nalaza. Prvi nalazi pronadeni su dvadesetak metara dalje, na obroncima pjescane grede, oko koje potok dalje skrece na sjever prema rijeci Plitvici. Kako je trasa autoceste u vrijeme otkrica nalazista vec bila posljuncana, trebalo je provesti sondiranja uz nju. U konstruktivnim dogovorima s investitorima (Hrvatske autoceste) i izvodacima, dogovoreno je da se jarci ne iskopavaju vec da se sondira na polozajima tzv. paralelnih putova uz autocestu. S obzirom n a mjere nalazista i

to a depth of at most 20 centimetres. Works on dig ging drainage ditches along the route were carried out later on, and the course of the creek was turned to follow the highway. Only then, in these deep ditches were numerous pits and the remains of pre historic structures revealed. This situation explains the fact that the site was entirely unknown up to now, even to the local population, as the first ar chaeological remains were found relatively deep, at a depth of about 75 cm, and could not therefore have been caught by the blade of a passing plough during the cultivation of the numerous fields in the area. The site spreads out on both sides of the highways route, from the Jakopovec overpass to the Varazdin junction, a length of about 200 metres. The estimated width of the site is about 150 metres. According to the inhabitants of Jakopovec, there were as many as three springs of water at Blizna that were filled-in when the village was connected to the water main. The area in question lies between the mentioned hillock of Husta and the sandy ridge. This is an evidently low-lying and marshy terrain into which the creek coming off the slopes of Varazdinbreg flowed. This marsh had been system atically filled, and during the construction excava tors dredged out a great deal of refuse, including discarded stoves, car parts and so forth. As before, this site was used during the construction as a dumpsite for construction material, construction debris and old asphalt. Because of all of this it is impossible now to envision the former appearance of the marsh and the water springs, or with any certainty to say whether there might here too be archaeological finds. The first find was located some twenty metres further on, on the slopes of the sandy ridge, around which the creek runs on, turning to the north towards the Plitvica river. As the route of the highway was at the time of the discovery already gravelled, the sondages had to be carried out along its side. It was agreed with the investor (the Croatian Motorways company) and the construction companies that the ditches not be excavated but instead that sondages be made at the positions of the so-called parallel roads running alongside the highway. Given the dimensions of the site and the topographic situation, and in agree ment with Professor Aleksandar Durman PhD, it was decided that a larger control trench 10 x 30 metres in size be dug within the part of the site cetain to yield finds, and two smaller ones, 2 x 2 metres in size, on the outer areas to check how far the site spread.1 A levelled and emptied dump of excavated earth on the west side of the route was used for the larger trench. All features and special finds within the trenches were drawn into a total geodetic sta tion. Also, in order to in some way evaluate the finds from the construction ditches, the same approach was applied to them, and all ditches were given the designation K (kanal=canal). Nevertheless, it should be said that it was not technically possible to clean out all 1200 metres of ditch, up to more than 2 metres in depth, so that only some features were

t o p o g r a f s k u sitaciju, u dogovoru s prof. dr.Aleksandrom Durmanom odluceno je kopati jednu veeu sondu promjera 10 x 30 metara unutar sigurnog dijela nalazista, te dvije male, promjera 2 x 2 metra na posve rubnim podrucjima kao provjeru rasprostiranja nalaza. 1 Za polozaj velike sonde iskoristeno je zaravnato i ispraznjeno odlagaliste iskopane zemlje sa zapadne strane trase. Svi nalazi objekata i posebni nalazi unutar sonde ucrtani su totalnom geodetskom stanicom. Kako bi se ipak na neki nacin vrednovali i nalazi iz gradevinskih jaraka, na njih je primijenjen isti pristup, te su sve jame dobile predime K (kanal). Ipak, treba napomenuti kako nije bilo tehnicki moguce ocistiti sveukupno 1200 metara profda jaraka, dubine i vise od 2 metra, pa su u jarcima dokumentirani samo neki objekti, koji su se isticali na prvi pogled. Stratigrafska sUka jama pronadenih u odvodnim jarcima na nasem tlorisu zacijelo bi izgledala drukcije - gusce, da se ciscenje moglo provesti u cijelosti. Probne sonde B i C dimenzija 2 x 2 metra nisu sadrzavale arheoloske nalaze. Kopane su na dubinu od oko 3 metra, kada se na dnu sonde pojavila voda. Tada se odustalo od njihova sirenja te su zatrpane. One su nam razmjerno siguran orijentir za okvir prostora nalazista na sjeverozapadnoj i jugozapadnoj strani nalazista. Sonda A rezultirala je brojnim nalazima u vecem broju kulturnih slojeva, osobito u svom juznom dijelu. Sonda je iskopana potpuno do zdravice te su svi sklopovi zabiljezeni. Profdi su nacrtani u nekoliko isjecaka na karakteristicnim mjestima. Geoloski, rijec je o zemljanom sloju od 50ak cm, te zatim sloju pjeskovite ilovace do dubine od oko 2 m e t r a , gdje se n a d n u nalazi zdravica od vodonepropusne ilovace. Iznimna po sastavu je uzvisina - greda, koja je uglavnom pjescana. Zasada nije ispitano jeli rijec o eolskom ili aluvijskom nasipu. Osim horizontalne stratigrafije, na ovom nalazista postoji i vertikalna stratigrafija. S obzirom na relativnu dubinu kulturnog sloja, jame uglavnom nisu bile ukopane u one iz prethodnih razdoblja, pa je stanje prilicno lako citljivo. Postoje i neka odstupanja, dio kojih se zasad ne moze objasniti. Dakako, kao sto je i cesto slucaj, jame ukopane u hodne slojeve starijih kultura, izvlacile su i sitne nalaze, koji su se tako mijesali s mladima. Kao sto je razvidno prema crtezima profila, prepoznato je osam osnovnih slojeva ukljucujuci zdravicu. No, n a p r o s t o r u sonde, odnosno odlagalista zemlje prilikom gradnje trase, neki povrsinski slojevi bili su izgrebeni strojem, pa ih nema ucrtanih na profilima. Kako nije bilo nalaza u tankom humusnom sloju te njegovim podslojevima, imenovani su kao sloj 1 A, B i C, te su i uoci nasih istrazivanja strojno otkopani. PrUikom rada bagera kontrolirana je iskopna povrsina te izvadena zemlja,

documented in the ditches, those visible at first glance. The stratigraphic picture of the pits found in the drainage ditches on our ground plan would certainly look different - denser, if the clean out could had been done entirely. The 2 x 2 metre control trenches B and C did not yield archaeological finds. They had been dug to a depth of about 3 metres when water appeared at the bottom of the trench. They were not further widened and were subsequently filled in. They are a relatively certain guide as to the frame of the sites area to the northwest and southwest. Trench A yielded numerous finds in a large num ber of cultural layers, especially in its southern end. The trench was dug right down to the subsoil and all of the contexts were recorded. Several cross sec tions were drawn of each of the profiles at charac teristic locations. In terms of its geology, this is a layer of soil of about 50 cm, followed by a layer of sandy clay to a depth of about 2 metres, with a subsoil layer on the bottom of impermeable clay. Different in its compo sition is the elevation ridge, which is predomi nantly sandy. For the moment no research has been made to ascertain if it is an eolian or alluvial deposit. Besides the horizontal stratigraphics, there is a vertical stratigraphy at this site. Given the relative depth of the cultural layer, most of the pits were not dug into those from previous periods, so that the situation is quite easy to read. There are some aber rations, some of which can not for the moment be explained. Of course, as is often the case, pits that were dug into the occupational layers of previous cultures drew out small finds, mixing them with later ones. As is evident from the profile drawings, eight basic layers were identified including the subsoil. In the area of the trench however, i.e. the soil dump using during the roads construction, some of the surface layers had been removed by heavy machin-

93

Jakopovec-Blizna. Sonda A uz odvodni kanal.


Jakopovec-Blizna. Trench A along the

drainage canal.

1 Voditelj istraHvanja mr.se.Luia Beiie, znanstveni savjetaii prof.drseAleisandar Durman. Od arheologa i studenata pri isiopayanju su sudjelovali: Helena Nodilo, Marija DraJanfie, Igor Miholjei, LeaCataj, RobertCimin, Vlado Tumseite Ivana Pesian, poTJesniearia umjetnosti. Excavation ha." r i BeHcM.S., resmrch cmmellor Professor AUUandar Durman Sc.D. Arc}meoloi' ' ? . ' . . ' , ' ' ' rtpariin the excamtims:m. JM, Ma^a DraIana/^gor M,MmLeM,CaM^^rtC,m,,n, Vb^n,msek " An.

94

pa su u sloju la i b pronadeni sporadicni ulomci ery, so that they are not drawn into the profiles. As novovjeke keramike, dok je sloj lc bio gotovo there were no finds in the thin layer of humus and potpuno arheoloski jalov do svog najdubljeg dijela. the layers directly underneath, they have been desRucno kopanje zapoceto je ciscenjem spoja lc i ignated as layer 1 A, B and C, and were removed by 2 sloja, gdje su se ukazali prvi arheoloski nalazi. machine prior to our excavations. The material reSloj 2 hodni je sloj ranorimskog do ranosrednjo- moved by the excavator in this process the dig survjekovnog razdoblja, zasicen organskom materijom face was overseen and the soil separated, so that i tako tamnije boje. Nalazi tih razdoblja nalaze se layer la and b yielded sporadic potsherds of modpremijesani u ovom sloju, koji nije bilo moguce ern ceramics, while layer lc was almost entirely razdijeliti preciznije po razdobljima. Ranosrednjo- archaeologicaUy barren to its deepest parts. vjekovni nalazi do 9. st. ujedno su i najmladi nalazi Digging by hand commenced with the clean out 2 sloja, a uglavnom se nalaze na vrhu sloja. Na dnu of the meeting of layers lc and 2, where the first sloja 2 nalaze se ranorimski i kasnolatenski nalazi, archaeologicalfindswere unearthed. Layer 2 is the a to je ujedno i sloj iz kojeg su ukopavane njihove occupational layer of the early Roman to early mejame. Sloj 2 je prepoznat i na vise mjesta u jarcima, dieval periods, saturated with organic material and a na prostora blizu K 11 iz sredine sloja izvucen je therefore of a darker colour. Finds from these periugljen i datiran metodom AMS-14C. Ishod je ods are jumbled in this layer, and it was impossible pokazao 4.st. (32553 calAD), sto potpuno to divide it more precisely by periods. Early mediodgovara ovakvoj stratigrafskoj slid.2 eval finds up to the 9th century are also the latest Sloj 3, siromasniji nalazima, vjerojatno je trag finds in layer 2 and are found mostly at the top of vremenske praznine u naseljavanju Blizne, koja se the layer. At the bottom of layer 2 were early Roman odlikuje zasipavanjem pjescanom zemljom, a koje period and late Latenfind-s,and it is also the layer je trajalo od oko 10. do 2.st.pr.Kr. from which their pits were dug. Layer 2 was Zatim se organskom materijom (kao tamnija recognised at several locations in the ditches, while zemlja) ponovo javlja zasicen sloj 4, koji je charcoal was extracted from the middle of the layer vjerojatno hodni sloj kasnog broncanog doba. in the area near K 11 and dated using the AMSNaime, u njemu se nalazi najveca kolicina 14C method. The results gave a dating in the 4th kasnobroncanodobne keramike, a sacuvane jame century (32553 calAD), which is entirely in keeptog doba ukopane su iz ovog sloja. Slijedi sloj 5, u ing with a stratigraphic picture of this kind.2 kojem se nalaze rijetki ulomci uglavnom bakrenoLayer 3, yielding fewer finds, is likely a trace of a dobne keramike, te su iz njega ukopani objekti gap in Bliznas inhabitation by humans, that is lasinjske kulture izravno u zdravicu, koja je marked by a deposit of sandy soil that lasts from oznacena kao sloj 6. around the 10th to 2nd centuries BC. Apsolutna visinska razlika usporedbom je This is then followed by layer 4, again saturated osobito zamijetljiva u dubljim slojevima. Kasnijim with organic material (darker earth), probably the uslojavanjem kulturnih slojeva i prirodnim occupational layer from the late Bronze Age. It conzasipavanjem pjescanom ilovacom nastalo je tains, namely, the largest concentration of late izravnavanje razine, barem na prostora sonde A. Bronze Age ceramics, and preserved pits from that Na cjelokupnom nalazistu, a rijec je o vecem time are dug into this layer. Layer 5 Mows in which prostora, apsolutne visinske razlike i relativne there are rare potsherds of predominantly Copper dubine ukopavanja su dosta razlicite. No, strati- Age ceramics. Features from the Lasinja culture grafsko stanje je lokalno, po isjeccima, dosta pra- were dug from this layer directly into the subsoil, vilno, pa su tako i rezultati lako citljivi. designated as layer 6. Absolute differences in elevation are in compariBAKRENO DOBA son especially perceptible in the deeper layers. The NALAZI later settling of cultural layers and natural sedimenIz mladeg kamenog doba nisu pronadene tation with sandy clay levelled out the terrain, at strukture a i sitni nalazi su vrlo rijetki. Svi su least in the area of trench A. On the entire site, a quite pronadeni kao slucajni nalazi, pa se o tome zasad large area, absolute differences in elevation and the ne moze vise reci, osim da je i ovo razdoblje relative depths of the excavation are quite different. zastupljeno ali u vrlo malom opsegu. Pravo The stratigraphic situation is however, local, in secnaseljavanje trajalo je od bakrenog doba, a lasinjska tions, quite regular, so that the results are easily read. kultura jedna je od bitnih sastavnica ovog nalazista. Pronadeno je nekoliko objekata, uglavnom THE COPPER AGE zemunica, koje se trebaju pripisati ovom razdoblju. FEATURES Rijec je o jami K8, vjerojatno zemunici i njoj No structures were found hailing from the new pripadajucoj otpadnoj jami K 14. Slijede velike Stone Age - smaUfindswere also very rare. All were zemunice K7 i K4, polozene u krajnje sjevernom located as chancefinds,so that more can not be said
2 AMS-14C dataeija izradena je u Leibniz Labor far Altersbestimmung und Isotopenforselmng, Christian-Albreehts-Universitat u Kielu (KIA22472, BP 1709+26). Skraeena kalibraeija putem CalPal Online Radiocarbon Calibration izradena na Sveueilistu u Kolnu. Carbon 14 AMS dating was done at the Leibniz LaborfiirAltersbesiimmung undhotopenforsehung, Christian-Mbrechts- Vniversitdt in Kiel (KIA-22472, BP 1709 26). Shortened calibration using GalPal Online Radiocarbon Calibration done at the University of Koln.

dijelu nalazista. U ovim objektima otkriveno je mnostvo keramickih nalaza, gar te roznjacke alatke i odbici. U objektu K4 nalazili su se najkvalitetniji primjerci ukrasene keramike te jedna glacana kamena sjeHra, uglavnom pronadeni u jami unutar zemunice. Naime, bager je kopajuci kanal probio zemunicu uzduzno, otprilike na razini njezina dna. Tiko se po sredini zemunice ocrtavala jama, ukopana iz razine dna zemunice duboko u vodonepropusnu zdravicu. Kroz kanal je pusten potok, pa su se tako ulomci ispirali iz jame s rahlom ispunom. Vrlo je zanimljivo kako se krajnje sjeverna zemunica K8 nalazi ukopana iz sloja koji je na relativnoj dubini od oko 50 cm, a zemunica K4 polozena sezdesetak metara juznije na cak 1,5 metra dubine! Ovo valja objasniti konstatnim uzrastom pjescanog brezuljka, koji je tako prekrivao njemu blize objekte. Nazalost, objekti u jarku (K) nisu mogli biti iskopavani, vec je iz profila jama prffikom ciscenja za fotografiranje izvuceno malo nalaza kako bi objekti mogli biti vremenski odredeni. Tkko je iz zemunice K4 izvuceno nesto gara koji je datiran AMS-14C metodom, a ishod je pokazao 43. st.pr.Kr. (420891 calBC).3 Jedini objekt lasinjske kulture pronaden u sondi A jest cjelina koja se sastoji od jama J4, J5 i J6. Ovdje nije rijec o zemunici, vec o ostacima nadzemne kuce ili bolje reel satoraste nadstresnice. Cini se kako je jama J4 ostatak osnovnog nosivog stupa koji se nalazio na ulazu u sator, dok su jame J5 i J6 ostaci bocnih stranica koje su bile takoder plitko ukopane. Krov je tako bio na dvije vode, vjerojatno izraden od siblja, te je mogao biti prekriven slamom ali i zemljom. Ukopi ovih jama nalaze se izravno u zdravici, a na istoj dubini prepoznati su i ostaci dvaju stupova J12 i J13. Premda se nalaze u nekom odredenom geometrijskom skladu s ovim satorom, vjerojatno ill ne bi trebalo pripisati dijelu toga gradevinskog sklopa. Nalazi iz ovili jama vrlo su oskudni. Rijec je samo o djelicima keramickih posuda i mrvicama paljene zemlje - mozda ljepa.4 U sondi A nije bilo drugih objekata lasinjske kulture, ali se u slojevima 4 i 5 nalazilo ponesto manjih ulomaka keramike tog razdoblja, a medu njima i dio keramicke zlice.
POKRETNI NALAZI Keramicki nalazi - Zorko Markovic

on the subject at the moment, other than that this period is represented but in very small breadth. Real settlement started in the Copper Age, and the Lasinja culture is one of the key elements of this site. Several features were found, mostly dugout houses, which should be attributed to this period. This refers to pit K8, probably a dugout house its midden K 14. Large dugout houses K7 and K4 follow, situated in the far north of the site. An abundance of ceramic finds, charcoal and flint implements and flakes were uncovered in these structures. Feature K4 yielded the highest quality specimens of decorated ceramics and one polished stone axe, found predominantly in a pit inside the dugout house. The excavator, namely, digging a canal, breached the dugout house along its length, at about the level of its bottom. The outlines of a pit could be seen along the middle of the dugout house, dug from the bottom level of the dwelling deep into the impermeable subsoil. The creek was run through the canal washing potsherds from the pit with its loose fill. I t is fascinating that dugout K8, located to the far north, is dug into a layer located at a relative depth of about 50 cm while dugout K4, situated about sixty metres to the south, is located at a depth of 1.5 metres! This can be explained by the constant growth of the sandy hillock, that slowly covered structures located closer

95

Jakopovec-Blizna. Velika zemunica K4 na dnu odvodnog jarka koji je iskopan po njezinoj du`ini. Jakopovec-Blizna. Large dugout house K4 at the bottom of the drainage ditch that had been excavated along its length.

Blizna se medu inim iskazuje i kao neoliticki


> AMS-14C dataeija izradena je u Leibniz Labor fur Altersbestimmung und Isotopenforseliung, Christian-Albreehts-Universitat u Eelu (KIA22470, BP 5368 + 32). Skraeena kalibraeija putem CalPal Online Radiocarbon Calibration izradena na Sveueilistu u Kolim. Carbon 14 AMS dating wa s done at the Leibniz LaborfirAltersbestimmung und Isotopenforschung, Christian-Albrechts-UniversitM in Kiel (KIA-22470, BP 536832). Shortened calibation using CalPal Online Radiocarbon Calibration done at the University of Koln. U jami J6, po sredini, pronadeno je bubrezasto prosirenje ispunjeno veeom kolieinom gara. Gar je ispitan metodom 14C na Institutu Ruder Bosko", a isliod je bio iznenadujuei, jer dataeija pada u 9.st.pr.Kr. (ealBC87153). Keramieko gradivo iz jama J4, J5 i J6, premda usitnjeno, prepoznato je kao bakrenodobno, a jame su ukopane iz najdubljeg sloja. Cak iznad spomenutog objekta postoje vertikalno stratigrafski uredno ukopane jame kasnog broneanog doba i latenskog doba koje su dale korektnu dataeiju prema 14C te keramiekom gradivu, pa smatram kako je ovdje rijec o neopredijeljenoj gresei, te se taj isliod ne treba uzimati u obzir 14C klasiena dataeija izradena je u Laboratoriju za mjerenje niskili aktiTOosti Instituta Ruder Boskovie" u Zagrebu (Z-3314, BP 2695 70). Skraeena kalibraeija putem CalPal Online Radiocarbon Calibration izradena na Sveueilistu u Kolnu. A ren form widening wasfoundin the middle of pit J6filledwith a larger quantity of charcoal. The charcoal was tested using the C14 method at the Ruder Bokovi Institute yielding a surprising dating that fell in the 9th fragmented, was identified as CopperAge, and the pits were dugfromthe deepest layer. Even above the mentioned structure there is a vertical stratigrafically appropriately dug pit from the late Bronze Age and Laten period that yielded accurate datings based both on C14 testing and ceramic material, so that I feel that this was an uncommitted error, and that this result should not be taken into consideration. Classic C14 dating was done at the Ruder Boskovic Institutes Low Activities Measuring Laboratory in Zagreb (Z-3314, BP 2695 70). Shortened calibration using CalPal Online Radiocarbon Calibration done at the University ofKoln.

96

Jakopovec-Blizna. Zemunica K7 prepolovljena odvodnim jarkom. Jakopovec-Blizna. Dugout house K7 split in half by the drainage ditch.

lokalitet, tj. nekoliko se keramickih nalaza moze atribuirati neolitiku, odnosno linearno-trakastoj keramici. Ukraseni primjerak (T28-1) pripadatce prema ornamentu vec razvijenoj LTK iz srednjeg neolitika (horizont Malo Korenovo), a nikako ranoj fazi (Kaniska Iva), koja ima manje razradene i siromasnije ukrase (DIMITRIJEVIC 1978, 7681). Izravnih analogija primjerku nema vec i stoga sto je malen ulomak, uz opasku da je rijec o etaznoj dekoraciji, ali postoje slicnosti kod nekih dmgih primjeraka (priblizno DIMITRIJEVIC 1961, t.2:ll, t.3:18). U ovu kulturu mozemo pribrojiti i rabni ulomak sive polukuglaste zdjele (T28-2). Kako god bilo, ovo nalaziste se bez rezerve mora pribrojiti u nalazista kompleksa linearnotrakastih kultura, ocito korenovskoj kulturi, njezinoj mladoj fazi. Priblizno ovaj horizont datiramo prema analogijama u vrijeme oko 5000g. pr.Kr., tj. odmah nakon egzistencije kasne starcevacke kulture. Starija faza odgovarala bi srednjim fazama starcevacke kulture iz sredine ili pocetka druge polovine 6. tisucljeca (TEZAK GREGL 1986, 93). Prilicna je kolicina nalaza lasinjske kulture iz vremena srednjeg eneolitika, istovremene Bodrogkeresztur-kulturi. Odmah napominjemo da ovdje nema nekih bitnih sastojaka ove kulture (noge sa zadebljanjem u gornjem dijelu, male bikonicne bocice, velike jezicaste drske, vjedra, sita). To, medutim, ne znaci mnogo jer imamo ostale karakteristicne elemente prema kojima nalaze mozemo opredijeliti kao tipicne za zapadnu varijantu ove kulture u sjevernoj Hrvatskoj, tj. Beketinec-tip lasinjske kulture. Ovi nalazi prikupljeni su (kao i korenovski) djelomice s povrsine, ali i iz pet jamskih objekata istrazenih tijekom zastitnih iskopavanja mr.sc.Luke Bekica, kojemu zahvaljujem na moguenosti analize i obrade materrjala (dio preliminarno objavljen, BEKIC, VRANKOVIC2003). Gruba keramika ima u fakturi usitnjene

to it. Features in the ditch (K) could not, unfortu nately, be excavated; a few finds were instead ex tracted from the pit profile during the clean out for photographing so that a time frame could be given for the features. Some charcoal was withdrawn from dugout house K4 in this fashion and dated using the AMS-14C method, with the result giving a dat ing to the 43rd century BC (420891 calBC).3 The only Lasinja culture feature located in trench A was an ensemble made up of pits J4, J5 and J6. This is not a dugout house but rather the remains of a raised house, or more precisely a tent-like porch. It appears that pit J4 is the remains of a main sup port post that was located at the entry to the tent, while pits J5 and J6 are remains of side walls, also dug in shallowly The roof was two-sided, probably made of reeds, and may have been covered with hay or earth. These pits are dug directly into the subsoil, and the remains of two posts, J12 and J13, were identified at the same depth. Although these two are in some sort of geometric alignment with this tent they should probably not be considered a part of this construction ensemble. There are very few finds from these pits. They are only small fragments of ceramic vessels and crumbs of burnt earth - perhaps daub.4 There were no other features from the Lasinja culture in trench A, but layers 4 and 5 yielded some smaller pot sherds from that period, among them part of a ce ramic spoon. FINDS Ceramic finds - Zorko Markovic Blizna among other things shows itself to be a Neolithic site, that is to say, several ceramic finds can be attributed to the Neolithic, i.e. to Linear Pot tery culture. Based on its ornaments, decorated speci men (T28-1) belongs to the developed LBK of the middle Neolithic (Malo Korenovo horizon), and definitely not to an earlier phase (Kaniska Iva), that has cruder and sparser decorations (DIMITRIJEVIC 1978, 76-81). The specimens smaU size right away means that there are no direct analogies, although it should be said that these deco rations are shelved, but there are similarities in some other specimens (approximately DIMITRIJEVIC 1961, t.2:ll, t.3:18). We can also attribute a potsherd from the edge of a grey semispherical bowl (T28-2) to this culture. Whatever the case, this site can without reservation be counted among the sites of the complex of Linear Pottery cultures, evidently the Korenovo culture in its later phase. We can date this horizon approximately based on analogies to a time about 5000 years BC, i.e. immediately after the existence of the late Starcevo culture. The earlier phase would correspond to the middle phases of the Starcevo culture from the middle or start of the second half of the 6th millen nium (TEZAKGREGL 1986, 93). There is quite a large quantity offindsfrom the Lasinja culture from the time of the middle Eneolithic, synchronous with the Bodrogkeresztur

kamencice i pijesak, a boja joj varira od crvene i smede do (rjede) sive. Fina keramika obicno ima malo pijeska u fakturi, pokatkad i sjaj kao kod glacanih predmeta, a boja joj varira od sive i erne do (rjede) crvene. Tehnike ukrasavanja su: urezivanje (T2- 3, 6, 10; T5- 10), ubadanje tockicama ili kapljicama (T2- 2, 3, 7, 8; T5- 10), trokutasto zigosanje (T47), blago zlijebljenje (Tl- 3), te cepaste aplikacije (Tl- 1, 2, 3). Ornamenti su iskljucivo razlicite vrpce sastavljene od horizontalnih, kosih ili vertikalnih poteza crta, pokadsto samo uboda ili zigova, a pokatkad u kombinaciji jednih s drugima (kao npr. MARKOVIC 1986, t . L l l , 13, 14, T.2:2, 4, 7). Pojedini uzorci slice na fmo tkanje (T2- 1, 3). Na cak dva primjerka postoji ukras izveden na unutarnjoj strani zdjele (T2- 8; T5- 10). Ukrasavanje unutrasnjosti zdjele poznato je iz krizevackog kraja (HOMEN 1990, si. 5:1; MARKOVIC 1994, t.23:10), ali i iz Leticana kod Bjelovara (tzv. stariji nalazi, DIMITRIJEVIC 1961, t.4:23), za koje nije sigurno pripadaju li lasinjskoj kulturi ili njezinoj ranoeneolitickoj prethodnici - sopotskoj kulturi tipa Sece. S obzirom na izabrani materijal na tablama 1 5, pokazujemo glavne oblike lasinjskog posuda. Tb su: obicna zaobljena zdjela (T2- 8; T3- 4), bikonicna zdjela s uvueenim donjim dijelom (T5- 7; T3- 1, 3), zdjela s roscicem na obodu (T4- 1), amforica (T2- 2), vrcevi s drskom do oboda (Tl- 4; T2- 1), lonci ili zdjele sa zadebljanjem na trbuhu (T4- 11), lonci kruskastog oblika (Tl- 6), lonci s horizontalnim ruckama (Tl- 7), zlice (T4- 5; T5- 1), amuleti od posude (T5- 12), zdjele na supljoj nozi. Analogija karakteristicnim bikonicnim zdjelama s uvueenim donjim dijelom ima mnogo (npr. MARKOVIC 1977, t.7:l; HOMEN 1990, si. 2:6, si. 3:1, sl. 6:7, si. 12). Brojne su analogije i keramickim zlicama s otvorom za drvenu drsku (MARKOVIC1986, t.2:6; HOMEN 1990, sl. 4:12). Piriformni lonci slijede neoliticku tradiciju, ali priblizne analogije nalazimo u Beketincu (HOMEN 1990, sl. 2:2). Fina zdjela s roscicem na obodu ima analogije na lokalitetu Cerine 3 kod Koprivnice (MARKOVIC 1986, sl. 6), te na lokalitetu Polje kod Ludbreskog Ivanca (MARKOVIC 1983, t.2:5), u Beketincu (KOROSEC 1962, t.7:2) i u Madarskoj (KALICZ 1995a, abb.3:15). Analogije nizu trokutica nalazimo u Leticanima (DIMITRIJEVIC 1961, t.8:48, 49), te u okolici Krizevaca (HOMEN 1990, sl. 9:7). Horizontalnom zadebljanju na trbuhu posude priblizno nalazimo analogije na lokalitetu Koprivnicki Ivanec-Vojnik 1 (MARKOVIC 1982, t.2:2), te u Beketincu (HOMEN 1990, sl. 2:1, 2). Amforicama (sl. 18, 29) analogije primjerice nalazimo takoder kod lokaliteta uz Koprivnicki Ivanec (MARKOVIC 1982, t.2:ll, 14, 16, 19). Dugoj tanjoj rucki lonca koja je malo zadignuta gore (Tl- 7) nalazimo analogiju u Letenyju (KALICZ 1995b, abb.l5:ll) ali i u Beketincu (HOMEN 1990, sl. 5:7), te na Cerinama 3 kod

culture. We should say immediately that there are no key elements of this culture here (feet that are wider in their upper extremity, small carinated bottles, large tongue-shaped handles, buckets, sieves). This, however, does not mean much because we have the other characteristic elements based on which we could identify the finds as typical of the western variant of this culture in northern Croatia, i.e. the Beketinec type of the Lasinja culture. These finds were gathered (as were those at Korenovo) partly from the surface, but also from five pit fea tures examined during rescue excavations lead by Luka Bekic M.S., who I thank for the opportunity to analyse and process the material (part of which was preliminarily published, BEK3C, VEANKOVIC 2003). There arefinelyfragmented pebbles and sand in the texture of this crude ceramic, while its colour ranges from red to brown and (more rarely) grey. Thefinerceramic usually has some sand in the tex ture, sometimes it gleams like a burnished object, and its colour varies from grey to black and (more rarely) red. The techniques of decoration include: engraving (T2- 3, 6, 10; T5- 10), pricking with dots or drops (T2- 2, 3, 7, 8; T5- 10), triangular stamping (T47), light grooving (Tl- 3), and plug-like applica tions (Tl- 1, 2, 3). The ornaments used are only various ribbons composed of horizontal, diagonal or vertical lines, sometimes just pricks or stamps, and other times a combination of the two (as for example MARKOVIC 1986, t . l : l l , 13, 14, T2:2, 4, 7). Individual patterns are similar tofineweav ing (T2- 1, 3). On two specimens there are even decorations applied to the inside of the vessel (T28; T5- 10). Decorations on the inside of a vessel is known from the Krizevac area (HOMEN 1990, sl. 5:1; MARKOVIC 1994, t.23:10), and also from Leticane near Bjelovar (the earlier finds, DIMITRIJEVIC 1961, t.4:23), for which it is not known if they belong to the Lasinja culture or its predecessors from the early Eneolithic - the Sece type Sopot culture. Considering the selected material on tables 1 - 5, we see here the chief characteristics of Lasinja vessels. These are: plain curved vessels (T2- 8; T3- 4), carinated vessels with an indented lower extremity (T5- 7; T3- 1, 3), vessels with small horns on the rim (T4- 1), small amphora (T2- 2), jugs with handles up to the rim (Tl- 4; T2- 1), pots or vessels with a thickening at the belly (T4- 11), pearshaped pots (Tl- 6), pots with horizontal handles (Tl- 7), spoons (T4- 5; T5- 1), amulets from ves sels (T5- 12), vessels on a hollow foot. There are many analogies of characteristically carinated vessels with indented lower extremities (for example MARKOVIC 1977, t.7:l; HOMEN 1990, sl. 2:6, sl. 3:1, sl. 6:7, sl. 12). There are also numer ous analogies for the ceramic spoons with recep tacles for a wooden handle (MARKOVIC 1986, t.2:6; HOMEN 1990, sl. 4:1-2). Pyriform pots fol low the Neolithic tradition, but wefindapproximate

97

Jakopovec-Blizna. Rekonstruirana keramicka zlica lasinjske kulture, 420891 calBC. (T3-2) Jakopovec-Blizna. A reconstructed ceramic spoon of the Lasinja culture, 4208+91 calBC. (T3-2)

98 ~

Koprivnice (MARKOVIC 1986, t.l:9). Medutim, analogies in Beketinec (HOMEN 1990, si. 2:2). svugdje je samo po jedna cepasta aplikacija. Gust Finer vessels with horned rimes have their analo ukras postoji (T2- 3) samo kao slicnost, a ne gies at the Cerine site near Koprivnice (MARKOVIC identicnost (HOMEN 1990, si. 8:3/Beketinec). I 1986, si. 6), and at the Polje site near Ludbreski na kraju, vrcevi sa sirokom trakastom drskom do Ivanac (MARKOVIC 1983, t.2:5), in Beketinec oboda postoje u Bukovju kod Krizevaca (KOROSEC 1962, t.7:2) and in Hungary (MARKOVIC 1994, t.24:l-3), all i u Velikoj (KALICZ 1995a, abb.3:15). Analogies to a series Minskoj kod Kutine (MARKOVIC 1994, t.24:10). of small triangles are found at Leticane Lasinjska kultura nastala u srednjem eneolitiku, (DIMITRIJEVIC 1961, t.8:48, 49), and in the suvremena je kulturi Bodrogkeresztur. U sjevernoj environs of Krizevci (HOMEN 1990, si. 9:7). Ves Hrvatskoj proistekla je iz kasnosopotskog sels with horizontal thickenings at the belly have ranoeneolitickog supstrata faze Sopot 4 (i tipa Sece) approximate analogies at the Koprivnicki Ivanec(o tome v. MARKOVIC 1994, 89-96; takoder Vojnik 1 site (MARKOVIC 1982, t.2:2), and in KALICZ 1995a, 38, abb.2). Kako je zavrsna faza Beketinec (HOMEN 1990, si. 2:1, 2). We also for sopotske kulture razlicita na sjevernohrvatskom example find analogies for small amphorae (si. 18, istoku i zapadu, tako je razlicita i njezina nasljednica 29) at the site along Koprivnicki Ivanec - lasinjska kultura. Kako sam iznio drugdje (MARKOVIC 1982, t.2:ll, 14, 16, 19). Analogies (MARKOVIC 1994, 92-94) u dijelu sjevero- of long, slightly upwardly turned, thinner pot zapadne Hrvatske prevladavaju nalazi tipa handles (Tl- 7) are found at Letenyje (KALICZ Beketinec, a u Slavoniji tip Koska. Tip Josipdol 1995b, abb.l5:ll) but also in Beketinec (HOMEN (Cakovac kod Josipdola) a nasljede je kasne 1990, si. 5:7), and at Cerine 3 near Koprivnice faze hvarske kulture u Lici i Gorskom (MARKOVIC 1986, t.l:9). Everywhere, however, kotaru. Na podrucju tipa Beketinec (od there is only one plug-like application. Dense deco okolice Krizevaca, Bjelovara i Koprivnice rations exist (T2- 3) but only as a similarity, not as do Hrvatskog zagorja) pojavljuju se an identical example (HOMEN 1990, si. 8:3/ bikonicne bocice (Koska ih nema), Beketinec). And finally, there are jugs with wide ukrasavanje unutrasnjosti zdjela ili ribbon-like handles to the rime in Bukovje near tanjura (Koska ill nema), te ljestvicasti Krizevci (MARKOVIC 1994, t.24:l-3), and in i motiv i fino tanko ukrasavanje (u Veliko Mlinsko near Kutina (MARKOVIC 1994, I Koski grublje i cvrsce). Kao prilog t.24:10). | poznavanju nastanka Beketinec-tipa The Lasinja culture emerged in the middle lasinjske kulture spominjemo da je Eneolithic, and is contemporary with the u Grabrovcu kod Sv. Petra Cvrsteca Bodrogkeresztur culture. In northern Croatia it blizu Krizevaca pronaden dvoslojni emerged from the late Sopot and early Eneolithic lokalitet faze Sopot 4 - Sece i lasinjske substrata Sopot 4 phase (and Sece type) (on this kulture (MARKOVIC, HOMEN 1990, see MARKOVIC 1994, 89-96; also KALICZ 61 i d.), a kasnije i na lokalitetu Vratnec 1995a, 38, abb.2). As the closing phase of the Sopot 2 sjevernije od Koprivnice (MARKOVIC culture is different in Croatias northeast and north 2003, 42-44). Slican slucaj (Sopot 4 - west, so does its descendent - the Lasinja culture, Lasinja) zbio se i na lokalitetu Slavca u Novoj differ. As I stated elsewhere (MARKOVIC 1994, jakopovec Blizna Rekonstruirani vrc Gradiki (MHALJEVIC 2000; zahvaljujemo 92-94) in northwestern Croatia the Beketinec type lasinjske kulture, 420891 calBC. (T1-4) voditeljici na pregledu materijala u novogradiskome is predominant, while in Slavonia it is the Koska Jakopovec-Blizna. A reconstructed jug of niuzeju). Pal Raczky u jednom novijemtype. The Josipdol type (Cakovac near Josipdol) radu and oko the Lasinja culture, 4208+91 calBC. (T1-4) apsolutnokronoloski datira lasinjsku kulturathe heritage is of the later phase of the Hvar 4000 - 3850 god. pr. Kr. (RACZKY 1995, fig. 1). culture in Lika and Gorski kotar. Small carinated Nas lokalitet pripada srednjoj ili 2. fazi razvoja bottles appear in the territory of the Beketinec type lasinjske kulture, izmedu lokaliteta Koprivnicki (from the environs of Krizevci, Bjelovar and Ivanec-Vojnik 1 (rana faza) i Beketinec (kasna Koprivnice to the Hrvatsko zagorje region - there faza). are none at Koska), decorations on the inside of Gornji datum za lasinjske nalaze iz Blizne (calBC bowls and plates (there are none at Koska), and 421487) cini se na prvi pogled previsokim, no ladder-like motifs and fine, thin decorations (they trebat ce nam vise takvili datuma. Za nalaze iz are coarser and firmer at Koska). As a contribution Gromaca 2 datum je 429333 g.pr.Kr., a ako je to our understanding of the Beketinec type of the tocno da je rijec o materijalu slicnom kasno- Lasinja culture we should mention that a two-lay sopotskom tipu Sece (faza Sopot 4, rani eneolitik, ered locality of the Sopot phase 4 - Sece and Lasinja neposredni prethodnik lasinjske kulture), tada bi culture, was found at Grabrovac near Sv. Petar se ta dva datuma (naime onaj iz Blizne i ovaj) mozda Cvrstec near Krizevci (MARKOVIC, HOMEN mogla nekako i prilivatiti, barem u odnosu jedan 1990, 61 and others), and later at the Vratnec 2 prema drugom. Svakako bi nam trebalo jos novih site northwards from Koprivnica (MARKOVIC datuma. Jedno je sigurno: visok odmak od pocetaka 2003, 42-44). A similar instance (Sopot 4 badenske kulture bio bi posve realan. Lasinja) took place at the Slavce site in Nova Iz Gornjeg Pustakovca namecu se dva donja Gradiska (MIHALJEVIC 2000; our thanks to the

datuma (calBC 356948; calBC 346163). S obzirom na pocetke badenske kulture, koji se datiraju slicno, ostaje nejasan polozaj Retz-Gajary kulture, koja jendada od lasinjske (Ij. od lasinjsHh pocetaka), ali u jednom vremenskom odsjecku istovremena je badenskim pocecima (tj. fazi Boleraz). Ako bi se ovim datumima oznacilo kraj lasinjske kulture, to bi znacilo da ona traje oko 600700 godina. Tesko je reci je li to realno. No, s druge strane, sopotska kultura se u pocetku datira iznad 5000 god.pr.Kr., pa bi s fazom Sopot4-Sece njezino trajanje moglo biti i vece, tj 700-1000 godina. Svakako bi ta dugovjecnost mogla biti realna, a tada nije iskljuceno i dugo trajanje lasinjske kulture. No, jos jednom napominjem da je zasad jos premalo novih mjerenja i datuma.

99 head of the Nova Gradiska museum for an over view of the material). Pal Raczky in a recent work has absolutely chronologically dated the Lasinja culture to around 4000 - 3850 years BC (RACZKY 1995, fig. 1). Our site belongs to the middle or 2nd phase of the Lasinja cultures development, between the Koprivnicki Ivanec-Vojnik 1 (early phase) and Beketinec (late phase) site. This dating of the Lasinja finds from Blizna (calBC 421487) appear at first overly high, but we shall need more dates such as these. Jbr the finds at Gromace 2 the date is 4293 33 BC, and if it is true that this is material similar to the late Sopot type of Sece (Sopot 4 phase, early Eneolithic, the direct predecessor of the Lasinja culture), then these two dates (namely those from Blizna and this one) could perhaps be accepted, at least in relation one to Kameni nalazi - Darko Komso the other. In any case we need more datings. One this Tijekom iskopavanja viseslojnog nalazista Blizne is for sure: a considerable detachment from the begin Jakopovec-Blizna. Dio ukrasene zdjele s (BEK3C, VBANKOVIC 2003), u blizini Varazdina, nings of the Baden culture would be quite realistic. malom ruckom, 420891 calBC. (T2-3) prikupljeno je 108 kamenih nalaza, ukupne tezine The two lower dates are suggested by Gornji Jakopovec-Blizna. Part of a decorated 1843,97 grama. Medu ovim nalazima, 92 su Pustakovec (calBC 356948; calBC 346163). bowl with small handle, 4208+91 calBC. izradevine od cijepanog kamena, tezine 300,84 Given the start of the Baden culture, that are simi (T2-3) grama; 2 izradevine od glacanog kamena, tezine larly dated, the position of the Betz-Gajary culture 202,92 grama; 2 brusna kamena, tezine 438,75 remains unclear, it is later than the Lasinja (i.e. grama te 12 komada ostalog kamenja ukupne tezine from the emergence of the Lasinja), but is in one 901,46 grama. Sto se tice grape nalaza izradevina moment in time synchronous with the emergence of od cijepanog kamena, 50 ih je prikupljeno kao the Baden (i.e. the Boleraz phase). If these dates slucajni nalaz, bez ikakvog arheoloskog konteksta. were to mark the end of the Lasinja culture, that Iz zatvorenih cjelina (jama i kuca) prikupljeno je would mean that it lasted about 600 - 700 years. It 17 izradevina, a iz stratigrafskih slojeva 24 is hard to say if this is realistic. But, on the other izradevine. Jedna izradevina potjece iz sonde A, ali hand, the Sopot culture is in the beginning dated bez naznake sloja, te joj se ne moze odrediti kontekst. above 5000 years BC, so that with the Sopot 4 Glacane izradevine zastupljene su jednom nadenom phase its duration could be greater, i.e. from 700 cijelom sjekirom u bakrenodobnoj lasinjskoj kuci 1000 years. This longevity could certainly be realis (K4, T3-7), dok je druga, fragmentirana izradevina, tic and a different duration for the Lasinja culture otkrivena kao slucajni nalaz. Oba nalaza brusnog is not then excluded. But, we should once again kamenja pripadaju latenskom kontekstu. Od point out that there are for the moment too few new ostalog kamenja, dva su prikupljena kao slucajni measurements and datings. nalaz, jedan u zatvorenoj cjelini iz razdoblja latena (K3), 6 komada kamena (medu njima i ulomak Lilhic assemblage - Darko Komso During the excavation of the multi-layer Blizna baze zrvnja, T18-11) prikupljeno je u sloju 3, datiranom u razdoblje od 10. do 2. stoljeca pr. Kr., site (BEKIC, VBANKOVIC 2003) near Varazdin, a tri ulomka koja se spajaju, i koja na jednoj 108 stonefindswere collected having a total weight zagladenoj strani imaju nejasne ureze, u sloju 2 of 1843.97 grams. Of these finds, 92 are artefacts of knapped lithics, weighing 300.84 grams; 2 (T28-20). U bakrenodobnim lasinjskim slojevima artefacts are of polished stone, weighing 202.92 prikupljeno je 11 (svi iz zatvorenih cjelina - K4, grams; 2 whetstones, weighing 438.75 grams and K7 i K8) izradevina od cijepanog kamena i 1 glacana 12 other stone finds with a total weight of 901.46 sjekira (zatvorena cjelina - K4); u slojevima kasnog grams. As concerns groups of knapped lithics broncanog doba 6 (3 iz sloja 4 i 3 iz zatvorenih artefacts, 50 were coUected as surfacefinds,without cjelina - K l l i K12) izradevina od cijepanog any archaeological context. 17 artefacts were col kamena; u latenskim slojevima 9 (6 iz sloja 3 i 3 iz lected from closed ensembles (pits and houses), and zatvorenih cjelina - J7 i J29) izradevina od 24 from stratigraphic layers. One artefact comes cijepanog kamena, 2 brusna kamena (J7 i unistena from trench A, but without a note of its layer, so that kuca datirana u razdoblje latena) i jedan ulomak a context cannot be determined for it. Polished baze zrvnja iz sloja 3 te 15 izradevina od cijepanog artefacts are represented by one located intact axe kamena i tri ulomka kamena s nejasnim urezima in a Copper Age Lasinja house (K4, T3-7), while na jednoj zagladenoj strani iz slojeva s rimskim i the other, fragmented artefact, was collected as a surface find. Both whetstone finds belong to the srednjovjekovnim ostacima (slojevi 1/2 i 2). Metodoloski gledano, ova su istrazivanja bila Laten context. Of the other stones, two were col zastitna, obavljena na velikoj povrsini i unutar lected as surfacefinds,one in a closed ensemble from

100

ogranicenih vremenskih rokova, te nije bilo moguce sistematski obaviti sijanje iskopanog materijala, vec je obavljen rucni iskop s izdvajanjem nalaza in situ. Ovakvim nacinom istrazivanja, u pravilu se rijetko zapazi sitno cijepano kamenje, sto potvrduje i cjelokupni skup nalaza cijepanog kamenja koji je, izuzev dvije manje izradevine, vecih dimenzija od l,5 xl,5 centimetara. Na osnovi navedenoga, moze se uociti kako kolicina prikupljenih kamenih izradevina sveukupno nije velika, te kako je prikupljena u razlicitim kulturno-vremenskim fazama boravka.

the Laten period (K3), 6 stones (among them a shard of the base of a grindstone, T18-11) were collected in layer 3, dated from the 10th to 2nd centuries BC, and a further three shards of a single artefact bearing unclear engravings on one polished side in layer 2 (T28-20). 11 artefacts of knapped lithics (all from closed ensembles K4, K7 and K8) and 1 polished axe (closed ensemble K4) were located in Copper Age Lasinja layers; 6 artefacts of knapped lithics in late Bronze Age layers (3 from layer 4 and 3 from closed ensembles K11 and K12); 9 artefacts of knapped lithics in Laten layers (6 from layer 3 and 3 from Cijepana litika closed ensembles J7 and J29), 2 whetstones (J7 Analiza and a destroyed house dated to the Laten period), a Od ukupno 92 prikupljene izradevine od shard of the base of a grindstone from layer 3 and cijepanog kamena, 63 su neobradenih ulomaka 15 artefacts of knapped lithics and three shards of kamena (68,5%), 20 obradenih (21,7%), 6 s stone with unclear engravings on one polished sur rabovima ostecenim koristenjem (6,5%) i 3 jezgre face from layers with Roman period and medieval - jedna cijela i 2 ulomka (3,3%). Tragovi gorenja remains (layers 1/2 and 2). javljaju se na 14 izradevina (15,2%). Plohak je In terms of methodology, this research was of sacuvan na 54 izradevine (Tablica 1). Najucestaliji the rescue type, done on a large area and within a je ravni plohak, zatim diedrican i prekriven limited time period, so that systematic sieving of okorinom, linearan, obraden, a pojedinacno se excavated material was not possible. Excavation was javljaju zakrivljen i tockast. done by hand with find separation in situ. In this method of research, as a rule, very small fragments of knapped lithics are rarely found, which is con Tablica 1. Ucestalost pojedinih tipova plohaka firmed by the entire assemblage of knapped lithics Plohak Ucestalost % that, with the exception of two smaller artefacts, are Okorina 8 14,8% all larger than 1.5 x 1.5 centimetres. Ravan 23 42,6% Based on the aforementioned, it is evident that Diedrican 8 14,8% the amount of collected stone artefacts is not large Obraden 11,1% 6 and that it was collected in various culture and time Zakrivljen 1 1,9% phases of human habitation. Linearan 7 13,0% Knapped lithics 1 Tbckast 1,9% Analysis Ukupno 100,0% 54 Of a total of 92 collected artefacts of knapped Najucestalija morfoloska kategorija su odbojci lithics, 63 are unretouched (68.5%), 20 retouched sa 46 izradevina (50%), te lomljevina6 sa 12 (21.7%), 6 have edges damaged by use (6.5%) and izradevina (13%), mala sjeciva6 sa 10 (10,9%) i 3 cores one complete and 2 fragments (3.3.%). Traces of burning appear on 14 artefacts (15.2%). sjeciva7 sa 8 izradevina (8,7%) (Tablica 2). The platform is preserved on 54 artefacts (Table 1). The most frequent is a flat platform, followed by Tablica 2. Ucestalost morfoloskih kategorija dihedral and cortical, linear, faceted, and there are Morfoloski tip Ucestalost % individual occurrences of winged and punctiform ones. Odbojci 46 50,0% Mali odbojci 1 1,1% Table 1. Frequency of individual types of platforms Sjeciva 8 8,7% Platform Frequency % Mala sjeciva 10 10,9% Cortex 14.8% 8 Jezgre 1 1,1% Flat 23 42.6% Ulomci jezgri 2 2,2% Dihedral 8 14.8% Lomljevina 12 13,0% Facetted 8 6 11.1% Spaljena lomljevina 6 6,5% Winged 1 1.9% Neodredeno 6 6,5% Linear 7 13.0% Punctiform 1 1.9% Ukupno 100,0% 92 Total Okorina postoji na 26 izradevina (28,3%), od toga su 3 izradevine prekrivene okorinom izmedu 75% i 100%, 5 izmedu 50% i 74%, 6 izmedu 25% i 49%, te 12 izmedu 1% i 24% (Tablica 3). 54 100.0%

The most frequent morphological category is flakes with 46 artefacts (50%), and knapping debris5 with 12 artefacts (13%), bladelets6 with 10

Tablica 3. U~estalost okorine


Okorina 75 - 100% 50 - 74% 25 - 49% 1 - 24% Ukupno Ucestalost 3 5 6 12 26 % 11,5% 19,2% 23,1% 46,2% 100,0%

(10.9%) and blades7 with 8 artefacts (8.7%) (Table 2). Table 2. Frequency of morphological categories Morphological type Frequency Flakes 46 Small flakes 1 Blades 8 Bladelets 10 Cores 1 Core fragments 2 Knapping debris 12 Burnt debris8 6 Unretouched 6 Total 92 % 50,0% 1,1% 8,7% 10,9% 1,1% 2,2% 13,0% 6,5% 6,5% 100,0%

101

Prikupljeno je ukupno 20 alatki, sto cirri 21,7% od ukupnog broja cijepanih izradevina. Najucestalija grupa alatki su grebala (7 grebala i jedno stragalo) (T4-8, T9-3, T3-6, T5-20, T5-16, T5-4, T5-19, T5-3), s ukupno 8 primjeraka, 7 izradevina s jednostavnom obradom na rabovima (T5-18, T5-5, T5-14), 2 zarupka (T28-21, T515), te po jedno dubilo (T5-17), siljak (T5-2) i ulomak malog prizmaticnog sjeciva sa dva udupka i lateralnom obradom (T5-13). Glavnina vecina alatki pripada grupi alatki za transformacijske aktivnosti. Ova grupa ima siroko podrucje koristenja za obradu koze, drva, kosti i drugih materijala. Samo jedan siljak (T5-2), ciji je vrh ostecen ili namjerno obraden udarcem, pripada grupi alatki koja se mogla upotrebljavati i za lovacke aktivnosti, iako postoje brojni primjeri upotrebe ove vrste alatki i za druge aktivnosti. Ulomak malog prizmaticnog sjeciva sa dva udupka i lateralnom obradom (T5-13) zanimljiva je izradevina. Nije potpuno jasno je li rijec o slomljenom svrdlu ili o mikrodubilu. Moguce je kako je zarubak iz sloja 2 (T28-21) koristen kao dio pribora za paljenje vatre. Osim navedenih izradevina s obradom, prikupljeno je i 6 izradevina bez formalne obrade s rabovima ostecenim koristenjem, kao i dvije izradevine bez formalne obrade (T10-7, T4-9), nadene u K8 i Kll, s karakteristicnim sjajem srpa na lateralnim rabovima, koji je mogao nastati intenzivnim rezanjem biljnog materijala (trave, zitarica ili listova). Ostaci tehnoloskih procesa su rijetki. Pronadeno je jedno krestasto malo sjecivo (T5-18), te jedan prethodno navedeni ulomak prizmaticnog malog sjeciva (T5-13), koji bi mogao biti mikrodubilo. Sirovinski materijal je raznolik, a najcesce se javljaju zelenosivi neprozirni roznjaci te crni neprozirni roznjaci osrednjih osobina cijepanja, zatim sivi, zeleni i smedi prozirni roznjaci dobrih osobina cijepanja. Cjelokupni navedeni sirovinski materijal potjece od malih i srednje velikih rijecnih oblutaka, dostupnih lokalno (PORENBAHER U

Cortex is present on 26 artefacts (28.3%), of which 3 are artefacts with from 75% to 100% cor tex covering, 5 covered from 50% to 74%, 6 from 25% to 49%, and 12 from 1% to 24% (Table 3). Table3. Frequency of cortex Cortex 75 - 100% 50 - 74% 25 - 49% 1 - 24% Ukupno Frequency 3 5 6 12 26 % 11,5% 19,2% 23,1% 46,2% 100,0%

A total of 20 tools were collected, which consti tutes 21.7% of the total amount of lithic assem blage. The most frequent group is of endscrapers (7 endscrapers and one scraper) (T4-8, T9-3, T3-6, T5-20, T5-16, T5-4, T5-19, T5-3), for a total of 8 specimens, 7 artefacts with simple linear retouch (T5-18, T5-5, T5-14), 2 truncations (T28-21, T515), and one each of a burin (T5-17), point (T5-2) and the fragment of a prismatic bladelet with two notches and lateral retouch (T5-13). The majority of tools belong to the group of tools for transforma tional activities. This group has a wide variety of uses in the working of skins, wood, bone and other materials. Only a single point (T5-2), whose tip was damaged or deliberately retouched with a single blow, belongs to the group of tools that could also have been used for hunting activity, even though there are numerous examples of the use of these kinds of tools for other activities. An interesting find is a fragment from a prismatic bladelet with two notches

5 U ovom skupu nalaza lomlJCTina se definira kao smrskani roznjak vefi od 10 mm koji se ne moze odredenije klasifieirati. In this assemblage offindsa knapping debris is defined as a shatteredflintlarger than 10 mm in size that can not be more specifically identified. 6 U ovom skupu nalaza mala sjefiva definirana su kao sjefiva fija je sirina uza ili jednaka 11 milimetara. In this assemblage offindsa bladelet is defined as a blade whose width is 11 millimetres or less. 1 U ovom skupu nalaza sjefiva su definirana kao odbojfi fija je duHna dva ili vise puta veea od sirina, s vise ili manje paralelnim rubovima, sira od 11 milimetara In this assemblage of finds a blade is defined asflakeswhose length is two or more times greater than its width, with more or less parallel edges, wider than 11 millimetres.

" U ovom skupu nalaza spaljena lomljevina definira se kao roznjak smrskan nekontroliranim izlaganjem visokim temperaturama, koji se ne moze odredenije klasifieirati. In this assemblage offindsa burnt debris is defined as a flint shattered by uncontrolled exposure to high temperatures, that can not be more specifically identified.

102

TISKU - a,b,c,d; PAUNOVIC 2002). U ovome skupu izdvajaju se dvije cijepane izradevine od crvenog neprozirnog roznjaka odlicnih osobina cijepanja, koji vjerovatno nije dostupan lokalno, vec regionalno ili mozda i iz vecih udaljenosti.

and lateral retouch (T5-13). It is not entirely clear whether this is a broken drill or a microburin. It is possible that the truncation from layer 2 (T28-21) was used a part of a fire-making apparatus. Besides the mentioned retouched artefacts, 6 artefacts without formal retouch and with edges damaged by Pribavljanje, proizvodnja i upotreba cijepane litike use were collected, as were two artefacts without forPotrebno je naglasiti kako je ova grupa kamenih mal retouch (T10-7, T4-9), located in K8 and Kll, nalaza malobrojna, prikupljena bez prosijavanja i with the characteristic sickle gloss on its lateral kako je njezin najveci dio naden bez jasnog edges that might have come about as the result of konteksta, te je sve zakljucke potrebno uzimati s intensive cutting of plant material (grass, grains or velikim oprezom. Unatoc tomu, moguce je odrediti leaves). osnovne tehnoloske karakteristike. The remains of technological processes are rare. Prikupljeni sirovinski materijal pokazuje A crested bladelet was found (T5-18), and one preznacajne razlike u boji, prozirnosti, boji okorine i viously mentioned fragment of a prismatic bladelet kvaliteti. Unatoc navedenim razlikama, sav (T5-13), that might be a microburin. prikupljeni materijal opcenito je malih i srednjih The raw material is varied, and most often apdimenzija. Zajednicke karakteristike sirovinskog pears as grey-green opaque flint and black opaque materijala - mehanicka istrosenost okorine, flint of intermediate knapping characteristics, and zaobljenost i velicina sirovine - upueuje kako je grey, green and brown transparent flint of good teziste bilo na prikupljanju oblutaka roznjaka iz knapping characteristics. All of the cited raw matesekundarnih aluvijalnih nanosa, dopremljenih iz rial originates from locally available small and midprimarnih, vjerojatno razlicitih lezista djelovanjem sized river pebbles (PORENBAHER IN PRINT rijeka i natalozenih na obalama. Teziste na a,b,c,d; PAUNOVIC 2002). Two flakes made of koristenju lokalno dostupne kamene sirovine iz opaque red flint of excellent knapping characterissekundarnih rijecnih nanosa javlja se i na drugim tics stand out among this group, likely not available nalazistima u regiji, a to su Gromace, Hardek locally, but rather regionally or perhaps from a (Porenbaher u tisku -a), Log pri Vipavi greater distance. (PORENBAHER U TISKU -B), Siman (PORENBAHER u TISKU -C) i Zemono Procurement, Production (PORENBAHER U TISKU -D). Potrebno je and Use of Knapped Lithics izdvojiti dvije izradevine (obje alatke - jedno grebalo It ought to be pointed out that this group of i jedna izradevina s jednostavnom bilateralnom stone finds is smaU in number, collected without the obradom) od crvenog neprozirnog roznjaka izvrsnih use of sieving and that the majority was found withkarakteristika cijepanja, koja najvjerovatnije nije out a clear context, and that in this regard all condostupna lokalno, vec je pribavljena iz sire regije ili elusions should be taken with a great deal of reiz udaljenijih krajeva. Sve zakljucke o pribavljanju serve. Regardless, it is possible to determine the basirovinskog materijala, u nedostatku sistematskog sic technological characteristics. prikupljanja roznjaka i drugih sirovina podobnih The collected raw material shows significant za cijepanje, te izrade komparativne baze podataka variations in colour, opacity, cortex colour and qualkamene sirovine za sjeverozapadnu Hrvatsku, te ity Despite the mentioned variations, aU of the colHrvatsku uopce, potrebno je uzimati s oprezom. lected material is generally of small and mid-sized Mali broj izradevina s vecim postotkom dimensions. The common characteristics of the raw pokrivenosti okorinom, te tendencija povecanja material - mechanical wear of the cortex, roundeducestalosti izradevina s manjim postotkom okorine, ness and the size of the raw material - indicates that moglo bi upucivati na to da je primarno skidanje the focus was on gathering flint pebbles from secokorine rijetko obavljano na samom nalazistu, vec ondary alluvial deposits, carried by river activity na drugim mjestima, vjerojatno na obalama rijeka from primary, probably several different deposits, tijekom prikupljanja, te kako je sirovinski materijal and deposited on the riverbanks. The pre-eminence na samo nalaziste pribavljan u obliku gotovih jezgri of use of locally available stone raw material from ili poluizradevina. secondary river deposits also appears at other sites Uglavnom su koristene ad hoc strategije cijepanja in the region, these being Gromace, Hardek za proizvodnju malih odbojaka, koje ne iziskuju (Porenbaher in print -a), Log pri Vipavi posebnu vjestinu niti specijalni pribor. Najcesca je (PORENBAHER IN PRINT -B), Siman tehnologija malih odbojaka, kod koje je teziste na (PORENBAHER IN PRINT -C) and Zemono cijepanju malih odbojaka od bezoblicnih jezgi, te (PORENBAHER IN PRINT -D). Two artefacts tehnologija bipolarnog cijepanja, koja je cesto deserve special attention (both tools - one primjenjivana kod iskoristavanja malih oblutaka, endscraper and one artefact with simple bilateral koji su cijepani koristenjem tvrde podloge, koja je retouch), made of opaque red flint of excellent sluzila kao nakovanj. Snaga udarca prenosila se na knapping characteristics, probably not available lonakovanj i odbijala, stvarajuci nasuprotnu energiju cally but gathered rather from the wider region or koja bi rascijepila ili rasprsnula oblutak. Odbojci from a more distant region. All conclusions con-

prikladnih oblika obradom su nadalje pretvarani u jednostavne alatke ili koristeni bez obrade, te nakon uporabe odbacivani. Rjede je koristena zahtjevna tehnologija za dobivanje prizmaticnih sjeciva, za ciju je izradu potrebna slozena garnitura alata, te visoka razina umjesnosti. Na provedbu ove tehnologije upueuje nalaz nekoliko ulomaka prizmaticnih sjeciva (T5-6, T15-2, T5-21). Navedeni podaci o ucestalosti pojedinih tipova p l o h a k a t a k o d e r u p u c u j u n a koristenje jednostavnijih tehnologija, odnosno na pretezito direktno cijepanje tvrdim cekicem, uz rijetku uporabu mekih cekica, te na ucestalo koristenje jezgri s nepripremeljenim platformama, cesto na platformi prekrivenoj okorinom, a samo iznimno na prethodno pripremljenim platformama. Tragovi gorenja zamjetljivi su u skupu nalaza kamenih izradevina, no rijec je o nekontroliranom izlaganju izradevina visokim temperaturama koje smrskavaju, odnosno ostecuju roznjak. U prikupljenome materijalu nije zamijeceno namjerno izlaganje visokim temperaturama radi poboljsanja karakteristika cijepanja. Udio alatki u odnosu na cijelu grupu nalaza relativno je visok. Prevladavaju alatke za transformacijske aktivnosti (grebala, strugala, izradevine s jednostavnom linearnom obradom, zarupci, dubilo), dok je od moguceg lovnog pribora zastupljen samo jedan siljak, koji je doduse mogao biti koristen i za druge aktivnosti. Osim formalnih, obradenih alatki, zastupljene su i izradevine s rubovima ostecenim koristenjem, kao i dvije izradevine s karakteristicnim sjajem srpa (sickle gloss), nastalim intenzivnim rezanjem biljnog materijala. Teziste tehnologije je izrada i koristenje jednostavnih alatki (expedient tools) i izradevina bez formalne obrade, koje se ne cuvaju, vec se nakon uporabe odbacuju. Tehnicke izradevine su rijetke. Nadeno je samo jedno malo krestasto sjecivo, koje je tehnoloski ostatak pripreme jezgre za dobivanje malih sjeciva. Prikupljeno je i jedno malo prizmaticno sjecivo s dva udupka i lateralnom obradom koje bi moglo biti mikrodubilo (T5-13). Mikrodubilo nije alatka u klasicnom smislu rijeci, vec ostatak tehnoloskog procesa za dobivanje geometrijskih mikrolita. Ova se tehnologija se javila potkraj razdoblja gornjeg paleolitika, karakteristicna je za razdoblje mezoUtika, a koristena je i tijekom ranog neolitika na Jadranu. 9 U pregledanoj literaturi u kojima se obraduju nalazi cijepanih izradevina iz kasnijih razdoblja mikrodubila nisu objavljena. Pojedini nalazi datirani u bakreno doba, primjerice obostrano zarubljena sjeciva iz Pustakovca i Vinkovaca - trznica/hotel, te trapezoidni mikrolit iz Vinkovaca - trznica/hotel (DIMITRIJEVIC 1979B, MARKOVIC 1994), mogli su biti izradeni tehnologijom mikrodubila, iako ih je moguce izraditi koristenjem i drugih tehnika. Postoje tri mogucnosti; ili uopce nije rijec o

103

cerning the gathering of raw material, in the absence of the systematic collecting of flints and other raw materials suitable for knapping, and the creation of a comparative database of stone raw material for northwestern Croatia, and for Croatia as a whole, should be taken with a measure of reserve. The small number of artefacts with a greater percentage of cortex cover, and the tendency to a growth in frequency of artefacts with a small per centage of cortex covering, could indicate that the primary cortex removal was rarely done at the site itself, but rather elsewhere, likely on the riverbank during collecting, and that the raw material was procured at the site itself in the form of prepared cores or as a semi-processed products. Ad hoc knapping strategies were used primarily for the production of small flakes, which do not require special skill or tools. The small flake tech nology is the most frequent, where the emphasis is on knapping small flakes from amorphous cores, and the bipolar knapping technology, applied often when using small pebbles, knapped with the use of a hard base that served as an anvil. The force of the impact was transferred to the anvil and returned, creating a return force for the knapping or the shat tering of the pebble. Flakes of suitable shape were further transformed into simple tools or used with out retouching, and discarded after use. The more demanding production of prismatic blades technol ogy was used rarely, for the production of which a complex set of tools and a high level of proficiency was required. The several finds of fragments of pris matic blades indicates the use of this technology

Jakopovec-Blizna. Ro`nja~ke izra|evine,


Sonda A , sloj 1 - 2 . Jakopovec-Blizna. Flint artefacts, Trench A, layer 1 - 2 .

Jedno mirodubilo prikupljeno je na ranoneolitiekom nalazista Kargadur kod Liznjana u Istri tijekom arheoloskog istraHvanja 2002. godine. Materijal se priprema za objaTO. One microburin was collected at the early Neolithic Kargadur site near Liznjan in Istria during archaeological research carried out in 2002. The material is being preparedfor publishing.

104

mikrodubilu, veco nekoj ostecenoj alatki koja mu nalikuje; ili je rijec o pravome mikrodubilu koje je izradeno tijekom ranijeg razdoblja nepotvrdenog na iskopavanjima Blizne; ili je stvarno rijec o ostatku strategije cijepanja koristene tijekom bakrenog doba. Do pojave novih nalaza, kojice unijeti vise svjetla u ovaj problem, ovo pitanje treba ostaviti otvoreno. Jedan zarubak (T28-21), naden u sloju 2 s rimskim i srednjovjekovnim nalazima, na distalnom rubu ima ostecenja kqja nastaju udaranjem u metal, sto upucuje kako je mozda koristen kao kresivo za paljenje vatre (JAMNIK 1993). Oslale kamene izradevine Prikupljene su dvije glacane izradevine, i to jedan tipoloski neodrediv ulomak zelenosive boje kao slucajni nalaz izvan konteksta i jedna plosnata, jezicasta glacana sjekira tamno sive boje, nacinjena od lokalnog materijala, djelomicno ostecene povrsine i fino izradenog, ostrog sjeciva (T3-7). Nadena je u bakrenodobnoj lasinjskoj kuci K4 zajedno sa 4 ulomka cijepane litike. Ovaj tip sjekire karakteristican je za sire razdoblje, i cesto se javlja medu lasinjskim nalazima (TOMICIC 1969; TOMICIC 1969; DIMITRIJEVIC 1979; SIMEK 1981; LUBSINA-TUSEK 1993; SIMEK, KURTANJEK ET ALL. 2002). Prikupljena su i dva brusna kamena, koja potjecu iz latenskog konteksta. Jedan brusni kamen ima sacuvane ureze na rubovima nastale ostrenjem metalnog sjeciva (T21-4). Obje su fragmentirane, izduzene cetvrtaste izradevine izradene od lokalno dostupnog pjescenjaka. Od ostalog prikupljenog materijala, potrebno je izdvojiti jedan ulomak istrosene baze (nepokretnog dijela) zrvnja s izdignutim i zaobljenim rubom (COLONELLO ET ALL. 2001), naden u sloju 3 datiranom od 10. do 2. stoljeca pr.Kr (T18-11), kao i tri ulomka kamena iz sloja 2 koja se medusobno spajaju i na jednoj zagladenoj strani imaju nejasne ureze (T28-20), dok su ostali ulomci razlicitog kamenja bez ikakvih tragova obrade. KullumO-kronolOSkO Odredenje kamenih nalaza Za odredivanje vremenskog nastanka ove grape nalaza kamenih izradevina presudno je vise cimbenika. Glavni problem pri datiranju je u kolicini prikupljenog kamenog materijala i nacinu prilmpljanja. Kolicina od 92 izradevine od cijepanog kamena i 2 izradevine od glacanog kamena ne zadovoljavaju osnove za kvalitetnu statistical i komparativnu analizu. Takoder, vecina nalaza prikupljena je izvan konteksta, kao slucajni nalaz, te se ne moze ustanoviti prava slika kamene industrije ovih nalazista. Osim kolicine i nacina prikupljanja nalaza, problem je i u nedostatku detaljnih analiza cijepane litike u siroj regiji. Kamene izradevine cesto su obradene selektivno, uglavnom samo spomenute unutar objava, a najcesce potpuno zanemarene. Sukladno tome, nasa saznanja o promjenama u pribavljanju,

(T5-6, T15-2, T5-21). The cited figures on thefrequencyof individual types of platforms also indicates the use of simpler technologies, that is to say of predominant direct knapping with the use of a hard hammer, with less frequent use of a soft hammer, and of the frequent use of cores with unprepared platforms, often on a platform covered with cortex, and only exceptionally on platforms prepared in advance. Traces of burning are present in the lithics assemblage, but they indicate uncontrolled exposure of the artefact to high temperatures that shatter or otherwise damage the flint. Among the collected material there were no signs of deliberate exposure to high temperatures with the aim of improving knapping characteristics. The proportion of tools in relation to the entire assemblage of lithicfindsis relatively high. Tools for transformation activities predominate (endscrapers, scrapers, artefacts with simple linear retouch, truncations, burin) while possible hunting kit is represented by only a single point, which admittedly may have been used for other activity. Besides formal, retouched tools, also represented are artefacts having edges damaged by use, as are two artefacts with the characteristic sickle gloss caused by the intensive cutting of plant material. The focus of the technology was on the production and use of simple tools {expedient tools) and artefacts without formal retouching that are not curated but rather discarded after use. Technical artefacts are rare. Only a single crested bladelet was found, the technological remnant of the preparation of a core for the production of a bladelets. A single prismatic bladelet with two notches and a lateral retouch that might be a microburin (T5-13) was also coUected. A microburin is not a tool in the classic sense of the word, but rather the remnant of the technological process of production of geometric microlith. This technology appeared near the end of the Upper Palaeolithic period, is characteristic for the Mesolithic period and was used in the Adriatic area during the early Neolithic.9 There is no mention of microburins in the reviewed literature that covers finds of knapped lithics from later periods. Individual finds dated to the Copper Age, for example double-truncated blades from Pustakovac and the Vinkovci - market/hotel area, and a trapezoidal microlith from the Vinkovci - market/hotel area (DIMITRIJEVIC 1979B, MARKOVIC 1994), may have been produced using the microburin technology, although it is possible to manufacture them using other techniques. There are three possibilities; either it is not at all a microburin, but rather some damaged tool that resembles it; or it is a real microburin produced during an earlier period unconfirmed at the Blizna excavations; or it is reaUy the remnant of a knapping strategy used during the Copper Age. Until the appearance of new finds that will shed more light on this issue, this question should remain open. One truncation (T28-21), found in layer 2 with

proizvodnji i upotrebi cijepane litike su minimalna. Tijekom neolitika sjeverozapadne Hrvatske nalazi polirane i cijepane kamene industrije su brojni. Neoliticka cijepana kamena industrija temelji se na dobivanju prizmaticnih sjeciva/malih sjeciva i prikupljena je u naseljima u velikom broju (MINICHREITER 1992, TEZAK-GREGL 1991, TEZAK-GREGL 1993.). Bakrenodobne kulture na podrucju sjeverozapadne Hrvatske do sada su uglavnom poznate po nalazima keramike, dok kamena industrija nije bila posebno obradivana (SIMEK, KURTANJEK ET AL. 2002). Kamena industrija lasinjske kulture nedostatno je proucena; obuhvaca cijepane i glacane izradevine. U izvorima se u pravilu nalazi cijepane litike samo spominju, uglavnom kao strugaci, nozici, busila i siljci za strelice (TOMICIC 1969; TOMICIC 1969; MARKOVIC 1974; SIMEK 1978; DIMITRIJEVIC 1979; SIMEK 1981; MARKOVIC 1983; MARKOVIC 1985; MARKOVIC 1986; MARKOVIC 1994), te poluizradevine i kremene grude (TOMICIC 1969; TOMICIC 1969). Detaljnija objava potjece iz Vinkovaca (Trznica/hotel), gdje je potkraj 1977.g. pronaden vrc s ostavom cijepanih kamenih izradevina, koja se sastojala od 48 obradenih i neobradenih izradevina, medu kojima treba istaknuti tri izradevine od opsidijana, jednu bifacijalno obradenu strelicu s krilcima i udubljenom bazom za nasad, te vise alatki zarubljenih krajeva (DIMITRIJEVIC 1979B; MARKOVIC 1994). Glacane izradevine ove grape dijele se na plosnate sjekire i klinove, te na sjekire s rupom za nasad (TOMICIC 1969; TOMICIC 1969; MARKOVIC 1974; SIMEK 1978; DIMITRIJEVIC 1979; HOMEN 1981;

Roman period and medieval finds, has damage on its distal edge that occurs when stricken by metal, which indicates that it may have been used as a flint for lighting fires (JAMNIK 1993). Other lithics Two polished artefacts were collected, one a typologicaUy undeterminable fragment of grey-green colour as a surface find out of context and the other a flat, tongue-shaped polished axe of dark grey colour, made of local material with partially damaged surface and a finely constructed, sharp cut ting edge (T3-7). It was found in Copper Age Lasinja house K4 together with 4 shards of knapped lithics. This type of axe is characteristic of the wider period and appears frequently among Lasinja finds (TOMICIC 1969; TOMICIC 1969; DIMITRIJEVIC 1979; SIMEK 1981; LUBSINA-TUSEK 1993; SIMEK, KURTANJEK ET ALL. 2002). Two whetstones were collected that originate from a Laten context. One of the whetstones has preserved incisions on its edges created by the sharpening of a metal blade (T21-4). Both are fragmented, elongated quadrangular artefacts manufactured of locally available sandstone. Of the remaining collected material a fragment of the worn-out base (immobile part) of a grindstone with a raised and rounded edge (COLONELLO ET ALL. 2001) deserves special attention. It was found in layer 3, dated to the 10th to 2nd centuries BC (T18-11), as were three fragments of stone from layer 2 that can be joined and have unclear engravings on one smoothed side (T28-20), while other fragments of various stone are without an traces of retouching.

105

SIMEK 1981; SIMEK, K U R T A N J E K E T ALL.


2002). Kamene industrije ostalih istovremenih kultura, ponajvise Retz-Gajary i Baden, takoder su nedostatno proucene (DURMAN 1982; TEZAKGREGL 1985). Novije analize cijepanih kamenih izradevina s podrucja sjeveroistocne Slovenije, podnozja istocnih Alpi, kao i sjeverozapadne Hrvatske pokazuju kako su tijekom bakrenog doba nastale promjene u tehnologiji, te da postaje dominantna jednostavna ad hoc industrija za proizvodnju malih odbojaka (PORENBAHER U TISKU -A, LUBSINATUSEK 1993). Kamena industrija jos se rijetko javljala tijekom rane bronce (MARTINEC 2002), iscezavala je tijekom srednje bronce, a iznimno se javila u kulturama kasnog broncanog, zeljeznog doba i kasnije, kao dio pribora za paljenje vatre ili kao simbol bozanskog porijekla sa simbolicnim znacenjem zastite od groma. Da bi se datirao ovaj skup nalaza, zbog navedenih problema potrebno je uzeti u razmatranje i popratne nalaze. Prikupljeni su ostaci keramike iz razlicitih perioda. Najstariji je jedan ulomak keramike korenovske kulture, iz razdoblja neolitika, prikupljen u mijesanom kontekstu, bez jasno odredenog horizonta. Slijede ostaci bakrenodobne

Cultural-chronological determination
of lithic assemblage Several factors are crucial in the determination of the chronological emergence of this lithic assemblage. The major problem in dating is in the quantity of collected stone material and the method of collection. A quantity of 92 artefacts of knapped lithics and 2 artefacts of polished stone does not provide a good base for a proper statistical and comparative analysis. Also, most of the finds were collected out of context, as surfacefinds,and a true picture of the lithics industry of these sites cannot be determined. Besides the quantity of collected finds and the method of their collection, the problem is also in a lack of detailed analysis of knapped lithics in the wider region. Stone artefacts are often covered selectively usually only mentioned within publications, and most often completely ignored. As a result of this our knowledge of changes in the procurement, production and use of knapped lithics are minimal. Finds of polished and knapped lithic industry from the Neolithic period are numerous in northwestern Croatia. Neolithic knapped stone industry is based on production of prismatic blades / bladelets and have been collected in settlements in great number (MINICHREITER 1992, TEZAK-GREGL

106 ~

keramike lasinjske kulture, sto je datirano analizom radioaktivnog ugljika iz jame K4, te potom keramicki ostaci kulture zarnih polja, latena, rimskog razdoblja i srednjeg vijeka. Zajednicke karakteristike grupe nalaza cijepanog kamena, medu kojima treba naglasiti teziste na jednostavnoj ad hoc industriji za proizvodnju maUh odbojaka, upueuju kako je njezin veci dio nastao tijekom bakrenog doba, te da se na osnovi analize keramickog materijala moze odrediti unutar lasinjskog kulturnog kompleksa. U kasnije horizonte usla je naknadnim ukopavanjem jama i kuca, i samo iznimno sekundarno ad hoc koristena za paljenje vatre tijekom kasnrjih razdoblja. Na osnovi odredenih karakteristika, npr zastupljenost prizmaticnih sjeciva, moguce je da dio kamenog materijala potjece i iz neolitickog razdoblja, no, osim jednog ulomka korenovske keramike, za ovo razdoblje na nalazistu ne postoji zasebno izdvojen horizont.

1991, TEZAKGREGL 1993). The Copper Age culture in north-western Croatia has to date been known mostly for its ceramic finds, while the stone industry was not given special attention (SIMEK, KURTANJEK ET AL. 2002). The stone industry of the Lasinja culture has been poorly studied and consists of knapped and polished artefacts. Sources, as a rule, only cite knapped lithics in passing, mostly as scrapers, small knives, drills, and arrowheads (TOMICIC 1969; TOMICIC 1969; MARKOVIC 1974; SIMEK 1978; DIMITRIJEVIC 1979; SIMEK 1981; MARKOVIC 1983; MARKOVIC 1985; MARKOVIC 1986; MARKOVIC 1994), and semi-artefacts andflintlumps (TOMICIC 1969; TOMICIC 1969). The only more detailed report is from Vinkovci (market / hotel area), where at the end of 1977 a jug was found with a hoard of knapped stone artefacts, consisting of 48 tools and unretouched artefacts, among which three artefacts ZakljUCak of obsidian, one bifacial retouched arrowhead with Rezultati analiza skupa nalaza cijepanog kamena wings and notched base deserve special notice, as do s Blizne upueuju kako se tijekom bakrenog doba several tools with truncations (DIMITRIJEVIC sirovinski materijal pribavljao lokalno, na obalama 1979B; MARKOVIC 1994). The polished artefacts obliznjih rijeka, gdje je vjerojatno radena i primarna in this group are divided into flat axes and wedges, redukcija okorine. Na nalaziste je sirovina nadalje and shaft-hole axes (TOMICIC 1969; TOMICIC donosena u obliku pripravljenih jezgri i/ili 1969; MARKOVIC 1974; SIMEK 1978; poluizradevina. Koristene su jednostavne strategije DIMITRIJEVIC 1979; HOMEN 1981; SIMEK cijepanja, temeljene na dobivanju odbojaka. 1981; SIMEK, KURTANJEK ET AL. 2002). Slozenija tehnologija proizvodnje prizmaticnih The stone industry of other cultures of the same sjeciva javlja se samo iznimno. Teziste je dato time period, like the Retz-Gajary and Baden, are koristenju jednostavnih alatki i izradevina bez also poorly studied (DURMAN 1982; TEZAKformalne obrade, koristenih uglavnom za transforma- GREGL 1985). Newer analysis of knapped stone cijske aktivnosti, koje su nakon obrade odbacivani. artefacts from northeastern Slovenia, the feet of the U skupu nalaza iz bakrenog doba nadene su i eastern Alps, and northwestern Croatia indicate that dvije glacane izradevine, od kojih je jedna cijela there was a shift in technology during the Copper plosnata jezicasta sjekira (T3-7), tipicna za duze Age, and that a simple ad hoc industry became domirazdoblje od neolitika do broncanog doba. nant in the production of small flakes Kamene izradevine prispjele su u slojeve razdoblja (PORENBAHER IN PRESS-A, LUBSINAkasne bronce ukopima kuca i jama u dublje, TUSEK 1993). bakrenodobne slojeve. U razdoblju latena Blizne Stone industry appears rarely during the Early nadena su dva brusna kamena, od kojih jedan ima Bronze Age (MARTINEC 2002), and peters out ureze nastale ostrenjem metalnih sjeciva, te jedan in the Middle Bronze Age, while it appears sporadiulomak baznog (nepomicnog) dijela zrvnja, cally within the cultures of the Late Bronze and koristenog za obradu zitarica. Nalazi od cijepanog Iron Ages and later as part fire-making apparatus kamena prispjeli su u ove slojeve ukopima kuca i or as a symbol of divine origin with the symbolic jama u dublje slojeve. U kasnijem rimskom i significance of protection from lightning. srednjovjekovnom razdoblju kamene izradevine In order to date this assemblage offindsit is, for javljaju se kao pomijesani nalazi iz ranijih razdoblja; the mentioned reasons, necessary to take into acjedino se za jednu kamenu izradevinu moze count accompanying finds. Ceramic remains were pretpostaviti kako je koristena kao dio naprave za collected from various periods. The oldest is a potpaljenje vatre. sherd from the Korenovo culture, from the Neolithic, collected in a mixed context, without a clearly deOslaN nalazi fined horizon. This is followed by Copper Age ceU objektima lasinjske kulture nisu pronadene ramies of the Lasinja culture that were dated by an kosti, osim u jednom slucaju. U zemunici K 7 analysis of radioactive carbon from pit K4 and the pronaden je dio celjusti vrlo mlade ovce ili koze ceramic remains of the Urnfield culture, the Laten, (Ovis/Capra). Roman period and Middle Ages. The common characteristics of the group of BR0NCAN0 DOBA knapped lithics finds, among which the emphasis NALAZI on a simple ad hoc industry for the production of Kultura zarnih polja takoder je gusto zastupljena small flakes should be pointed out, indicates that

na ovom nalazistu. U jarku sa istocne strane autoceste pronadeni su ostaci prostrane i duboke jame ili zemunice K l l . Na dim zemunice bilo je spaljene zemlje i gara, mozda oatataka ognjista, a u ispuni je pronadeno mnostvo dijelova keramickih posuda i razbacanog ljepa i gara, keramicki prsljen, te odreden broj kremenih alatki i kostiju. Buduci da potok sproveden kroz jarak na ovome mjestu skrece kroz propust na dragu stranu autoceste, te svojom snagom stalno potkopava jamu, bili smo u prilici izvuci dosta sitnog arheoloskog gradiva. Ova zemunica datirana je garom u ll.st.pr.Kr. AMS14C metodom (105945 calBC), sto odgovara pronadenom gradivu. 10 U zapadnom jarku prepoznata je grupa jama s kasnobroncanodobnim gradivom. K5 je vjerojatno josjedna zemunica, a jarak ju je presjekao poprijeko. U ispuni je pronaden gar i ulomci keramike. U obliznjoj jami K13 pronadeni su ostaci velike posude koja je rekonstruirana u cijelosti. Kod oznake K6 zapravo je rijec o dva ostatka stupa. Manja jama je osim tamnije zemlje sadrzavala samo malo gara i keramike. Veca je pak bila posve nabijena lomljenim kamenom, i to velikim rijecnim oblucima. Medu njima nalazilo se i ponesto ulomaka keramike. Da li je rijec o vrlo jakom temeljenju za neki stup ili necem drugom, nije jasno. U sondi A pronadeno je vise jama koje se mogu pripisati ovom razdoblju. Jame J25, J26, J27 i J28 ostaci su stupova. U sve cetiri jame, u dnu su bili nabijeni lomljeni komadi prepaljenog ljepa. Za jasan tloris ovog nadzemnog objekta nedostaju nam jos barem dva takva stupa sa zapadne strane, ali i ovako ove cetiri jame u nizu zasigurno predstavljaju zajednicki sklop. Ispred

the greater part of it was created during the Copper Age, and that it can, based on an analysis of ceramic material, be determined as originating within the Lasinja cultural complex. The material entered later horizons through the subsequent excavation of pits and houses, and was only used exceptionally as sec ondary material, ad hoc, for the lighting of fires dur ing later periods. Based on certain characteristics, for example the presence of prismatic blades, it is possible that a part of the stone material originates from the Neolithic period, but, with the exception of a single shard of Korenovo ceramic, there is not separate horizon for this period at the site. Conclusion The results of an analysis of the knapped lithics assemblage from Blizna indicates that raw material was procured locally during the Copper Age, on the banks of nearby rivers where the primary cortex reduction was probably performed. The raw mate rial was brought to the site as prepared cores and/or semi-artefacts. Simple knapping strategies were used, based on flake production. The more complex technology of producing prismatic blades appears only exceptionally. The emphasis was put on using simple tools and artefacts without formal retouch ing, mostly for transformational activities, and dis carding them after use. Two polished artefacts were found in the group of finds from the Copper Age, of which one is a flat, tongue-shaped axe (T3-7), typical of the longer period from the Neolithic to the Copper Age. Stone artefacts made their way into layers from the late Bonze Age through excavations of houses

107

Jakopovec-Blizna. Jama J3 na postolju, na dostignutom dnu razaznaju se nove jame J4, J5 i J6. Jakopovec-Blizna. Pit J3 (on a pedestal), new pits J4, J5 and J6 can be made out at the attained depth.
10 AMS-14C datacija izradena je u Leibniz Labor ffir Altersbestimmung und Isotopenforsehung, Christian-Albreehts-Universitat u Kielu (KIA22473, BP 2882+28). Skraeena kalibraeija putem CalPal Online Radiocarbon Calibration izradena na Sveueilistu u Kolim. Carbon MAMS dating was done at the Leibniz LaborfiirAltersbestimmung undlsotopenforsehung, Chnstian-Albreehts- Vniversitat in Kiel (KLA-22473, BP 2882 28). Shortened calibration using CalPal Online Radiocarbon Calibration done at the University of Koln.

108

Jakopovec-Blizna. Ociscen zarni grab K12. Dio zare razbijen je bageram prilikom kopanja jarka. Jakopovec-Blizna. Cleaned out urn grave K12. Part of the urn was broken by an excavator during the digging of the canal.

ovog nadzemnog objekta nalazile su se tri jame, od and pits into deeper, Copper Age layers. Two whet kojih se J3 zasigurno moze odrediti kao otpadna stones were found from Bliznas Laten period, of jama. U njoj je osim nesto gara i ulomaka ljepa which one has incisions created by the sharpening pronaden bogat skup keramickih ulomaka, pa smo of metal blades and one fragment of the base (im bili u mogucnost rekonstrairati jednu posudu. mobile) part of a grindstone, used in the processing Ispuna ove jame datirana je AMS-14C metodom u of grains. Finds of knapped lithics came into these 12 st.pr.Kr. (118650 calBC), sto odgovara layers through the excavation of pits and houses pronadenom gradivu.11 Iz istog sloja ukopane su i into deeper layers. In the later Roman and medieval jame J9 i J8. U njima nije bilo posebnih nalaza, periods stone artefacts appear as mixed finds from osim jednog zuba ovce ili koze u jami J9. Sve earlier periods; it can be assumed only one stone spomenute jame nalaze se svojim najdubljim dijelom artefact that it was used as part of a fire-making iznad sloja iz kojeg su ukopane jame J4, J5 i J6, o apparatus. cemu je vecbilo rijeci. Na kraju treba spomenuti i vrlo zanimljiv nalaz Other finds paljevinskoga groba ove kulture. Grob K12 With one exception, bones were not found in struc pronaden je mjesec dana nakon zavrsenih tures of the Lasinja culture. Part of the jawbone of iskopavanja, u gradevinskom jarku. Udaljen je oko a very young lamb or goat (Ovis/Capm) was found 40 m od najblize prepoznate kasnobroncanodobne in dugout house K7. jame, a nije jasno jeli rijec o usamljenom grobu ili obodnom dijelu veceg paljevinskoga groblja. Rijec BRONZE AGE je o siroko razvracenoj posudi s ruckom FEATURES preokrenutoj na spaljene ostatke pokojnika. Pod The Urnfield culture is also densely represented posudom nije bilo gara i pepela, i cini se da su ostaci at this site. The remnants of a wide and deep pit or kostiju oprani prije polaganja pod posudu. Uz ovu dugout house K l l were unearthed in a ditch to the zaru nije bilo drugih priloga, ali je odmah do nje east side of the highway. There was burnt earth and pronaden sloj gara s nekoliko djelica takoder charcoal at the bottom of the dugout house, per spaljenih ljudskih kostiju. Nekoliko ulomaka haps the remains of a hearth, and numerous frag keramike i mala roznjacka alatka nadeni oko zare, ments of ceramic vessels, scattered daub and char ne mogu se tipoloski odrediti i sumnjam da su u coal, a ceramic spindle whorl and a certain amount nekoj vezi s grobom. Antropoloskim pregledom of flint tools and bones were found in the deposit. ustanovljeno je da su kosti pripadale zenskoj osobi Since the creek that was diverted through the ditch od 18 do 25 godine. Od patoloskih promjena here turns through the culvert to the other side of primjecena je blaga zarasla ektokranijalna the highway, its current constantly undercutting the poroznost, koja se najcesce povezuje sa cestom i pit, we had the opportunity to extract quite a lot of dugotrajnom pojavom gladi. small archaeological material. This dugout house was dated using charcoal to the 11th century BC using the AMS-14C method (105945 calBC), which is in keeping with the unearthed material.10 A group of pits was identified in the western ditch with late Bronze Age material. K5 is probably just another dugout house that the ditch has cut across. Charcoal and potsherds were found in the deposit. In nearby pit K13 the remnants of a large vessel were found which has been entirely reconstructed. K6 actually marks the remains of two posts. The smaller pit, besides darker soil, contained only a little charcoal and ceramic. The larger was completely packed with fragmented stone, from large river pebbles. There were some potsherds among them. Whether this is a very strong foundation for a post or something else, is unclear. Several pits were found in trench A that can be attributed to this period. Pits J25, J26, J27 and J28 are the remains of posts. At the bottom of all four pits there were packed fragments of scorched daub. At least two more posts like these are lacking to the west side to get a clear picture of the ground plan of this raised structure, but even as is these four pits in a row
11 AMS-14C dataeija izradena je u Leibniz Labor far Altersbestiimmmg und Isotopenforselmng, Christian-Albreelits-Universitat u Eelu (KIA22471, BP 2961+26). Skraeena kalibraeija putem CalPal Online Radiocarbon Calibration izradena na Sveueilistu u Kolnu. CarbmUAMS dating wmdme at tte Leilmiz LaborjurAltersbestimmung u BP 296126). Sh(niened calibration using CdPaWnline Radiomrlon CaWratm^

POKRETNI NALAZI Keramicki nalazi Nakon lasinjske kulture, prostor Blizne je vjerojatno napusten. Iz ranog broncanog doba imamo samo dva ulomka koji bi pripadali ili bili srodni kulturi Kisapostag. Rijec je o ulomcima T285,6, grabe izrade, s karakteristicnim urezanim crtama. Vrlo slicno gradivo pronadeno je u Radincima pokraj Cazme (STRK 1984). Kao i za prisutnost korenovske kulture na Blizni, s obzirom na vrlo mali broj nalaza, zasad mozemo samo predmnijevati kako je rijec o povremenom obilazenju izvora vode na ovom polozaju u ta doba. No, na Blizni je otkriveno razmjerno mnogo nalaza iz vremena kasnog broncanog doba. Unatoc maloj povrsini koja je istrazena, mozemo zakljuciti kako se na Blizni nalazilo naselje koje bi pripadalo kulturi polja s zarama, i to kroz gotovo cijelo njeno postojanje. Pronadeni su ostaci vise objekata te jedan zarni grob. Keramicke posude uglavnom su izradene od neprociscene gline, ali relativno tvrde i dobre izrade. Zastupljeni su oblici koji se mogu povezati s razlicitim razdobljima kasnog broncanog doba. Najvece posude, (T9-1, T7-l,2) i drugi ulomci njima slicnih posuda stavljaju se u razlicite faze kulture polja s zarama, od 2. do 4. i 5. faze, prema Vinski-Gasparini. Pronalazene su u varijantama s ruckicama (Vrapce-Zagreb VINSKI-GASPARINI 1973, t.24-3), i s ukrasom, (Pobrezje-Slovenija GABROVEC 1983, 59, sl.16-27). Vrlo slican velikoj rekonstruiranoj posudi T9-1 jest pitos za spremanje hrane iz objekta 25 nalazista DeloviGrede-1, koji autor d a t i r a oko 800.g.pr.Kr. (MARKOVIC 1984, 295, 296, sl.2). No, pitanje je da li ova datacija odgovara nasem primjerku, s obzirom kako je posuda T7-l,2 vrlo slicna T9-1, no malo debljih stijenki, nadena u jami sa 14C datacijom u 12.st.pr.Kr. Dijelovi posude s ukrasom trokuta pod obodom (T6-l,2) naizgled slice spomenutima; medutim, sudeci prema nalazu vrlo slicne, bolje ocuvane posude s nalazista Poprenjak kod Zupanje, 1 2 rijec je o posudi s konusno izrazenim prijelomom na sredini trbulia. Inace takve ukrase, iako rjede, moguce je pronaci i drugdje. Primjerice na Igriscu-Kalnik (VRDOLJAK 1995, t.32-2), u Diviaky-Slovacka (pripadajuce luzickoj kulturi, VELIACIK 1991, t.32-5) i u Donjem Lakosu-Slovenija (takoder s ukrasom izvedenim prije pecenja, DULAR 2002, 150,0-12). Ukrasen urezivanjem je jos jedan nalaz (Tll-19). Urezivanje je k a r a k t e r i s t i c n o za m l a d u fazu K Z P - a ( V R D O L J A K 1995, 38, t.34-2,6; t . 3 5 - 4 , 3 ; DULAR 2002, 158, 0-13). Mnogobrijnije posude ukrasene su plasticnim apliciranim trakama, s tragovima utisnutim prstima (T8-6,7,8; T10-10; T l l - 1 0 ) ili ostrim predmetom (T8-9). Osim prilicno cesto u kasnom broncanom dobu, ovaj ukras javlja se i u razdobljima prije i poslije njega. Dragi najcesci ukrasi su kaneliranje (T6-4, T10-

certainly represent a single complex. Three pits were located in front of this raised structure, of which J 3 can with certainty be identified as a midden. Be sides some charcoal and fragments of daub, a large assemblage of potsherds was found in the midden, so that we were able to reconstruct an entire vessel. The deposit of this pit was dated using the AMS14C method to the 12th century BC (118650 calBC), which fits with the materials found there.11 Pits J 9 and J 8 were dug from the same layer. There were no finds of interest in them with the exception of a single sheep or goat tooth in pit J 9 . The deepest points of all of these pits are above the layer from which pits J 4 , J 5 and J 6 are dug, of which there has already been mention. In closing we should mention a very interesting find of a cremation grave from this culture. Grave K12 was found a month after the excavation of the site was completed, in a construction ditch. It is located about 40m from the nearest identified late Bronze Age pit, and it is not clear whether it is a solitary grave or the edge of a cremation cemetery. It is a wide flared vessel with a handle turned over the cremated remains of the deceased. There was no charcoal or ash under the vessel, and it appears that the remains of bones were washed prior to be ing set under the vessel. There were no other grave goods besides this urn, but a layer of charcoal was found next to it with several small fragments of also burnt human bone. The several potsherds and smaU flint tools found around the urn cannot be identi fied by their typology and I doubt that they are in some way related to the grave. An anthropological examination determined that the bones belonged to a female aged from 18 to 25. As far as pathological changes are concerned a light healed ectocranial porousness was noticed, that is most often associ ated with frequent and long-lasting un dernourishment. FINDS Ceramic finds The Blizna area was probably aban doned after the Lasinja culture. There are only two potsherds from the early Bronze Age that would belong or are related to the Kisapostag culture. These are potsherds T28-5,6 of rough fabrication with char acteristic line engravings. Very similar material was found in R a d i n c i n e a r ' Cazma (STRK 1984). Just as for the presence of the Korenovo culture at Blizna, given the very small number of finds, we can for the moment only surmise that these were only intermittent visits to a source of water existing at this site at the

109

Jakopovec-Blizna. Ulomak ranobron~anodobne posude. (T28-5) Jakopovec-Blizna. Potsherd from an early Bronze Age vessel. (T28-5)

Jakopovec-Blizna. Rekonstruirani veliki spremisni lonac kulture polja sa zarama. (T9-1) Jakopovec-Blizna. A large reconstructed pot from the Urnfields culture. (T9-1)

12 Zalivaljujem Bosku Marijanu za mid u dio zasad neobjavljenoga gradiva s tog nalazista. Thanks to Bosko Marijan for the opportunity to peruse still unpublished materialfromthis site

110

Jakopovec-Blizna. Djelomice rekonstruirana grobna zara kulture polja sa zarama. (T9-2) Jakopovec-Blizna. Partially reconstructed grave urn of the Urnfields culture. (T9-2)

1, 2,6; Tll-11,13,20, itd.) i turbanast obod (T103; Tll-12), fazetiranje (T10-6,12,14,15; Tll-5,6) a tomu slicno i tordiranje rucke (T10-11). Turbanrand se datira u 2. fazu KZP-a (Lipovac PAVISIC 1993, t.3-5; Martijanec VINSKIGASPARINI 1973, t.25-6), kaneliranje u 1. i 2. fazu KZP-a (Eringrad BALEN-LETUNIC1987, 19; Igrisce VRDOLJAK 19951.23-2; Doljni Lakos DULAR 2002, 158, 0-17) a fazetiranje takoder u 2. fazu (Igrisce VRDOLJAK, 38, t.16-1,2,3 ). Tordiranje rucke nesto je rrjede (Sarvas SIMIC 1992, t.5-4; Igrisce VRDOLJAK, t.36-4). Zlrjebljene girlande (T10-9) zanimljiv su i mladi ukras (Igrisce VRDOLJAK 1995, s.39, t.33-1). Najstariji oblici, tipicni za 1. fazu su bukli (Tll9), inacecest ukras (Moravce SOKOL 1996, sl.151, si.13-1; Sirova Katalena VINSKI-GASPARINI 1973, t.14-1; Mackovac KARAVANIC S., MIHALJEVIC, KALAFATIC 2002, t.3-1-6; Doljni Lakos DULAR 2002, 158, O-ll), ostro prelomljena siroka rucka (Tll-7) (Moravce SOKOL 1996, sl.10-1) i svakako ostecena zara iz groba K12 (T9-2). Ove posude-zare ceste su u grobljima 1. faze, ali ih ima i u naseljima (Sirova Katalena, Virovitica VINSKI-GASPARINI 1973, t.14-2,4; t.8.-2,9, t.9-3, t.10-3,4; Moravce SOKOL 1996, t.12-1; Mackovac KARAVANIC S., MIHALJEVIC, KALAPATIC 2002, tip B6; Oloris DULAR 2002, 22-1, s.176; Barice-Laminci DURDEVIC1986, grob 31 i ini). Osim keramickih, na nalazistu nisu pronadeni nalazi bilo kojeg drugog materijala (osim kostiju) koje bi mogli odrediti u ovo razdoblje. Prema ovim usporedbama razvidno je kako se naselje razvrjalo u 1. i 2. fazi KZP-a, ali postqje oblici koji se mogu datirati i kasnije. Napravljene su i AMS-14C datacije za dvije zatvorene cjeline kasnog broncanog doba. Jama K l l polucila je ishodom 105747 (calBC), a jama J3 godinom 118548 (calBC). Daljnjim istrazivanjem mozda ce se razjasniti prilike u 3. i 4. fazi KZP-a na Blizni. Iz starijeg zeljeznog doba pronaden je samo jedan nalaz, polumjesecasta rucka (T28-8), koji mozemo usporediti s nalazima iz Svetog Petra Ludbreskog i Kucara (VINSKI-GASPARINI 1987, t.XXIII-5; DULAR J., CIGLENECKI S., DULAR A. 1995, t.61-6,7). Treba spomenuti i dosta ceste polumjesecaste rucke na posudama groblja Kapiteljska njiva - Novo Mesto, koje pripada mladem zeljeznom dobu (KRIZ 2001, 69, slike u katalogu). No, moguce je kako je rijec samo o starijezeljeznodobnim tradicijama za vrijeme keltske dominacije. S obzirom na sve, ipak mozemo zakljuciti kako je zivot nastupanjem

time. At Blizna however, quite a few finds were lo cated originating in the late Bronze Age. Despite the small area examined, we can conclude that there was a settlement at Blizna that belonged to the Urnfield culture throughout that cultures entire existence. The remains of several structures and one cremation grave were found. Ceramic vessels were made mostly of unrefined clay, but relatively hard and of good make. The forms represented can be attributed to various periods of the late Bronze Age. The largest vessels (T9-1, T7-l,2) and pot sherds from similar vessels are attributed, Mowing Vinski-Gasparini, to various phases of the Urnfield culture from the 2nd to the 4th and 5th phases. They were found with variations with smaU handles Vrapce-Zagreb VINSKI-GASPARINI 1973, t.243), and with decorations, (Pobrezje-Slovenia GABROVEC 1983, 59, sl.16-27). Very similar to the large reconstructed vessel T9-1 is a pithos for storing foodstuffs from structure 25 at the DeloviGrede-1 site, dated by the author to around 800 BC (MARKOVIC 1984, 295, 296, sl.2). But it is not at all certain that this dating applies to our speci men, considering that vessel T7-l,2 itself very simi lar to T9-1, but with slightly thicker waUs, found in a pit, was dated using the C14 method to the 12th century BC. Parts of the vessel with triangular deco ration under the rim (T6-l,2) are at first similar to the mentioned specimens; judging, however, by the better preserved and very similarfindsto these from the Poprenjak site near Zupanja,12 these are ves sels with a conically projecting break at the midsection. Decorations of this sort are otherwise, al though rarely, also found elsewhere. At IgrisceKalnik for example (VRDOLJAK 1995, t.32-2), at Diviaky-Slovakia (belonging to the Luzicka cul ture, VELIACIK 1991, t.32-5) and at Donji Lakos-Slovenia (also with decorations applied prior to firing, DULAR 2002, 150, 0-12). Find T l l 19 is also decorated with engravings. Engravings are characteristic of the later phase of the Urnfield culture (VRDOLJAK 1995, 38, t.34-2,6; t.35-4,3; DULAR 2002, 158,0-13). Many vessels are deco rated with plastic (moulded) ribbon applications, with impressions made withfingers(T8-6,7,8; T1010; Tll-10) or with sharp objects (T8-9). Besides appearing frequently in the late Bronze Age, this decoration also appears in periods before and after it. The other most frequent methods of decoration are grooving (T6-4, T10-1, 2,6; Tll-11,13,20, etc.) and turban-like rims (T10-3; Tll-12), faceting (T10-6,12,14,15; Tll-5,6) and the simi lar torded handles (T10-11). Turbanrand is dated to the 2nd phase of the Urnfield culture (Lipovac PAVISIC 1993, t.3-5; Martijanec VINSKIGASPARINI 1973, t.25-6), grooving to the 1st and 2nd phases of the Urnfield culture (Kiringrad BALEN-LETUNIC 1987, 19; Igrisce VRDOLJAK 19951.23-2; Doljni Lakos DULAR 2002, 158,0-17) and also faceting to the 2nd phase (Igrisce VRDOLJAK, 38, t.16-1,2,3). Torded handles are somewhat less frequent (Sarvas SIMIC

starijeg zeljeznog doba na Blizni opet privremeno zamro.

Ostali nalazi
U objektima kasnog broncanog doba pronadeno je vise ulomaka kostiju; medutim, zbog slabe ocuvanosti moguce je bilo odrediti samo nekolicinu. Tako je u jami J 9 prepoznat zub ovce ili koze {(Ms/ Capra), u jami K 6 zub goveda (Bos sp.) i u jami K 11 zub goveda (Bos sp.) i ulomak rebra ovce ili koze (Ovis/Capra). Ovi nalazi potvrduju stocarski karakter kulture polje sa zarama.

MLA0EZELJEZNO DOBA NALAZI


Nakon duzeg prekida, novo naseljavanje zbilo se u kasnije mlade zeljezno doba. Kasnolatenske i ranorimske jame obiljezene su istom bojom jer je arheolosko gradivo vrlo slicno. Ovo razdoblje je najbolje zastupljeno na Blizni, kako unutar sonde A, tako i prema slucajnim nalazima prikupljenim po cijelom nalazista. U jarku su pronadene blisko postavljene jame K l , K2 i K3 s nakupinama ljepa i keramike. Mnogobrojni ulomci kvalitetno izradene keltske keramike pronadeni su u hrpama zemlje strojno izbacene u samoj blizini ovih jama, pa su vjerojatno pripadale nekom nadzemnom objektu koji se tu nalazio. Medu njima nalazi se i rekonstrairana grafitna posuda s jednostrakom valovnicom i crtama na dnu. Nesto dalje u jarku nalazi se i jama K15 u kojoj je kao ispuna osim tamnije zemlje, gara i ulomaka keramike pronadena razbijena posuda koju je bilo moguce rekonstruirati u cijelosti. Na samom sjevernom kraju nalazista, takoder u jarku, nalazi se jama K9.1 ona je, kao i obliznje jame, vrlo plitko ukopana, sto je znacajka ovog prostora nalazista. S obzirom na pronadene ulomke keramike, rijec je o ranorimskoj otpadnoj jami. U sondi A pronadeno je mnostvo jama i objekata koje pripadaju ovom razdoblju. J a m a J 2 sadrzavala je uglavnom zguru, odnosno talionicki otpad. U jami se nalazilo i nekoliko keramickih ulomaka, od kojih dva pripadaju kvalitetnoj ranorimskoj visokoj casi. U sondi A pronadeno je mnogo talionickog otpada i vecina till nalaza bila je takoder u jugoistocnom dijelu. Najvazniji sklop su jame oko poluzemunice J l l . Ispunu je sacinjavao gar, kosti i ulomci keramike. U ovoj maloj poluzemunici (dubine 20-ak cm, nesto vece od 2 x 3 metra), nalazila se jos jedna jama oznacena kao J l l A. I u ovoj jami pronadeni su ulomci keramike, ali i tanki broncani lim. Ulaz u ovaj objekt vjerojatno se nalazio na istocnoj strani, jer je ovdje ukop najblazi. Ispred pretpostavljenog ulaza u poluzemunicu nalazila se duboko ukopana otpadna j a m a J 2 3 s komadima ugljena, gara, keramickih posuda, prsljenom, slomljenim staklenim prstenom te jednim zeljeznim nozem. Nekoliko metara dalje nalazila se takoder vrlo duboko ukopana jama J 7 , mozda zemunica, koja je u neko doba iskoristena kao otpadna jama. U njoj se osim brojnih posuda, kostiju i gara nalazila

1992, t.5-4; Igrisce VRDOLJAK, t.36-4). Grooved garlands (T10-9) are an interesting and later deco ration (Igrisce VRDOLJAK 1995, s.39, t.33-1). The oldest forms, typical for the 1st phase are bosses ( T l l - 9 ) , an otherwise frequent decora tion (Moravce SOKOL 1996, sl.15-1, sl.13-1; Sirova Katalena VrNSKLGASPARINI 1973, t.141; Mackovac KARAVANIC S., MIHALJEVIC, KALAFATIC 2002, t.3-1-6; Doljni Lakos DULAR 2002, 158, 0-11), a wide, sharply angled, h a n d l e ( T l l - 7 ) (Moravce SOKOL 1996, si.10-1) and the certainly damaged urn from grave K12 (T9-2). These vessels-urns are fre quent in graves from the 1st phase but appear also in settlements (Sirova K a t a l e n a , Virovitica V I N S K I GASPARINI 1973, t.14-2,4; t.8.-2,9, t.9-3, t.10-3,4; Moravce SOKOL 1996, t . 1 2 - 1 ; Mackovac KARAVANIC S., M I H A L J E V I C , KALAFATIC 2002, tip B6; Oloris DULAR 2002, 22-1, s.176; Barice-Laminci BURDEVIC 1986, grave 31 and others). Besides ceramic finds, none of other materials were found at the site (besides bones) that could help determine this period. Based on these comparisons it is evident that this settlement developed during the 1st and 2nd phase of the Urnfield culture, but there are forms that can be dated to a later period. AMS-14C datings were made for two closed ensembles from the late Bronze Age. Pit K l l gave a result of 1 0 5 7 4 7 (calBC), while pit J 3 a year of 118548 (calBC). Further research may clear up the picture of the 3rd and 4th phases of the Urnfield culture at Blizna. Only a single find was unearthed from the early Iron Age, a semicircular handle (T28-8), which can be compared to finds from Sveti Petar Ludbreski and K u c a r e ( V I N S K I - G A S P A R I N I 1 9 8 7 , t . X X I I I - 5 ; D U L A R J., C I G L E N E C K I S., DULAR A. 1995, t.61-6,7). Quite frequent late Iron Age semicircular handles on vessels from graves at Kapiteljska njiva - Novo Mesto should be men tioned (KRIZ 2001, 69, pictures in the catalogue). But it is possible that these are only early Iron Age traditions during the time of Celtic domination. All in all we can nevertheless conclude that habitation at Blizna again ceased for a time with the coming of the early Iron Age.

111

Jakopovec-Blizna. Rekonstruirani lonac kulture polja sa zarama, 118650 calBC. (T6-4) Jakopovec-Blizna. Reconstructed pot from the Urnfields culture, 118650 calBC. (T6-4)

Jakopovec-Blizna. Dio lonca kulture polja sa zarama, 105945 calBC. (T10-1) Jakopovec-Blizna. Part of a pot from the Urnfields culture, 1059+45 calBC. (T10-

1)

Other finds
Several bone shards were found in structures from the late Bronze Age; being poorly preserved, however, only a few could be identified. A sheeps or goats tooth (Ovis/Capra) was identified in pit J 9 , while there was in pit K 6 an ox tooth (Bos sp.) and in pit K 11 an ox tooth (Bos sp.) and a shard of sheeps or goats rib (Ovis/Capra). These finds con firm the cattle breeding character of the Urnfield culture.

112

Jakopovec-Blizna. Dijelovi podova od tvrdo pe~ene zemlje uba~eni u jamu J7. Jakopovec-Blizna. Parts of a flooring of hard baked earth thrown into pit J7.

Jakopovec-Blizna. Razbijena zdjela sa svim dijelovima in situ na dnu jame J7. (T14-1) Jakopovec-Blizna. A broken bowl with all parts in situ at the bottom of pit J7. (T14-1)

i velika kolicina zemljanih paljenih debelih podova. Oni su bili u velikim komadima ubacivani u jamu te su se lomili jedan preko drugog prilikom pada. Uz ovu jamu nalaze se i ostaci dvaju stupova J18 i J19, te pocetak neotkopane jame J20. No vrlo vazni su ostaci jacih stupova s oznakom J10, J30, J22 i J29. Oni su najvjerojatnije ostaci nekog cetvrtastog nadzemnog objekta dimenzija otprilike 4 x 4 metra. Sjeverno od poluzemunice J11 nalazi se plitki dugi jarak, koji je vjerojatno ostatak nekadasnje ograde, odnosno plota. J15 vjerojatno je to isto, ali je rijec o starijoj ogradi jer ju poluzemunica J11 svojim ukopom ponistava. Na nalazistu Nova tabla kod Murske Sobote pronadena je latenska zemunica oblika zaobljenog cetverougla, stranica 3 x 4 m sa samo jednom jamom (stupom) u njoj. Uz nju se nalazio cetverouglasti nadzemni objekt (cetiri stupa) stranica 4 x 5 metara, a izmedu ova dva objekta nalazilo se nekoliko jama.

LATE IRON AGE FEATURES After a longer interval there was new settlement in the later late Iron Age. Late Laten and early Roman period pits are marked with the same colour because the archaeological material is very similar. This period is best represented at Blizna, both within trench A, and in chance finds collected from the entire site. Pits K 1 , K2 and K3 were found in the ditch placed very close to one another and contain ing deposits of daub and ceramics. Numerous pot sherds from well-made Celtic ceramics were found in piles of soil excavated by heavy machinery in the close proximity of these pits, and they likely came from some raised structure located here. Among them is a reconstructed graphite vessel with a single wavy line and lines on the bottom. A bit further on in the ditch is pit K15 containing a deposit of darker soil, charcoal and potsherds and a broken vessel that could be entirely reconstructed. To the very north end of the site, also in the ditch, is pit K9. I t too, like the nearby pits, was dug very shallow, which is typical of this part of the site. Given the unearthed potsherds it can be identified as an early Roman period midden. Numerous pits and structures were found in trench A from this period. Pit J2 con tained mostly slag, i.e. smelting waste. There were some potsherds in the pit of which two are from a well-crafted early Roman chalice. A great deal of smelt waste was found in trench A and most of the these finds were also in the southeastern section. The key ensemble are the pits surrounding dug out house J 1 1 . The deposit consisted of charcoal, bones and potsherds. I n this small dugout house (of about 20cm depth, somewhat larger than 2 x 3 metres), there was another pit designated as J11A. Here too potsherds were found, but also a thin sheet of bronze. The entrance to this structure was likely located on its eastern side where the excavation is shallowest. I n front of the presumed entry to this dugout house was a deep midden, J23, containing bits of coal, charcoal, ceramic vessels, a spindle whorl, a broken glass ring and an iron knife. A few metres on was another deep pit, J7, perhaps a dugout house, that was during some period used as a midden. In it, besides numerous vessels, bones and charcoal, was a large quantity of thick burnt earthen flooring. They were thrown into the midden as large pieces and broke one over the other as they landed. Alongside this pit are the remnants of two posts, J18 and J19, and the start of an uncompleted pit, J20. Very important remains are however, those of stronger posts designated as J10, J30, J22 and J29. They are most likely the remains of some qua drangular raised structure of about 4 x 4 metres in size. North of dugout house J11 is a long and shal low ditch, probably the remains of a former fence or wattle. J15 is probably the same, but is an older fence as dugout house J11 cancels it out. A Laten dugout house was found at the Nova tabla site near Murska Sobota shaped as a rounded quadrangle, with 3 x 4 metre sides and with only a

Jakopovec-Blizna. Napola ispraznjena zemunica J l l . U njoj je vidljiv ukop jame J11a. Ispred vec ispraznjeni jarci J14 i J15. Susjedni kvadrant tek je spusten na razinu ukopa ovih jama. Jakopovec-Blizna. Half-emptied dugout house J11. The excavation of pit J11a is visible in it. In front are already emptied ditches J14 and J15. The neighbouring quadrant has just been brought down to the level of these pits.

113

Takav sklop zamijecen je i na drugome mjestu, 30 metara udaljenom (GUSTIN, TIEFENGRABER 2001, 112). Ovaj opis vrlo se lako moze prenijeti na nas primjer. U nasoj poluzemunici J 11 nije pronadeno ognjiste, ali to ne mora znaciti kako nije rijec o stambenom objektu. Tkkav slucaj poznat je i kod keltske zemunice (vel. oko 4 x 3 m) iskopane na nalazistu Kotare (KERMAN 2003, 64). Dakle, najvjerojatnije je rijec o jednom malom gospodarskom sklopu koji se sastojao od oble poluzemunice, obliznje cetverougle nadzemne kuce, otpadnih jama te ograde od prepletenog siblja. Jansova u pokusaju rekonstrakcije nekadasnje keltske stambeno-dvorisne cjeline predlaze postojanje drvenih zidova nadzemnih zgrada ciji su se tragovi ocuvali kao dugi, uski i plitki jarci (Hrazany JANSOVA 1965, 48, sl.3,4). FJasicno 14C ispitivanje uzoraka ugljena iz nase poluzemunice J l l polucilo je ishodom 1. st.pr.Kr. (7586 calBC), sto odgovara arheoloskom gradivu.13 P0KRETNI NALAZI Keramicki nalazi Ponajvise keramickih ulomaka pronadenih na Blizni pripada mladem zeljeznom dobu. Keramika se moze podijeliti u nekoliko osnovnih grupa.

single pit (post) in it. Alongside it was a quadrangu lar raised structure (four posts) with 4 x 5 metre sides, and between these two structures were several pits. An ensemble like that was discerned at another location, 30 metres distant (GUSTIN, TIEFENGEABER 2001, 112). This description can easily be applied to our example. A hearth was not found in our dugout house J l l , but this need not mean that it was not a habitation. A case like this is also known at a Celtic dugout house (about 4 x 3 metres in size) excavated at the Kotare site (KERMAN 2003, 64). It is therefore, most likely a smaU farm consisting of a rounded dugout house, a nearby four-cornered raised house, middens and a fence of wattlework. JansoVs attempt to reconstruct the one-time Celtic habitation-yard ensemble pro poses wooden walls for the raised structures whose traces have been preserved a long, narrow and shal low ditches (Hrazany JANSOVA 1965, 48, sl.3,4). Classic C14 testing of samples of coal from our dugout house J l l gave a dating to the 1st cen tury BC (7586 calBC), which fits with the ar chaeological material.13 FINDS Ceramic finds The lions share of potsherds collected at Blizna come from the late Iron Age. The ceramics can be divided into several basic groups.

Posude izradene prostorucno Ove posude mogu se podijeliti na dvije glavne Hand-made vessels grupe. Prve su izradene od relativno dobro These vessels can be divided into two main groups. prociscene gline, tvrde izrade i uglavnom smede boje. Najcesci su oblici siroke i niske zdjele te razni The first are made of relatively well-refined clay, are
14CHaa&a data<aja iOTaaemje u L a b o r a t o r i ^ Skraeena kalibraeija putem CalPal Online Radiocarbon Calibration izradena na SveuSlista u Kolnu. Classic C14 dating was done at the Ruder Boshwic" Institutes Low Activities Measuring Laboratory in Zagreb (Z-3316, BP 20SS 70). Shortened calibration using CalPal Online Radiocarbon Calibration done at the University of Koln.
ls

114

trbusasti lonci, s uzim vratom. Drage su radene uglavnom vrlo grubo, a stijenke su im porozne zbog dodataka organske materije u glinu prije pecenja. Kod njih ne postoji stalnost u bojama pa se boje mijenjaju od erne, ukljucujuci razne tonove smede i zute, do crvene. Ovakvom izradom uglavnom su izradeni lonci koji svojim oblikom podsjecaju na grafitne keltske lonce. Prostorucno izradenih posuda ima malo vise negoli onih izradenih na kolu. Posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu Vecinom je rijec o klasicnoj keltskoj keramici sivkaste boje, odlicno prociscene gline i kvalitetne izrade. Kod ovih posuda postoji bogatstvo oblika, ali i razlika u tvrdoci pecenja. Uz ove, na kolu su izradivane i neke posude s primjesama drobljenoga grafita u razlicitim omjerima. Pojedine su u cijelosti izradene od grafita, a drage ga imaju u razlicitim omjerima kao primjesu, a poneke imaju samo po nekoliko sitnih grumena u stijenci. Ova podjela zamrsena je nekim posudama koje su krizanci izmedu ove osnovne cetiri grape. To su, primjerice, kopije posuda koje se uobicajeno izraduju na kolu, a izradene su prostorucno, te i obratno nacinjeni primjerci. Takoder postoje posude koje ne odgovaraju svojim standardnim oblicima zbog primjesa u glini ili nacinu pecenja. S obzirom na zemljopisnu rasprostranjenost keltskih plemena, na ovom podrucju mozemo ocekivati Tauriske, kojima pronadeni arheoloski materijal uglavnom tipoloski odgovara. Medutim, mnogi oblici pripadaju standardnim keltskim oblicima koji su bili upotrebljavani kod drugih obliznjih plemena, Latobika, Skordiska, ali i kod znatno udaljenijih plemena drugdje u sredisnjoj i zapadnoj Europi. Usporedbom nalaza s materijalom Skordiska, razvrstanim u grape prema Dizdaru (DIZDAE 2001, sl.12) uocljive su, osim osnovne slicnosti na prvi pogled, i brojne razlike. Primjerice, zdjele tipa A2 i A3 izradene na kolu u Vinkovcima, na Blizni su gotovo redovito izradene prostorucno, srednje kvalitete. Lonci tipa D2 izradeni prostorucno u Vinkovcima, na Blizni su u nekim slucajevina, osobito primjerci od grafita, izradivani na kolu. Salice tipa E l i E2, uopce nisu pronadene na Blizni, a takoder i dio lonaca iz grape D. Kao znacajnu razliku takoder treba navesti vrlo malo ukrasenih primjeraka na Blizni, dok je ta odlika kod Skordiska prilicno zastupljena (Vinkovci, Gomolava itd). Za keramicki materijal Tauriska trebalo bi dakle naciniti malo drukciju tipolosku tablicu, ^ koja bi bolje opisivala njihovu keramicku produkciju. Da se to ucini, d a k a k o nije dovoljno gradivo s Blizne, gradivo jednog nalazista, pa trebamo

of hard fabrication and mostly of brown colour. The most frequent shape is a wide and shallow bowl and various rotund pots with narrower necks. The other is predominantly of very rough manufacture with porous walls on account of the admixture of organic material added to the clay prior to firing. There is not constancy here of colour so that they alternate from black, including various tones of brown and yellow, to red. This kind of manufacture was used mostly for pots whose shape is reminiscent of Celtic graphite pots. There are slightly more hand-made vessels than there are of those made on a potters wheel. Vessels made on a fast potters wheel For the large part this is classic Celtic ceramic of grey colour, of very well refined clay and good manu facture. There is in these vessels a wealth of shapes and differences in the hardness of the firing. Along with these some vessels were manufactured on a potters wheel with an admixture of crushed graph ite in various proportions. A few are made entirely of graphite, while others have graphite in various proportions as an admixture, yet others have only a few very small lumps in their walls. This division is complicated by some vessels that are crosses be tween these four basic groups. Here, for example, are copies of vessels usually made on a potters wheel, but have been made by hand, and vice versa. There are also vessels that do not match their standard shapes because of an admixture in the clay or the method of firing. Given the geographical distribution of the Celtic tribes we can expect the Taurisci in this area, which fits for the large part with the type of archaeological material collected. Many however, belong to the stan dard Celtic forms used by other nearby tribes, the Latobici, Scordisci, but also by much more distant tribes elsewhere in central and western Europe. A comparison of finds with the material of the Scordisci, divided into groups according to Dizdar (DIZDAR 2001, sl.12) shows, besides basic simi larities at first glance, numerous differences. Bowls of the A2 and A3 type, for example, manufactured on a potters wheel at Vinkovci, are at Blizna almost always made by hand and of intermediate quality. D2 type pots made by hand at Vinkovci are at Blizna in some cases, especially specimens of graphite, made on a potters wheel. Cups of the E 1 and E2 type were not found at all at Blizna, and the same goes for a part of the pots from group D. As a significant difference we should also cite very few decorated specimens at Blizna, while that characteristic is with the Scordisci quite frequent (Vinkovci, Gomolava etc.). A slightly different typological table should be made therefore for the Taurisci ceramic material, which would better describe their ceramic produc tion. The material at Blizna, that is to say, the mate rial from a single find, is, of course, insufficient, for this task, so that we need to wait for new publication of similar sites in northwestern Croatia and Slovenia. Until then we can only in short outline some of the

Jakopovec-Blizna. Rekonstruirana keltska zdjela s krizem na dnu. (T14-1) Jakopovec-Blizna. A reconstructed Celtic vessel with a cross on the bottom. (T14-1)

pricekati nove objave sa slicnih nalazista u sjeverozapadnoj Hrvatskoj i Sloveniji. Dotada mozemo samo ukratko navesti neka obiljezja keramickih nalaza. Od spomenutih rijetkih posuda s ukrasom, pronadena su dva manja ulomka s valovitim i kosim crtama utisnutim u vlaznu glinu (T19-10,ll). Pomalo slicni su im ukrasi iz Vmkovaca (DIZDAK 2001, t.29-6, t.39-6). Kod Skordiska je cesto ukrasavanje glacanim ili bojenim crtama, trakama i valovnicama; medutim, na Blizni nije pronaden niti jedan takav ulomak. Uvjetno, u kategoriju ukrasa mozemo uvrstiti i okomito metlicasto ukrasavanje, uglavnom s grafitnih posuda (T121, T19-12, T20-l,2,4,5,6, T21-5,6,7,8), te potom urezivanje niza crtica na ramenu poroznih lonaca (T13-3, T16-2,5), te vodoravne, pravilne crte na kvalitetnim posudama izradenim na brzovrtecem loncarskom kolu (T12-6, T15-5, T16-8, T17-1, T19-l,6). Bojenje gotovo da i nije otkriveno. Postoje ulomci poroznih lonaca s obodom obojenim u crno (T15-3) ili kvalitetne sive posude s tragovima bojenja vanjske stijenke u crno (T12-2, T19-2). Nejasno je cemu su sluzile oznake na dnu posuda (T14-1, T20-1). Obje posude su posve razlicitog tipa - prva je prostorucno izradena zdjela s duboko utisnutim velikim krizem, a druga na kolu izraden grafitni lonac. Mladezeljeznodobna keramika s ukrasom na dnu razmjerno je rijetka. Na keltskom naselju Voganj - Bare pronaden je kantharos s krizem na dnu, ali od urezanih nepravilnih dvostrukih crta (BRUKNER 1987, sl.3). No, na grafitnim loncima s Bratislavskog oppida, ceste su oznake na dnu, a osim ravnih i oblih crta, nadeni su i urezani natpisi (PIETA, ZACHAR 1993, obr.88). Rybova i Drda navode kako proizvodnja lonaca izradenih posve od grafita potjece iz Juzne Ceske, gdje su se nalazila lezista tog materijala. Oppidum Trisov i njegova bliza okolica bili bi srediste proizvodnje grafitnih lonaca s oznakama na dnu (RYBOVA, DRDA 1994, 101). Grafitni lonci i njihove patvorine s manje grafita ili potpuno od gline, cesti su na Blizni, (T12-1, T17-5,6,10, T201,2,4,5,6, T21-7,8 itd.) a nalaze se u vecem ili manjem broju na svim keltskim nalazistima u srednjoj Europi. Prema nekim misljenjima, sluzili su prilikom ljevackih poslova, jer je grafit otporan na vrucinu. Tomu u prilog mogu se navesti i dva ulomka s Blizne. T20-6 je dno posude s blago izbocenim sredistem, tako da posuda ne moze samostalno stajati i T17-10, dno s probusenim rupama. Medutim, ako ove posude imaju svoju izricitu namjenu (u takvoj posudi sigurno se pola sata kasnije nije kuhao rucak), te je materijal od kojeg je izradena, kao i njezin oblik bio namijenjen nekoj takvoj svrsi, onda nije jasno cemu bi sluzile njihove izravne kopije koje nisu izradene od grafita. Najcesce posude u mladezeljeznodobnim cjelinama na Blizni su siroke zdjele, izradene uglavnom prostorucno, od tvrdo pecene, ali ne posve prociscene tamno smede gline (T12-7, T13-l,6, T14-1, T16-1, T17-2, T18-14, T21-l,2 i t d ) . Ove

traits of these ceramic finds. Of the mentioned rarer vessels with decoration, two smaller potsherds were found with wavy and diagonal lines impressed into wet clay (T19-10,ll). Somewhat similar are decorations found at Vmkovci (DIZDAR 2001, t.29-6, t.39-6). . .... _ Decorating with burnished or colour lines, ribbons or wavy lines is frequent among the Scordisci; 1 not a single such potsherd was I found at Blizna however. We can I cite, conditionally, vertical I brushed surface decoration 1 among the category of decoration, J mostly from the graphite vessels (T12-1, T19-12, T20-l,2,4,5,6, T21-5,6,7,8), and then the engrav ing of a series of lines on the shoulders of porous pots (T13-3, T16-2,5), hori zontal, regular lines on well-crafted ves sels manufactured on fast potters wheels (T12-6, T15-5, T16-8, T17-1, T19-l,6). Colouring was almost not at all discovered. There are potsherds from porous pots with rims coloured black (T15-3) or well-crafted grey vessels with traces of black colouring on the outer walls (T12-2, T192). The purpose of markings on the bottoms of vessels is unclear (T14-1, T20-1). Both vessels are of entirely different type - the first is a hand-made bowl with a deeply impressed large cross, while the other is a graphite pot made on a potters wheel. Late Iron Age ceramics with decorations on the bot tom are relatively rare. A kanthaws bearing a cross on its bottom, but of engraved irregular double lines, was found at the Celtic settlement Voganj (BRUKNER 1987, sl.3). On the graphite pots from oppidum Bratislava, however, markings on the bot tom are frequent, and besides straight and rounded lines, engraved inscriptions were also found (PIETA, ZACHAR 1993, obr.88). Rybova and Drda write that the production of pots made en tirely of graphite originates from the south of the Czech Republic where there are deposits of this material. Oppidum Trisov and its environs was the centre of the production of graphite pots with mark ings on their bottoms (RYBOVA, DRDA 1994, 101). Graphite pots and their copies containing less graphite or made entirely of clay are frequent at Blizna (T12-1, T17-5,6,10, T20-l,2,4,5,6, T217,8 etc.) and are found in larger or smaller numbers at all Celtic sites in central Europe. Some opinions have it that they were used during foundry works, as graphite is heat resistant. In support of this opin ion we can cite two potsherds from Blizna. T20-6 is the bottom of a vessel with a slightly bulging centre, so that the vessel could not have stood on its own, while T17-10 is a bottom perforated by holes. If, however, these vessels have some specific purpose (lunch was certainly not served in a vessel like this a half hour later) and if the material it was made from and the shape in which it was made was meant for such a purpose, it is then unclear what their direct

115

Jakopovec-Blizna. Rekonstruirani veliki keltski grafitni lonac. (T20-1) Jakopovec-Blizna. A large reconstructed Celtic graphite pot. (T20-1)

116

Jakopovec-Blizna. Rekonstruirana keltska zdjela. (T18-14) Jakopovec-Blizna. A reconstructed Celtic bowl. (T18-14)

posude jednostavnog oblika, inace su ceste u prapovijesnim razdobljima. Ipak, opcenito gledano, zdjele istog tipa u kasnom broncanom dobu imaju zadebljanje stijenke kod najsireg promjera (usporedi S t a r a ves T 4 - 5 i t d . ) , a starijezeljeznodobne imaju ostrije naglasen prijelaz iz najsireg dijela prema obodu, pa ih se tako moze u najvecem broju slucajeva i razlikovati. Mladezeljeznodobne zdjele oblika kao spomenute s Blizne, ceste su i na ostalim onodobnim nalazistima Europe (Hrazany JANSOVA 1965, obr.18-1; Stradonice, RYBOVA, DRDA 1994, T20-13, T2111, T23-16 itd; Nitra-Sindolka, BREZINOVA 2000, t.85-1, 1126-8, 1167-1, 1170-1 itd; Mana, B E N A D I K 1983, t.29-5, Mitrovacke livade BRUKNER 1988, t.7-3, t.8-3; Vinkovci DIZ-DAR 2001, vise primjeraka, grupa A). Uza varijanta (T21-1) takoder je poznata (Nitra-Sindolka BREZINOVA 2000,195-8). Jednako tako cesti su grubi i porozni lonci (T133, T15-l,3, T16-2,4,5 itd.) koji svojim osnovnim oblikom podsjecaju na grafitne lonce, s time da uglavnom nemaju metlicasti ukras i zadebljanje oboda. No, cesto na ramenu imaju ukras od niza kratkih ureza, a pokatkad i bojeni obod. Neki autori smatraju kako je rijec o posudama starijezeljeznodobne tradicije, no to je nevazno, jer je u nacelu takva sva keltska keramografija. Ove posude javljaju se kod raznih keltskili plemena sirom Eu rope, p a su tako pravi keltski proizvod (Gomolava, JOVANOVIC B., JOVANOVIC M.,1988, t.XXVII-2, t.XXJX-16,15, tXXXVI-3,2,8 itd; Vinkovci DIZDAR 2001,1261, t.31-1-8 itd.; Ilok DIZDAR, SOSTARIC, J E L I N C I C 2 0 0 3 , 1 1 - 1 ; Mitrovacke livade B R U K N E R 1988, t.7-10,11; Stradonice RYBOVA, DRDA 1994, f.31-1-8 itd., NitraSindolka BREZINOVA 2000, 11-4,5, t.29-13, 1102-13; Olmouc-Neredin KALABEK 2001, pic.135; Hrazany JANSOVA 1965, obr.18-4, Gaukoenigshofen STEIDL 1998, abb.7; itd.). S obzirom n a losu kvalitetu izrade, moze se pretpostaviti kako je rijec o kuenoj keramici, dakle onoj koja nije namijenjena prodaji i izradivana od vjestih loncara, vec od onih kojima ce svakodnevno i sluziti. Sto se tice usporednih primjeraka iz Nitre, treba reci da su takve posude uglavnom izradivane kvalitetnije negoli nase posude. Medutim, tamo postoji jedan drugi tip posuda - lonaca sa zatvorenim obodom, koji cesto ima trakasti ukras od niza kratkih ureza ispod oboda, takoder grube izrade (Nitra-Sindolka BREZINOVA 2000,112-1,4-12, 175-5,10,1120-2-7 itd.). Ta posuda vjerojatno je u osnovi srodnija nasim poroznim loncima nego

copies not made of graphite might have served for The most frequent vessels in late Iron Age en sembles at Blizna are wide bowls, made almost en tirely by hand, of hard-fired but not entirely refined dark brown clay (T12-7, T13-l,6, T14-l, T16-l, T17-2, T18-14, T 2 1 - l , 2 etc.). These simply shaped vessels are otherwise frequent in prehistoric periods. Nevertheless, in general, vessels of the same type have in the late Bronze Age a thickening of the walls at the point of greatest diameter (compare with Stara ves T4-5 etc.), while early Iron Age speci mens have a sharper transition from the widest point to the rim, so that they can in most cases be differen tiated by this. Late Iron Age bowls shaped like these from Blizna are frequent too at other European sites from that period (Hrazany JANSOVA 1965, obr.18-1; Stradonice, RYBOVA, DRDA 1994, T20-13, T21-11, T23-16 etc.; Nitra-Sindolka, BREZINOVA 2000, t.85-1, 1126-8, 1167-1, 1170-1 etc.; Mana, B E N A D I K 1983, t.29-5, Mitrovacke livade BRUKNER 1988, t.7-3, t.8-3; Vinkovci DIZDAR 2001, several specimens, group A). A narrower variant (T21-1) is also known (Nitra-Sindolka BREZINOVA 2000, t.95-8). EquaUy frequent are roughly manufactured and porous pots (T13-3, T15-l,3, T16-2,4,5 etc.) that are reminiscent in their basic shape to graphite bowls, except that they usually do not have brushed sur face decorations and a thickening of the rim. They do, however, often have a decoration consisting of a series of short incisions, and sometimes a coloured rim. Some authors feel that these are vessels of the early Iron Age tradition, but this is irrelevant as in principle all Celtic ceramography is of this kind. These vessels appear in various Celtic tribes across Europe, and are as such a real Celtic product (Gomolava, JOVANOVIC B., JOVANOVIC M., 1988, t.XXVII-2, t.XXIX-16,15, t.XXXVI-3,2,8 etc.; Vinkovci DIZDAR 2001, t.26-1, t.31-1-8 etc.; Ilok DIZDAR, SOSTARIC, JELINCIC 2003,111; Mitrovacke livade BRUKNER 1988,17-10,11; Stradonice RYBOVA, DRDA 1994, f.31-1-8 etc, Nitra-Sindolka BREZINOVA 2000,11-4,5, t.2913, 1102-13; Olmouc-Neredin KALABEK 2001, pic.135; Hrazany JANSOVA 1965, obr.18-4, Gaukoenigshofen S T E I D L 1998, abb.7; etc.). Given the poorer quality of manufacture it can be assumed that these are home-made ceramics, that is to say not meant for sale or manufactured by skiUed potters, but rather by those who would make use of them on a daily basis. As far as comparisons with specimens from Nitra goes, it should be pointed out that those vessels were predominantly of a bet ter make than our vessels. There is however, an other type of vessel there - a closed-rim pot that often bears a ribbon-like decoration of a series of short incisions under the rim, also of rough manu facture (Nitra-Sindolka BREZINOVA 2000,1121,4-12,175-5,10,1120-2-7 etc.). These vessels are probably fundamentally more related to our po rous pots than are the classic graphite pots. A rib bon-like, wide and shallow groove located under the

klasicni grafitni lonac. No, na nasim se loncima redovito javlja trakasti, siroki i plitki utor ispod oboda, sto ih cini vrlo srodnim grafitnim loncima. U Stradonicama ima slicnijih lonaca, a i tu se javlja bojenje oboda. U Olmoucu postoje lonci s utisnutom trakom i pripadajucim kosim urezima, ali oni se nalaze izravno pod obodom. U Hrazanyma postoje spomenute inacice, ali i gotovo isti lonci kao s Blizne. Na kraju bill spomenuo lonac koji izgleda kao grafitni, ali je nacinjen od obicne gline (EelldbachSchmiden P L A N C K 1 9 8 5 , 3 6 6 , abb.562). S m a t r a m kako su sve ove razlike posljedica zemljopisne posebnosti, a ne odlike panonske tradicije, pa se ove posude mogu pripisati klasicnoj keltskoj keramografiji. Mala, grabo izradena posudica (T12-8) slicna je po obliku i dimenzijama pronadenima u Nitri i Novome Mestu (Nitra-Sindolka BREZINOVA 2000, t.4-14, t.11-7; Novo Mesto KNEZ 1992, t.68-7). P r e m d a poradi svojili malili mjera podsjecaju na igracke, primjerak iz Novog Mesta, iz groba 191 na Kapiteljskoj njivi, prilozen je odrasloj osobi. Malo veca zdjelica (T17-9) vjerojatno vec ima neku konkretnu uporabnu vrijednost, a vrlo slicne pronadene su i dragdje (Nitra-Sindolka BREZINOVA 2000, t.33-15; Vinkovci D I Z D A R 2 0 0 1 , t . 1 8 - 4 ; M a n a BENADIK 1983, t.XII-5). Izvrsno prociscene, i na brzovrtecem kolu izradene sivkaste posude opca su znacajka keltskih nalazista. Nazalost, nismo pronasli primjerke koji bi se mogli rekonstruirati u cijelosti; medutim, i na osnovi ulomaka razvidno je kako su i takve posude zastupljene na Blizni. Ukratko navodim ulomke nekoliko najcescili oblika, i to kantarosa (T12-6,9, T16-8, 10; usporedbe: Novo mesto KRIZ 2001, sl.532; Novo mesto KNEZ 1992, t.46-9; Vinkovci D I Z D A R 2 0 0 1 , t . 4 4 - 4 , t . 2 9 - 1 ; Gomolava JOVANOVIC B., JOVANOVIC M. 1988, t.XLIII1,3; Mitrovacke livade BRUKNER 1988, t.7-12 itd.), velikih lonaca s usko zatvorenim otvorom i veoma previnutim obodom (T17-1; usporedbe: Novo Mesto KRIZ 2001, sl.105,198,226 itd.; Spodnja Hajdina-Ptuj TOMANIC-JEVREMOV G U S T I N 1996, sl.5-9; Ribnica-Vzhod kod Bregane, neobjavljeno), lonaca s dugim uskim vratom i sirokim razvracenim obodom (T19-4,8, usporedbe: Novo Mesto KNEZ 1992, t.59-6, t.571; Nitra-Sindolka BREZINOVA 2000, t.103-6; Mana BENADIK 1983, t.XXIX-15; NebringenBoeblingen UNZ 1985, 385, abb.489) te Sprofiliranih zdjela (T19-l,9 usporedbe: NitraSindolka BREZINOVA 2000, t.136-6,10, t.10-8; Vinkovci DIZDAR 2001, t.37-2, t.34-2,4, t.292,3,4 i t d ; Mana BENADIK 1983, t.XIV-7,11). I ostalim ulomcima fine keramike pronadene na Blizni, a ilustriranim na tablama, mogu se odrediti oblici i pronaci usporedbe na drugim keltskim nalazistima. Na Blizni su pronadeni i keramicki utezi za tkalacki stan (T12-3, T16-12). Neobicno je sto su pronadena samo dva utega, u odnosu na veliki broj

rim appears regularly on our pots, bringing them into close relation to graphite pots. There are pots of greater similarity at Stradonice, but there we have colouring of the rim. There are at Olmouc pots with impressed ribbon decorations and the accompany ing diagonal incisions, but they are located directly under the rim. The mentioned versions exist at Hrazany but also practically the same pots as those from Blizna. And finally, I will mention a pot that appears like a graphite one, but is in fact made of plain clay (Eelldbach-Schmiden PLANCK 1985, 366, abb.562). I feel that aU of these differences are the result of geographic distinc tions, and not traits of some Pannonian tradition, so that these vessels can be attributed , to classic Celtic ceramography A small vessel, of rough manufacture, (T12-8) is simi lar in shape and size to those 1 found at Nitra and Novo Mesto (Nitra-Sindolka BREZINOVA 2000, t.4-14, t.11-7; Novo Mesto KNEZ 1992, t.68-7). Although they, on account of their small size, reminiscent of toys, the specimen from Novo Mesto, from grave 191 on Kapiteljska njiva is placed next an adult. A slightly larger bowl (T17-9) likely already has some concrete use and very similar ones have been found elsewhere (Nitra-Sindolka BREZINOVA 2000, t.33-15; Vinkovci DIZDAR 2001, t.18-4; Mana BENADIK 1983, t.XII-5). Very well refined greyish vessels manufactured on a fast potters wheel are a general characteristic of Celtic sites. We, unfortunately, did not find speci mens that could be entirely reconstructed; just based on the potsherds however; it is evident that these too are represented at Blizna. I will give here, in short, several of the most frequent forms, these be ing a Kantaros (T12-6,9, T16-8, 10; comparisons: Novo mesto KRIZ 2001, sl.532; Novo mesto KNEZ 1992, t.46-9; Vinkovci DIZDAR 2001, t.44-4, t.29-1; Gomolava JOVANOVIC B., JOVANOVIC M. 1 9 8 8 , t . X L I I I - 1 , 3 ; Mitrovacke livade BRUKNER 1988, t.7-12 etc.), large pots with nar row, closed, openings and very curved rims (T17-1; c o m p a r i s o n s : Novo Mesto K R I Z 2 0 0 1 , sl.105,198,226 etc.; Spodnja H a j d i n a - P t u j TOMANICJEVREMOV GUSTIN 1996, sl.5-9; RibnicaVzhod n e a r \ Bregana, un published), pots with long, narrow, necks and widely flared rims (T19-4,8, comparisons: Novo Mesto KNEZ 1992, t.59-6, t.57-1; Nitra-Sindolka

117

Jakopovec-Blizna. Rekonstruirani mali keltski porozni lonac. (T13-3) Jakopovec-Blizna. A small reconstructed porous Celtic bowl. (T13-3)

Jakopovec-Blizna. Rekonstruirana keltska zdjela. (T16-1) Jakopovec-Blizna. A reconstructed Celtic bowl. (T16-1)

118

posuda i inoga. Takovi utezi pronalaze se i drugdje na keltskim nalazistima, ali takoder u malom broju (Dirov brijeg, Damica gradina, DIZDAR 2001, t.49-2,4; Nitra-Sindolka, BREZINOVA 2000, t.164-16; Gomolava, JOVANOVIC B., JOVANOVICM.,1988, t.XLV4; Hrazany JANSOVA 1965, obr.21-1). Pronadeno je i nekoliko prsljenova (T15-6, T16-7, T19-15). Unatoc njihovoj raznolikosti i brojnosti, autori ih jos spominju samo uzgred, jer jos nije izvedena tipologija i kronoloska tablica za ove zanimljive predmete. I dragdje su pronadeni prsljeni izradeni od ulomaka posuda (NitraSindolka, BREZINOVA 2000, 15, t.4-18, t.5-13, t.43-6, t.51-3,5, t.58-2,3, t.143-6,10; Hrazany JANSOVA 1965, obr.21-4 itd.). Brezinova ih postavlja u poglavlje o prsljenovima, ali ih opisuje kao kotacice {Raedschen), s rapom ili bez nje. Ulomci T13-2,5 pripadaju broncanom dobu, ali su nacrtani u sklopu cjeline u kojoj su nadeni, mladezeljeznodobnoj jami J7. Stakleni nalazi Medu keltskim nalazima u sondi A i kanalu izdvajaju se ulomci staklenih narakvica (T18-4,5; T20-3) i prstena (T16-11). Svi su izradeni od tamnoplavog prozirnog stakla, a dvije narukvice imaju dodanu zutu valovitu traku. Staklene narukvice standardan su nakit keltskih zena i pronalaze se cesto na raznim nalazistima sirom Europe. Najcesce su izradene kao p profil, na siroj traci, cesto s plasticno izvedenim ukrasom i u razlicitim bojama. Smatra se da je izrada staklenih narakvica kod Kelta zapocela u 3.st.pr.Kr, kada je i napusteno izradivanje narukvica od crnog sapropelita, porrjeklom iz danasnje Ceske (SIEVERS 2003, 231, abb.403a; KRIZ 2001, s.61). Nasi primjerci pripadaju jednostavnom D profilu bez trake. Usporedbe za jednostavne D profile imamo u groblju Mana i Kapiteljska njiva - Novo Mesto te naselju NitraSindolka (BENADIK 1983, t.L-2, t.XLTV4; KRIZ 2001, si.44; BREZINOVA 2000, t.175-11). No, zemljopisno najblizi primjerak je naden u Sigetcu kod Ludbrega kao povrsinski nalaz (SIMEK 1983, t.XIII-5). Stakleno prstenje relativno je rjedi nalaz od narukvica. Prilikom rusenja kontrolnog profila izmedu kvadranata B i L pronaden je mali komad prilicno spaljenog stakla, vjerojatno perlica plave boje.

BREZINOVA 2000, t.103-6; Mana BENADIK 1983, t.XXIX-15; Nebringen-Boeblingen UNZ 1985, 385, abb.489) and S-profiled bowls (T191,9 comparisons: Nitra-Sindolka BREZINOVA 2000, t.l36-6,10, t.lO-8; Vinkovci DIZDAR 2001, t.37-2, t.34-2,4, t.29-2,3,4 etc.; Mana BENADIK 1983, t.XIV-7,11). The shapes of other potsherds of fine ceramic found at Blizna, and illustrated in the tables, can also be determined and comparisons found at other Celtic sites. Ceramic weights for weaving looms were also found at Blizna (T12-3, T16-12). It is unusual that only two weights were found, given the large number of vessels and other objects collected. Weights like these are found at other Celtic sites, but again in small numbers (Dirov brijeg, Damica gradina, DIZDAR 2001, t.49-2,4; Nitra-Sindolka, BREZINOVA 2000, t.164-16; Gomolava, JOVANOVIC B., JOVANOVIC M., 1988, t.XLV 4; Hrazany JANSOVA 1965, obr.21-1). Several spindle whorls were collected (T15-6, T16-7, T19-15). Despite their variety and large numbers, authors continue to mention them only in passing, as a typology and chronological tables have yet to be made for these interesting objects. Spindle whorls made of fragments of vessels have been found elsewhere (Nitra-Sindolka, BREZINOVA 2000, 15, t.4-18, t.5-13, t.43-6, t.51-3,5, t.58-2,3, t.1436,10; Hrazany JANSOVA 1965, obr.21-4 etc.). Brezinova puts them in the chapter on spindle whorls but describes them as small wheels {Raedschen), with a hole or without one. Potsherds T13-2,5 belong to the Bronze Age put have been sketched within the ensemble in which they were found, the late Iron Age pit J7.

Jakopovec-Blizna. Ulomci keltskih staklenih narukvica. (T18-5, T18-4, T20-3, T16-11) Jakopovec-Blizna. Shards of glass Celtic bracelets. (T18-5, T18-4, T20-3, T16-11)

Glass finds Among the Celtic finds in trench A and the ca nal, the shards of glass bracelets (T18-4,5; T20-3) and ring (T16-11) stand out. AU are made of trans parent dark blue glass and two bracelets have an added wavy yellow ribbon. Glass bracelets are the standard jewellery of Celtic women and are found often at various sites across Europe. They are most often manufactured in a p profile, on a wide rib bon, often with a moulded decoration and in vari ous colours. It is believed that the manufacture of glass bracelets among Celts began in the 3rd cen tury BC, when the manufacture of bracelets made of black sapropelit, originating from the modern day Czech Republic (SIEVERS 2003, 231, abb.403a; KRIZ 2001, s.61). Our specimens be long to the simple D profile, without ribbon. Com Metalni nalazi Vrlo zanimljiv keltski noz pronaden je u 2. sloju parisons for the simple D profile are found in the sonde A (T18-1, PN1). Osim odlomljenog vrska Mana and Kapiteljska njiva - Novo Mesto graves pronaden je u cijelosti i prilicno dobro ocuvan. Rijec and at the Nitra-Sindolka settlement (BENADIK je o nozu na sklapanje s dobrom paralelom s 1983, t.L-2, t.XLIV-4; KRIZ 2001, sl.44; nalazista Ciglana - Zeleno polje kod Osijeka (SIMC, BREZINOVA 2000, t.175-11). But the geographi FILIPOVIC1997, sl.9, 34). Slabo ocuvani zeljezni cally closest example was found at Sigetec near ulomci (T18-2,3) mozda takoder pripadaju nekim Ludbreg as a surface find (SIMEK 1983, t.XIIImanjim nozevima. Veci noz ostecenog vrha s dvije 5). Glass rings are a relatively rarer find than are sacuvane zakovice za drvene dijelove drske bracelets. A smaU piece of quite scorched glass, Ukely

pronaden je u jami 23 (T16-9). Vrlo dobra usporedba je s cjelovitim primjerkom iz Kupinova, koji je odreden kao bojni noz (PANDZIC 1970, s.32, t.XVI-5). Broncana perlica (T18-8) jedini je dio nekog metalnog nakita s Blizne. Nije jasno cemu sluze dijelovi broncanog kovanog lima s naglasenim obrubom (T12-10, T18-9) i manji broncani ulomak (T18-13) koji na prvi pogled podsjeca na dio lucne kopce. Svi mladezeljeznodobni nalazi s Blizne mogu se datirati u kasnu i zavrsnu fazu ovog razdoblja, dakle od kraja 3.st.pr.Kr. do pocetka l.st. Keramicki oblici i nacini izrade pripadaju keltskom stanovnistvu, i to obje glavne grape: grabe, rucno radene, kao i fmo, na brzovrtecem kolu izradene keramike. Obje grape imaju manjih posebnosti u usporedbi s nalazima s razlicitih keltskih nalazista. Ove razlike nisu toliko posljedica starijezeljeznodobnih tradicija, koliko ishod zemljopisne odvojenosti, odnosno povezanosti s drugim keltskim plemenima i keramicarskim sredistima.
Ostali nalazi

a blue coloured bead, was found during the demoli tion of a control profile between quadrants B and L.
Metal finds

119

U keltskom kontekstu pronaden je i ulomak manjeg kamenogzrvnja (T18-ll) i gotovo potpuno sacuvan masivni bras od kvalitetnog pjescenjaka (T21-4). Na oba predmeta zamjetljivi su tragovi dugotrajne upotrebe. Prema obliku vrlo slican brasu T21-4, pronaden je primjerak na keltskom oppidu Hrazany, a takoder i dio jednostavnog zrvnja koji se moze usporediti s nasim T18-11 (JANSOVA 1965, obr.21-6, 7). Najvise kostiju pronadeno je upravo u objektima mladeg zeljeznog doba. U jami J15 pronaden je ulomak kosti pesti goveda (Eos sp.) a u jami J10 nedeterminirani kostani ulomak, obraden u alatku - vjerojatno silo. Jama J7 sadrzavala je goljenicnu kost, kosti pesti i stopala te clanke prstiju jelena obicnog {Germs daphus L.), pa zatim zub i dva daljna ulomka zuba svinje {Sus sp.) te ulomak rebra velikog prezivaca. U jami J20 posve spaljena goljenicna kost ovce ili koze (Ovis/Capra) a u jami J l l - dva zuba i ulomak zuba ovce ili koze {(Ms/ Capra), clanak i papcana kost goveda {Bos sp.), i trnasti izdanak prsnog kraljeska velikog prezivaca. U jami J23 bio je ulomak zuba ovce ili koze {(Ms/ Capra). U hodnom sloju 3 pronaden je zub goveda {Bos sp.). Ocigledno je kako su se tadasnji stanovnici osim stocarstvom bavili i lovom, no u kolikom opsegu ne mozemo zakljuciti zbog malog broja odredivih kostiju.
ANTICKI, KASNOANTICKI NALAZI I NALAZI IZ DOBA SEOBE NARODA NALAZI

A very interesting Celtic knife was found in the 2nd layer of trench A (T18-1, PN1). Besides the missing tip it was found in its entirety. It is a folding knife with a good parallel from the Ciglana - Zeleno polje site near Osijek (SIMIC, FILIPOVIC1997, sl.9, 34). Poorly preserved iron shards (T18-2,3) may also come from some smaller knives. A large knife with a damaged point and two preserved riv ets for the wooden parts of a handle were found in pit 23 (T16-9). A very good comparison is with a complete specimen from Kupinovo, identified as a battle knife (PANDZIC 1970, s.32, t.XVI-5). A bronze bead (T18-8) is the only remaining part of some piece of metal jewellery from Blizna. It is un clear what purpose was served by parts of a sheet of wrought bronze with a prominent rim (T12-10, T18-9) and smaller bronze shard (T18-13) that is at first glance reminiscent of part of a fibula. All late Iron Age finds at Blizna can be dated to the late and closing phase of this period, that is to say from the end of the 3rd century BC to the start of the 1st century. The ceramic forms and methods of manufacture are Celtic, this being true of both major groups: rough, hand-made specimens and finer one made on a fast potters wheel. Both groups have smaller distinctions in comparison with finds from various other Celtic sites. These differences are not so much the result of early Iron Age tradi tions as much as the results of geographic separa tion from, or contact with, other Celtic tribes and centres of ceramic production.
Other finds

Jakopovec-Blizna. Bron~ani lim sa zadebljanim rubom. (T12-10) Jakopovec-Blizna. Sheet of bronze with thickened edge. (T12-10)

Strukturalni nalazi rimskog doba kasnijeg od l.st. ili ranijeg od 4.st. zasad nisu pronadeni. No, u sloju 2 pronadeni su ulomci keramike, kao i drugdje na podrucju nalazista, kao slucajni nalazi. U sondi A, u njezinom juznom dijelu pronadeni su razbacani brojni ulomci rimskih opeka i tegula. Oni dokazuju

A shard from a small grindstone (T18-11) was found within the Celtic context and an almost en tirely preserved massive whetstone made of good sandstone (T21-4). The signs of long use are vis ible on both objects. A specimen was found at the Celtic oppidu Hrazany very similar in shape to whet stone T21-4, as was a part of a simple grindstone that can be compared to our T18-11 (JANSOVA 1965, obr.21-6, 7). The largest number of bones were found in struc tures from the late Iron Age. A bone shard from an ox knuckle {Bos sp.) was found in pit J15, while pit JlOyielded an unidentified bone shard worked into a tool - probably an awl. Pit J7 contained the tibia, knuckle and foot bones and the hoof joints of the common deer {Gervus daphus L.), and the tooth and two further shards of the tooth of a pig {Sus sp.) and a shard from a rib of some large ruminant. Pit J20 had a completely scorched sheep or goat tibia {(Ms/Capra), while pit J l l yielded two teeth and part of a sheeps or goats tooth {(Ms/Capra), an ox phalanx and hoof bone {Bos sp.), and the thorny projection of a chest vertebra from a large ruminant. Pit J23 contained the shard of a sheeps of goats tooth {(Ms/Capra).

Jakopovec-Blizna. Kameni brus s tragovima ostrenja. (T21-4) Jakopovec-Blizna. Whetstone with traces of sharpening. (T21-4)

120

postojanje zidanih rimskih objekata ciji se ostaci vjerojatno jos nalaze juzno od sonde A. Za razliku od ulomaka tegula, zbuke nema u rimskom hodnom sloju sonde A, pa je vjerojatno kako se zgrada nalazila na udaljenosti vecoj od dvadesetak metara, a blizoj od pedesetak metara. Osim nalaza 2. i 3. st. javljaju se i mladi, kasnoanticki nalazi. Jedina pronadena struktura tog doba, K10, vrlo je zanimljiva pec, koja je pronadena uzduzno prerezana u gradevinskom jarku. Rijec je o zatvorenoj peci koja je svojedobno bila ukopana u pjescano tlo brezuljka, a unutrasnje oble stranice bile su joj namazane glinom koja se potom prepekla, kako bi zadobile cvrstinu. Pod peci bio je podstavljen vecim oblim rijecnim kamenjem, na kojima se peklo, jer nije bilo glinene resetke. Na otvora su se nalazili najveci kameni, koji su prijecili nekontrolirano ispadanje zara pod noge pekaca. Gar i pepeo nalazili su se u pozadini unutrasnjosti peci, kao i razbacani po hodnom sloju, a osobito u samom radnom prostora pred njom. U neko doba pokrov peci se djelomicno urusio; medutim, ocigledno je kako se pecenje nastavilo, izravno na urusenom dijelu pokrova koji je prekrio nekadasnje loziste. Nakon te faze lozenje u peci je prekinuto, a u profilu je vidljivo daljnje raspadanje pokrova peci. U peci i njezinoj okolici pronadeno je vrlo malo sitnih ulomaka keramike, ali vjerojatno je ipak rijec o peci za keramicke posude. Uzorcima ugljena pec je datirana AMS-14C metodom u dragu polovinu 4. st. (37526 calAD).14
Jakopovec-Blizna. Ociscen presjek kasnoanticke peci K10 u gractevinskom jarku, 37526 calAD. Jakopovec-Blizna. Cleaned cross-section of late Roman period oven K10 in a construction canal, 375+26 calAD.

An ox tooth (Bos sp.) was found in occupational layer 3. It is evident that the inhabitants were dur ing this period active as both hunters and herds men, but in what measure we cannot conclude on the basis of this small number of identifiable bones.
FINDS FROM THE ROMAN PERIOD, LATE ROMAN PERIOD AND FROM THE MIGRATION PERIOD FEATURES

Doba seobe naroda i rani srednji vijek takoder nisu strukturalno potvrdeni u sondi A ili jarcima. Ipak, s obzirom kako je na vrhu sloja 2, te drugdje kao slucajni nalazi, pronaden odreden broj keramickih ulomaka koji se sa sigurnoseu mogu

Structural features of the Roman period later than the 1st century or earlier than the 4th have not yet been uncovered. Potsherds were found in layer 2, however, as elsewhere in the area of the site, as chance finds. Numerous scattered potsherds of Roman period bricks and roof tiles were found in the southern section of trench A. They confirm the existence of constructed Roman period edifices whose remains are probably still to the south of trench A. Unlike the potsherds of roof tiles, there is no wall plaster in the Roman period occupational layer of trench A., so that it is likely that the edifice was located at a distance greater than 20 metres and closer than fifty metres. Besides features originat ing in the 2nd and 3rd centuries there are those from the late Roman period. K10, the only struc ture unearthed from that period, is a very interest ing oven that was found, cut along it length, in a construction ditch. This was a closed oven, once dug into the sandy soil of the hillock, with the curved inner sides coated in clay that was thenfiredto give it firmness. The floor of the oven was fitted with large rounded river rocks on which the baking was done, there being no clay grating. The largest stones were located at the opening to prevent the uncon trolled falling of live coals under the feet of the baker Charcoal and ash were found in the back of the ovens interior and scattered about the occupational layer, especially in the working area in front of it. Part of the roofing of the oven caved in at some point in time; it is evident, however, that baking con tinued, directly on the caved-in part of the roofing that covered the one time furnace. Firing in this oven ceased after this phase and the further decay of the ovens roofing can be seen in the profile. Very few small potsherds were found in the oven and its surroundings, but this is nevertheless most likely a ceramics firing kiln. Samples of coal were used to date the oven using the AMS-14C method to the second half of the 4th century (37526 calAD).14 The Migration Period and early Middle Ages have also not been confirmed by features in trench A or the ditches. But given that a number of potsherds that can with certainty be dated to the period from the 6th to 8th centuries were found at the top of layer 2, and elsewhere as chance finds, further re search should yield pits from that period somewhere on our site.

14 AMS-14C dataeija izradena je u Leibniz Labor fiir Altersbestimmung und Isotopenforselmng, Christian-iUbreehts-Universitat u Eelu (KIA22474, BP 1675+24). Skraeena kalibraeija putem CalPal Online Radiocarbon Calibration izradena na Sveueilistu u Kolmi. Carbon MAMS dating was done at the Leibniz LaborfiirAltersbestimmung und Isotopenforschung, Christian-AIbrechts- Vniversitdt in Kiel (KIA-22474, BP 1675 24). Shortened calibration using CalPal Online Radiocarbon Calibration done at the University of Koln.

121

datirati u razdoblje od 6. do 8. st, pitanje je daljnjeg istrazivanja kada ce se jame tog doba pronaci negdje na nasem nalazistu. POKRETNI NALAZI Na Blizni zasad nisu pronadene sacuvane gradevinske strukture iz rimskog doba. Iznimka je pec, vjerojatno za keramiku, koja je unatoc izostanku sitnih nalaza datirana oko 375.g. (calAD), AMS-14C metodom. Kao sto je vec spomenuto, relativno su brojni bili ulomci rimske opeke i tegula, posebice u sondi A, pa se tako moze ocekivati kako ce se pronaci i zidane zgrade. Rimskodobni ulomci pronadeni u sloju 2 sonde A, kao i povrsinski nalazi po cijelom nalazistu potjecu iz jos neotkrivenih zgrada, vjerojatno poblize staroj cesti Kneginec - Jalzabet.

FINDS Preserved edifices from the Roman period have not yet been found at Blizna. The exception is an oven, likely a kiln for firing ceramics, that has been in spite of a lack of small finds been dated to about the year 375 (calAD), using the AMS-14C method. As has been said, potsherds of Roman period bricks and roof tiles are relatively numerous, especially in trench A, so that it can be expected that a built struc ture will be found. Roman period finds collected in layer 2 of trench A and surfacefindscoUected around the entire site originate from a yet to be uncovered structure, probably near the old Kneginec - Jalzabet road.

Jakopovec-Blizna. Nacrt peci K10. 1Tamno narancasti sloj pomijesan s dosta gara. 2- Stijenke peci, progorena povrsina. Unutarnja strana svijetlije, a vanjska tamnije narancaste boje. 3Vanjske stijenke peci, progorena povrsina. 4- Svijetlo zuto pjescano tlo. Zdravica. 5- Narancasti sloj tla prosaran tamnosmedim. Dijelovi urusene stijenki peci. 6- Hodna povrsina ispred peci, tamno sive do erne boje, ima tragova gara i mrvljene keramike. 7. Tamni oker sloj unutar i izvan peci. Sloj zasipavanja. A- Rijecni oblutci. Temeljenje peci. BGar. Jakopovec-Blizna. Sketch of oven K10. 1- Dark orange layer mixed with a large quantity of charcoal. 2- wall of the oven, scorched surface. Inside of lighter orange colour while the outside is of darker orange. 3- Outer wall of the oven, scorched surface. 4- Light yellow sandy ground. Subsoil. 5- Orange layer of ground streaked with dark brown areas. Parts of the caved-in oven walls. 6Occupational layer in front of the oven, of dark grey to black colour, with traces of charcoal and crushed ceramic. 7. Dark ochre layer inside and outside the oven. Deposit layer. A- Round river stones. The ovens foundation. B- Charcoal.

Ceramic finds Ceramic finds are mostly small and not easily identified accurately. The earliest find is the pot Keramicki nalazi sherd of a cup (T12-2) found in pit 2, together with Ulomci keramike uglavnom su sitni i tesko tocnije Celtic ceramics and smelting debris. Although found odredivi. Najraniji nalaz je ulomak case (T12-2) in a Celtic context the cup is a Roman product, koji je naden u jami 2, zajedno s keltskom procured as an export, discarded by the Taurisci keramikom i talionickim otpadom. Premda u still settled at Blizna. It is a very fine and thin ce keltskom kontekstu, casa je rimski proizvod, ramic cup that can be dated to the 1st century, most nabavljen iz uvoza, koji su odbacili Taurisci jos likely to its 1st half. Cups originating from the naseljeni na Blizni. Rijec je o vrlo finoj i tankoj Tiberian period are of a similar shape, but are half keramickoj casi koja se moze datirati u l.st., i to as thin as ours (Barcelona ATLANTE II 1985, vjerojatno u prvu polovinu. Slican oblik imaju case iz 293, t.XCIII-13). tiberijevskog vremena, no ove su upola tanje od nase The other potsherds are harder to identify. (Barcelona ATLANTE II 1985, 293, t.XCIII-13). Large vessels of good make were found, made of Dragi ulomci su teze odredivi. Nadene su velike grey clay and bearing uniform brushed surface deco posude kvalitetno izradene od sive gline i ukrasene rations (T23-10,ll, T24-13). Vessels of this kind pravilnim metlicastim ukrasom (T23-10,ll, T24- are very frequent at Roman period sites and are 13). Ovakve posude vrlo su ceste na rimskim usuaUy dated to the 1st and 2nd centuries (Drenje, nalazistima i obicno se odreduju u 1. i 2. st. (Drenje, SKOBERNE 1987 28, t.1,2,3,4; Petrijanec SARIC SKOBERNE 1987 28, t.1,2,3,4; Petrijanec SARIC 1975, t.XVI-1-6). Along with these earlier speci-

122

Jakopovec-Blizna. Ulomak velikog anti~kog lonca s pravilnom valovnicom i crtama. (T24-12) Jakopovec-Blizna. Potsherd from a large Roman period pot with regular wavy line and lines. (T24-12)

Jakopovec-Blizna. Ulomak poroznog kasnoanti~kog lonca. (T25-1) Jakopovec-Blizna. Potsherd from a porous late Roman period pot. (T25-1)

1975, t.XVI-1-6). Uz ove ranije, imamo i ulomaka kasnoanticke metlicaste keramike (T23-2,5,6, T249,10). Za razliku od prethodnih, ove obiljezavaju tanje stijenke, losije i neravnomjernije pecenje, slabija prociscenost gline, a kao primjesa zastupljen je uglavnom drobljeni kvarcit (3.st, Bubijeva jamaBarilovic, PERKIC 2002, t.15-8, t.16-8). Najkasnije su radene na sporovrtecem kolu, a neke mozda i prostorucno (usporedi nalaze iz Stare vesi T8-1, T9-l,2,35). Vjerojatno u 3.st. moze se okvirno odrediti izrada kvalitetnih posuda s pravilnom visestrukom valovnicom (T24-12, T23-13), a one grublje izrade trebaju se datirati kasnije, u 4. i 5.st. (T24-l,2,3,4,5,6,7). Ne bi trebalo iskljuciti moguenost kako se medu njima nekoliko primjeraka mozda moze datirati i u 8. stoljece. Ranijoj, vjerojatno srednjocarskoj proizvodnji, pripadaju neki obodi kvalitetno izradenih posuda (T25-7,12 i ini), dok vecina drugih posuda, osobito lonaca, pripada kasnoj antici. Iz 4. st potjece lonac T25-2 (Beocin BRUKNER 1977, 130, t.2-10). Slicni nasim obodima (T22-2,3,5, T25-3,4,ll) pronadeni su na kasnoantickim pribjezistima, npr Ancnikovu gradiscu kod Jurisne vasi i Kuzelinu kod Donje Glavnice, datirani u kraj 4.st. i pocetak 5.st. (STRMCNIK 1997, t.4,t.6; SOKOL 1994, t.4-3). Ovi lonci na oba nalazista pronalaze se u inacicama sa sitno drobljenim kvarcitom, ili porozni, mozda zbog primjesa slabog vapnenca, koji pri pecenju propadne, ili neke organske materije. Lonci s veoma svinutim, a zaobljenim i zadebljanim obodom (T22-7), takoder su nalazi u kasne antike (Tinje CIGLENECKI 2000, t.21-1,7 i ini). Velikom loncu T25-3 slican je i nalaz s kasnoantickog pribjezista na brdu Kucar (DULAR J., CIGLENECKI S., DULAR A. 1995, t.79-5,7 itd.). I drugi slicni dijelovi lonaca pronadeni na Blizni (T22-1, T251...), vjerojatno se mogu datirati u razdoblje kasne antike i seobe naroda, premda su takvi oblici i nacin izrade zasad relativno slabo istrazeni. Dio poklopca (T23-1) pripada standardnom repertoaru anticke keramike, iako se nas na osnovi dosta primjesa kamencica moze pripisati kasnijem razdoblju. Ulomak oboda crnog vrca s dijelom rucke (T2521) mogao bi se povezati s istocnogermanskim nalazima 5.st. (Lerchengasse-Moedling STADLER 1987, 347,VII-40a). Takoder dio vrca sa dva ureza (T23-7) mozda treba pripisati Germanima, za razliku od druga dva ulomka, vjerojatno takoder vrceva (T23-8 i T24-14), koji bi pripadali rimskoj izradi 2-4. stoljeca. Sigilatnih posuda ima malo na Blizni. Najkvalitetniji primjerak (T23-12) dio je dna vjerojatno siroke plitice, ali mu je na toj osnovi tesko odrediti tipolosku pripadnost. Dio tarionika s fmim crvenim premazom u stilu sigilate (T22-13) moze se ranije datirati, u 1. ili 2.st. (Drenje, SKOBERNE 1987, 31, t.10-14). Drugi ulomak tarionika izraden je grublje, bez premaza i vjerojatno pripada kasnoantickim varijantama (T23-11). Tu su jos dvije poblize neodredive sigilatne posudice (T25-

mens, there are also potsherds of late Roman pe riod brushed surface ceramics (T23-2,5,6, T249,10). Unlike the previous specimens, these are characterised by thin walls, poorer and less uniform firing, less refined clay, with an admixture mostly consisting of crushed quartzite (3rd century, Bubrjeva jama-Barilovic, PERKIC 2002, t.15-8, t.16-8). The latest were manufactured on a slow potters wheel, some perhaps even by hand (com pare to finds from Stara ves T8-1, T9-l,2,35). The better quality vessels with uniform multiple wavy lines can be dated approximately to the 3rd century (T24-12, T23-13), while those of rougher make should be dated later to the 4th and 5th centuries (T24-l,2,3,4,5,6,7). The possibility should not be excluded that some of the specimens among these could be dated to the 8th century. Several rims from well-made vessels probably belong to an earlier, probably middle empire, pro duction (T25-7,12 and others), while the larger part of other vessels, especially the pots, comes from the late Roman period. Pot T25-2 originates from the 4th century (Beocin BRUKNER 1977, 130, t.210). Rims similar to ours (T22-2,3,5, T25-3,4,ll) were found at late Roman period refugium, for ex ample at Ancnikovo gradisce near Jurisna vas and at Kuzelin near Donja Glavnica, dated to the end of the 4th century and the beginning of the 5th (STRMCNIK 1997, t.4,t.6; SOKOL 1994, t.4-3). These pots are at both sites found in versions with finely crushed quartzite, or porous, perhaps on ac count of an admixture of weak limestone, that de cays during firing, or some organic material. Pots with very curved, rounded and thickened rims (T227) are also finds from the late Roman period (Tinje CIGLENECKI 2000, t.21-1,7 and others). T253, a large pot, is similar to a find from a late Roman period refugium on Kucar hill (DULAR J., CIGLENECKI S., DULAR A. 1995, t.79-5,7 etc.). Other similar fragments from pots at Blizna (T22-1, T25-1...) can probably also be dated to the late Roman period and the Migration Period, even though these shapes and manufacturing methods have, up to the present, been relatively poorly re searched. Part of a lid (T23-1) is from among the stan dard repertoire of Roman period ceramics, although ours can, based on a substantial admixture of pebbles, be attributed to a later period. A potsherd from the rim of a black jug with a portion of the handle (T25-21) could be associated with East Germanic finds from the 5th century (Lerchengasse-Moedling STADLER 1987, 347,VII-40a). Part of a jug with two incisions (T237) could perhaps also be of Germanic origin, unlike two other potsherds, probably also from jugs (T238 and T24-14), that would come from Roman pe riod production from the 2nd-4th centuries. There are few sigillata vessels at Blizna. The specimen of highest quality (T23-12) is part of the bottom of a what was probably a wide platter, al though it is based on this difficult to determine its

9,15) i jedna (T25-14) ciji oblik upueuje na 4.st. (Vindonissa, PIERRE; ENGEL 1968, 25, Chenet 325 ili 307). Crveno bojen je dio tanjura (T22-9), a najslicniji mu je rijedak africki sigilatni oblik Hayes 109 iz 7.stoljeca. Kasnu africku sigilatu moze se pronaci uz obalu Jadranskog mora, no mala je vjerojatnost kako bi taj proizvod stigao do Blizne (ATLANTE 11981, 214, t.CV-10). Svi ovi nalazi ne oprimjeruju pravu, vrlo tvrdu i s postojanim premazom nacinjenu sigilatu, vec je rijec o boljim ili losijim kopijama. Pronaden je i jedan ulomak ocakljene posude (T25-13), mozda dio kasnoanticke zdjelice ukrasene i otiscima kotacica kakve su ceste na nalazistima kasnog 4.st. i pocetka 5.st. (Pasohlavky, Slapanice, Szomogyszil, Velke H o s t e r a d k y T E R J A L 1999, 228,229, abb.25-1,3, abb.26-2, abb.27-1). Ove zdjelice, koje su mogle imati po dvije rucke, proizvod su rimskih provincijalnih majstora, a bile su omiljene u istocnogermanskim cjelinama. Medu ovim kasnoantickim nalazima izdvaja se na Blizni jedan zaseban skup keramickih ulomaka. Tb su grabi, prostorucno izradeni lonci i zdjelice, slabo prociscene gline s ponekim veeim kamencicima u stukturi (T26). Stratigrafski gledano, javljaju se u hodnom sloju s opisanim kasnoantickim nalazima, ili cak nesto vise (mlade) od njih. Nazalost, nisu pronadeni niti u jednoj zatvorenoj cjelini, a ulomci su zbog svoje nepravilnosti vrlo tesM za spajanje i neku suvislu rekonstrukciju oblika. Primjerice dijelovi loncica (T26-7,8,10), zajedno s drugim neprikazanim dijelovima trbuha, nisu mogli biti rekonstruirani, jer su toliko izvitopereni prilikom izrade da prema desetak pripadajucih ulomaka nije mogla odrediti niti visina niti oblik bib kojeg elementa posude. Poneki na sebi imaju urezane visestruke crte, i to uglavnom primjerci s tanjim stijenkama. Ulomak plavkastosive posude T26-1, u neku ruku izdvaja se iz ove cjeline, barem prema svom ukrasu i nesto boljoj kvaliteti izrade. Najslicniji ovome pronaden je u Mikovom dvora (Nitra F U S E K 1 9 9 1 , t . I - 7 ) , gdje p r e m a a u t o r u p r i p a d a langobardskoj keramografiji i datira oko sredine 6.stoljeca. I u Vidinoj opsirnoj objavi keramike iz doba ranoavarske dominacije, mogu se zamijetiti takve posude (VIDA 1999, t.99-6 i druge). Autor navodi kako su ih izradivali mjesni panonski loncari oko 600. g. prema germanskim tradicijama 6. st. (VIDA 1999, abb.l2, s.56-59). Oblici ostalih sacuvanih oboda i dna ove grape ne daju nam zasigurno zakljuciti o kakvom je keramickom skupu rijec. Jedna mogucnost je kako je rijec o gruboj keramici seobe naroda, i to nekoga germanskog plemena koje je ovuda proslo prema zapadu, a druga mogucnost da su ove posude izradili pripadnici nekoga naroda ranog avaroslavenskog razdoblja. Ovakve posude mogu se vrlo cesto pronaci u objavljenim nalazima 5 - 7.st., germanskog (TERJAL 1987, abb.VIII,l.h; RYBOVA 1987, abb.XTV,21.i, XTV,23.f; Sisak VINSKI 1954, D itd.), slavenskog (NEVIZANSKY 1991, t.VII-6, t.XVI-16, t.XII-3,5 itd.) i avarskog (VIDA 1999,

typological affiliation. Part of a mortar with a fine red coating in the sigillata style (T22-13) can be dated to an earlier period, to the 1st or 2nd century (Drenje, SKOBERNE 1987, 31, t.10-14). A sec ond potsherd from a mortar is of rougher fabrica tion, without a coating, and is probably a late Ro man period variant (T23-11). There are also two small sigillata vessels, difficult to identify precisely (T25-9,15) and one (T25-14) whose shape indi cates an origin in the 4th century (Vindonissa, PIERRE; ENGEL 1968, 25, Chenet 325 or 307). Part of a plate is coloured red (T22-9), most similar to it being a rare African sigillata shape, Hayes 109, from the 7th century. Late African sigillata can be found along the coast of the Adriatic sea, but the probability of this product reaching Blizna were small (ATLANTE I 1981, 214, t.CV-10). All of these finds are not examples of true, very hard sigillata with its durable slip, but are rather better or poorer copies. A potsherd from a glazed vessel (T25-13) was found, perhaps part of a small late Roman period bowl decorated with the impressions of smaU wheels, frequent at sites from the late 4th century and be ginning of the 5th (Pasohlavky, Slapanice, Szomo gyszil, Velke Hosteradky TERJAL 1999, 228,229, abb.25-1,3, abb.26-2, abb.27-1). These smaU bowls, which could have been double-handled, are the pro duce of Roman period provincial master trades men, and were favoured in Eastern Germanic en sembles. One separate ensemble of potsherds stands apart among these late Roman period finds at Blizna. These are rough, hand-made pots and small bowls, made of poorly refined clay with the odd larger pebble in its structure (T-26). Regarded stratigraphicaUy they appear in the occupational layer with the de scribed late Roman period finds, or even somewhat higher (later) than them. Unfortunately, they were not found in any closed ensemble, and the potsherds are on account of their irregular shapes difficult to join into some meaningful reconstruction. Parts of a smaU pot for example (T26-7,8,10), together with other, not portrayed, parts of the pots belly, could not be reconstructed, as they were so warped during their manufacture that in relation to about ten ac companying potsherds, neither the height nor shape of any element of the vessel could not determine. Some have multiple lines engraved on them, mostly those with thinner waUs. A potsherd from blue-grey vessel T26-1, in a way," stands out from this ensemble, at least as re gards its decoration and somewhat better quality of manufacture. The example most similar to this one was found at Mikov dvor (Nitra P U S E K 1991, t.I-7) where, ac cording to the author it belongs to Langobard ceramography and dates

123

Jakopovec-Blizna. Rekonstruirana zdjelica iz doba seobe naroda. (T26-6) Jakopovec-Blizna. Reconstructed bowl from the Migration period. (T26-6)

124

Jakopovec-Blizna. Ulomak germanskog ? lonca. (T26-1) Jakopovec-Blizna. Potsherd from Germanic (?) pot. (T26-1)

from the mid 6th century. These kinds of vessels can also be seen in Vidas extensive publication of ceramics from the period of early Avar domination (VIDA 1999, t.99-6 and others). The author states that they were manufactured by local Panonnian potters around the year 600 based on 6th century Germanic traditions (VIDA 1999, abb.12, s.56-59). The shapes of the other preserved rims and bot toms in this group do not allow us to conclude with Stakleni nalazi certainty of what kind this ceramic ensemble is. One U sondi A pronadeno je i nekoliko sitnih possibility is that it is the rough ceramic of the Mi ulomaka stakla tankih stijenki. Rijec je o rimskom gration Period, that of some Germanic tribe that staklu zelenkastog i plavkastog tona, nazalost bez passed this way westwards, the other possibility is dijelova koji bi ih mogli poblize odrediti. Cetri su that these vessels were made by the members of some ulomka nadena u vrhu sloja 2, a jedan ulomak nation of the early Avaro-Slavic period. Vessels like krem boje s mat povrsinom u 3 sloju. these can be often found among published finds Tipoloski se mogu prepoznati dijelovi dviju casa from the 5th to 7th century, of Germanic (TERJAL (T25-17,18), tipa koristenog u kasnoanticko doba, 1987, abb.VIII,l.h; RYBOVA 1987, abb.XI^21.i, u 4. st. (ISINGS 1957 s.133, f.107). Medu njima XTV,23.f; Sisak VINSKI 1954, D etc.), Slavic nema vecih razlika, a obje imaju odrezan rub oboda.16 (NEVIZANSKY 1991, t.VII-6, t.XVI-16, t.XIIOve case nalaze se u kasnoantickim pribjezistima i 3,5 etc.) and Avar (VIDA 1999, t.142, 155, 156, grobljima, a omiljen su prilog i u grobovima 161 etc.) context. The technique of manufacture is germanskih i drugih naroda kasnog 4.st. i pocetka to some extent reminiscent to finds of some pot 5.st. (Banostor, DAMEVSKI 1976, t.IX-3; sherds from unpublished excavations of the Stari Sv.Marija pod Okicem, Popov dol, DEMO 1994, Jankovci - Gatina site.16 Several potsherds from k . b r . l l l , 127,128,129; Rabelcja vas-Ptuj, vessels of this group were also found at Stara ves; I VOMER-GOJKOVIC 1997, g.41,45,55; Csakvar, will, however, leave this issue open to the happy SALAMON, BARKOCZI 1971, abb.17). discovery of some preserved ensemble or some other Djelomice su srodne konusnim peharima koji se extensive publication of finds such as these. takoder nalaze u slicnim cjelinama, s time da se one Glass finds koje ne mogu stajati samostalno, tumace kao uljne Several very small shards of thin-walled glass svjetiljke (ISINGS 1957, s.126, f.106). ware were found in trench A. This is Roman period Dno posude s prilijepljenom kruznom glass of greenish and bluish tone, unfortunately with stajacom plohom, od punog zuckastog out parts that could aUow for a more precise identi prozirnog stakla, vjerojatno je fication. Jbur shards were found at the top of layer pripadalo nekom vrcu ili slicnoj visoj 2 and one of cream colour with a matte surface in posudi (T23-9). Tako oblikovana dna the 3rd layer. cesca su u kasnoantickom staklarstvu As concerns their type, parts of two glasses can (ISINGS 1957; Tinje CIGLENECKI be identified (T25-17,18), of the type used in the 2000, t.7-18). Neobican je ulomak stakle- late Roman period, in the 4th century (ISINGS ne posudice sa istaknutom bradavicom 1957 s.133, 107). There are few great differences (T25-20), koja nije bila naknadno prilije- between them and both have a cut rim edge.16 These pljena. Ovdje je rijec o tako oblikovanom glasses are found in late Roman period refugium zadebljanju stijenke, vjerojatno preko and graves, and are a favour grave good in the graves kalupa, a s obzirom na tako mali ulomak, of Germanic and other nations of the late 4th cen tesko ju je tipoloski odrediti. tury and beginning of the 5th century (Banostor, DAMEVSKI 1976, t.IX-3; Sv. Marija pod Okicem, Metalni nalazi Popov dol, DEMO 1994, k.br.lll, 127,128,129; Znacajan nalaz je dio zeljezne bojne sjekire Rabelcja vas-Ptuj, VOMER-GOJKOVIC 1997, (T25-16). Izravnu usporedbu sjekiri imamo g.41,45,55; Csakvar, SALAMON, BARKOCZI u nalazu gotovo cijelog primjerka s 1971, abb.17). They are partially related to the coni kasnoantickog kastruma na Kuzelinu kod cal goblets that are also found in similar ensembles, Sesveta, iz Delova kod Koprivnice, te donekle with those unable to stand on their own identified as iz grobne cjeline u Hrvatskoj Dubici oil lamps (ISINGS 1957, s.126, 106). The bot (MARKOVIC 1984, t.9-1; SOKOL 1997, 219 - tom of a vessel with adhering circular standing sur 230, Pl.1-7, Pl.2-9; KOSCEVIC, MAKJANIC face, of full, transparent yeUowish, glass, likely comes 1985). U Sisku je pronadeno cak 19 identicnih from some jug or similar tall vessel (T23-9). Bot-ZaliYaljujem profesoriei MarijiSmaleelj na uYidu u dio keramickoga gradiYa sa spomenutog nal^ista. Thanks to Professor Marija8malcelj for the opportunity to * Premda se u literaturi redorito navode kao ease i pehari (Isings i drugi), Marija Smaleelj tvrdi da su sve ease s ostrim, odrezanim obodom bile izradivane kao svjetiljke, jer su im rubori preostri za prinasanje usnama. Although they are in literature routinely cited as cups and goblets (Isings and others), Marija Smalcelj feels that all cups with sharp, cut rims were manufactured as lamps, as their edges were too sharp to be brought to the lips.

t.142, 155, 156, 161 itd.) konteksta. Tehnika izrade unekoliko podsjeca i na nalaze odredenih keramickih ulomaka iz neobjavljenih iskopavanja nalazista Stari Jankovci - Gatina.16 Nekoliko ulomaka posuda ove skupine pronadeno je i na Staroj vesi; medutim, do sretnog pronalaska neke sacuvane cjeline ili neke druge opsirne objave ovakvih nalaza, ovo pitanje ostavit cu otvorenim.

Jakopovec-Blizna. Razbijeni lon~i} iz dobe seobe naroda. (T26-7,8,10 i drugi dijelovi) Jakopovec-Blizna. Small broken pot from the Migration period. (T26-7,8,10 and other parts)

komada s novcem 4.st., i vjerojatno su proizvod kovacnica koje su se nalazile na obali rijeke Kupe (DURMAN 2002, f.5-2). Pronadeno je 13 srodnih primjeraka na razlicitim mjestima u rijeci Ljubljanici, a autor ih datira od 3. do 6. st. (GASPARI 2002, t.30-28,29,30,31). Ovakve sjekire koristene su u doba kasne antike i seobe naroda, a stupanj su u razvoju izmedu srodnih sjekira srednjocarskog razdoblja i ranog srednjeg vijeka. Upotreba ovih sjekira nije odredena. Pojedini autori pripisuju ih bojnim sjekirama, dok dragi misle kako je rijec o tesarskom alatu. Dio malog nozica (T25-19) koji je doduse tesko datirati, na osnovi usporedbe sa slicnima s Ancnikova gradisca kod Jurisne vasi, mogao bi se postaviti u kasnu antiku, iako to ne mora biti konacno odredenje (STRMCNIK 1997, t.3-13,14). Najteze je s masivnim zeljeznim predmetom T2817, slucajnim nalazom. Nakon strucnog ciscenja, ukazao se oblik koji je u prvi mah podsjecao na vrh rimskog piluma; medutim, za to ne postoje dovoljno uvjerljive usporedbe. Moguce je da je rijec o nekom zeljeznom alatu, bilo latenskog, rimskog ili kasnijeg doba. Kao primjer navodim masivni klin iz ranosrednjovjekovne ostave u Caricinom gradu (bizantska P n m a f e f e , KONDIC, POPOVIC 1977, t.XXX-3, k.br.125), no taj, kao i drugi slicni alati, nisu potpuno jednaki nasem, pa su takve usporedbe ipak neodgovarajuce. Stoga, ovaj predmet samo spominjem, dok ce crtez na tabli mozda prepoznati netko drugi.

toms shaped like this are frequent in late Roman period glass production (ISINGS 1957; Tinje CIGLENECKI 2000, t.7-18). There is an unusual shard of a small glass vessel with a prominent nub (T25-20), not adhered subsequently. This is a shaped thickening of the vessels wall, likely by way of a mould. A typological determination is difficult given the small size of the shard.
Metal finds

125

A significant find is part of an iron battle axe (T25-16). We have a direct comparison for this axe in a find of an almost complete specimen from the late Roman period castrum at Ruzelin near Sesvete, from Delove near Koprivnice, and to some extent from a grave ensemble at Hrvatska Dubica (MARKOVIC 1984, t.9-1; SOKOL 1997, 219 230, Pl.1-7, Pl.2-9; KOSCEVIC, MAKJANIC 1985). As many as 19 identical pieces were found in Sisak with 4th century money, probably the pro duce of a smithy located on the bans of the Kupa river (DURMAN 2002, f.5-2). 13 related speci mens were found at various places in the Ljubljanica river, dated by the author from the 3rd to 6th cen turies (GASPARI 2002, t.30-28,29,30,31). Axes such as these were used in the late Roman and mi gration periods and are a step in the development from related axes of the middle Empire period and the early Middle Ages. The use of these axes has not been determined. Some authors attribute them to battle axes, while others consider them a carpentry tool. Part of a small knife (T25-19) that is, admit RANI I RAZVIJENI SREDNJI VIJEK tedly, hard to date, could based on a comparison NALAZI with similar examples from Ancnikova gradisca near Nalazi ranog srednjeg vijeka nisu strukturalno Jurisna vas, be attributed to the late Roman period, potvrdeni u sondi A ili jarcima. Ipak, s obzirom although that need not be a final determination kako su na vrhu sloja 2, te drugdje kao slucajni (STRMCNIK 1997, t.3-13,14). The most diffi nalazi, pronadeni u odredenom broju keramicki culty is posed by a massive iron object, T28-17, a ulomci koji se sa sigurnoscu mogu datirati u chancefind.A form emerged after careful cleaning razdoblje od 6. do 8. st., pitanje je daljnjeg that is at first glance reminiscent of the tip of a istrazivanja kada ce se jame tog doba pronaci negdje Roman pilum; there are not, however, sufficiently na nasem nalazistu. convincing comparisons for this conclusion. It is Na nalazistu se takoder mogu mjestimicno possible that it is some kind of iron tool, perhaps pronaci ulomci koji se mogu datirati u stoljeca nakon Laten, Roman or from some later period. As an osmoga, a i u samoj sondi A pronadena je jama example I cite a massive wedge from an early (Jl) koja je osim gara sadrzavala i ulomak rucno medieval hoard in Caricin grad (the Byzantine Prima izradene keramicke posude koji se okvirno moze Iustmmna, KONDIC, POPOVIC 1977, t.XXX-3, datirati u razvijeni srednji vijek. Vjerojatno je u to k.br.125), but that, like other similar tools, is not doba naselje izmjesteno na obronke prema starom entirely identical to ours, so that these comparisons sredistu sela Jakopovec, koje i danas postoji. are stiU unsuitable. I only mention this object, then, while the sketch in the tables will perhaps be POKRETNI NALAZI recognised by someone else.
Kerami~ki nalazi

Jakopovec-Blizna. Ulomci kasnoanti~kog stakla. (T25-17,18,20) Jakopovec-Blizna. Shards of late Roman period glass. (T25-17,18,20)

THE EARLY AND HIGH MEDIEVAL PERIOD Na Blizni nije pronadeno mnogo ranosrednjovje kovne keramike. Nekoliko karakteristicnih FEATURES ulomaka, pronadenih kao slucajni nalaz, prikazano Finds from the early Middle Ages have not been je na tabli 27. Najveci ulomak pripadao je vjerojatno structurally confirmed in trench A or the ditches. loncu praskog tipa, kakvom se mogu pronaci But given that a number of potsherds that can with brojne usporedbe u ranoslavenskom gradivu certainty be dated to the period from the 6th to 8th (Muntajana MARUSIC 1983, t.III-1, t.V-1; Pavlov- centuries were found at the top of layer 2, and else Horni Pole JELINKOVA 1990, t.14-1; where as chancefinds,further research should yield Waltersdorf-Koenigs Wusterhausen FISCHER, pits from that period somewhere on our site.

126

HOFMANN 1986, abb.6-h i ine). Ulomak T27-1 There are sporadicfindsof potsherds at the site je karakteristican zaobljeni obod prostorucno that can be dated to the centuries Mowing the eighth, izradenog poroznog lonca, slikovit za prvu polovinu and a pit (Jl) was found in trench A itself that, 7. st. (GUSTIN, TIEFENGRABER 2002, besides charcoal, contained potsherds of hand made Il.grupa, tip 6). Ostala tri ulomka, osim sto su ceramic vessels that can be approximately dated to karakteristicne prostorucne porozne izrade, imaju i the high Medieval period. The settlement was probukrase tipicne za ranoslavensko razdoblje. Ulomak ably moved during this period to the hill slope toT27-6 je varijanta okvirnog ukrasa (Repten- wards the old centre of the village Jakopovec, existCalau REIMER, TRAEGER 1986, abb.6-6; ing to this day. Breclav-Pohansko MAHACEK 2000, obr.2-19), zatim T27-3 s vise puta utisnutim vrhom ceslja FINDS (Vyskovce nad Iplom NEVIZANSKY 1991, t.VIIICeramic finds 6) i naposljetku ulomak T27-4 sa cestim ukrasom Few finds of early Medieval ceramics were colnepravilne i isprekidane visestruke valovnice, unutar lected at Blizna. Several characteristic potsherds, dvije grupe visestrukih ravnih crta (Brno-Stary collected as chancefinds,as shown on table 27. The Liskovec MAHACEK 2000, obr.7-25). Ovi ulomci largest potsherd probably comes from a Prague svjedoce o postojanju i ranoslavenske faze type pot, for which numerous comparisons can be naseljavanja Blizne, u razdoblju od kraja 6.st. do found in early Slavic materials (Muntajana druge polovine 7.stoljeca. MARUSIC1983, t.III-1, t.V-1; Pavlov-Horni Pole Nekoliko drukcijih srednjovjekovnih ulomaka JELINKOVA 1990, t.14-1; Waltersdorf-Koenigs posuda (T28-9,10) mozemo pripisati znatno Wusterhausen FISCHER, HOFMANN 1986, kasnijem razdoblju, vjerojatno 12. stoljeca. Ulomak abb.6-h and others). Potsherd T27-1 is a characT28-10 pronaden je u jami J l sonde A kao jedini teristic rounded rim from a hand made porous pot, nalaz. Keramika kasnog srednjeg vrjeka nrje typical of thefirsthalf of the 7th century (GUSTIN, pronadena u arheoloskim slojevima na Blizni. TIEFENGRABER 2002, group II, type 6). The other three potsherds, besides being of characterisMetalni nalazi tic hand made porous fabrication, have decorations Sigurnih srednjovjekovnih metalnih nalaza na typical of the early Slavic period. Potsherd T27-6 is Blizni nema, osim moguceg dijela vrha streliee T27- a variant of the frame decoration (Repten-Calau 5, koji je pronaden kao slucajni nalaz. Rijec je o REIMER, TRAEGER 1986, abb.6-6; Breclavdugackom, raskovanom tuljcu, koji prelazi u Pohansko MAHACEK 2000, obr.2-19), while T27cetvrtasti sredisnji dio, a cijela ostrica nedostaje. 3 has repeated impressions of the tip of a comb Premda je preostali dio vrha strijele tipoloski (Vyskovce nad Iplom NEVIZANSKY 1991, t.VIIInedovoljno raspoznatljiv, s obzirom kako su ovakvi 6) andfinallypotsherd T27-4 with a dense decoratuljci najcesci u ranosrednjovjekovnom gradivu tion of irregular and broken multiple wavy lines (BELOSEVIC 1980, t.LXVIII-2,4,7,8,9 itd."), within two groups of multiple straight lines (Brnouvjetno je postavljen na tablu s prikazom tog razdoblja. Stary Liskovec MAHACEK 2000, obr.7-25). These potsherds bear witness to the existence of an early Ostali nalazi Slavic phase in the settlement of Blizna, during the U hodnom sloju 2 pronaden je zub goveda (Bos period from the end of the 6th century to the second sp.) i zub konja (Equus). Ovi nalazi mogli bi half of the 7th century. pripadati kasnoj antici, seobi naroda ili ranom We can attribute several different medieval potsrednjem vijeku, no zbog nalaza zuba konja, ovi sherds (T28-9,10) to a significantly later period, nalazi spominju se u ovom poglavlju. probably to the 12th century. Potsherd T28-10 was U ovom sloju pronaden je i roznjak s tragovima found in pit J l of trench A as the only find. Late udaranja o metal (T28-21), za koji se pretpostavlja Mddle Age ceramics were not found in the archaeokako je sluzio za paljenje vatre. logical layers at Blizna.
ZAKLJUCAK Metal finds

Prema opisu ovih pokretnih i nepokretnih

There are no definitely medieval metal finds at

17 Gleirselier donosi nalaz wlia streliee s Steiner Berga u Koruskoj, koja je pronadena u sloju urusenja kasnoantiekog zida (GLEIRSCHER 200L abb.5-18). Nalazila se zajedno s denarom Severa Alexandera iz 228.g. i grubom kasnoantiekom keramikom. Usporedbom sa strelieama s nalazista Inrillino-Ibligo (BIERBRAUER 1987, t.58) autor ju odreduje u kasnoantieko razdoblje. Medutim, streliee izlnrillina imaju tuljae koji dopire do same raskovane ostriee, sto se nalazi i drugdje u antiekom svijetu (RADMAN LIVAJA 2001, t.2), sto se ne bi moglo reei za nas primjerak. Neke streliee ranog srednjegyijeka imaju eetvrtasti, puni sredisnji dio, a posebiee podsjeeam na one s uwjenim (tordiranim) sredisnjim dijelom (npr. Tmdija, TOMICIC 1978, sl.2-5; Grad-Smiliel? HORVAT 2002, fig.6-18,19. Nalazi dyije strijele iz Windiseliraetzove zbirke prema Hoemesu pripadaju ranosrednjovjekoTOim tiporima). Steiner Berg posjeduje i svoju ranosrednjovjekomu fazu, pa spomenuti wli strijele moze i tu pripadati. Kako god bilo, veliki problem je sto se opeenito na objavljenim tablama rijetko donosi presjek sredisnjeg dijela pa je tesko biti preeizniji. Gleirscher cites thefindofan arrowheadfromSteiner Berg in Carinthia, which wasfound in the layer ofa fallen late Roman period wall (GLEIRSCHER 2001, abb.5-18). It wasfound together with a Sever Alexander Denariusfrom228 and rough late Roman period ceramics. In comparison with arrowheads from the Invillino-Ibligo site (BIERBRAUER 1987, t.58) the author identifies it as beingfromthe late Roman period The arrowheadsfromInvillino, however, have cylinders that reach to the split blade itself, which isfound elsewhere in the Roman world (RADMAN LIVAJA 2001, t.2), which could not be said ofour specimen. Some arrowheadsfrom the early Middle Ages have square, ful l central section, I refer especiallytothose with a twisted (torded) central section (Vindijaforexample, J1978, sl.2-5; Grad-Smihel? HORVAT 2002,fig.6-18,19.Finds of two arrowheadsfrom the Windischraetz collection according to Hoernes belong to the early medieval type). Steiner Berg has its own early medieval p e, and the mentioned arrowhead mightbelong here. Whatever the case, the big problem is that published tables in general rarely offer a cross-section of the c ntral section so that it is hard to be more precise.

arheoloskih nalaza na polozaju Blizna, razvidno je kako je ovaj polozaj bio kroz dugu povijest uvijek iznova naseljavan. Prema dosadasnjim saznanjima to valja objasniti spletom izrazito povoljnih naseobinskih odlika toga polozaja. U neposrednoj blizini nalazi se snazan i navodno nepresusan izvor Blizna te istoimeni potok kojim svjeza i bistra izvorska voda i danas tece kroz ostatke spomenutih naselja. Nalaziste je takoder povoljno smjesteno na susretista siroke i plodne dravske doline s prvim obroncima gorja Varazdinbrega, te polozajem svih prethodnih naselja na vjerojatno prastarome putu koji je vodio iz dravske nizine prema jugu. Njegovu trasu vjerojatno je ponovno otkrila buduca autocesta, koja, cini se, prati njegov smjer na tome mjesta barem od doline rijeke Bednje do Plitvice. Ovu pretpostavka ima uporista u istrazivanjima obavljenim bas prilikom zastitnih radova na autocesti. Nalazi iz mladeg kamenog doba gotovo potpuno izostaju na sirem varazdinskom podrucju. Par ulomaka keramike i mozda jedna roznjacka alatka s Blizne ne daju moguenosti za daljnja proucavanja, jer ih se ne moze usporediti niti dovesti u vezu s arheoloskim nalazistima na ovom podrucju. Stanje istrazivanja bakrenog doba vecje mnogo bolje u ovom dijelu Hrvatske. Otprije je bilo poznato nekoliko nalazista koji su pripadali nosiocima lasinjske kulture, pa je Blizna, uz ostalih nekoliko novih u ovoj knjizi, dobrodosla dopuna opce slike. Najblize nalaziste je Varazdin-Brezje, a prema rezultatima istrazivanja, objavljenim doduse u skromnom obliku, moze se reci kako je Blizna karakterno slicna. To su nizinska naselja, na posve blago povisenim polozajima uz manje vodotoke, sto je i opcenito obiljezje ostalih lasinjskih nalazista (DIMITRIJEVIC, 1979, 147). Gotovo redovito poluzemunicke kuce, nalaze se rastrkano po sirem prostoru, bez tragova bedema ill obrambenih opkopa na bilo kojem nalazista. Na Blizni su najcesce izduzene poluzemunice oko 4 x 2 m, ukopane do metar u zdravicu. Starija istrazivanja, doduse cesto slabo dokumentirana i objavljena, nisu donijela neku jasnu sliku ili izricitu pravilnost u gradnji stambenih objekata, ali ovakvi su poznati i s drugih nalazista (DIMITRIJEVIC, 1979, 148). Zasad na Blizni nisu pronadeni okrugli plitki objekti mjera 2x2 m, kao na Staroj vesi i Pustakovcu. Metalnih nalaza takoder zasad nije bilo, a zanimljivo je kako nema ni mnogo kamenih alatki. Premda zivotinjske kosti uglavnom nedostaju (nalaz ovce/koze iz K4), vjerujem kako je stocarstvo ipak bila jedna od vaznijih grana njihove privrede, sto je uostalom vec rekao Dimitrijevic (DIMITRIJEVIC 1979, 164, 165). Neki roznjacki nozici imaju tragove rezanja bilja, pa bi nam to moglo potvrditi i njihovu poljoprivrednu djelatnost. I ostala nalazista lasinjske kulture u blizoj i daljoj okolici (Krc-Cerje Tuzno, Dragusevec-Cerje Novo, Cakovec-Gornji Pustakovec, Nedelisce-Stara ves, Varazdinske Tbplice-Gromace2...) pokazuju sUcnu sliku zivota. Na Blizni su pronadeni i obilni tragovi kulture

Blizna, with the exception of the possible tip of an arrowhead T27-5, collected as a chance find. This is a long, split, cylinder with a square mid-section, and missing its entire blade section. Although the remaining part of the arrowhead is typologically insufficiently recognisable, it has, considering that cylinders like these are most often found among early Medieval material (BELOSEVIC 1980, t.LXVm-2,4,7,8,9 etc.17), been conditionally placed in the table detailing that period. Other finds The tooth of an ox (Bos sp.) and horse {Equus) were found in occupational layer 2. These finds could be from late Roman period the Migration period or early Middle Ages, but are mentioned here on ac count of the finds of a horses tooth. A flint (T28-21) was also found in this layer with traces of striking against metal for which it is presumed that it served as part of a fire starting apparatus. CONCLUSION Based on the descriptions of thesefindsand fea tures at the Blizna site, it is evident that this location was through its long history repeated re-settled. Based on current cognisance this can be explained by a series of very advantageous settlement charac teristics the location offers. In the direct vicinity there is the strong and apparently inexhaustible Blizna water spring and the creek of the same name whose fresh and clear spring waters to this day flow through the remains of the mentioned settlements. The site is also favourably positioned at the meeting point of the wide and fertile Drava valley and the first slopes of the Varazdinbreg highlands, and the placement of all previous settlements on the likely ancient road that lead southwards from the Drava lowlands. Its route was probably once again discovered by the future highway that, it appears, Mows its direction at this location at least from the Bednja river valley to Plitvica. This preposition is based on the research conducted during the construction supervision. The wider Varazdin area is almost completely bereft of finds from the new Stone Age. A few pot sherds and perhaps a single flint tool from Blizna do not offer an opportunity for further study be cause they cannot be compared or brought into some sort of relation with archaeological sites in this re gion. The situation with the research of the Copper Age is much better in this part of Croatia. Several sites are already known that were habitations of members of the Lasinja culture, so that Blizna, along with the other new sites covered in this book, is a welcome addition to the overall picture. The nearest site is Varazdin-Brezje and, based on the results of the research, published admittedly in a modest form, it can be said that Blizna is similar in its character istics. These are lowland settlements on very slightly elevated positions near small waterways, which is a

127

Jakopovec-Blizna. Ulomak ranoslavenskog lonca ukrasenog ^'J nom valovmcom ' c r t a t m Jakopovec-Blizna. Potsherd from an early Slavic pot decorated with an irregular wavy line and line. (T27-4)

128

Jakopovec-Blizna. Karakteristi~ni profili sonde A (sjever, jug, zapad). 1aHumusni sloj, tamno sme|a zemlja, bez nalaza. 1b - Svijetlo `uti sloj, relativno tvrd, bez nalaza. Pijesak i ilova~a. 1cSvijetlo `uti sloj, tvrd, bez nalaza. Nastavlja se na prethodni, ali pri dnu tamniji. Pijesak i ilova~a. 2- Tamniji sloj, svijetlo sme|e boje. Tvrd, s primjesama pijeska. Pojava ulomaka ljepa svijetlo naran~aste boje, rijetki ulomci keramike. 3- Tamniji sloj, svijetlo sme|e boje, sli~an prethodnom. Rijetki ulomci keramike. 4Tamniji sloj, tamno sme|e do sivkaste boje. Mekaniji sloj s primjesama pijeska.Pojava ulomaka ljepa svijetlo naran~aste boje. 5- Tamniji sloj. Tamno sme|e boje, sli~an prethodnom. Pojava ulomaka keramike. 6- Zdravica. Tamno `uti sloj sa sme|im to~kama. Bez nalaza. Tvrda vodonepropusna ilova~a. A, BIspuna jame. Tamno sme|a zemlja s primjesama. C- Keramika. D- Ljep. Jakopovec-Blizna. Characteristic profile of trench A (north, south, west). 1aLayer of humus, dark brown earth, no finds. 1b Light yellow layer, relatively hard, no finds. Sand and clay. 1c- Light yellow layer, hard, no finds. Continues from the previous layer but darker at the bottom. Sand and clay. 2- Darker layer, light brown in colour. Hard, has an admixture of sand. Contains shards of daub of light orange colour, sporadic potsherds. 3- Darker layer, light brown in colour, similar to the previous layer. Sporadic potsherds. 4- Darker layer, dark brown to greyish in colour. Softer layer with admixture of sand. Contains shards of daub of light orange colour. 5- Darker layer. Dark brown in colour, similar to the previous layer. Contains potsherds. 6Subsoil. Dark yellow layer with brown patches. No finds. Hard impermeable clay. A, B- Pit deposit. Dark brown earth with admixture. C- Ceramics. D- Daub.

zarnih polja kasnog broncanog doba. Ovdje, kao i drugdje u okolici, nalazi datiraju u razlicite faze ove dugotrajne kulture, ali su uglavnom najbrojniji nalazi zavrsnih faza, prema prijelazu u starije zeljezno doba (Jakopovec-Luzak, SemovecSarnjak, Nedelisce-Stara ves, Skarnik-Gradec, Matusini-Gradisce2...). Nalazi prema AMS-14C ispitivanjima pokazuju kako je Blizna tijekom kasnog broncanog doba ipak bila najgusce naseljena u 12. i ll.st.pr.Kr. Privreda ovih naselja razvidno je bila temeljena na stocarstvu, prema nalazima zivotinjskih kostiju. Takoder je zanimljiva njihova brojnost u dravskoj dolini, gdje se nalaze na polozajima koji uglavnom nemaju posebne obrambene znacajke, premda ih istodobno (?) ima i na vrlo strmim i dobro utvrdenim gradinama. Ovo je svakako jedno sire i vaznije pitanje, na koje ce se vremenom trebati naci suvisli odgovor. Mladezeljezno doba prilicno je slabo poznato na ovom podrucju. Nekoliko slucajnih nalaza s Brezja, Sarnjaka i dragdje dosad nisu davali neku jasnu sliku naseljavanja. Na Blizni se ipak uspjelo otkriti veci broj zatvorenih cjelina, a i ostali nalazi su stratigrafski odredeni. Sada je zasigurno dokazano kako je barem od od lOO.g.pr.Kr. ovdje prebivao keltski zivalj, koji se u uredenim naseljima, osim lovom i stocarstvom, bavio i metalopreradivackom djelatnoscu. Moze se naslutiti kako je ta djelatnost zadovoljavala, osim vlastitih potreba i potrebe ostalog starosjedilackog panonskog stanovnistva. Ako se v r e m e n o m potvrde ovdje iznesene pretpostavke o medudjelovanju izmedu panonskih Jasa i keltskih Tauriska, mozemo biti sigurni kako se na Blizni osim obicnog keltskog naselja nalazilo i neformalno trgoviste na ulazu u dravsku nizinu. Uostalom, to bi uglavnom i bilo na tragu onoga sto se o opcenito o njihovu suzivotu dosad pretpostavljalo (MARKOVIC 1984, 299, 300). Prilikom rada u nadzora izgradnje autoceste i vise iskopavanja na podrucju Varazdinbrega, bio sam u prilici cesto propjesaciti cijelo spomenuto podrucje. Hodoloskom metodom, a i kasnijim proucavanjima topografskih i ostalih karata, jednostavno je zakljuciti kako je kroz spoj dolina potoka Blizne prema jugu i Velikog potoka kroz

general t r a i t of o t h e r L a s i n j a sites (DIMITRIJEVIC, 1979, 147). All the sites have, almost consistently, dugout houses, scattered across a wider area without traces of a parapet or defensive fosse. The dugout houses at Blizna are usuaUy elon gated, about 4 x 2 m, and dug up to one metre into the subsoil. Earlier research, admittedly often poorly documented and published, did not provide a clear picture or an expressed regularity in the construc tion of residential structures, but this kind is known from other sites (DIMITRIJEVIC, 1979, 148). Fbr the moment there have been no finds at Blizna of the shaUow round 2 x 2 m structures like at Stara ves and Pustakovec. There have also been no metal finds to date, and it is interesting to note that there are not many stone tools. Although animal bones are usually lacking (sheep / goat finds in K4), I believe that herding was nevertheless one of the more important branches of their economy, as Dimitrijevic has already pointed out (DIMITRIJEVIC 1979, 164, 165). Some flint bladelets have plant cutting marks, which could confirm their agricultural ac tivity. The other Lasinja culture sites in the nearer and more distant surroundings (Krc-Cerje Tuzno, Dragusevec-Cerje Novo, Cakovec-Gornji Pustakovec, Nedelisce-Stara ves, Varazdinske Toplice-Gromace2...) exhibit similar elements of habitation. Extensive traces of the late Bronze Age Urnfield culture were found at Blizna. Here, as elsewhere in the area, finds are dated to various phases of this long-lasting culture, the most frequent, however, being from the closing phases, towards the transi tion to the early Iron Age (Jakopovec-Luzak, Semovec-Sarnjak, Nedelisce-Stara ves, SkarnikGradec, Matusini-Gradisce2...). According to AMS14C testing the finds indicate that Blizna was dur ing the late Bronze Age most densely populated in the 12th and 11th centuries BC. Based on the finds of animal bones the economies of these settlements were evidently based on herding. Their abundance in the Drava valley is also interesting, where they are situated at positions that usually have not par ticular defensive characteristics, although they are at the same time (?) also found on very steep and

129

Jakopovec-Blizna. Isje~ak ju`nog profila sonde A. Jasno su zamjetljiva dva hodna sloja u izgledu tamnije zemlje. Jakopovec-Blizna. A segment of the south profile of trench A. Two occupa tional layers are clearly discernable in the appearance of the darker earth.

dolinu Koscevca prema jugu, Varazdinbreg na ovome mjestu upravo najlaksi za prolaz. Naime, to su jedine dvije doline, nastale djelovanjem vodotoka, koje se spajaju gotovo na istome mjestu hrpta Varazdinbrega. To mjesto je danas selo Vrtlinovec, a prema nadmorskim visinama, upravo kod njega najniza je i tocka spomenutog hrpta.18 Ta mikrolokacija nalazi se kod vodospreme u Vrtlinovcu, gdje danas prolazi mjesna cesta Kneginec-Toplice, preko odavno navezenog zemljanog nasipa. Uvjeren sam kako je taj nasip umjetno pregradio nekad jos nize sedlo ove prirodne komunikacije izmedu ove dvije doline. Opisana trasa, kroz pitomu dolinu potoka Blizna, preko blagog prijevoja kod vodospreme Vrtlinovec i kroz dolinu Velikog potoka (Koscevec), znacila je zapravo tisucljetnu prapovijesnu komunikaciju izmedu doline Drave i Bednje. Moderni cestograditelji prepoznali su ove prirodne pogodnosti i projektirali trasu na jednak nacin kao i njihovi predsasnici prije vise tisuca godina. Dionica autoceste Varazdinske Toplice - Varazdin, naime, danas prolazi tocno opisanim putom, s jedinom razlikom, sto je sagraden i tunel, koji se nalazi ravno ispod najnizeg prijevoja, kod spomenute vodospreme u Vrtlinovcu. Pitanje trase rimske ceste i prije se doticalo toponima Blizna, ali se dosad nije znalo za ovo

well-fortified hill-forts. This is in any event a wider and significant issue to which a meaningful answer will have to be found in time. The late Iron Age is quite poorly represented in this area. Several chancefindsfrom Brezje, Sarnjak and elsewhere have not yet yielded a clear picture of habitation. Blizna did, nevertheless provide a large number of closed ensembles, and the otherfindsare stratigraphically determined. It is now definitely proven that Celts lived here at least from 100 BC in orderly settlements in which they engaged in, be sides hunting and herding, metal-working activity. There are indications that this production satisfied, besides their own needs, those also of the other in digenous Panonnian populations. If, in time, the hypotheses elaborated here are confirmed of the in teraction of Panonnian Iasi and the Celtic Taurisci, we can be sure that there was at Blizna, besides a typical Celtic settlement, an informal marketplace at the entry to the Drava lowland. This would, be sides, be largely in keeping with what has already been presumed about their coexistence (MABKOVIC 1984, 299, 300). During the supervision of the construction of the highway and several excavations in the Varazdinbreg area I had the opportunity to make frequent hikes across the entire area in question. Using the walkalogical method, and in later study

18 Va&n podatak za istraHvanje keltske hdture na ovom podrueju je i nalaz ostave srebmog keltskog novea u Banjsfini, selu do Vrtiinovea Naime u Kukuljevi6evoj opfimoj korespondeneiji pronadeno je i pismo u kojem oko 1857.g. javlja Aleksiju Rakoveu slijedeee: na Tvoje pitanje poradi novacah naSastih u Toplicah mogu Ti sam t liko odgovoriti..znam da je prije njekoliko godinah u Banjmni s lieva izpod po novacah, tako zvanih barbarskih ili keltikih, s jedne strane glava, s druge konj, veoma lijepo rezano bez napisa srebroasto i novac podobro debeo. Ja sam predadoh muzeu do dva komada ali Ti jih sada na/i nebi mogao (ZMA,nGim, 24). An important piece ofinformation for the research ofthe Celtic culture in this area is thefind of a hoard ofsilver Celtic money in Banjscina, a village next to Vrtlinovec. In Kukuljevics extensive correspondance a letter was found in which he around the year 1857 relates to Aleksija Rakovac thefollowing:to your question concerning the moneyfoundat Toplice I can say only this...I know that afew years ago some silver money ofthe so-called barba eltic, was found in Banjscina to the left under the postmasters office, bearing one one side a head and the other a horse, very nicely cut clean silver without inscriptions and quite thick I gave two pieces to the museum but I would not now be able tofindthem (ZMAJIC1967, 24).

130

Jakopovec-Blizna. Jama J23 prona|ena ispod kontrolnog profila prije pra`njenja. Jakopovec-Blizna. Pit J23 found under the control profile prior to emptying.

nalaziste (KLEMENC 1953). Naime, desetljetne of topographic and other maps, it is easy to con rasprave oko odredivanja smjerova rimskih cesta clude that the easiest passage through Varazdinbreg izmedu Poetovia, Murse i Siscije u varazdinskom is here, through the junction of the Blizna creek kraju nisu ni danas zakljucene, a zasigurno nece valley heading southwards with the Veliki potok biti jos neko vrijeme. U doba kada su se prva creek through the Koscevec valley, also southbound. trasiranja pokusala ucrtati u karte, nisu bila poznata These are, namely, the only two valleys, created by brojna nalazista, pa su se tako smjerovi mogli the activity of running waterways that meet at al ucrtavati vise-manje proizvoljno, odnosno kako je most the same point on the ridge of Varazdinbreg. bolje odgovaralo. Pitanje Blizne i moguce trase The place is today the village of Vrtlinovec; its alti rimske ceste uz ili kroz nju, neodvojivo je od pitanja tude above sea level puts it at the lowest point of this tocne ubikacije Agwae Vive i Populosa. To su mjesta ridge.18 This micro location is located at the water na kojima se nalazila putna postaja na cesti Poetavw reservoir in Vrtlinovec, where the present-day local - Mursa. Za nas je vazno to da se negdje kod ovih Kneginec-Toplice road passes, over the long since postaja morala odvajati cesta koja je vodila prema constructed embankment. I am convinced that this Aquae Iasae. Dakako, na danasnjem stupnju embankment remodelled the once even lower arheoloske znanosti, potrebno je kroz sustavna saddle of this natural link between these two valleys. iskopavanja materijalno dokazati postojanje putnih The described route, through the cultivated Blizna postaja, ali i samih trasa cesta. To jos nismo postigli, creek valley, over the gentle pass at the Vrtlinovec ali je sve vise nalaza koji poput kockica mozika pune water reservoir and through the Veliki potok creek praznine, te nam tako daju precizniju sliku ovog valley (Koscevec), actually marks the millennial pre prostora. historic communication between the Drava and Klemenc je bio misljenja da se Aqua Viva nalazila Bednja valleys. Modern day highway engineers kod Vinice (KLEMENC, SARIA 1936; recognised these natural advantages and chose the KLEMENC 1953), a neki su je postavljali i same route as the predecessors had several thou drugdje, dok se u novije vrijeme sa sve vecom sand years ago. The Varazdinske Toplice - Varazdin sigurnoscu ova putna postaja smjesta u Petrijanec section of the highway, namely, today passes along (SARIC 1975, 49, 50; FULIR 1970 i ini). Postaju exactly this route with the one difference that a tun Populos nije bilo moguce priblizno pripisati nekome nel has been built now that passes right under the mjestu, sve do Vukovicevih nalaza na Sarnici, te lowest pass, at the mentioned Vrtlinovec water res iskopavanja Vikic-Belanciceve (VIKIC-BELAN- ervoir. CIC 1968). Njihovi rezultati vjerojatno daju za The issue of the route of the Roman road has pravo Fuliru, koji samouvjereno postavlja ovu previously touched on the Blizna toponym, but ex postaju bas na to mjesto (FULIR 1970,11, 12). istence of this site was until now unknown Time se ujedno potvrduje prvotno promisljanje (KLEMENC 1953). Decades of debate on identi Klemenca (KLEMENC, SARIA 1936, 91, fying the directions taken by Roman roads between ...vorbei nach Bartolovec...), ali ne i njegov odnos Poetovia, Mursa and Siscia in the Varazdin area prema samoj postaji Populos (KLEMENC 1953, have yet to been concluded, and will certainly not be 85, Mutatio Populos je ze samo na cesti proti for some time to come. The numerous sites were Mursi). unknown at the time when the first routes of the No, sada je potrebno odrediti i tocan smjer ceste future highway were being drawn into the maps, and they could therefore been marked out more or less at will, that is to say by whatever line was more appropriate. The issue of Blizna and that of the possible Roman road running along or through it is inseparable from the issue of the determining the location ofAquae Viva and Populos. These are places on which the travel stations on the Poetovw - Mursa road were located. What is important for us is that the one arm of the road branched off somewhere near these stations in the direction ofAquae Iasae. Of course, with todays level of archaeological sci ence, material proof of the existence of the travel stations and of the roads route itself, needs to been found through systematic excavations. This we have not yet achieved, but there are more and more finds that, like the pieces of a mosaic, fill the gaps and offer us a more precise picture of this region. Klemenc was of the opinion that Aqua Viva was located near Vinica (KLEMENC, SARIA 1936; KLEMENC 1953), others placed it elsewhere, while in newer times this travel station is with increas ing certainty being situated in Petrijanec (SARIC

prema Aquae Iasae, koji se negdje morao odvajati od ceste Poetovio - Mursa, a izmedu spomenutih postaja. Klemenc je 1953.g. bio misljenja da je ta cesta polazila od danasnjeg Tarcina, preko Kneginca pa Vrtlinovca preko hrpta brda, otprilike danasnjom trasom. Za svoju teoriju on navodi srednjovjekovne zapise koji spominju i Bliznu, aJi kao granicu posjeda (KLEMENC 1953, 84, 85, Prima meta... pervenit ad rivulum qui vulgo dicitur Blizna, et per eundem rivulum vertitur ad meridiem, pervenit ad quandam vallem et ascendit ad magnam viam, per quam itur ad Toplitz., zatim dalje: ...inde per eundem rivulum Blizna eundo ad meridiem (venissent) ad quandam vallem et ascenderet ad magnam viam, per quam itur ad Thoplicam...). Njemu je u ovom slucaju bitno to sto magna via, koju on prema torn nazivanju u 15.st. smatra rimskom prema postanku, ide iz pravca Kneginca u Topliee.19 Ujedno bi iz Kneginca, prema njegovom misljenju, nastavljala preko Blizne do Martijanca (rimski grobovi), Poljanca (nalaz rimskih kola) i rimskog gratia Iovije (Ludbrega) (KLEMENC 1953, 85, karta). Pulir je vrlo kritican prema Klemencovim citiranjima srednjovjekovnih izvora te je misljenja kako oni izrazom magna via ne potvrduju postojanje rimske ceste, i to podrobnije razlaze (PULIR 1970, 6,7). Nadalje, on je uvjeren, na osnovi rezulata iskopavanja Vikic-Belanciceve, kako se glavna cesta za Aquae Iasae odvajala bas na Sarnici, odnosno njegovoj mutatio Populos (VIKIC-BELANCIC 1968, 98; PULIR 1969, 1970,11, 12). Razumnim slijedom, takav pravac ceste, zasad materijalno potvrden samo u sondi 11 iskopavanja na Sarnici 1968.g., mogao bi uz Kelemen i Kastelanec doci na Jakopovec, odnosno Bliznu, kako bi se nasao na putu prema Toplicama.20 No, on ju, kao i Vikic-Belancic te Gorenc, poslije Kastelanca, vodi preko Velikog vrha na Vrtlinovec, preko hrpta brda (PULIR 1969, 389 - 391, karta). Prema njegovu misljenju, tragovi u vidu sljunka, koji se mogu pratiti gotovo cijelim putom od Sarnice, preko Velikog vrha, do samih Toplica naznake su rimske ceste. Postujuci njegov izniman terenski trad u obilasku ove trase i inih, odredenja takvih tragova za rimsku cesta trebaju i dodatnu potvrdu kroz iskopavanja. Nasim iskopavanjima na Blizni zasad nije otkrivena rimska cesta. No, otkriveni su tragovi opseznijeg naseljavanja iz antickog i kasnoantickog

Jakopovec-Blizna. Jama J23 tijekom pra`njenja. Jakopovec-Blizna. Pit J23 during emptying.

131

1975, 49, 50; PULIR 1970 and others). The Populos station could not be conditionally attrib uted to a particular place until Vukovic's finds at Sarnica, and the Vikic-Belancic excavations (VIKIC-BELANCIC 1968). Their results prob ably confirm Pulirs position, whose confidently Jakopovec-Blizna. Jama J23 nakon pra`njenja. placed the station at that precise location (FULIR Jakopovec-Blizna. Pit J23 after emptying. 1970,11, 12). This also confirmed Klemencs ini-

19 Zalwaljujem prodr.Anamariji Kurilie na ljubaznoj pomoei u prijeyodu latinskili eitata objavljenili kod Klemenca. Thanks to Professor Anamarija Kurilie Ph.D. for her assistance in translating the Latin passages published by Klemenc.

'> Vikie-Belaneie i Gorene smatraju da je trasa rimske eeste sa Samiee vodila u Topliee preko Velikog wha (iznad Jakopovea). Doduse, njiliovo tuma&nje je nerazborito jer predlazu trasu ...preko Tuhovca-Zbelave-Bartolovca na Kelemen, te preko Velikog vrha...,sto je slijed bez nekog smisla. Takoder smatraju da je postojao i drugi put, koji je iz pravea VarazdinaTOdio u Topliee preko Turfina kao odvojak eeste Poetovio - Siseia (VIKIC, GORENC 1969, 7). Kao juzni odvojak sa isteeeste, spominju i trecu trasu, koja bi iz pravca Novog Marofa dolazila u Topliee, preko Gromaea, ali ujedno uz potok Koseevee, sto jedno drugo iskljueuje (VIKIC, GORENC 1969, 14). Cetvrti pravaebi iz smjera Topliea isao dolinom Bednje prema Ludbrega. Zbog svojili ofiglednilinejasnoea u preeiznom trasiranju, nije moguee ozbiljnije razmatrati njiliov prinos u ovom radu, osim kao podatak kako se zalazu za eetiri osnovna pravcarimskihcesta koje su se racvale u Toplieama. Vikic-Belancic and Gorencfeel that the route of the Roman road leadfromSarnica to Toplice by way of Veliki vrh (above Jakopovec). There explanation is, however, unreasonable because it proposes a route ...over Tuhovec-Zbelava-BartolovectoKelemen, and over Veliki vrh... which is a sequence without logic. They also feel that a second route existed that leadfromVaradin to Toplice by way of Tumn as a branch of the Poetovio - Siscia road (VIKIG, GORENC 1969, 7). As a southern branch ofthe same road they mention a third route that would lead from Nov Marofto Toplice by way of Gromace but also the Koscevec creek, but here one cancels the other out (VIKIC, GORENC 1969, 14) A four oftheir evident ambiguity in tracing out precise routes, their contribution in this work cannot be taken seriously other than to note thefact that they propose four basic routes ofthe Roman roads that branched at Toplice.

132

Jakopovec-Blizna. Iskopavanje kontrolnog profila po sredini sonde A i pra`njenje najdubljih ukopa. Jakopovec-Blizna. Excavation of a control profile along the middle of trench A and emptying of the deepest excavation.

tial thoughts (KLEMENC, SARIA 1936, 91, ...vorbei nach Bartolovec...), but not his position regarding the Populos station itself (KLEMENC 1953, 85, Mutatio Populos je ze samo na cesti proti Mursi). Now, however, we need to determine the exact direction the road took heading for Aquae Iasae, that should fork somewhere off the Poetovio - Mursa road, between the mentioned stations. Klemenc in 1953 was of the opinion that this road started from modern day Turcin, via Kneginec, then Vrtlinovec over the ridge of the hill, more or less along the present route. In support of his theory he cites a medieval document that mention Blizna, but as the border of a possession (KLEMENC 1953, 84, 85, Prima meta... pervenit ad rivulum qui vulgo dicitur Blizna, et per eundem rivulum vertitur ad meridiem, pervenit ad quandam vallem et ascendit ad magnam viam, per quam itur ad Toplitz., and further: ...inde per eundem rivulum Blizna eundo ad meridiem (venissent) ad quandam vallem et doba, koji nam mogu pomoci u potrazi za samom ascenderet ad magnam viam, per quam itur ad trasom. Kao sto je vec prethodno razlozeno, dolina Thoplicam...). To him it is in this case important potoka Blizne prema Vrtlinovcu, prirodan je i that the magna via, that he, based on this 15th najlaksi put za dolazak u Tbplice. Stoga mislim da century appellation, considers to be of Roman ori 19 se rimska cesta prema Tbplicama uistinu odvajala gin, heads from the direction of Kneginec to Toplice. sa Sarnice, te preko nalazista Blizna, uz istoimeni It would also from Kneginec, in his opinion, con potok prelazila sedlo kod Vrtlinovca i dolinom tinue on over Blizna to Martijanec (Roman graves), Koscevca uJaziku Toplice. Ipak, s obziromimsadasnje Poljanec (find of a Roman cart) and the Roman stanje istrazivanja, a iiimjuci u vidu iniJiTOve rezultate, town of Iovia (Ludbreg) (KLEMENC 1953, 85, map). ova pretpostavka jos nije konacna. Pulir is very critical of Klemencs citations of Anticki nalazi s Blizne mogli su pripadati ljudima koji su zivjeli na samom lijevku kojim se medieval sources and of the opinion that their ap ulazilo na brdovit put prema jugu, odnosno pellation magna via does not confirm the existence dolinama Bednje i Save. U ranom i srednjocarskom of a Roman road, and goes on to explain this in dobu, ovdje se vjerojatno nije nalazilo neko detail (PULIR 1970, 6,7). Further, he is convinced, znacajnije naselje, mozda samo nekoliko kuca, ali based on the results of the Vikic-Belancic excava razvidno je kako je u vrijeme kasne antike, ovaj tions, that the main road for Aquaelasae split off at polozaj iznenada dobivao znatno vecu vaznost. Zasto Sarnica, i.e. at his mutatio Populos (VIKICzasad nije jasno, pogotovo sto ovdje nije rijec o BELANCIC 1968, 98; PULIR 1969, 1970,11, utvrdenom pribjezistu, vec o otvorenom, 12). Following a logical sequence, that route, for the nebranjenom prostora koje je u nesrazmjeru s present having material confirmation only in trench takvim, u to doba vec vrlo cestim naseljima. Nadam 11 of the 1968 Sarnica excavation, could, by way of da ce otvaranje novih arheoloskih sondi na Blizni Kelemen and Kastelanec come to Jakopovec, i.e. 20 otkriti i drugefiksnestrukture koje bi nam to mogle Blizna, to find its way to Toplice. But, he, as do objasniti. Takoder je za ovo pitanje vazno i Vikic-Belancic and Gorenc, after Kastelanec, leads iskopavanje ostalih kasnoantickih nalazista u it over Veliki vrh to Vrtlinovec, and over the ridge of najblizqj okolici, ponajprije Sarnice, te ostalih the hill (FULIR 1969, 389 - 391, map). Traces in mogucih nalazista na potezu Turcin - Ludbreg. Na the form of gravel, in his opinion, that can be fol konacno razrjesenje ovih pitanja, s obzirom na lowed along almost the entire route from Sarnica, tempo arheoloskih istrazivanja, sigurno ce se dugo over Veliki vrh, right up to Toplice itself, are signs of cekati, ali se nadam da ce rezultati ovih iskopavanja a Roman road. In respect of his exceptional efforts, Blizne pomoci u nalazenju odgovora na slozena in fieldwork touring this route and elsewhere, the determination of these traces as a Roman road re pitanja kasne antike ovog podrucja.21 quires further proofs by way of excavations. KATALOG Our excavation at Blizna has for the moment not uncovered a Roman road. The traces of largeTABLA 1 - Blizna K4 1- Rubni fmi - prijelazno fmi ulomak zdjele sa dva scale settlement from the Roman and late Roman periods have, however, been found and they can cepasta ispupcenja. 2- Srednje fmi ulomak zdjele s jednim cepastim help us in the search for the route itself. As was previously expounded, the Blizna creek valley in ispupcenjem (drugo je ispalo iz lezista). 3- Trbusni sivi prijelazno fmi ulomak posude sa the Vrtlinovec direction is a natural and the easiest

dva cepasta ispupcenja iznad kojih je horizontalni niz blago zlijebljenih duguljastih poteza. 4- Rekonstruirani vrc s drskom do oboda, sivosmede boje. 5- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, prociscene gline s malo primjesa pijeska, izvana erne a u prijelomu sive boje. 6- Rub grubog lonca crvenosive boje. Priblizno kruskasti oblik posude. 7- Veliki grubi lonac s malo podignutom ruckom poput kljuna. Sivocrvenkaste boje, kamencici u fakturi. TABLA 2 - Blizna K4 1- Ulomakfineposude sa V-ukrasom od dvije crte, okrazene sa dva niza tockica na crti. Uz obod horizontalni niz tockica a na obodu niz zareza. Ulomakfinetamno-sive rucke vrca. Sa strane prema rucki kosi (prekinuti) niz tockica. Tri ulomka. 2- Veliki ulomak bikonicnog trbuha (dolje neukrasen udubljeni dio) fine amforice sa cetiri niza tockica i nizom vertikalnih zareza. Bogato ukrasen ulomak s horizontalnim linijama i tockama, te vertikalnim i kosim zarezima. Tri ulomka. 3- Dio bikonicne zdjele s kratkom ruckicom od oboda do trbuha. Bogato ukrasena. Drska ima nizove uboda a gornji dio s horizontalnim crtama gore (uokolo kapljicasti ubodi), te na donjemu dijelu jednaki trakasti motiv izveden vertikalno. 4- Ulomak posude izradene prostomcno, dobro prociscene gline, izvana tamno smede glacane, a u prijelomu sive boje. 5- Rub tanke sivocrvene zdjelice sa dva niza tockica izmedu kojih je crta. 6- Mali ulomak s urezanim crtama, otpala drska. 7- Urezi i ubodi nafinomvrcu blizu otpale drske. 8- Veliki ulomak vece bikonicne sive fine zdjele, ukrasen izvana i iznutra. Izvana dva horizontalna niza tockica u gornjem dijelu. Iznutra dva malo zakrivljena niza tockica od kojih jedna traka od dva niza tockica smjera prema dnu. Vise ulomaka. 9- Ulomak posude izradene prostomcno, dobro prociscene gline, sive boje. Na vanjskoj povrsini tragovi bojenja crnom bojom. 10- Ulomak sive fine bikonicne zdjele. Iznad brezuljkaste aplikacije dva kosa urezana niza crta. TABLA 3 - Blizna K4 1- Slijepljena gruba bikonicna zdjela.

way to get to Tbplice. I feel therefore that the Roman road heading for Tbplice truly branches off at Sarnice, and passing over the site at Blizna, follows the creek of the same name over the saddle at Vrtlinovec and, running along the Koscevec valley, enters Tbplice. Given the present state of the re search, however, and keeping in view Fulirs results, this proposition is by no means final. The Roman period finds at Blizna could have originated from people who lived at the very fun nel through which the hilly southward route was accessed, i.e. along the Bednja and Sava river val leys. There probably was no larger settlement here during the early and middle Empire period, per haps only a few houses, but it is evident that this position suddenly took on a much greater signifi cance during the late Roman period. Why this hap pened is for the moment unclear, especially as this was not a fortified refugium, but rather an open, undefended area not in proportion with this kind of, at the time quite frequent, settlements. I hope that the opening of new archaeological trenches at Blizna will uncover otherfixedstructures that could unravel this enigma. Also key to this issue are exca vations at the other late Roman period sites in the direct vicinity, above all at Sarnica, and other pos sible sites along the Turcin-Ludbreg line. Given the tempo of archaeological research the final resolu tion of these questions will be long in coming, but I do hope that the results of these excavations at Blizna will help in providing answers to the complex ques tions of the late Roman period in this area.21 CATALOGUE TABLE 1 - Blizna K4 1- Pine to traditionally fine potsherd from a bowl with two plug-like protrusions. 2- Mediumfinepotsherd from a bowl with a single plug like protrusion (the other has faUen out ofplace). 3- Convex grey transitionaUyfinepotsherd with two plug-like protrusions above which is a horizontal series of long, lightly grooved, strokes. 4- Reconstructed jug with handle extending to the rim, of greyish-brown colour. 5- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of refined clay with little temper of sand, of black colour outside and grey at the break. 6- Edge of a rough pot of reddish-grey colour Roughly pear-shaped vessel. 7- Large rough pot with slightly elevated beak-like handle. Of reddish-grey colour, pebbles in the texture.

133

21 Nakon pisanja ovog rada, 2005.g. izwsena su i nova iskopavanja nalazista Blizna. Osim jedne sonde na zapadu nalazista, u kojoj je otkriven dio veee keltske poluzemuniee, uglamom je istrazwano na istoenoj strani. Nekadasnja jama K l l otvorena je u svojoj pozadini, te se ispostayilo kako jerijeeo jednoj wlo velikoj jami, koja se moze siwislije tumafiti samo kao ribnjak ili nesto tomu slieno. Kopano je i na nekim dijelowna nalazista, gdje se dosad nije sondiralo. Na krajnjem istoku nalazista otkrivena je jos jedna nova lasinjska zenmniea s ostaeima obrade kamenili alatki. Na wliu pjeseanog brezuljka, otkriveno je nekoliko ranosrednjovjekomili jama koje bi mogle datirati od 7. do 9.st., kao i nekoliko drugili, vjerojatno iz prapowjesti i doba seobe naroda. I ova nova kampanja pokazala je da je Blizna veliko i wijedno nalaziste koje & tek kroz yise kampanja pokazati sve svoje poteneijale. Now arlieoloski nalazi upravo su na obradi, a objava ove kampanje iskopavanja ce slijediti iduce godine. New excavations were carried out at the Blizna site in 2005 after the writing ofthis book was completed. Besides a single trench to the west ofthe site, in which part ofa larger Celtic dugout house was uncovered; most ofthe new research took place on the eastern side. Former pit K11 was opened in its background and was revealed as a very large pit that can be ogica ly explained only as afishpondor the like. Parts ofthe site that had not previously seen sondages were excavated. A new Lasinja dugout house with the remains ofstone toolfabrication was uncovered to thefar east ofthe site. Several early Medieval pits were uncovered at the top ofa sandy hillock that could be dated from the 7th to 9th centuries, as were several others, probably prehistoric and from the Migration period This new campaign again testified to Bliznas status as a large and valuable site that will prove its potential only though several campaigns. The new archaeological finds are currently being processed, and the publishing ofthe results ofthis campaign should take place next year.

134

TABLE 2 - Blizna K4 1- Potsherd of a fine vessel with V-decoration formed by two lines, surrounded by two series of dots on a line. A horizontal series of dots along the rim and a series of incisions on the rim. Potsherd of a fine dark grey jug handle. A slanted (incomplete) series of dots along the side towards the handle. Three potsherds. 2- Large potsherd of the carinated belly (an undecorated recessed section lower) of a fine small amphora with four series of dots and a series of vertical incisions. A richly decorated potsherd with horizontal lines and dots and vertical and diagonal incisions. Three potsherds. 3- Part of a carinated bowl with a short handle from TABLA 4 - Blizna K7 / K8 / K14 1- Dio ruba zdjele s roscicem na obodu. Fina posuda. the rim to belly. Richly decorated. The handle has several series of pricks and the upper portion has K7. 2- Dio trbuha srednje grabe posude (loncica) na horizontal lines upwards (drop-like pricks around kojoj se nalaze crveni tragovi poput slikanja ili them), and an equivalent vertical ribbon-like motif on the lower portion. premaza. K7. 4- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of well-refined 3- Rubni dio gmbog lonca. Izvana oker, iznutra sive clay, of dark brown burnished colour outsides, and boje. U fakturi kamencici. K7. of grey colour at the break. 4- Ulomakfinebikonicne zdjele, izvana erne, iznutra 5- Edge of a thin reddish-grey bowl with two series crvene. K7. of small dots between which is a line. 5- Dio zlice s otvorom za drsku. K7. 6- Small potsherd with engraved lines, handle has 6- Slijepljeno i neslijepljeno dno srednje grabe fallen off. 7- Incisions and pricks on a fine jug close to where posude, ravno. Sive boje. K8. 7- Ulomak fine sive posude s horizontalnim nizom the handle has fallen off. 8- Large potsherd of a large carinated grey fine trokutica. K8. bowl, decorated inside and outside. Two horizontal 8- Obradeni roznjak. K8. series of dots outside on the upper part. Two slightly 9- Obradeni roznjak. K8. 10- Rub grubog loncica sivocrvenkaste boje, sa crooked series of dots inside of which one ribbon of two series of dots heads downwards. Multiple pot sitnim kamencicima u fakturi. K14. sherds. 11- Fina bikonicna siva zdjela s rebrastim 9- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of well-refined horizontalnim zadebljanjem trbuha. K14. clay, of grey colour. Traces of black colouring on outer surface. TABLA 5 - Blizna, bakreno doba: 10- Potsherd of a fine carinated bowl. Two diago Slojevi Slucajni nalazi nally engraved series of lines above a bumpy appli 1- Ulomak keramicke zlice s otvorom za drsku, cation.

2- Prostorucno izradena zlica, s mnogo primjesa sitnih kamencica koji se trase, nepravilnog oblika, smede boje. 3- Naglaseno bikonicna crnosiva zdjela, uvucen donji dio. 4- Fina neukrasena siva, blago bikonicna zdjela, ulomak. 5- Velik ulomak sivefinebikonicne zdjele s rebrastim horizontals izvucenim trbuhom. 6- Obradeni roznjak. 7- Sjekira od glacanog uslojenog tamno zelenog kamena slabije kvalitete.

crvene boje. Sonda A, Kv H, Sloj 5. 2- Obradeni roznjak. Sonda A, Sloj 1-2. 3- Obradeni roznjak. Sonda A, Kv U, Sloj 3. 4- Obradeni roznjak. Sonda A, Sloj 1-2. 5- Obradeni roznjak. Sonda A, Kv =, Sloj 2. 6- Obradeni roznjak. Sonda A, Kv U, Sloj 4. 7- Ulomak velike grube bikonicne zdjele s kratkim gornjim dijelom. U fakturi kamencici. Slucajni nalaz. 8- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, prociscene gline, tamno sive i smede boje. Slucajni nalaz. 9- Crvena grublja bikonicna zdjela s kratkim gornjim dijelom. Slucajni nalaz. 10- Ulomak bikonicne zdjele ili tanjura. Ukrasen tockicama na sivoj vanjskoj strani, a iznutra vertikalnim snopom crta na smeckastoj podlozi. Slucajni nalaz. 11- Bikonicni ulomak s jednom rupom gore, izvana smeckast, iznutra siv Slucajni nalaz. 12- Sivi cetvrtasti obradeni amulet s rupom u sredini. Diofineposude. Slucajni nalaz. 13- Obradeni roznjak. Slucajni nalaz.

TABLE 3 Blizna K4 1- Rough, bonded, carinated bowl. 2- Hand-made spoon, tempered with a large quan tity of crumbling small pebbles, of irregular shape, of brown colour. 3- Very carinated black-grey bowl, recessed lower section. 4- Fine undecorated grey, slightly carinated bowl, potsherd. 5- Large potsherd of a grey, fine carinated bowl with a ribbed, horizontally protruding, belly. 6- Retouched flint. 7- Axe of polished, layered, dark green stone of lower quality. TABLE 4 Blizna K7 / K8 / K14 1- Part of the edge of a bowl with small horns on the rim. Fine vessel. K7. 2- Part of the belly of a medium rough vessel (small pot) with red traces like painting or coating. K7. 3- Edge of a rough pot. Of ochre colour outside, grey on the inside. Pebbles in the texture. K7.

14- Obradeni roznjak. Slucajni nalaz. 15- Obradeni roznjak. Slucajni nalaz. 16- Obradeni roznjak. Slucajni nalaz. 17- Obradeni roznjak. Slucajni nalaz. 18- Obradeni roznjak. Slucajni nalaz. 19- Obradeni roznjak. Slucajni nalaz. 20- Obradeni roznjak. Slucajni nalaz. 21. Obradeni roznjak. Slucajni nalaz.
TABLA 6 Blizna J3

TABLE 5 Blizna, Copper Age: Layers / Chance finds 1- Potsherd of a spoon with an opening for a handle, of red colour. Trench A, Kv H , Layer 5. 2- Retouched flint. Trench A, Layer 1-2. 3- Retouched flint. Trench A, Kv U, Layer 3. 4- Retouched flint. Trench A, Layer 1-2. 5- Retouched flint. Trench A, Kv = , Layer 2. 6- Retouched flint. Trench A, Kv U, Layer 4. TABLA 7 - Blizna J3 7- Potsherd of a large rough carinated bowl with a short 1- Dio posude izradene prostorucno, s malo upper section. Pebbles in the texture. Chance find. primjesa, mekse izrade, narancaste, a u prijelomu 8- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of refined clay, sive i crne boje. Dio T7- 2. of dark grey and brown colour. Chance find. 2- Dio posude izradene prostorucno, s malo 9- Rough carinated bowl of red colour with short primjesa, mekse izrade, narancaste, a u prijelomu upper section. Chance find. 10- Potsherd of a carinated bowl or plate. Deco sive i erne boje. Dio T7- 1. rated with dots on the grey outer side, and with a vertical bundle of lines inside on a brownish base. TABLA 8 - Blizna K5 / K6 1- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, izvana Chance find. 11- Carinated potsherd with a single hole upwards, tamno smede glacane, a u prijelomu erne boje. K5. of brownish colour outside, grey on the inside. 2- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s veoma Chance find. malo primjesa pijeska i kamencica, izvana crvenkasto 12- Grey quadrangular retouched amulet with cen glacane, a u prijelomu tamno smede boje. K5. trally placed hole. Part of a fine vessel. Chance find. 3- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s veoma 13- Retouched flint. Chance find. malo primjesa pijeska, tvrde izrade, tamno smede, 14- Retouched flint. Chance find. a u prijelomu erne boje. K5. 15- Retouched flint. Chance find. 4- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s mnogo 16- Retouched flint. Chance find. primjesa pijeska i kamencica, grube povrsine, izvana 17- Retouched flint. Chance find. smede i narancaste, iznutra tamno smede, a u 18- Retouched flint. Chance find. 19- Retouched flint. Chance find. prijelomu erne boje. K5. 5- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, 20- Retouched flint. Chance find. 21. Retouched flint. Chance find.

1- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s malo primjesa, crvene, ponegdje smede boje. Dio T6- 2. 2- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s malo primjesa, crvene, ponegdje smede boje. Dio T6- 1. 3- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, prociscene gline, tamno smede do crvenkaste a u prijelomu erne boje. 4- Posuda izradena prostorucno, s veoma malo primjesa pijeska i kamencica, svijetlo do tamno smede boje.

4- Potsherd of a fine carinated bowl, of black colour outside, red on the inside. K7. 5- Part of a spoon with an opening for a handle. K7. 6- Bonded and unbonded bottom of a medium rough vessel, straight. Of grey colour. K8. 7- Potsherd of a fine vessel with a horizontal series of small triangles. K8. 8- Retouched flint. K8. 9- Retouched flint. K8. 10- Edge of a rough small pot of reddish-grey colour, with small pebbles in the texture. K14. 11- Fine carinated grey bowl with a ribbed, horizon tally protruding, belly. K14.

135

neprociscene gline, grube povrsine, nepravilne i tvrde izrade, tamno smede boje. K6. 6- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, neprociscene gline, izvana narancaste, a iznutra i u prijelomu erne boje. K6. 7- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, neprociscene gline, izvana narancaste, a iznutra i u prijelomu erne boje. K6. 8- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, neprociscene gline, izvana narancaste, a iznutra i u prijelomu erne boje. K6 9- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, neprociscene gline, izvana zuckastosmede, a iznutra i u prijelomu erne boje. K6.
TABLA 9 Blizna K13 K12

TABLE 6 Blizna J3 1- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with little tem per, of red colour, brown in places. Part of T6- 2. 2- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with little tem per, of red colour, brown in places. Part of T6- 1 . 3- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of refined clay, of dark brown to reddish colour, black at the break. 4- Hand-made vessel, with very little temper of sand and pebbles, of light to dark brown colour. TABLE 7 Blizna J3 1- Part of a hand-made vessel, with little temper, of softer fabrication, of orange colour, grey and black at the break. Part of T7- 2. 2- Part of a hand-made vessel, with little temper, of softer fabrication, of orange colour, grey and black

1- Posuda izradena prostorucno, s malo primjesa

136

pijeska i kamencica, tamno smede, a mjestimice svijetlo smede i narancaste boje. Rekonstruirana.
K13

h break Part T1 1
TABLE 8 - Blizna K5 / K6

2- Veci dio posude izradene prostorucno, s primjesama pijeska i kamencica, nepravilne i tvrde izrade, tanmo smede, a u prijelomu erne boje. K12. 3- Obradeni roznjak. Nalaz u paljevini uz K12. TABLA 10 - BNzna K11 1- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s malo primjesa, glacane povrsine, svijetlo smede, a u prijelomu erne boje. 2- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s veoma malo primjesa, svijetlo smede boje. 3- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s malo primjesa pijeska, tanmo smede, a u prijelomu crne boje. 4- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s veoma malo primjesa pijeska, narancaste boje. 5- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s mnogo primjesa pijeska, grublje izrade, svijetlo smede boje. 6- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s malo primjesa pijeska, tamno smede, a u prijelomu tamno sive b 7.Ko^aiStoimtevm 8 tragovima a oe&,ia bitia.

i_ Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of dark brown burnished colour on the outside and black at the break. K5. 2- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with very little temper of sand and pebbles, of reddish burnished colour on the outside and dark brown at the break.
K5. 3- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with very little temper of sand, of harder fabrication, of dark brown colour, black at the break. K5. 4- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with a large quan tity of temper of sand and pebbles, of rough surface, of brown and orange colour on the outside, dark

brown on the inside, black at the break. K5. 5_ Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of unrefined day, of rough surface, of irregular and harder fabrication, of dark brown colour. K6. 6- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of unrefined clay of orange colour outside, black on the outside and at the break. K6. 7- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of unrefined clay, of orange colour outside, black on the outside ^ t l r i " f a tad-made vessel of unrefined

9- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, prociscene glme, svijetlo sive boje. 10- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s mnogo primjesa pijeska i kamencica, zute boje. 11- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s malo primjesa pijeska, tamno smede, a u prijelomu erne boje 12- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, prociscene gline, svijetlo smede, a u prijelomu crne boje. Na povrsini tragovi bojenja crnom bojom? 13- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno s malo primjesa pijeska, smede, a u prijelomu erne boje. 14- Prsljen izraden prostorucno, s malo primjesa pijeska, narancaste, a u prijelomu erne boje. Pregoren. 15- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s veoma malo primjesa pijeska, tamno smede, a u prijelomu erne boje. Tragovi bojenja crnom bojom. 16- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s malo primjesa pijeska, tamno sive i svijetlo smede boje. 17- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s primjesama pijeska, tamno smede boje.

^ P o t s h e T o f a hand-made vessel, of unrefined clay> 0f yellowish-brown colour outside, black on the outside and at the break. K6. TABLE 9 - BNzna K13 / K12 1- Hand-made vessel, with little temper of sand and pebbles, of dark brown colour, light brown and orange in places. Eeconstructed. K13. 2- large part of a hand-made vessel, with temper of sand and pebbles, of irregular and harder fabrication'of d a A brow l colour'black at the break K12
3- Retouched flint. Found by the side of urn K12. TABLE 10 Blizna K11 1- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with little tem-

per; has a burnished surface, of light brown colour, black at the break. 2- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with very little temper, of light brown colour. 3- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, withUttle temper of sand, of dark brown colour, black at the break. 4- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with very little Sniper of sand, of orange colour. 5- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with a large quan tity of temper of sand, of rough fabrication, of light TABLA 11 - BNzna, kasno broncano doba: brown colour. Slucajni nalazi / Slojevi 6- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with little tem 1- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s per of sand, of dark brown colour, dark grey at the primjesama pijeska i kamencica, svijetlo sive i smede break boje. Slucajni nalaz. 7_ Flint artefact with traces of plant cutting 2- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s malo 8- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with little temprimjesa pijeska, svijetlo smede boje. Slucajni nalaz. per of sand, of brown colour, black at the break. 3- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, prociscene 9- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of refined clay, gline, svijetlo smede do sive, a iznutra erne boje. of light grey colour. Slucajni nalaz. 10- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with a large quan-

4- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s primjesama kamencica, svijetlo smede, a u prijelomu crne boje Slucajni nalaz 5- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s veoma malo primjesa pijeska, smede, a u prijelomu erne boje Slucajni nalaz 6- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s primjesama pijeska, tamno smede boje. Slucajni nalaz. 7- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s malo primjesa kamencica, tvrde izrade, svijetlo crvenkaste boje. Slucajni nalaz. 8- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s veoma malo primjesa pijeska, nepravilnei tvrde izrade, svijetlo narancaste boje. Slucajni nalaz. 9- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s primjesama pijeska i kamencica, narancaste, a u prijelomu erne boje (prepaljeno). Slucajni nalaz.

tity of temper of sand and pebbles, of yellow colour. 11- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with little temper of sand, of dark brown colour, black at the break. 12- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of refined clay, of light brown colour, black at the break. Traces of black colouring on the surface? 13- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with little ternper of sand, of brown colour, black at the break. 14- Hand-made spindle whorl, with little temper of sand, of orange colour, black at the break. Scorched. 15- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with very little

137

temper of sand; of dark brown coloui. biack at the break. Traces of black colouring. 16- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with little temper of sand, of dark grey and light brown colour 17- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with temper of sand, of dark brown colour. TABLE 11 - Blizna, late Bronze Age:

10- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s


primjesama p s k a tamno smede b
i j e , eue uoje.

Chance finds / Layers


1- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with temper of
^ ^ ^ pebble g > of U g M grey a n d b r o w n c o k ) U r

Sluc ni
uoaj

nalaz' 11- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s veoma malo primjesa pijeska i kamencica, tamno smede, a u prijelomu erne boje. Slucajni nalaz. 12- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s primjesama pijeska, tamno smede boje. Slucajni nalaz. 13- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, prociscene gline, erne boje. Slucajni nalaz. 14- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s primjesama pijeska, tamno smede do crvenkaste, u prijelomu erne boje. Slucajni nalaz. 15- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno a u m u , s veoma malo primjesa pijeska, narancaste boje. Slucajm nalaz16- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s primjesama pijeska, tamno smede, u prijelomu erne boje. Slucajm nalaz. 17- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s veoma malo primjesa pijeska, zutosive, a u prijelomu erne boje. Slucajm nalaz. 18- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s primjesama kamencica, narancaste, a u prijelomu sive boje. Slucajm nalaz. 19- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, slabije prociscene, tamno smede, a u prijelomu erne boje. Sonda A, Kv L, Sloj 4. 20- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s primjesama pijeska i kamencica, izvana smede, a iznutra narancaste boje. Sonda A, Kv C, Sloj 3. 21- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s primjesama pijeska i kamencica, izvana narancaste, a iznutra erne boje. Sonda A, Kv B-L, Sloj 4a. TABLA 12 - Blizna J2 / J11 1- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, cjelokupno od grafita s malo primjesa kamencica, tvrde izrade, sive boje. J2. 2- Dio posude izradne na brzovrtecem kolu dobro prociscene gline, tvrde izrade, sive boje sa crmm

Chance find. 2_Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with little temper of sand, of light brown colour. Chance find. g_ Potsherd of a hand.made vessel, of refined clay, 0 f light brown to grey colour, black at the break. Chance find. 4- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with temper of pebbles, of light brown colour, black at the break. Chance find. 5- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with very little temper of sand, of brown colour, black at the break Chance find. 6- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with temper of of dark brown colour Chance find 7_Poteherd of a hand.made vessel;With little tem. per of pebbles, of harder fabrication, of light reddMi colour. Chance find 8- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with very little temper of sand, of irregular and harder fabrication, of light orange colour. Chance find. 9- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with temper of sand and pebbles, of orange colour, black at the break (Scorched). Chance find. 10- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with temper of

sand, of dark brown colour. Chance find. 11- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with very little temper of sand and pebbles, of dark brown colour, black at the break. Chance find. 12- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with temper of sand, of dark brown colour. Chance find.

i3- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of refined clay, of black colour. Chance find 14- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with temper of sand, of dark brown to reddish colour, black at the break. Chance find. 15- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with very little temper of sand, of orange colour. Chance find. 16- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with temper of sand> of dark b colour, black at the break. Chance find. ^"Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with very little temper of sand, of yellow-grey colour, black at the

138 ~

premazom na vanjskoj strani. J 2 . 3- Osteceni uteg mekse izrade, crvene do narancaste, a u prijelomu erne boje. J 2 . 4- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, prociscene gline, tvrde izrade, svijetlo smede boje. J2 5- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, vidljivi tragovi prstiju, prociscene gline, nepravilne i tvrde izrade, tamno smede boje. J l l . 6- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, prociscene gline, tvrde izrade, svijetlo sive boje. J l l . 7- Ulomak posude izradene p r o s t o r u c n o ? , prociscene gline, malo porozne a tvrde izrade, tamno smede boje. J l l 8- Dio posude izradene prostorucno, neprociscene gline, vrlo nepravilne a tvrde izrade, smede boje. J n 9- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, dobro prociscene gline, tvrde izrade, tamno sive boje. Jll 10- Dio broncanog lima s rubom. Na povrsini vidljivi tragovi iskucavanja. J l l a . 1 1 - Ulomak posude izradene p r o s t o r u c n o , nepravilne i tvrde izrade, izvana svijetlo a iznutra tamno smede boje. J l l . 12- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, dobro prociscene gUne, tvrde izrade, svijetlo sive boje. Procijenjeni promjer oboda 28 cm. J l l . TABLA 13 - Blizna J7 1- Dio posude izradene prostorucno, slabije prociscene gline, tvrde izrade, tamno smede, a u prijelomu tamno sive boje. Ispod oboda probusena rupa. 2- U l o m a k p o s u d e i z r a d e n e p r o s t o r u c n o , neprociscene gline, grube povrsine, crno do tamno smede boje. 3- Posuda izradena prostorucno, s mnogo primjesa organskog materijala, vrlo porozne i nepravilne izrade, tamno smede boje. Eekonstruirana. 4- Dio posude izradene prostorucno, slabije prociscene gline, tvrde izrade, tamno smede, a u pri'elomu crne boie 5- U l o m a k p o s u d e i z r a d e n e p r o s t o r u c n o , neprociscene g L grube izrade etlo smed nepiouscene giine, , svij eue, a u prijelomu erne boje. 6- Dio posude izradene prostorucno, slabije prociscene gline, tvrde izrade, zagladene povrsine, tamno smede, a u prijelomu erne boje. TABLA 14 - BNzna J7 1- Posuda izradena prostorucno, na obodu vidljivi tragovi prstiju, slabije prociscene gline, tamno smede, a u prijelomu erne boje. Na dnu utisnut znak u obliku kriza, koji se vidi i na unutrasnjoj strani. Eekonstruirana. 2- Posuda izradena p r o s W n o , p r o a , e n e gline, tamno smede boje. Ispod oboda probusena rupa. Rekonstruirana.

break. Chance find. 18- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with temper of pebbles, of orange colour, grey at the break. Chance find. 19- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, poorly refined, of dark brown colour, black at the break. Trench A, Kv L, Layer 4. 20- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with temper of sand and pebbles, of brown colour outside, orange on the inside. Trench A, Kv C, Layer 3. 21- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with temper of sand and pebbles, of orange colour outside, black on the inside. Trench A, Kv B-L, Layer 4a. TABLE 12 - BNzna J 2 / J11 1- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, entirely of graphite, with little temper of pebbles, of harder fabrication, of grey colour. J2. 2- Part of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, of well-refined clay, of harder fabrication, of grey colour with a black coating on the outside. J2. 3- A damaged weight, of softer fabrication, of red to orange colour, black at the break. J2. 4_ Potsherd of a vessei manufactured on a fast potters wheel, of refined clay, of harder fabrication, 0 f light brown colour. J 2 5- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with visible finger impressions, of refined clay, of irregular and harder fabrication, of dark brown colour. J l l . 6- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, of refined clay, of harder fabrication, of % h t grey colour. J l l . 7- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel (?), of refined clay, of slightly porous and harder fabrication, of dark brown colour. J l l 8- Part of a hand-made vessel, of unrefined clay, of very irregular and harder fabrication, of brown coioUr. J l l 9. Potsherd of a v e s s d manufact a red on a fast potters wheel, of well-refined clay, of harder fabrication, of dark grey colour. J l l 10- Part of a sheet of bronze with edging. Traces of hammering visible on the surface. J l l a . H - Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of irregular and harder fabrication, of light brown colour outside and dark brown on the inside. J l l . 12- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, of well-refined clay, of harder fabri^ . ^ Q ^ ^ y colour Estimated rim diameter i g 2 g cm J n TABLE -\ 3 _ B|jzna j 7 i_ Part of a hand-made vessel, of less refined clay, of harder fabrication, of dark brown colour, dark grey at the break. A single perforation under the rim. 2- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of unrefined clay, of rough surface, of black to dark brown colour. 3- Hand-made vessel, with large quantity of organic temper, of very porous and irregular fabrication, of dark brown colour. Eeconstructed. t^^^^l^^t^ J7"~ " ' ' 5_ potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of unrefined

TABLA 15 Blizna J7 1- Dio prostoracno izradene posude, s tragovima primjese organskog materijala, porozne izrade, izvana smede, iznutra tamno smede a u prijelomu erne boje. 2- Roznjacka izradevina. 3- Dio prostoracno izradene posude, s tragovima primjese organskog materijala, porozne izrade, trusi se, narancaste, a u prijelomu i iznutra erne boje. Na obodu bojena crnom bojom. 4- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, posve od grafita, tamno sive boje. 5- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, dobro prociscene gline, dobre izrade, svijetlo smede do tamno sive boje. 6- Prsljen, prociscene gline, tamno smede, a u prijelomu crvenkaste boje. 7- Dio posude izradene prostoracno, slabije prociscene gline, tvrde izrade, tamno smede, a u prijelomu erne boje.

clay of rough fabrication, ofkght brown colour, black at (he break 6- Part of a hand-made vessel, of less refined clay, of harder fabrication, with polished surface, of dark brown colour, black at the break. TABLE 14 - BNzna J7 1- Hand-made vessel, Traces of finger impressions visible on the rim, of less refined clay, of dark brown colour> black at the break A sign is impressed on
the bottom in the form of a cross, also visible from the inside. Reconstructed. 2- Hand-made vessel, of refined clay, of dark brown colour. A single perforation under the rim. Recon structed.

139

TABLE 15 - BNzna J7 1_ part 0 f a hand-made vessel, with traces of organic temper, of porous fabrication, of brown colour outside, dark brown inside, black at the break. 2- Flint artefact. 3- Part of a hand-made vessel, with traces of orTABLA 16 - Blizna J23 ganic temper, of porous fabrication, crumbles, of OT ange colour' black inside and at the break. l- Posuda izradena prostomcno, neproclscene gline, Coloured black at the rim. smede, a u prijelomu erne boje. Rekonstruirana. 4- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters 2- Ulomak prostoracno izradene posude, s wheel, entirely of graphite, of dark grey colour. tragovima primjese organskog materijala, porozne 5- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast izrade, tvrde izrade, narancaste, a u prijelomu i potters wheel, of well-refined clay, of good fabrica iznutra erne boje. tion, of light brown to dark grey colour. 3- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, 6_ SpincQe whorl; of refined d of dark brown dobro prociscene gline, tvrde izrade, tamno sive boje. col0ur, reddish at the break. 4- Ulomak prostoracno izradene posude, s 7- Part of a hand-made vessel, of less refined clay, of tragovima primjese organskog materijala, porozne harder fabrication, of dark brown colour, black at izrade, trusi se, tamno narancaste, a u prijelomu i the break. iznutra erne boje. 5- Ulomak prostoracno izradene posude, s TABLE 16 - BNzna J23 tragovima primjese organskog materijala, porozne 1" Hand-made vessel, of unrefined clay, of brown izrade, trusi se, tamno narancaste, a u prijelomu i col-, black at the break. Eeconstructed. iznutra erne bo e 2- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with traces of
organic temper, of porous fabrication, of harder fabri cation, of orange colour, black inside and at the break. 3- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, of well-refined clay, of hard fabrica-

tio rl; of dark grey colour 4_ Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with traces of organic temper, of porous fabrication, crumbles, of dark orange colour, black inside and at the break. 5- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with traces of organic temper, of porous fabrication, crumbles, of dark orange colour> black inside and at the break. 6- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast Potters wheel, of well-refined clay, of harder fabrication, of brownish-grey colour. 7- Spindle whorl made from part of the belly of a ^ t e vessel, of hard fabrication, of grey colour. | . j ^ , of ft ^ manufectured a fast potters wheel, of well-refined clay, of harder fabri cation, of brownish-grey colour. Part of T16-10. TABLA 17 - Blizna, mlacfe zeljezno doba: Slojevi 9- Damaged iron knife with two rivets and the rem1- Dio posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, nants of wood on the handle. prociscene gline, tvrde izrade, zute boje. Sonda A, 10- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast Kv P, Sloj 3. potters wheel, of well-refined clay, of harder fabri2- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s cation, of brownish-grey colour. Part of T16-8.

6- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, dobro prociscene gline, tvrde izrade, smeckastosive boje. 7- Prsljen izraden od dijela trbuha grafitne posude, tvrde izrade, sive boje. 8- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, dobro prociscene gline, tvrde izrade, smeckastosive boje. Dio T16- 10. 9- Osteceni zeljezni noz s dvije zakovice i ostacima drva na drsci 10- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, dobro prociscene gline, tvrde izrade, smeckastosive TT Tlfi 8 boje. 10 b-a. 11- Dio prstena od prozirnog plavog stakla. 12- Osteceni uteg, mekse izrade, crvene do narancaste, a u prijelomu crne boje.

140

malo primjesa, tvrde izrade, tamno smede boje. Sonda A, Kv O, Sloj 3. 3- Ulomak posude izradene na sporovrtecem kolu, s primjesama grafita, tvrde izrade, svijetlo smede i sive boje. Sonda A, Kv P, Sloj 3. 4- Ulomak posude izradene na sporovrtecem kolu?, slabije prociscene gline, smede boje. Sonda A, Kv E, Sloj 3. 5- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama grafita i kamencica, tvrde izrade, tamno sive boje. Sonda A, Kv P, Sloj 3. 6- Ulomak posude izradene na kolu, s malo primjesa grafita, grublje i tvrde izrade, zuckaste boje. Sonda A, Kv P, Sloj 3. 7- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu?, s malo primjesa grafita, tvrde izrade, tamno smede do crvenkaste boje. Sonda A, Kv E, Sloj 3. 8- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, prociscene gline, tvrde izrade, kroz prijelom: tamno siveA)jelkaste/crneA)jelkaste/tamno sive boje. Sonda A, Kv O, Sloj 3. 9- Dio posude izradene na sporovrtecem kolu ili prostorucno, s veoma malo primjesa grafita, tvrde izrade, tamno smede boje. Sonda A, Kv N, Sloj 3. 10- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, posve od grafita, sive boje. Sonda A, Kv 0, Sloj 3. 11- Posuda izradena prostorucno, s primjesama kamencica i vrlo malo grafita, nepravilne povrsine s tragovima skidanja viska gline iznutra, smede boje. Sonda A, KvP, Sloj 3.
TABLA 18 - Blizna, mlade zeljezno doba: Slojevi K15

11- Part of a ring of transparent blue glass. 12- Damaged weight, of softer fabrication, of red to orange colour, black at the break. TABLE 17 Blizna, late Iron Age: Layers 1- Part of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, of refined clay, of harder fabrication, of yel low colour. Trench A, Kv P, Layer 3. 2- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, with little temper, of harder fabrica tion, of dark brown colour. Trench A, Kv O, Layer 3. 3- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a slow potters wheel, with temper of graphite, of harder fabrication, of light brown and grey colour. Trench A, Kv P, Layer 3. 4- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a slow potters wheel (?), of less refined clay, of brown colour. Trench A, Kv E, Layer 3. 5- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, with temper of graphite and pebbles, of harder fabrication, of dark grey colour. Trench A, Kv P, Layer 3. 6- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a potters wheel, with little temper of graphite, of rougher and harder fabrication, of yellowish colour. Trench A, Kv P, Layer 3. 7- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel (?), with little temper of graphite, of harder fabrication, of dark brown to reddish colour. Trench A, Kv E, Layer 3. 8- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, of refined clay, of hard fabrication, through the break: dark grey/whitish/black/whit ish/dark grey colour. Trench A, Kv O, Layer 3. 9- Part of a vessel manufactured on a slow potters wheel or by hand, with very little temper of graphite, of harder fabrication, of dark brown colour. Trench A, Kv N, Layer 3. 10- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, entirely of graphite, of grey colour. Trench A, Kv O, Layer 3. 11- Hand-made vessel, with temper of pebbles and very little graphite, of irregular surface with traces of the removal of excess clay on the inside, of brown colour. Trench A, Kv F, Layer 3. TABLE 18 Blizna, late Iron Age: Layers / K15 1- Damaged iron knife. Trench A, Layer 2, PN 1 . 2- Part of an iron knife? Trench A, Kv K, Layer 2. 3- Part of an iron knife? Trench A, Kv F, Layer 2. 4- Part of a bracelet of dark blue glass with applied yellow ribbon. Trench A, Kv M, Layer 2, PN 3. 5- Part of a bracelet of transparent blue glass. Trench A, Kv S, Layer 3, PN 2. 6- Small iron band. Trench A, Kv S, Layer 3. 7- Part of an iron object. Trench A, Kv O, Layer 2. 8- Bronze bead? Trench A, KV F, Layer 3. 9- Part of a sheet of bronze with edge. Trench A, Pit 14. 10- Part of an iron object. Trench A, Kv K, Layer 2. 11- Part of the base of a grindstone. Trench A, Kv D, Layer 3. 12- Part of an iron object (?) with traces of scorch ing. Trench A, Kv D, Layer 3.

1- Ostecenizeljezni noz. Sonda A, Sloj 2, PN 1. 2- Dio zeljeznog noza? Sonda A, Kv K, Sloj 2. 3- Dio zeljeznog noza? Sonda A, KvP, Sloj 2. 4- Dio narukvice od tamno plavog stakla s apliciranomzutom trakom. Sonda A, Kv M, Sloj 2, PN 3. 5- Dio narukvice od prozirnog tamno plavog stakla. Sonda A, Kv S, Sloj 3, PN 2. 6- Mali zeljezni okov. Sonda A, Kv S, Sloj 3. 7- Dio zeljeznog predmeta. Sonda A, Kv 0, Sloj 2. 8- Broncana perlica? Sonda A, KVP, Sloj 3. 9- Dio broncanog lima s rubom. Sonda A, Jama 14. 10- Dio zeljeznog predmeta. Sonda A, Kv K, Sloj 2. 11- Dio podloge kamenog zrvnja. Sonda A, Kv D, Sloj 3. 12- Dio zeljeznog predmeta? s tragovima prepaljivanja. Sonda A, Kv D, Sloj 3. 13- Dio broncanog predmeta. Sonda A, Jama J21. 14- Posuda izradena prostorucno, slabije prociscene gline, tvrde izrade, tamno smede boje. Rekonstruirana. K15.
TABLA 19 - Blizna, mlacfe zeljezno doba: Slucajni nalazi

1- Dio posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu,

prociscene gline, tvrde izrade, kroz prijelom: erne/ svijetlo smede/crne/svijetlo smede/crne boje. 2- Ulomak posude izradene prostoracno, slabije prociscene gline, tamno smede, a u prijelomu erne boje. Vidljivi tragovi bojanja crnom bojom. 3- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, prociscene gline, tvrde izrade, kroz prijelom: erne/ svijetlo smede/crne/svijetlo smede/crne boje. 4- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, dobro prociscene gline, tvrde izrade, kroz prijelom: tamno sivo/svijetlo smede/crne/svijetlo smede/ tamno sive boje. 5- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, prociscene gline, tvrde izrade, kroz prijelom: svijetlo smede/crne/svijetlo smede boje. 6- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, prociscene gline, tvrde izrade, kroz prijelom: svijetlo smede/crne/svijetlo smede boje. 7- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, dobro prociscene gline, tvrde izrade, svijetlo sive boje. 8- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, dobro prociscene gline, tvrde izrade, zuckaste boje. 9- Dio posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, dobro prociscene gline, tvrde izrade, svijetlo sive boje. 10- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, prociscene gline, tvrde izrade, kroz prijelom: erne/ svijetlo smede/crne/svijetlo smede/crne boje. 11- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, prociscene gline, tvrde izrade, kroz prijelom: erne/ svijetlo smede/crne/svijetlo smede/crne boje. 12- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, prociscene gline, tvrde izrade, kroz prijelom: sive/ crne/sive boje. 13- Ulomak posude izradene prostoracno, slabije prociscene gline, tamno smede boje. 14- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, dobro prociscene gline, tvrde izrade, tamno sive a u prijelomu svijetlo sive boje. 15- Prsljen izraden od ulomka posude, prociscene gline, tvrde izrade, kroz prijelom: sive/crne/sive boje.
TABLA 20 - Blizna, mlacfe zeljezno doba: Slucajni nalazi

13- Part of a bronze object. Trench A, Pit J 2 1 . 14- Hand-made vessel, of less refined clay, of harder fabrication, of dark brown colour. Reconstructed. K15. TABLE 19 - Blizna, late Iron Age: Chance finds 1- Part of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, of refined clay, of hard fabrication, through the break: of black/light brown/black/light brown/ black colour. 2- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of less refined clay, of dark brown colour, black at the break. Vis ible traces of black colouring. 3- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, of refined clay, of hard fabrication, through the break: of black/light brown/black/light brown/ black colour. 4- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, of well-refined clay, of hard fabrica tion, through the break: of dark grey/light brown/ black/light brown/ dark grey colour. 5- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, of refined clay, of hard fabrication, through the break: of light brown/black/light brown colour. 6- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, of refined clay, of hard fabrication, through the break: of light brown/black/light brown colour. 7- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, of well-refined clay, of harder fabri cation, of light grey colour. 8- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, of well-refined clay, of harder fabri cation, of yellowish colour. 9- Part of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, of well-refined clay, of harder fabrication, of light grey colour. 10- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, of refined clay, of hard fabrication, through the break: of black/light brown/black/light brown/ black colour. 11- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, of refined clay, of hard fabrication, through the break: of black/light brown/black/light brown/ black colour. 12- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, of refined clay, of hard fabrication, through the break: of grey/black/grey colour. 13- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of less refined clay, of dark brown colour. 14- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, of well-refined clay, of harder fabri cation, of dark grey colour, light grey at the break. 15- Spindle whorl made from the potsherd of a vessel, of refined clay, of hard fabrication, through the break: of grey/black/grey colour. TABLE 20 - Blizna, late Iron Age: Chance finds 1- Vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, entirely of graphite, irregularly crumbling, of grey colour. 2- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, mostly of graphite with a little tem-

141

1- Posuda izradena na brzovrtecem kolu, posve od grafita, nepravilno mrvljenog, sive boje. 2- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, uglavnom od grafita s malo primjesa kamencica, sive boje. 3- Dio narukvice od prozirnog tamno plavog stakla s debelo apliciranom zutom trakom. 4- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, uglavnom od grafita s malo primjesa kamencica, nepravilne a tvrde izrade, sive boje. 5- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, posve od grafita s malo primjesa kamencica, tvrde izrade, sive boje. 6- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, posve od grafita s malo primjesa kamencica, tvrde izrade, sive boje. Dno je blago izboceno.

142

TABLA 21 - Blizna, mlacfe zeljezno doba: Slucajni nalazi

1- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, porozne izrade, tamno smede, a u prijelomu crne boje. 2- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, slabije prociscene gline, tamno smede, a u prijelomu crne boje. 3- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, porozne izrade, tamno smede, a u prijelomu sive boje. 4- Brus od tvrdog kamena pjescenjaka. 5- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno s doradom na kolu, porozne izrade, izvana i u prijelomu tamno crvene, a iznutra crne boje. 6- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, porozne izrade, izvana tamno crvene, a iznutra i u prijelomu crne boje. 7- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s mnogo primjesa sitnog kvarcita, grublje izrade, tamno crvene boje. 8- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, uglavnom od grafita s malo primjesa kamencica, tvrde izrade, sive boje.
TABLA 22 - Blizna, antika: Slojevi

per of pebbles, of grey colour. 3- Part of a bracelet of transparent blue glass with thickly applied yellow ribbon. 4- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, mostly of graphite with a little tem per of pebbles, of irregular and harder fabrication, of grey colour. 5- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, entirely of graphite with a little tem per of pebbles, of harder fabrication, of grey colour. 6- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, entirely of graphite with a little tem per of pebbles, of harder fabrication, of grey colour. The bottom is slightly bulging. TABLE 21 - Blizna, late Iron Age: Chance finds 1- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of porous fabri cation, of dark brown colour, black at the break. 2- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of less refined clay, of dark brown colour, black at the break. 3- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of porous fabri cation, of dark brown colour, grey at the break. 4- Whetstone of hard sandstone. 5- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel finished on a potters wheel, of porous fabrication, of dark red colour outside and at the break, black on the inside. 6- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, of porous fabrication, of dark red colour outside, black on the inside and at the break. 7- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, with a large quantity of temper of very small quartz, of rough fabrication, of dark red colour. 8- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, mostly of graphite with a little tem per of pebbles, of harder fabrication, of grey colour. TABLE 22 Blizna, Roman period: Layers 1- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, with temper of organic material, of porous fabrication, of grey colour. Trench A, Layer 1-2. 2- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, with temper of a large quantity of organic material, of porous fabrication, of dark brown colour. Trench A, Kv E, Layer 2. 3- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a potters wheel, with temper of organic material, of porous fabrication, of dark yellow colour. Trench A, Kv R, Layer 2. 4- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, with temper of sand and small pebbles, of harder fabrication, of black colour. Trench A, Kv H , Layer 3. 5- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with little tem per of larger pebbles, of brown colour outside, black at the break and of reddish colour inside. Layer 2 at K11. 6- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a slow potters wheel (?), with a large quantity of temper of pebbles and quartz, of rough fabrication, of grey colour. Trench A, Kv U, Layer 3. 7- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, with little temper of larger pebbles, of light grey colour that leaves a mark. Trench A, Kv

1- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama organske materije, porozne izrade, sive boje. Sonda A, Sloj 1-2. 2- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s mnogo primjesa organske materije, porozne izrade, tamno smede boje. Sonda A, Kv E, Sloj 2. 3- Ulomak posude izradene na kolu, s primjesama organske materije, porozne izrade, tamno zute boje. Sonda A, Kv R, Sloj 2. 4- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama pijeska i sitnih kamencica, tvrde izrade, crne boje. Sonda A, Kv H, Sloj 3. 5- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s malo primjesa vecih kamencica, izvana smede, u prijelomu crne a iznutra crvenkaste boje. Sloj 2 kod K11. 6- Ulomak posude izradene na sporovrtecem kolu?, s mnogo primjesa kamencica i kvarcita, grube izrade, sive boje. Sonda A, Kv U, Sloj 3. 7- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s malo primjesa vecih kamencica, svijetlo sive boje koja ostavlja trag. Sonda A, Kv N, Sloj 2. 8- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, dobro prociscene gline, svijetlo sive boje koja ostavlja trag. Sonda A, Kv E, Sloj 2. 9- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, dobro prociscene gline, narancaste boje s tragovima crvenog bojanja. Sonda A, Kv S, Sloj 2. 10- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s mnogo primjesa vecih kamencica, tvrde izrade, izvana crne, a u prijelomu i iznutra sive boje. Sonda A, Kv P, Sloj 2. 11- Ulomak posude izradene na sporovrtecem kolu?, neprociscene gline, tamno sive boje. Sonda A, Kv K, Sloj 2. 12- Ulomak posude izradene na sporovrtecem kolu?, tragovi stanjivanja stijenki cesljem pod

obodom, s primjesama pijeska, tvrde izrade, sive N, Layer 2. 8- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast boje Sonda A Kv C Sloj 2 13- Ulomak posude izradene na brzowtecem kolu, potters wheel, of weU-refoed clay, ofkght grey colour dobro prociscene gline, narancaste boje. Svijetlo ^ a t leaves a mark. Trench A, Kv E, Layer 2. crveni premaz s vanjske strane. Sigilata. Sonda A, 9" Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast K M ai -o potters wheel, of well-refined clay, of orange colour V ' J ' withfiaces of red colouring. Trench A, Kv S, Layer 2. 10- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast TABLA 23 - Blizna, anllka: SlOjevi potters wheel, with a large quantity of temper of 1- Ulomakcepa posude izradene na brzovrtecem iarger pebbieS)0fnarder fabricatiOI1)0f biack coiour kolu, s primjesama kamencica, tvrde izrade, svijetlo outside, grey on the inside and at the break. Trench sive boje. Sonda A, Kv 0, Sloj 2. A, Kv P, Layer 2. 2- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s 11- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a slow mnogo primjesa sitnih kamencica, tamno sive boje. potters wheel (?), of unrefined clay, of dark grey Sonda A, Kv U, Sloj 3. colour. Trench A, Kv K, Layer 2. 3- Ulomak posude izradene na kolu?, s mnogo 12- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a slow primjesa kamencica koji se truse, sive boje. Sonda potters wheel (?), traces of the thinning of the waUs A g l x_2 using a comb under the rim, with temper of sand, of harder fabrication, of grey colour. Trench A, Kv C, 4- Ulomak posude izradene na sporovrtecem kolu?, Layer 2. neprociscene gline, tamno sive boje. Sonda A, Kv K, 13- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast Sloj 2. potters wheel, of well-refined clay, of orange colour. 5- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s Light red coating on the outside. Sigillata. Trench primjesama pijeska, tvrde izrade, tamno smede boje. A, Kv M, Layer 2. Sonda A, Kv A, Sloj 2. 6- Ulomak posude izradene na sporovrtecem kolu?, TABLE 23 - Blizna, Roman period: Layers s primjesama pijeska i kamencica, tvrde izrade, 1- Potsherd of the plug of a vessel manufactured on crvenkastosmede boje. a fast potters wheel, with temper of pebbles, of harder 7- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s puno fabrication, of light grey colour. Trench A, Kv 0, primjesa sitnih kamencica koji se truse, tamno smede Layer 2. boje Sonda A Kv R Sloj 2 2" Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast 8- Ulomak posude izradene na kolu?, prociscene Potters wheel, with a large quantity of temper of gline, tvrde izrade, izvana erne, a u prijelomu i small pebbles, of dark grey colour. Trench A, Kv U, L a ^ 3fa manufactared on a potter, iznutra svijetlo sive boje. Sonda A, Kv H, Sloj 2. 9- Ulomak posude od svijetlo smedeg prozirnog wheeU?);With a large quantity of temper of pebbles stakla. Sonda A, Kv C, Sloj 2. that crumble, of grey colour. Trench A, Layer 1-2. 10- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, 4_ potsherd of a vessel mairafactured on a siow prociscene gline, tvrde izrade, izvana svijetlo sive, a potters wheel (?), of unrefined clay, of dark grey u prijelomu i iznutra tamno sive boje. Sonda A, Kv col0ur. Trench A, Kv K, Layer 2. L, Sloj 2. 5- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with temper of 11- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, sand, of harder fabrication, of dark brown colour prociscene gline, tvrde izrade, narancaste boje. Trench A, Kv A, Layer 2. Iznutra drobljeni kvarcit u zelenkastoj caklini. 6- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a slow Mortarij Sonda A Kv K Sloj 2 potters wheel (?), with temper of sand and pebbles, 12- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, of harder fabrication, of reddish-brown colour. dobro prociscene gline, mekse izrade, crvene boje. 7- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with a large quantity of temper of pebbles that crumble, of dark Tamno crveni premaz s vanjske strane. Sigilata. brown colour. Trench A, Kv R, Layer 2. Sonda A, Kv H, Sloj 2. 8- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a potters 13. Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, wheel (?), of refined clay, of harder fabrication, of prociscene gline, tvrde izrade, svijetlo sive boje. black colour outside, light grey on the inside and at Sonda A, Kv H, Sloj 3. the break Trench A, Kv H, Layer 2. 9- Shard of a vessel of light brown transparent glass. TABLA 24 - Blizna, anlika: SlUCajni nalazi Trench A, Kv C, Layer 2. 1- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno?, s 10- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast primjesama pijeska i sitnih kamencica, tvrde izrade, potters wheel, of refined clay, of harder fabrication, izvana narancaste, u prijelomu sive a iznutra svijetlo of light grey colour outside, dark grey on the inside smede boje and at the break- Trench A, Kv L, Layer 2. 2- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno?, s mnogo 11- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, of refined clay, of harder fabrication, primjesa sitnih kamencica, smede boje. of orange colour. Crushed quartz on the inside in a 3- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno?, s greenish glaze. Mortar. Trench A, Kv K, Layer 2. primjesama pijeska i sitnih kamencica, tvrde izrade, 12- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast izvana narancaste, u prijelomu sive a iznutra svijetlo

143

144

smede boje. 4- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno?, s mnogo primjesa pijeska i sitnih kamencica, tvrde izrade, izvana narancaste, u prijelomu sive a iznutra svijetlo smede boje. 5- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno s doradom na kolu, s malo primjesa vecih kamencica i organske materije, porozne izrade, izvana svijetlo smede, a u prijelomu i iznutra sivkaste boje. 6- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno?, s mnogo primjesa sitnih kamencica, svijetlo smede boje. 7- Ulomak posude izradene na kolu?, s mnogo primjesa kamencica, smede boje. 8- Ulomak posude izradene na kolu?, s mnogo primjesa kamencica sive boje 9- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno?, s mnogo primjesa sitnog kvarcita i kamencica, nepravilne izrade, izvana i u prijelomu narancaste a iznutra erne boje. 10- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno?, s mnogo primjesa sitnog kvarcita koji se truse, erne, u prijelomu crvene boje. 11- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, neprociscene gline, izvana tamno sive, a iznutra i u prijelomu sive boje. 12- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama pijeska, erne, a u prijelomu sive boje. 13- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, prociscene gline, izvana tamno sive, a iznutra i u prijelomu sive boje 14- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, neprociscene gline, sive boje.
TABLA 25 - Blizna, anlika: Slucajni nalazi

potters wheel, of well-refined clay, of softer fabrication, of red colour. Dark red coating on the outside. Sigillata. Trench A, Kv H, Layer 2.
13. Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, of refined clay, of harder fabrication, of light grey colour. Trench A, Kv H , Layer 3. TABLE 24 Blizna, Roman period: Chance finds 1- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel (?), with temper of sand and small pebbles, of harder fabrication, of

orange colour outside; grey at the break and light brown on the inside. 2- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel (?), with a large quantity of temper of smaU pebbles, of brown colour. 3- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel (?), with temper of sand and small pebbles, of harder fabrication, of orange colour outside, grey at the break and light brown on the inside.
4- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel (?), with a large quantity of temper of sand and small pebbles, of harder fabrication, of orange colour outside, grey at the break and light brown on the inside. 5- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel finished on a potters wheel, with little temper of larger pebbles

1- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno s doradom na brzovrtecem kolu, s puno primjesa organske irreguiar fabrication, of orange colour outside and materije, porozne izrade, izvana erne, a u prijelomu at the break, black on the inside. i iznutra tamno sive boje. 10- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel (?), with a large 2- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s quantity of temper of small quartz that crumbles, of malo primjesa pijeska, tvrde izrade, izvana erne, a black colour, red at the break. iznutra i u prijelomu sive boje H - Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast 3- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno?, s mnogo potters wheel, of unrefined clay of dark grey colour outside, grey on the inside and at the break. PrimJesa krupniJeg i sitniJeg kvarcita, sviJetlo smede, , K 12" Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast 4 P U l Z k p o l d ^ z r a d e n e prostorucno ili na potters wheel, with temper of sand, of black colour, sporovrtecem kolu, s mnogo primjesa sitnijeg kvarcita, smede, u prijelomu tamno sive boje. 5- Ulomak posude izradene na kolu?, neprociscene gline, svijetlo smede, a u prijelomu sive boje. 6- Ulomak posude izradene na kolu, neprociscene gline, tvrde izrade, erne, a u prijelomu sive boje. 7- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, tvrde izrade, crvenkaste boje. Izvana tragovi bojenja u crno 8- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama pBeska i kamencica, tvrde izrade, svijetlo sive boje. 9- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, prociscene gline, zuckaste boje koja ostavlja trag. Tamno crveni premaz s obje strane. Sigilata. f g ^ s h e r d " a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, of refined clay, of dark grey colour outside; grey on the inside and at the break. 14_ Potsherd of a vess d manufactared on a fast potters wheel, of unrefined clay, of grey colour. TABLE 25 - Blizna, Roman period: Chance finds 1- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel finished on a fast potters wheel, with a large quantity of temper of organic material, of porous fabrication, of black clour outside, dark grey on the inside and at the
break. 2- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, with little temper of sand, of harder fabrication, of black colour outside, grey on the in-

8- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a potters wheel (?), with a large quantity of temper of pebbles, of grey colour. 9- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel (?), with a large quantity of temper of small quartz and pebbles, of

and organic material, of porous fabrication, of light brown coiour outside) greyish on the inside and at the break. 6- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel (?), with a large quantity of temper of small pebbles, of light brown colour. 7- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a potters wheel (?) > ^ t h a large quantity of temper of pebbles, of brown colour'

10- Ulomak posude izradene na kolu, s mnogo primjesa kamencica, tvrde izrade, svijetlo smede boje. 11- Ulomak posude izradene prostoracno ili na sporovrtecem kolu, s mnogo primjesa organske materije, porozne izrade, zuckaste, a u prijelomu erne boje. 12- Ulomak posude izradene na kolu, prociscene gline, narancaste boje. 13- Ulomak posude izradene na kolu, tvrde izrade, narancaste boje. Izvana ocakljeno zuckastosmeckastom caklinom. 14- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, prociscene gline, zuckaste boje koja ostavlja trag. Narancasti premaz s obje strane. Sigilata. 15- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, prociscene gline, zuckaste boje koja ostavlja trag. Narancasti premaz s obje strane. Sigilata. 16- Ulomak zeljezne sjekire. 17- Ulomak posude od zuckastozelenkastog prozirnog stakla. 18- Ulomak posude od tamno zelenkastog prozirnog stakla. 19- Diozeljeznog noza. 20- Ulomak posude od plavkastog prozirnog stakla Bradavica nije prilijepljena. 21- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, prociscene gline, erne boje.
TABLA 26 - Blizna, seoba naroda: Slojeui Slucajni nalazi

1- Ulomak posude izradene na sporovrtecem kolu, s malo primjesa vecih kamencica, tvrde izrade, sive boje. Preljevena tekucom glinom. Sloj 2 kod K l l . 2- Ulomak posude izradene prostoracno, s malo primjesa vecih kamencica, tvrde ali vrlo nepravilne izrade, izvana tamno smeda, a iznutra narancaste boje. Sonda A, Kv L, Sloj 2. 3- Ulomak posude izradene na sporovrtecem kolu, s malo primjesa vecih kamencica, tvrde izrade, tamno smede boje. Preljevena tekucom glinom. Sloj 2 kod K l l . 4- Ulomak posude izradene prostoracno s doradom na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama sitnih kamencica, nepravilne povrsine, smede boje. Sonda A, Kv B, Sloj 2. 5- Posuda izradena na sporovrtecem kolu, s malo primjesa vecih kamencica, tvrde izrade, tamno sive boje. Sonda A, Kv O, Sloj 2. 6- Posuda izradena prostoracno, s primjesama kamencica, vrlo nepravilne povrsine s tragovima skidanja viska gline pri dnu, tamno smede boje. Rekonstruirana. Sonda A, Kv L, Sloj 2. 7- Ulomak posude izradene prostoracno, s mnogo primjesa vecih kamencica i kvarcita koji se truse, vrlo nepravilne izrade, narancaste i mjestimice erne boje. Sonda A, Kv K, Sloj 2. Dio T26-8,10. 8- Ulomak posude izradene prostoracno, s mnogo primjesa vecih kamencica i kvarcita koji se truse,

side and at the break. 3- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel (?), with a large quantity of temper of large and small quartz, of light brown colour, black at the break. 4- Potsherd of a vessel made by hand or on a slow potters wheel, with a large quantity of temper of small quartz, of brown colour, dark grey at the break. 5- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a potters wheel (?), of unrefined clay, of light brown colour, grey at the break. 6- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a potters wheel, of unrefined clay, of harder fabrication, of black colour, grey at the break. 7- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, of harder fabrication, of reddish colour. Traces on the outside of black colouring. 8- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, with temper of sand and pebbles, of harder fabrication, of light grey colour. 9- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, of refined clay, of yellowish colour that leaves a mark. Dark red coating on both sides. Sigillata. 10- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a potters wheel, with a large quantity of temper of pebbles, of harder fabrication, of light brown colour. 11- Potsherd of a vessel made by hand or on a slow potters wheel, with temper of a large quantity of organic material, of porous fabrication, of yellowish colour, black at the break. 12- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a potters wheel, of refined clay, of orange colour. 13- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a potters wheel, of harder fabrication, of orange colour. Glazed on the outside with yellow-brown glaze. 14- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, of refined clay, of yellowish colour that leaves a mark. Orange coating on both sides. Sigillata. 15- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, of refined clay, of yellowish colour that leaves a mark. Orange coating on both sides. Sigillata. 16- Shard of an iron axe. 17- Shard of a vessel made of transparent yellowgreen glass. 18- Shard of a vessel made of transparent dark greenish glass. 19- Part of an iron knife. 20- Shard of a vessel made of transparent bluish glass. Nub not attached. 21- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, of refined clay, of black colour. TABLE 26 Blizna, Migration period: Layers / Chance finds 1- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a slow potters wheel, with little temper of larger pebbles, of harder fabrication, of grey colour. Covered with a coat of liquid clay. Layer 2 at K11. 2- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with little tem per of larger pebbles, of harder but very irregular fabrication, of dark brown colour outside, orange on the inside. Trench A, Kv L, Layer 2.

145

146

vrlo nepravilne izrade, narancaste i mjestimice erne boje. Sonda A, Kv K, Sloj 2. Dio T26-7,10. 9- Ulomak posude izradene na sporovrtecem kolu, s malo primjesa vecih kamencica, tvrde izrade, izvana crvenkastosmede boje. Preljevena tekucom glinom. Sloj 2 kod K l l . 10- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s mnogo primjesa vecih kamencica i kvarcita koji se truse, vrlo nepravilne izrade, narancaste i mjestimice erne boje. Sonda A, Kv K, Sloj 2. Dio T26-7,8. 11- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s malo primjesa vecih kamencica, tvrde izrade, smede boje. Preljevena tekucom glinom. Sloj 2 kod K l l . 12- Ulomak posude izradene na sporovrtecem kolu?, s malo primjesa vecih kamencica, nepravilne i tvrde izrade, sive boje. Na dnu tragovi skidanja s podloge ostrim predmetom. Sonda A, Kv R, Sloj 2. 13- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s malo primjesa vecih kamencica, izvana smeda, u prijelomu sive a iznutra narancaste boje. Slucajni nalaz. 14- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno s doradom na kolu, s malo primjesa vecih kamencica, izvana smeda, u prijelomu sive a iznutra narancaste boje. Preljevena tekucom glinom. Slucajni nalaz. 15- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s malo primjesa vecih kvarcita, tvrde izrade, svijetlo smede, a u prijelomu svijetlo crvene boje. Slucajni nalaz. 16- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s malo primjesa vecih kamencica, tvrde izrade, tamno smede boje. Slucajni nalaz. TABLA 27 - Blizna, rani srednji vijek: Slucajni nalazi 1- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s malo primjesa veceg kvarcita i organske materijcporozne i nepravilne izrade, svijetlo smede a u prijelomu crvene boje. 2- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s primjesama organske materije, porozne i nepravilne izrade, svijetlo smede, a u prijelomu i iznutra erne bq)-e 3- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s primjesama organske materije, porozne izrade, izvana narancaste, u prijelomu erne, a iznutra smede boje. 4- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s primjesama organske materije, porozne i nepravilne izrade, izvana narancaste, a u prijelomu i iznutra erne boje. 5- Zeljezni tuljac vrha strijele. 6- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s primjesama organske materije, porozne i nepravilne izrade, izvana sivkastosmede, a u prijelomu i iznutra crne boje TABLA 28 - Blizna OSlaN nalazi 1- Ulomak posude izradene prostoruc de f : r. , ^ mcno, smeue

3- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a slow potters wheel, with little temper of larger pebbles, of harder fabrication, of dark brown colour. Covered with a coat of liquid clay. Layer 2 at K l l . 4- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel finished on a fast potters wheel, with temper of small pebbles, of irregular surface, of brown colour. Trench A, Kv B, Layer 2. 5- Vessel manufactured on a slow potters wheel, with little temper of larger pebbles, of harder fabrication, of dark ^ colour. r & e ll ch A j K v 0 , Layer 2. 6- Hand-made vessel, with temper of pebbles, of very irregular surface with traces of the removal of excess clay near the bottom, of dark brown colour Eeconstructed. Trench A, Kv L, Layer 2. 7- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with a large quantity of larger pebbles and quartz that crumbles, of very irregular fabrication, of orange and, in places, black colour. Trench A, Kv K, Layer 2. Part of T268'10' 8- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with a large quan tity of larger pebbles and quartz that crumbles, of very irregular fabrication, of orange and, in places, black colour. Trench A, Kv K, Layer 2. Part of T267 10 9- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a slow potters wheel, with little temper of larger pebbles, of harder fabrication, of reddish-brown colour outside. Covered with a coat of liquid clay. Layer 2 at K l l . 10- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with a large quantity of larger pebbles and quartz that crumbles, of very irregular fabrication, of orange and, in places, black colour. Trench A, Kv K, Layer 2. Part of T267,8. 11- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with little tem per of larger pebbles, of harder fabrication, of brown colour. Covered with a coat of liquid clay. Layer 2 at JQ]^ 12_ Potsherd 0 f a vessel manufactured on a slow potters wheel (?), with little temper of larger pebbles, of irregular and harder fabrication, of grey colour Traces on the bottom of its removal from a base using a sharp object. Trench A, Kv R, Layer 2. 13- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with little temper of larger pebbles, ofbrown colour outside, orange on the inside and grey at the break. Chance find. 14- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel finished on a potters wheel, with little temper of larger pebbles, of brown colour outside, orange on the inside and grey at the break. Covered with a coat of liquid clay. Chance find. i 5 - Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with little temper of large quart Z ; of harder fabrication, of light brown colour, light red at the break. Chance find. 16- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with little temper of larger pebbles, of harder fabrication, of dark brown colour. Chance find. TABLE 27 - Blizna, early Medieval period: Chance finds 1 _ Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with little temP - o f larger quartz and orgamc material, of porous and irregular fabrication) 0 f light brown colour, red

2- Ulomak posude izradene prostoracno, svijetlo smede boje. Slucajni nalaz. 3- Zadebljani rab crvene zdjele ili lonca. Sonda A, Jama J5. 4- Rub sive bikonicne zdjelice. Sonda A, Jama J5. 5- Ulomak posude izradene prostoracno, s mnogo primjesa vecih kvarcita i kamencica, izvana svijetlo narancaste, u prijelomu crvenkaste a iznutra erne boje. Slucajni nalaz. 6- Ulomak posude izradene prostoracno, s mnogo primjesa vecih kvarcita i kamencica, svijetlo smede boje. Slucajni nalaz. 7- Dio noge posude 1 izradene prostoracno, s malo primjesa kvarcita, izvana narancaste, u prijelomu erne boje. Sonda A, Kv L, Sloj 2. 8- Ulomak posude izradene prostoracno, s primjesama vecih kamencica, izvana crvenkaste, a u prijelomu i iznutra erne boje. Rucka prilijepljena. Slucajni nalaz. 9- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s mnogo primjesa sitnih kamencica i pijeska koji se truse, izvana i u prijelomu sivkastosmede, a iznutra erne boje. Slucajni nalaz. 10- Ulomak posude izradene prostoracno s doradom na kolu, s mnogo primjesa sitnih kamencica, izvana smede, a u prijelomu i iznutra tamno sive boje. Slucajni nalaz. 11- Dio zeljeznogcavla. Sonda A, Sloj 1. 12- Zeljezni cavao. Sonda A, Kv 2, Sloj 2. 13- Dio zeljeznogcavla. Sonda A, Sloj 1. 14- Dio zeljeznogcavla. Sonda A, Sloj 1. 15- Dio zeljeznogcavla. Sonda A, Sloj 1. 16-Zeljezni cavao. Slucajni nalaz. 17- Diozeljeznog predmeta. Sonda A, Sloj 1. 18- Dio zeljeznog sila? Sonda S, Kv J, Sloj 4. 19- Dio zeljeznogcavla? Sonda A, Kv L, Sloj 3. 20- Kamen slabije kvalitete s vise ureza nepoznate namjene. 21- Obradeni roznjak. Sonda A, Kv N, Sloj 2.

2- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with temper of organic material, of porous and irregular fabrica tion, of light brown colour, black on the inside and at the break. 3- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with temper of organic material, of porous fabrication, of orange colour outside, brown on the inside and black at the break. 4- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with temper of organic material, of porous and irregular fabrica tion, of orange colour outside, black inside and at the break. 5- Iron cylinder of an arrowhead. 6- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with temper of organic material, of porous and irregular fabrica tion, of greyish-brown colour outside, black on the inside and at the break. TABLE 28 Blizna, other finds 1- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of brown colour. Chance find. 2- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of light brown colour. Chance find. 3- Thickened edge of a red bowl or pot. Trench A, Pit J5. 4- Edge of a small carinated bowl of grey colour. Trench A, Pit J5. 5- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with a large quantity of temper of larger quartz and pebbles, of light orange colour outside, black on the inside, red dish at the break. Chance find. 6- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with a large quantity of temper of larger quartz and pebbles, of light brown colour. Chance find. 7- Part of a vessels feet? Hand-made, with little temper of quartz, of orange colour outside, black at the break. Trench A, Kv L, Layer 2. 8- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with temper of larger pebbles, of reddish colour outside, black on the inside and at the break. Handle bonded on. Chance find. 9- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, with a large quantity of temper of small pebbles and sand that crumble, of greyishbrown colour outside and at the break, black on the inside. Chance find. 10- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel finished on a potters wheel, with a large quantity of temper of small pebbles, of brown colour outside, dark grey on the inside and at the break. Chance find. 11- Part of an iron nail. Trench A, Layer 1. 12- Iron nail. Trench A, Kv 2, Layer 2. 13- Part of an iron nail. Trench A, Layer 1. 14- Part of an iron nail. Trench A, Layer 1. 15- Part of an iron nail. Trench A, Layer 1. 16- Iron nail. Chance find. 17- Part of an iron object. Trench A, Layer 1. 18- Part of an iron awl? Trench S, Kv J, Layer 4. 19- Part of an iron nail? Trench A, Kv L, Layer 3. 20- Stone of poorer quality with several incisions of unknown use. 21- Retouched flint. Trench A, Kv N, Layer 2.

147

148

77

Tabla 1. Jakopovec-Blizna. K4, 420891calBC. Table 1. Jakopovec-Blizna. K4, 420891calBC.

149

Tabla 2. Jakopovec-Blizna. K4, 420891calBC. Table 2. Jakopovec-Blizna. K4, 420891calBC.

150

Tabla 3. Jakopovec-Blizna. K4, 420891calBC. Table 3. Jakopovec-Blizna. K4, 420891calBC.

151

10

Tabla 4. Jakopovec-Blizna. 1-5 K7. / 6-9 K8. / 10-11 K14. Table 4. Jakopovec-Blizna. 1-5 K7.16-9 K8.110-11 K14

152

/ V

- ^

13

14

15

16 17

20
Tabla 5. Jakopovec-Blizna. Bakreno doba: 1-6 slojevi. / 7-21 slucajni nalazi. Table 5. Jakopovec-Blizna. Copper Age: 1-6 layers. / 7-21 chance finds.

21

153

\ > \ 1 Ji ! '/ / / *
1 f

wy-Vv: \J-.Vgi

Tabla 6. Jakopovec-Blizna. J3, 118650 calBC. Table 6. Jakopovec-Blizna. J3, 1186+50 calBC.

154

Tabla 7. Jakopovec-Blizna. J3, 118650 calBC. Table 7. Jakopovec-Blizna. J3, 1186+50 calBC.

155

Tabla 8. Jakopovec-Blizna. 1-4 K5. / 5-9 K6. Table 8. Jakopovec-Blizna. 1-4 K5. / 5-9 K6.

156

Tabla 9. Jakopovec-Blizna. 1 K13. / 2-3 K12. Table 9. Jakopovec-Blizna. 1 K13.12-3 K12

157

Tabla 10. Jakopovec-Blizna. K11, 105945 calBC. Table 10. Jakopovec-Blizna. K11, 1059+45 calBC.

158

Tabla 11. Jakopovec-Blizna. Kasno broncano doba: 1-18 slucajni nalazi. / 19-21 slojevi. Table 11. Jakopovec-Blizna. Late Bronze Age: 1-18 chance finds. / 19-21 layers.

159
i

/..

10
Tabla 12. Jakopovec-Blizna. 1-4 J2. / 5-12 J11, 7586 calBC. Table 12 Jakopovec-Blizna. 1-4 J2 15-12 J11, 75+86 calBC.

160

Tabla 13. Jakopovec-Blizna. J7. Table 13. Jakopovec-Blizna. J7.

161

Tabla 14. Jakopovec-Blizna. J7. Table 14. Jakopovec-Blizna. J7.

162

i Tabla 15. Jakopovec-Blizna. J7. Table 15. Jakopovec-Blizna. J7.

163

Tabla 16. Jakopovec-Blizna. J23. Table 16. Jakopovec-Blizna. J23.

164

Tabla 17. Jakopovec-Blizna. Mlade zeljezno doba: Slojevi. Table 17. Jakopovec-Blizna. Late Iron Age: Layers.

165

i i

9 TO
8 El

5 CT
10 --DQ

Tabla 18. Jakopovec-Blizna. Mlade zeljezno doba: 1-13 slojevi. / 14 K15. Table 18. Jakopovec-Blizna. Late Iron Age: 1-13 layers. / 14 K15.

166

Tabla 19. Jakopovec-Blizna. Mlade zeljezno doba: Slucajni nalazi Table 19. Jakopovec-Blizna. Late Iron Age: Chance finds

S3 o

o a

^*

cc =^

'

col

3 Si ST t!.

Jakopovec - Blizna

<*>

168

Tabla 21. Jakopovec-Blizna. Mlade zeljezno doba: Slucajni nalazi Table 21. Jakopovec-Blizna Late Iron Age: Chance finds

169

Tabla 22. Jakopovec-Blizna. Antika: Slojevi Table 22. Jakopovec-Blizna. Roman period: Layers

170

Tabla 23. Jakopovec-Blizna. Antika: Slojevi Table 23. Jakopovec-Blizna. Roman period: Layers

171

Tabla 24. Jakopovec-Blizna. Antika: Slu~ajni nalazi Table 24. Jakopovec-Blizna. Roman period: Chance finds

172

Tabla 25. Jakopovec-Blizna. Antika: Slu~ajni nalazi Table 25. Jakopovec-Blizna. Roman period: Chance finds

173

' /

Tabla 26. Jakopovec-Blizna. Seoba narada: 1-12 slojevi. / 13-16 slucajni nalazi. Table 26. Jakopovec-Blizna. Migration period: 1-12 layers. / 13-16 chance finds.

174

Tabla 27. Jakopovec-Blizna. Rani srednji vijek: Slu~ajni nalazi Table 27. Jakopovec-Blizna. Early Middle Ages: Chance finds

175

Tabla 28. Jakopovec-Blizna. Ostali nalazi. Table 28. Jakopovec-Blizna. Other finds.

00 N

en o

O O CO 0
o

oro

>

&

-&&

0&4 so

: * * * '

175,74 177,01

176,98 177,17 177,14

BLIZNA 2003
177,20

10
/\

\177.59 I X A Q 176,05

| \ I 0175,58

IXC175.57 fWl75,29

K151
175,61

175,59

177,45

a
1176,04 175,93

175,54

J Z D 175.61
1^*7175,82 [QlUdL I 175,68

I ryfc

175,80

v177,66

J28
177,13

175,83 175,64

GORNJI PUSTAKOVEC KOD CAKOVCA Bakrenodobno naselje


Prilikom gradnje juzne obilaznice grada Cakovca, Odjel za zastitu arheoloske bastine nadzirao je tu izgradnju. Kao sto je to bilo i s izgradnjom nadziranih dionica autoceste, ova trasa nije bila terenski arheoloski pregledana, a Odjel je posao dobio kada je gradnja vec zapoceta. Tijekom arheoloskoga pregleda vec dovrsenih gradevinskiliradova dana 3.3.2004.g., na stacionazi trase 4+350 kod sela Gornji Pustakovec otkriveno je arheolosko nalaziste, na prostora koji je dosad bio arheoloska nepoznanica. Novopronadeno nalaziste osteceno je bagerima prije pocetka arheoloskog nadzora, jer investitor nije pravodobno izvijestio o pocetku gradevinskih radova. U iskopu zemlje prikupljeno je nekoliko kilograma keramickih ulomaka koji pripadaju bakrenom dobu, tj. lasinjskoj kulturi. Zastitna arheoloska iskopavanja vodena su u vremenu od 7. do 3 0 . 6 . 2 0 0 4 ^ Prapovijesno naselje djelomice osteceno gradnjom obilaznice, dijelom je istrazeno ovim iskopavanjima. Preostali dio naselja nalazi se izvan granica eksproprijacije i opsega prostora koji je predviden radovima na izgradnji obilaznice i pratecih objekata, pa tu nisu provodena zastitna istrazivanja. No, pokrenut je postupak preventivne zastite nalazista kao

GORNJI PUSTAKOVEC NEAR CAKOVEC Copper Age Settlement


The Archaeology Heritage Protection Depart ment also carried out supervision of construction works during the construction of the bypass that passes to the south of the city of Cakovec. As with the construction of supervised parts of the highway, the terrain along which this route runs was also not archaeologically surveyed, and the Department got the job when construction had already commenced. An archaeological site was discovered during ar chaeological surveying March 3, 2004, of already completed construction work at kilometre marker 4+350 near the village of Gornji Pustakovec, in an area that was previously archaeologicaUy unknown. As the contracting company did not give a timely report on the start of construction work, the newly discovered site was damaged by excavators prior to the archaeological supervision. Several kilograms of potsherds were collected from the excavated soil that originated in the Copper Age, i.e. the Lasinja culture. Eescue archaeology excavations were carried out from June 7 to 30 of 2004.1 This prehistoric settle ment, partially damaged during the construction of the bypass, was explored in part during the dig. The remainder of the settlement is located outside of the limits of the land purchased for the needs of

181

Cakovec-Gornji Pustakovec. Usporedni arheoloski i gractevinski radovi na trasi obilaznice Cakovca. Cakovec-Gornji Pustakovec. Parallel archaeological and construction work on the route of the Cakovec bypass.
1 U arheoloskim radovima osim autora kao yoditelja sudjeloyali su arheolozi i studenti: Josip Yido, Darko Perisa, Branka Koyafie, Jelena Buric i Petra NoYinseak. Participating in the archaeological work besides the author, acting as dig leader, were archaeologists and students: Josip Vidooic, Darko Perisa, Branka Kmacic, Jelena Buric and Petra Nooinscak.

182

kulturnog dobra pri Konzervatorskom odjelu u Varadinu. Nalaziste se nalazi na dosadasnjim poljoprivrednim povrsinama stotinjak metara juzno od kuca naselja Gornji Pustakovec, sada dijela grada Cakovca. Prostor izmedu kuca i danasnje obilaznice mjestani zovu i Vrtovi, a po svojim topografskim obiljezjima se po nicemu ne razlikuje od okolnog terena. Rijec je o ravnici i poljima koja se bez nekih uzvisina rasprostiru kilometrima u svim smjerovima. Nekoliko stotina metara sjevernije nalazi se kanal rijeke Trnave, a moguce je da su nekadasnji rukavci Trnave na prostoru zvanom Ledine nekad bili i mnogo blize nasem naselju.
BAKRENO DOBA NALAZI

Gradevinski radovi su se na ovom dijelu trase odvijali tako da je bager po odredenoj niveleti skidao 30 - 50 cm zemlje, te ju odlagao s obje strane trase. Odmah iza bagera su kamioni navozili sljunak, koji je zatim zaravnat valjkom. Pregledom izbacene zemlje uz obje strane trase, pronadeni su samo COPPER AGE pokretni nalazi. Zbog toga na pocetku nije bilo FEATURES sigurno gdje se tocno nalaze arheoloski slojevi, i da Construction work on this part of the work was li ih jos ima ispod navezenog sljunka. carried out by an excavator removing some 30 to 50 Prilikom pocetka arheoloskih iskopavanja, bager cm of soil based on set level markers and depositing je razmaknuo prebacenu zemlju, i tako ocistio it to both sides of the route. Trucks brought in gravel prostor s obje strane trase. Zatim su uz sam rub vec right after the excavators had finished their work, iskopane zemlje postavljene dvije uzduzne sonde, which was then packed down by rollers. A survey of A i B. One su trebale odrediti pravce rasprostiranja the excavated soil to both sides of the route yielded nalazista. U sondi A pronaslo se vrlo malo only finds. It was for this reason initially unclear bakrenodobnih nalaza, ali je sonda svejedno where the archaeological layers were in fact, and dovrsena, a s te strane su za svaku sigurnost dodane whether there were still any under the new layer of jos 4 sonde, E,F,G i H. No, i one su bile bez nekih gravel. vrednijih arheoloskih struktura, i s vrlo malo At the start of archaeological excavations, the prapovijesne keramike. excavator cleared a part of the excavated soil to un Cakovec-Gornji Pustakovec. Jama J2 tijekom praznjenja. S druge, sjeverne strane, vec se u prvoj sondi cover an area to both sides of the route. Two parallel Cakovec-Gornji Pustakovec. Pit J2 during pronasla zatvorena cjelina, jama iz bakrenog doba A and B, were then dug along the very trenches, emptying. (J2). Kako se kasnije pokazalo, rijec je o edge of the already excavated soil. Their purpose was to determine the direction and spread of the site. Trench A yielded only sporadic Copper Age finds, but the trench was nevertheless completed and a further 4 trenches, E, F, G and H, were added to this side in case they might yieldfinds.They too, however, did not yield archaeological structures of any significance, and contained only sporadic finds of prehistoric pottery. On the other, northern, side, the first trench re vealed a closed ensemble, a Copper Age pit (J2). As was later discovered this was a dugout house, set some 30 cm into the subsoil. A smaller pit (J2A) was found in the larger one, dug about 7 cm into the bottom of pit J2. This pit might be the remains of a post hole, or for food storage. In the upper layers of this pits deposit a separatefindwas located, part of a polished axe (PN2). It is interesting to note that there was no charcoal or bones in this pits deposit. Another stone axe, PN1, was found in the direct vicinity of pit J2. An ensemble of pits was found to the north of J2. A very small polished stone axe, PN4, was found

the bypass and the area foreseen for construction work on the bypass itself and the accompanying facilities, and rescue archaeology work was, there fore, not carried out here. The procedure for pre ventive protection of the site as a cultural good has, however, been initiated with the Conservation De partment in Varazdin. The site is located on what was up until now agricultural land about a hundred metres south of the houses in the village of Gornji Pustakovec, al ready a part of suburban Cakovec. The area be tween the houses and the present day bypass is re ferred by the local inhabitants as the Vrtovi (Gar dens), and its topography is in no way different from that of the surrounding terrain. It is a flat plain with fields that stretch for kilometres in all directions without any elevations. Several hundred metres to the north is the canal of the Trnava River, and it is possible that the former backwaters of the Trnava River, in the area called Ledine could have been much closer to our settlement.

Cakovec-Gornji Pustakovec. Ispraznjena jama J3. Drugi dio jame prostire se pod neotkupljeno zemljiste. ^akovec-Gornji Pustakovec. Emptying of pit J3. The other part of the pit stretches under the land that has not been purchased.

183

poluzemunici, ukopanoj oko 30 cm u zdravicu. Unutar jame pronadena je i manja (J2A), ukopana oko 7 cm u dno jame J2. Ova jama mogla bi biti ostatak stupa, ili spremnika za hranu. U gornjem sloju zapune ove jame pronaden je i posebni nalaz, dio glacane sjekire (PN2). Zanimljivo je kako u zapuni jame uopce nije pronaden gar, niti kosti. U samoj blizini jame J2, pronadena je i druga kamena sjekira, PN1. Sjevernije od J2, pronaden je sklop jama J3. U njoj je pronadena i jedna vrlo mala glacana kamena sjekira PN4. U istocnom dijelu ispraznjena je i mala jama J3B. Uz samu jamu J3 s juzne strane, nalazi se malo plica jama J3C. U zapadnom dijelu jame J3 ukopana je neobicno duboka i uska jama J3A. Njena dubina iznosi oko 67 cm unutar jame J3, odnosno najmanje 98 cm od razine bakrenodobnog hodnog sloja (3). U zapuni ove jame naslo se i nesto sljunka, a na samom dnu nekoliko vecih ulomaka bakrenodobne keramike i jedna cijela keramicka zlica. Ocigledno je ova jama sluzila kao bunar u kojem su se prikupljale podzemne vode, a zlica je upala i tamo ostala nekome koji se te vode htio napiti. Jama J3 proteze se dalje na sjever, a nije iskopavana u torn nastavku, jer su tu poljoprivredni nasadi koji izlaze iz linije otkupa za gradnju obilaznice, pa tako nisu mogli biti predmet ovih zastitnih istrazivanja. Zbog toga se, nazalost, ne moze zakljucno tumaciti ovaj sklop jama. Za tumacenje postoji nekoliko mogucnosti. Jedna je da je J3 bila poluzemunica, u kojoj se nalazio bunar, ili je bio naknadno ukopan u nju. To se moglo desiti i kada je ona jos bila u funkciji, ali i kasnije. S obzirom da je zapuna ponesto drukcija, ocigledno je kako nisu zapunjavane u posve isto vrijeme, vec je vjerojatnije kako je bunar djelomice zatrpavan kasnije. Jama J3 vjerojatno je zatrpavana polako, redovitim

in it. A small pit, J3B, was emptied in the eastern part. Along pit J3 to the southern side is a slightly shallower pit designated as J3C. An unusually long and narrow pit, J3A is dug into the western part of pit J3. It depth in pit J3 is about 67 cm, which means at least 98 cm from the level of the Copper Age occupational layer (3). Some gravel was found in the deposit of this pit, and a few larger potsherds from Copper Age ceramics and one entire ceramic spoon at the very bottom. It is evident that this pit served as a well in which subterranean waters were collected, and that the spoon fell in when someone went to get a drink. Pit J3 extends further to the north, but this extension was not excavated as they are agricultural fields under cultivation beyond the line of the land purchased for the needs of the con struction of the bypass, and could not as such be a subject of this rescue archaeology research. A final determination cannot for this reason, unfortunately, be given for this ensemble of pits. There are several possible explanations. One is that J3 was a dugout house with a well inside it, or afterwards dug inside it. This may have happened while the dugout house was still in use or afterwards. Considering that the deposit is somewhat different, it is evident that they were not filled at the same time and it is more likely that the well was partially filled in afterwards. Pit J3 was probably filled in slowly, by a regular dis carding of refuse. The upper part of the well was, however, not including here the pottery on the bot tom which comes from the period of its use, prob ably filled in quickly, with soil and gravel and with very little refuse or potsherds. It appears to me that we can explain this situation in the following way. The filling in of the entire J3 ensemble started dur ing the time the settlement was still inhabited. The shallower pits and the lower part of the well were

184

slijedom ubacivanja otpadaka. No, gornji dio bunara je, ne racunajuci na keramiku na dnu koja potjece iz doba njegova koristenja, zatrpan vjerojatno na brzinu, zemljom sa sljunkom i s vrlo malo otpadaka, odnosno keramickih ulomaka. Cini mi se da ovo stanje mozemo tumaciti na sljedeci nacin. Cijeli se sklop J 3 poceo zatrpavati jos za doba obitavanja u naselju. Tako su zapunjene plice jame i donji dio bunara. Kada je naselje napusteno, u nekoj poplavi je do vrha zapunjen i bunar. To bi objasnilo nepostojanje arheoloskih nalaza i postojanje sljunka u gornjem dijelu zapune bunara. S nesto malo ugljena koji je pronaden na dnu jame J3A (bunara) izvedeno je AMS-14C ispitivanje. Ishod pokazuje 36.st.pr.Kr. (356948 calBC), odnosno 35.st.pr.Kr. prema drugome mjerenju iz istog uzorka (346163 calBC). 2 Jame J 5 , J 6 i J 7 ; relativno su plitke, a mogle bi biti ostaci stupova, sto upueuje na nadzemnu gradnju; medutim, to nije potvrdeno na bilo koji drugi nacin. U njima nije bilo pokretnih nalaza pa ih se ne moze datirati, niti sa sigurnoscu povezati sa ostalim strukturama. Vise nije bilo daljnjih struktura, premda je sonda prosirena u oba smjera uzduz trase obilaznice. Prema postignutim dubinama uz trasu, zakljuceno je da se slojevi pod samom trasom vise ne mogu pronaci, ili barem ne u netaknutom stanju. U nastavku nadzora gradnje obilaznice kod ovog nalazista pregledano je i naknadno kopanje novog kanala za vodove, otprilike po sredini trase. Na jednome mjestu, gdje je sloj zemlje bio malodublje ocuvan, vidjeli su se ostaci neke bakrenodobne jame, ocuvani u samo nekoliko centimetara dubine. Koliko je bilo moguce, jama je ispraznjena i poput ostalih snimljena totalnom stanicom, te imenovana J 8 . Vjerojatno se pod sljuncanom posteljicom trase obilaznice vise mogu pronaci drugi ostaci arheoloskih slojeva, jer je drugdje ista postavljena do zdravice. Na tlorisu je vidljivo rasprostiranje arheoloskih nalaza u pravcu sjever - jug. Gotovo sigurno se ostale stambene strukture nalaze sjeverno od ovog mjesta, u polju prema kucama. To bi podrucje u buduenosti vrijedilo barem sondazno istrazivati i dalje. Gledano vertikalno stratigrafski, izdvojeno je nekoliko osnovnih slojeva. Prvi sloj je debljine 20 cm, s nalazima od 19. do 20.st., koji se ovdje nalaze poradi oranja. Sljedeci sloj je 2, takoder debeo oko Cakovec-Gornji Pustakovec. Ulomak 20 cm, a u njemu se nalazi poneki komad malo posude s karakteristicnim ukrasom. (T2-5) starije keramike, ali samo od 16. do 18.st. Ocigledno Cakovec-Gornji Pustakovec. Potsherd of a je kako su se vec i u to doba obradivala ova polja. vessel with a characteristic decoration. Odmah ispod njega je nesto tanji, 10 cm, sloj 3, s (T2-5) dosta bakrenodobnih nalaza. Ovo je hodni sloj naseg prapovijesnog naselja. Ispod njega nalazi se sloj 4, debljine oko 30 cm, koji cini arheoloski jalovu zdravicu, koja se sastoji od svijetlo zuckaste pjeskovite ilovace. Ispod njega je sloj 5, takoder geoloski sloj, koji se sastoji od srednje velikog

filled in this fashion. The well was filled to its top during some flood after the settlement had already been abandoned. This would explain the lack of ar chaeological finds and the existence of gravel in the upper part of the wells deposit. AMS-14C testing was carried out on a small sample of charcoal found at the bottom of pit J3A (the well). The test results indicate a dating to the 36th century BC (356948 calBC), i.e. to the 35th century BC according to another test from the same sample (346163 calBC).2 Pits J 5 , J 6 and J 7 are relatively shallow and could be the remains of post holes, which would indicate the remains of posts, which would indicate raised construction; this is not, however, confirmed in any other way. There were no finds in them so that they can not be dated, nor with certainty be connected to other structures. There were no further structures, even though the trench was widened in both directions along the route of the bypass. Based on the depths attained along the route it was concluded that layers would not be found under the route itself, at least not in an undisturbed state. In the continuing supervision of the construction of the bypass at this site the subse quent excavation of new canals for leads was also overseen, located at about the middle of the route. At one spot, where the soil layer was preserved to a greater depth, the remains of a Copper Age pit were visible, preserved to a depth of only a few centimetres. The pit was emptied as much as was possible and, like the others, recorded in a total geo detic station and designated as J 8 . It is likely that other remains of archaeological layers can not be found under the new gravel bed of the bypass route as it has elsewhere been laid to the level of the sub soil. On the ground plan it is evident that the archaeo logical finds are spread from north to the south. It is almost certain that the remaining defensive struc tures are situated to the north of this location, in the field towards the houses. It would be worthwhile in the future to carry out at least sondage explorations of this area. If we regard the stratigraphy here vertically, there are several separate basic layers. The first layer is 20 cm thick with finds from the 19th and 20th centuries, found here on account of ploughing. The next, layer 2, also 20 cm thick and contains spo radic finds of somewhat older pottery, but only from the 16th to 18th centuries. It is evident that this area had already been under cultivation in this pe riod. Directly beneath this layer is a somewhat thin ner one, of 10 cm, layer 3, with quite a bit of Copper Age finds. This is the occupational layer of our pre historic settlement. Under this one is layer 4, about 30 cm thick, consisting of archaeologically barren subsoil, made up of sandy light yellow clay. Under

2 AMS-14C dataeija izradena je u Leibniz Labor far Altersbestimmung und Isotopenforselmng, Christian-Albreehts-Universitat u Kielu (KIA25318, BP 4750+25; BP 4690+30). Sfa-aeena kalibraeija putem CalPal Online Radiocarbon Calibration izradena na Sveueilistu u Kolmi. AMS-14C dating was done at^Lalmz Laborjur Altersbestimmung undlsotopenforschung, Ghnstian-Albreehts-Vniversitat in Kiel (KIA-25318, BP 475025; BP 469030). Shorten^ mm,ratim using CaXPal (Mine Badiomrt atimdone at tkeVniversity of Koln.

rijecnog sljunka, s ponekim proslojcima sitnog rijecnog pijeska ili dragdje takoder od pjescane ilovace. Sve nase jame ukopane su u zdravicu iz onodobnog hodnog sloja, ovdje nazvanog sloj 3. Stambeni objekti i otpadne jame ukopane su samo kroz zemljani sloj 4, osim jame - bunara, koji je ukopan i u sloj 5. Prema iskopavanjima vidi se kako slojevi nisu ispremijesani oranjem ili nekim drugim djelovanjima, barem na istrazenom dijelu. Sve jame bile su netaknute, a ocuvan je u punoj debljini cak i bakrenodobni hodni sloj.

POKRETNI NALAZI Keramicki nalazi


Glavninu pokretnih arheoloskih nalaza na ovom nalazistu cini keramika. Na tablama su prikazani najosobitiji nalazi. Keramika se moze podijeliti na grabu i finu. Gruba je izradena s mnogo primjesa sitnog kvarcita i kamencica, cesto slabo pecene gline. Pokatkad je povrsina ovih posuda malo zagladena, pa se primjese vide samo u presjeku. Drage su posude izradene od dobro prociscene i pecene gline, a takve su cesto ukrasene urezanim crtama i ubodima. One su obicno uglacane do sjaja, a neke imaju i tragove bojenja crnom bojom. U Gornjem Pustakovcu se cesto javljaju posude sa sendvic" presjekom u vise boja, nastao vjerojatno primjenom posebne tehnike pecenja, a cini se i premazivanja glinom vec izradene posude. Naime, na nekim posudama taj debelo preljeven sloj gline otpada u velikim komadima i jasno je vidljivo kako nije rijec o osnovnoj gradi posude. Ocigledno je kako su vjesti lasinjski loncari poznavali vise pristupa izradi posuda, i tim bi tehnologijama trebalo ubuduce posvetiti vise paznje. Repertoar oblika je uglavnom tipican za lasinjsku kulturu. Sto se tice grublje keramike, pronadene su zlice, vrlo ceste u ovoj kulturi (Tl-2, T4-4,7). Takoder ceste su i zdjele na supljoj nozi, od kojih smo uspjeli rekonstruirati jednu (T3-1). Brojne su i razlicite zdjele s ruckama (T4-8, T5-3, T6-8) ili poluruckama (T6-4). Njima treba pribrojiti i posude s raznim cepastim i inim priljepcima, koji su osim kao ukras sluzili i za pridrzavanje (T2-6,ll, T4-5, T6-4). Ukrasi su najcesce u obliku roscica (Tl-5, T2-6, T3-1, T45), cepova (Tl-4), udubljenih cepova (T2-11) i plocasti (T6-4). Na posudama se nalaze u gornjoj polovici, po jedan ili u paru, jedan do drugoga. Takve posude ceste su u lasinjskoj kulturi, a ukrasi-ruckice i drugdje se kolebaju u oblicima (Beketinec HOMEN 1990, sl.5-2,3,7,8; Resnikov prekop i Ljubljansko barje DIMITRIJEVIC1979, t.XJX3,7,8). Medu rjede nalaze treba pribrojiti nalaz cjedila, T4-2, koji je vjerojatno slicio onome iz Bukovja kod Koprivnice (HOMEN 1990, sl.4-4). Ukrasi izvedeni crtama i ubodima uglavnom su slicni lasinjskim nalazima sa ostalih objavljenih nalazista. Najcesce su to vrcevi s jednom ili dvije rucke (T2-l,4,5, vjerojatno jedan vrc; T6-5,6,7) ili zdjelaste posude (T2-7). Ukras s obje strane posude mozemo usporediti s onim iz Beketinca

this one is layer 5, also a geological layer that is made up of mid-sized river gravel, with the odd interspersed layer of fine river silt or elsewhere of sandy clay. All of our pits are dug into the subsoil from the occupational layer of the time, here desig nated as layer 3. The dwellings and middens are all dug only through the soil of layer 4 except for the pit-well that was dug into layer 5. The excavation shows that the layers were not mixed by ploughing or some other activity, at least in the part that was explored. All of the pits were untouched and even the Copper Age occupational layer was preserved in its full depth.

185

FINDS Ceramic finds


The majority of archaeological finds at this site is made up of pottery. The most particular finds are shown in the tables. The ceramics can be divided into a rough and fine group. The rough pottery is manufactured with a large amount of fine quartz and pebble temper, often of poorly fired clay. The sur face of these vessels is some times somewhat smoothedout so that the temper is visible only in the cross-section. The other ves sels are made of weU refined and weU fired clay, and are often decorated with en graved lines and pricks. They are usu ally burnished to a high gloss and some have traces of black colouring. There are many vessels at Gornji Pustakovec with a sandwich cross-section of several colours, probably the result of the use of special firing techniques and, it appears, the re-coating of already manufactured vessels with clay. On several vessels, namely, this thick M coating of clay has broken off in large pieces and it is clearly visible that this is not a part of the vessels basic structure. It is evident that the skilled Lasinja potters were acquainted with several approaches to the manufactare of pottery. These technologies deserve greater attention in the future. The repertoire of shapes is for the most part typical of the Lasinja culture. As concerns the rougher pottery, spoons were found, quite frequent to this culture (Tl-2, T4-4, 7). Also frequent are bowls on hollow feet, of which we managed to recon struct one (T3-1). There are numerous bowls with handles (T4-8, T5-3, T6-8) or half-handles (T64). Vessels with various plug-like and similar at tachments, which served both as decoration and for holding the vessel, should be numbered among these (T2-6, 11, T4-5, T6-4). Decorations appear most often in the form of smaU horns (Tl-5, T2-6, T3-1, T4-5), plugs (Tl-4), indented plugs (T2-11) and plate-like ones (T6-4). They are on the vessels found on the upper half, alone or in pairs, one next to the other. Vessels such as these are frequent in the

Cakovec-Gornji Pustakovec. Rekonstruirana zdjela na nozi. (T3-1) Cakovec-Gornji Pustakovec^ Reconstructed vessel with foot. (T3-1)

Cakovec-Gornji Pustakovec. Ulomak a P " ; l "' therim'ofTv'Lseft^-l)

186

(HOMEN 1990, sl.5-1) ali i s nekim nalazima u ovoj knjizi (Blizna T2-8, T5-10, mozda Stara ves Tl-1). Ukras na posudi T6-5 vrlo je slican onome s male zdjelice pronadene u Drljanovcu (MIKLIK 2003, s.35, sl.2). Neobicni su ukrasi i nacin izrade posuda T2-2,3 i T5-5. Vrlo zanimljive su velike posude s ukrasima u vidu zadebljanja i dva reda kruznih rapica na izbocenoj traci uz sam obod (Tl-1,4). Ovakve se inace ne nalaze na lasinjskim nalazistima. Gotovo isti ukrasi nalaze se u repertoara posuda kulture ljevkastih pehara ranog bakrenog doba (Moravska, KOSTURIK 1997, tip214 - 256, 229, 234), a postoje i u pretklasicnoj fazi badenske kulture (Deronje-Mostonoga I, DIMITRIJEVIC 1979c, t.XXII-3). Kameni nalazi - Darko Komso Arheolosko nalaziste Pustakovec nalazi se jugoistocno od Cakovca. Tijekom arheoloskih istrazivanja prikupljeno je 7 kamenih izradevina, ukupne tezine 311,88 grama. Ovaj skup nalaza cine 3 glacane sjekire prikupljene u okviru arheoloskog konteksta, 3 izradevine od cijepanog kamena, od kojih je jedna prikupljena unutar arheoloskog konteksta, a dvije kao slucajni nalaz, te jedan oblutak prikupljen kao slucajni nalaz. Skup nalaza glacanih sjekira cine dvije cijele i jedna slomljena izradevina. Prvi je nalaz glacane plosnate trapezaste sjekire, fine obrade i ostrog sjeciva, sivosmede boje, tezine 29,5 grama; prikupljena je u sondi B, PN 1 (T5-2). Dragi nalaz cini mala glacana plosnata trapezasta sjekira, fine obrade i blago zatupljenog sjeciva, zutosmede boje, tezine 2,69 grama, koja je prikupljena u jami 2, PN3 (T4-10). Slicne sjekire nadene su u lengyelsko/ lasinjskom kontekstu na arheoloskom nalazistu Hrsina/Boduli/spilja 1 (PERKIC U TISKU), te tijekom terenskog rekognosciranja Brezja (Simek 1981). Treci nalaz cini ulomak baze glacane plosnate sjekire,fineobrade, svijetlo zelene boje, tezine 24,64 grama, prikupljene u jami 2, PN2 (Tl-6). Skup nalaza cijepanih izradevina ukupne je tezine 13,53 grama, a cine ga jedan odbojak (1,16 grama), prikupljen u jami 2, te po jedno prizmaticno malo sjecivo (2,18 grama, T6-10) i ulomak bezoblicne jezgre sa 30 posto okorine (10,19 grama, T6-11), prikupljeni kao slucajni nalazi. Sve tri prikupljene izradevine nacinjene su od roznjaka izvrsnih osobina cijepanja, smede, svijetlo smede i sive boje, dostupnih lokalno. Plohak je sacuvan samo kod odbojka i diedricnog je oblika. Prizmaticno malo sjecivo je zarubak s koso obradenim distalnim i proksimalnim krajem (T610). Ono je postdepozicijskim procesima slomljeno na dva dijela. Zanimljiva je usporedba sa slicnim nalazom iz arheoloskog nalazista Vinkovci - trznica/ hotel, gdje je potkraj 1977. godine pronaden vrc sa ostavom cijepanih kamenih izradevina, koja se sastojala od 48 obradenih i neobradenih izradevina, medu kojima treba istaknuti tri izradevine od opsidijana, jedne bifacijalno obradene strelice s

Cakovec-Gornji Pustakovec. Rekonstruirana keramicka zlica, 356948 calBC. (T4-4) Cakovec-Gornji Pustakovec. Reconstructed ceramic spoon, 3569+48 calBC. (T4-4)

Lasinja culture, and decoration-handles also wa ver elsewhere in form (Beketinec HOMEN 1990, sl.5-2, 3, 7, 8; Resnikov prekop and Ljubljansko barje DIMITRIJEVIC 1979, t.XIX-3, 7, 8). Among the rarer finds are the find of a strainer, T4-2, that is probably similar to the one from Bukovje near Koprivnice (HOMEN 1990, sl.4-4). Decorations done as lines or pricks are for the most part similar to Lasinja finds from the other published sites. Most often these are jugs with one or two handles (T2-1, 4, 5, probably from a single jug; T6-5, 6, 7) or a bowl-like vessel (T2-7). Deco ration on both sides of a vessel can be compared to those from Beketinec (HOMEN 1990, sl.5-1) but also with some finds in this book (Blizna T2-8, T5-10, maybe Stara ves Tl-1). The decorations on vessel T6-5 are very similar to those on a small bowl found at Drljanovec (MIKLIK 2003, s.35, sl.2). The decorations and method of fabrication of vessels T2-2, 3 and T5-5 are unusual. Also very interesting are large vessels with deco rations taking the form of a thickening and two rows of circular holes on a protruding ribbon di rectly Mowing the rim of the vessel (Tl-1, 4). Ves sels such as these are usuaUy not found at Lasinja sites. An almost identical decoration is found in the repertoire of vessels of the funnel-like beaker cul ture of the early Copper Age (Moravska, KOSTURIK 1997, type 214 - 256, 229, 234), and is also present in the pre-classical phase of the Baden culture (Deronje-Mostonoga I, DIMITRIJEVIC 1979c, t.XXII-3). Lilhic assemblage - Darko Komso The archaeological site of Pustakovec is located to the southeast ofCakovec. 7 stone artefacts were collected during the archaeological exploration, having a total combined weight of 311.88 grams. This assemblage offindsis composed of 3 polished axes in the frame of an archaeological context, 3 knapped lithics artefacts, of which one was coUected within an archaeological contexts and two as chance finds, and one pebble collected as a chance find. The assemblage of finds of polished axes con sists of two intact and one broken artefact. The first is a find of a polished, flat, trapezoid-shaped axe, well made and with a sharp cutting edge, of grey-brown colour, weighing 29.5 grams; it was collected in trench B, PN1 (T5-2). The second find is a small polished, flat, trapezoid-shaped axe, well made and with a slightly dulled cutting edge, of yellow-brown colour, weighing 2.69 grams, col lected in pit 2, PN3 (T4-10). Similar axes were found in a Lengyel/Lasinja context at the archaeo logical site of Hrsina/Boduli/cave 1 (PERKIC IN PRINT), and during recognisance of the Brezje terrain (Simek 1981). The third find is a shard from the base of a polished flat axe, well made, of light green colour, weighing 24.64 grams, collected in pit 2, PN2 (Tl-6). The assemblage of finds of knapped lithics artefacts has a combined weight of 13.53 grams,

Cakovec-Gornji Pustakovec. Roznjacko sjecivo. (T6-10) Cakovec-Gornji Pustakovec. Flint blade. (T6-10)

krilcima i udubljenom bazom za nasad, te vise alatki zarubljenih krajeva (DIMITRIJEVIC 1979B; MARKOVIC1994). Oblutak je prikupljen kao slucajni nalaz, tezine 241,52 grama (T6-9). Na dva raba vidljiva su ostecenja, vjerojatno nastala koristenjem ovog oblutka kao tvdog cekica za odbijanje cijepanih kamenih izradevina. Zbog malobrojnog skupa nalaza kamenih izradevina moguce je odrediti samo njegove osnovne karakteristike. Kod izradevina od cijepanog kamena sirovinski materijal potjece iz sekundarnih aluvijalnih nanosa, dopremljenih iz primarnih, vjerojatno razlicitih lezista djelovanjem rijeka i natalozenih na obalama. Prisutno je vise razlicitih tehnologija proizvodnje, i to tehnologija prizmaticnih sjeciva i ad hoc tehnologija dobivanja odbitaka. Oblutak s vjerojatnim tragovima koristenja upueuje na moguce koristenje tvrdog cekica za proizvodnju kamenih izradevina. Zastupljeni tipovi glacanih sjekira javljaju se kroz dugo razdoblje od srednjeg neolitika do ranog broncanog doba. Nalazi iz jama 2 i 3, a time i cjelokupni skup kamenih nalaza, uspjesno su datirani analizom radioaktivnog ugljika (KIA 25318) 475025 BP, odnosno kalibrirano 356948 pr.Kr., u razdoblje bakrenog doba, a pripadajucom keramikom u lasinjski kulturni sklop.
Kosti

Na nalazistu nisu pronadene kosti, sto je karakteristicno i za neka druga nalazista lasinjske kulture (Blizna, Stara ves, Gromace 2, RibnicaVshod). Mikroskopski pregled uzoraka zemlje iz zemunice J2 takoder nije iznjedrio ostatake koji bi pomogli u odredivanju poljoprivrednih kultura u njihovo doba.
SREDNJI I NOVI VIJEK NALAZI

U sondi A i F pronaslo se vrlo malo bakrenodobnih nalaza, ali ovdje je pronadena novovjekovna jama J l , koja se na osnovi nalaza keramicke lule i drugih sitnih nalaza moze datirati u kasnol9.st. Mjestani su u razgovora opisivali kako su se na ovim poljima nalazile velike jame iz kojih je iskopavana glina. Ona je koristena za pecenje opeka tijekom gradnji u selu Gornji Pustakovec, ali i prilikom gradnje velike stare vojarne u blizini, pocetkom 20.st. Mozda je jama J l bila jedna od tih jama, sudeci da u njoj nismo pronasli mnogo otpadaka, a i datacijski bi nekako odgovarala.
POKRETNI NALAZI Kerami~ki nalazi

and consists of one flake (1.16 grams), collected in pit 2, one prismatic bladelet (2.18 grams, T6-10) and one shard from a formless core with 30 percent cortex (10.19 grams, T6-11), collected as chance finds. All three of the coUected artefacts are made of flints of exceUent knapping characteristics, of brown, light brown and grey colour, and locaUy available. A platform is preserved only on the flake and is of dihedral shape. A prismatic bladelet is a truncation with obliquely retouched distal and proximal ends (T6-10). It was broken into two parts as a result of post depositional disturbances. There is an inter esting comparison to a similar find from the Vinkovci - market/hotel archaeological site, where a jug was found near the end of 1977 with a hoard of knapped lithic artefacts, that consisted of 48 retouched and unretouched artefacts, among which three artefacts made of obsidian stand out, one bifacial retouched arrowhead with wings and notched base and sev eral tools with truncated ends (DIMITRIJEVIC 1979B; MARKOVIC1994). A pebble was collected as a chance find, weighing 241.52 grams (T6-9). Damage is visible on two of its edges, probably created by the use of this pebble as a hard hammer for the production of knapped lithic artefacts. Because of the small number of lithic finds in this assemblage, only its basic characteristics can be determined. The raw material for the artefacts of knapped lithics originates from secondary alluvial deposits, transported from primary ones, probably several, by the motion of the river and deposited on its banks. There are several different production technologies present - a prismatic blade technology and an ad hoc flaking technology. The pebble with what are probably traces of use-related wear indi cates its possible use as a hard hammer for the pro duction of lithic artefacts. The represented types of polished axes appear through a long period from the middle Stone Age to the early Bronze Age. The finds from pits 2 and 3, and thereby the entire as semblage of lithic finds, was successfully dated by an analysis of radioactive carbon (KIA 25318) 475025 BP, calibrated to 356948 BC, to the Copper Age period, and the accompanying ceram ics to the Lasinja culture ensemble.
Bones

187

Cakovec-Gornji Pustakovec. Ostecena glacana kamena sjekira. (T1-6) Cakovec-Gornji Pustakovec. Damaged polished stone axe. (T1-6)

No bones were found at the site, which is charac teristic of some other Lasinja culture sites (Blizna, Stara ves, Gromace 2, Ribnica-Vshod). Microscopic surveys of soil samples from dugout house J2 also did not yield remains that could help in determin ing agricultural cultures of the time.
MEDIEVAL AND EARLY MODERN PERIODS FEATURES

U slojevima 1 i 2 pronadeno je malo nalaza novovjeke i kasnosrednjovjekovne keramike. Jedini zanimljiviji ulomak je dio keramicke lule, T5-6, pronaden u gornjem dijelu zasipa jame J l . Ova tola pripada proizvodnji manufakturnog lularskog

Very little Copper Age finds were collected in trenches A and P, but an early Modern pit, J l , was found here, that can be dated, based on finds of ceramic pipe and other smallfinds,to the late 19th century.

188

sredista u Schemnitzu, odnosno danasnjoj Banskoj Stiavnici u Slovackoj. Takve lule cest su nalaz na podrucju nekadasnje Austro-Ugarske, a kod nas osobito u sjeverozapadnom dijelu zemlje (BEKIC 2000, t.4-7,8). Ovaj primjerak izraden je u Koenigovqj radionici, vjerojatno za vrijeme njegovih nasljednika {Koenig Sohn), po prilici u drugoj polovini 19.st. ZAKLJUCAK Unatoc maloj istrazenoj povrsini, ovo djelomicno istrazeno naselje ipak je dalo pregrst podataka za istrazivanje lasinjske kulture. Neki su nalazi prvi put dokumentirani u netaknutim cjelinama, a i ostali su stratigrafski uredni. Kao sto je spomenuto u tekstu, jame J5, J6 i J7, mogle bi biti ostaci stupova, sto odmah upucuje na nadzemnu gradnju. Na nalazistu je nadeno i nesto komada paljene zemlje koji su takoder u prvi mah nalikovali na ljep. Medutim, pazljivijim pregledom potvrdeno kako nije rijec o blatu kojim je prekrivana neka mreza grana, vec o necem posve drugome. Ovi nalazi ljepa, cini se, vise svjedoce o postojanju ad hoc izradenih peci za keramiku nego o nekim stambenim strakturama. Tome doprinosi i nalaz konglomerata sastavljenog od vrlo sitnog kamena koji bi svjedocio o izradi keramickili posuda na ovome mjestu. Naime, na tlorisu je oznacen i PN4, koji predstavlja oveci gramen kamena. Kamen je, ne posebno cvrst, geoloski konglomerat sitnih kamencica razne boje. Vec pri malo jacem udarcu se raspada. Moguce je da je rijec upravo o onom kamenu koji je kao primjesa koristen u gruboj keramici pronadenoj na ovom nalazistu. Za potvrdu te pretpostavke potrebno je, naravno, podrobno geoloski ispitati gramen i veci uzorak keramickili ulomaka s ovog nalazista. Izgradnja peci za keramiku ipak je u skladu s razinom keramografije lasinjske kulture. Neke druge i mlade kulture, kod kojih je potvrdeno pecenje posuda na otvorenoj

The local inhabitants, in discussion, described how there had been large pits in these fields from which clay was extracted. It was used for brick pro duction during construction in the village of Gornji Pustakovec and during the construction, at the be ginning of the 20th century, of the large old military barracks located nearby. Pit J l may have been one of these, judging by the small amount of refuse in it, and the dating also fits. FINDS Ceramic finds A small quantity of finds of early Modern and late Medieval pottery were found in layers 1 and 2. The only find of any interest is a potsherd from a ceramic pipe, T5-6, found in the upper part of the fill of pit J l . This pipe comes from the pipe manu facturing facility in Schemnitz, present day Banska Stiavnica in Slovakia. Pipes like these are frequently found on the territory of the former Austro-Hungarian empire, and in Croatia in particular in the northwest of the country (BEKIC 2000, t.4-7, 8). This specimen was manufactured in the Koenig workshop, probably during the time of his heir {Koenig Sohn), most likely in the second half of the 19th century. CONCLUSION Despite the small size of the explored area, this partially explored settlement nevertheless yielded a handful of data useful for the research of the Lasinja culture. Some of the finds were for the first time documented in undisturbed ensembles, while the remaining finds are also, as far as stratigraphy is concerned, in good order. As has been mentioned in the text, pits J5, J6 and J7, might be the remains of posts, which immediately indicates raised con struction. A quantity of fired earth was also found at the site that, also initially, resembled daub. A care ful examination revealed, however, that this was not mud that had covered a netting of branches, but something altogether different. These finds of daub, it appears, bear witness rather to the pres ence of a kiln set up ad hoc, and not to some kind of dwelling. Contributing to this reading of the situa tion is the find of a conglomerate composed of very smaU stones that probably indicates the production of ceramic vessels at this location. PN4 is, namely, marked on the ground plan, showing the location of a larger clump of stones. The stone, not particularly firm, is a geological conglomerate of smaU stones of various colours. It falls apart if struck with any intensity. It is possible that this is in fact the stone used as a temper in the rough pottery found at this site. Confirmation of this hypothesis would require, naturally, a detailed geological examination of the clump and a larger sample of the potsherds from this site. The construction of a kiln for firing ceram ics is nevertheless in keeping with the level of devel opment of ceramography in the Lasinja culture. Some other, and later, cultures, for which the firing of vessels over open fires or in holes has been con-

Cakovec-Gornji Pustakovec. Keramicka lula (T5-6) ^akovec-Gornji Pustakovec. Clay pipe (T5-6)

^akovec-Gornji Pustakovec. Oskudni tragovi jame J8 u iskopu gra|evinskog jarka kroz trasu. ^akovec-Gornji Pustakovec. The few traces of pit J8 in the excavated construction ditch through the route.

vatri i u mpama, bez neke posebne tehnologije izrade, nisu bile u mogucnosti izraditi posude koje se mogu mjeriti s lasinjskim. A lasinjska kultura je barem sto se tice izrade keramickih posuda bila vrlo napredna i mnoge druge kulture nisu se uopce upustale u izradu takvih proizvoda kao sto su npr. visoke zdjele na supljoj nozi. 0 posebnim tehnikama izrade keramickih posuda ove kulture vec je bilo rijeci u ovom poglavlju, i mislim kako je vrlo vjerojatno da ce se vremenom otkriti vise o izradi razlicitih tipova njihove keramike i u torn pogledu i o upotrebi posebnih peci. Opcenito gledano, jedini dosad poznati lasinjski nalazi na podrucju Mediniurja potjecu sa nalazista tzv. Gorican-Kota 143. Ovo nalaziste istrazivao je Zeljko Tomicic 1979.g., prilikom rekognosciranja za potrebe izgradnje naftovoda (TOMICIC1985). Tbm prilikom iskopao je dva zemunicka objekta s nalazima koji se mogu pripisati starijem zeljeznom dobu i ranom broncanom dobu, licenskoj kulturi. Medu ovim nalazima, dva ulomka keramickih posuda pripadali bi prema Tomicieu lasinjskoj kulturi, kao i nekoliko kamenih artefakata. Drugih nalaza koji bi pripadali lasinjskoj kulturi na podrucju Medimurja do ovih iskopavanja nije bilo.3 Tako je Gornji Pustakovec prvo sigurno i istrazivano naselje ove kulturne pojave na podrucju Medimurja. Igrom slucaja (?) nekoliko kilometara dalje, kod Nedelisca na Staroj vesi pronadeno je i drugo nalaziste lasinjske kulture, takoder pronadeno prilikom nadzora nad izgradnjom cakovecke obilaznice. Usporedujuci ova dva naselja, Pustakovec i Staru ves, uocljive su mnoge slicnosti. Prvo, oba nalazista su relativno blizu vodotoka i na vrlo blago uzdignutom ili posve ravnom polozaju. To je opce obiljezje lasinjskih nalazista, te osim na Blizni i Gromacama 2 poznato s velike vecine svih ostalih nalazista (DIMITRIJEVIC 1979, 147). Poluzemunice na oba nalazista su kruzne osnove, promjera oko 2 m, bez jasnih tragova stupova. Vjerojatno su imale okrugli satorast krov s konstrukcijom od laksih grana koji nije ostavio traga u zemlji. Tb bi prilicilo nekoj vrsti lutalackog zivota, bez potrebe za gradnjom cvrstih stambenih tvorevina. Pokrov satora mogao je biti od zivotinjske koze, te prenosen od stanista do stanista. Na lutalacko-stocarski zivot pripadnika lasinjske kulture upozorava i Dimitrijevic (DIMITRIJEVIC 1979, 140, 164, 165). Oba nalazista takoder nisu velika niti uslojena, pa ih je mozda uistinu dobro nazivati dobnim iU privremenim stanistima. Prilikom istrazivanja na tri nalazista lasinjske kulture izvedena su ispitivanja uzoraka mjerenjem radioktivnog ugljika, metodom AMS-14C. Ishod iz jame J3A Pustakovca dao je najmladi datum, 356948 calBC; 346163 calBC. Ispitivanje ugljena iz zemunice K4 na Blizni pokazao je ishod 421487 calBC, a ugljen iz otpadne jame J l na
'Na usmenoj obawjesti zatoaljujem Josipu VidoYieu. I thank Jos'i/p Vidmiic who provided this information by word-of-mmth

189

firmed, without some special production technology, were not able to manufacture vessels that could measure up to the Lasinja production. And the Lasinja culture, at least as far as the manufacture of ceramic vessels is concerned, was very advanced, and many other cultures did not even try their hand at the manufacture of products such as, for example, tall bowls on hollow feet. There has already been mention in this chapter of the special techniques of ceramics manufacture in this culture, and I am of the opinion that it is very likely that more will be discovered in time of the production of various types of their pottery and, in this regard, of the use of special kilns. In general, the only currently known Lasinja finds in the Medimurje region come from the socalled Gorican-Kota 143 site. This site was explored by Zeljko Tomicic in 1979, during a survey that preceded the construction of an oil pipeline (TOMICIC 1985). At that time he excavated two dugout house-like features with finds that can be attributed to the early Iron Age and early Bronze Age, from the Litzen culture. Among these finds, two potsherds from ceramic vessels would, accord ing to Tomicic, come from the Lasinja culture, as would several lithic artefacts. Up to these excavations there have been no other finds from the Lasinja culture in the Medimurje region.3 This makes Gornji Pustakovec the first confirmed and explored settlement from this cul ture in the Medimurje region. By chance (?), sev eral kilometres further on, at Nedelisce on Stara ves, a second site from the Lasinja culture was found, also during the supervision of construction of the Cakovec bypass. In comparing these two settlements, Pustakovec and Stara ves, there are many evident similarities.

Cakovec-Gornji Pustakovec. Pogled na jame J3 i J2 s juga. Cakovec-Gornji Pustakovec. A view ot />'& ^ and J2 from the south.

190

Gromacama 2 starost od 4293 33 calBC. Nedavna Zizekova istrazivanja lasinjskog naselja u Hardeku kod Ormoza dala su 14C ishode u rasponu od oko 4900 - 3300.g.pr.Kr. (ZIZEK 2003a, 35), odnosno 3800 - 3300. g.pr.Kr (ZIZEK 2003a, 152). Prilikom istrazivanja sojenickog naselja Kanzianiberg-Lasinja grupe na Keutschacher jezeru u Austriji, izvedeno je vise ispitivanja (SAMONIG 2003). Ishodi dendrokronoloskih mjerenja upucuju na razdoblje od 3947. do 3871.g.pr.Kx, a 14C ispitivanja na razdoblje od 4100. do 3700.g.pr.Kr. Somogyijeva spominje i stariji 14C datum pocetka Kanzianiberg-Lasinja grupe, 4240 - 3950.g.pr.Kr. (SOMOGYI 2000, 46). Ocigledno je kako ishodi s ovih iskopavanja djelomicno odgovaraju onima s drugih nalazista. Hardek ima cak i 200 godina mlade ishode nego Pustakovec (oko 3500.g.pr.Kx), dok je za ishod s Blizne (oko 4200.g.pr.Kr.) usporediv onaj s Keutschacher jezera, mlacti 100 godina ili pak isti prema cjelokupnoj Kanzianiberg grupi. Ishod s Gromaca 2 ne mozemo konacno uvrstiti u tipicnu lasinjsku kulturu, jer mozda je rijec o starijoj Sece inacici. Balaton-Lasinja 1 u Madarskoj u novije vrijeme postavlja izmedu se 4000. i 3500. calBC (sastavljanje ishoda Raczky Kalicz, Porenbaher, Horvath, Hertelendi, WhittUe, Sherratt) ili 4400. i 4000. calBC (prema Baldia), dok Tezak-Gregl lasinjsku kulturu postavlja na podrucju Hrvatske otprilike u razdoblje izmedu 3700. i 3200. g.pr.Kr. (TEZAKGREGL 1998, 58). Cini se kako se u novije vrijeme pokazuje da je lasinjska kultura uistinu dugovjecna, osim sto je prostorno vrlo rasprostranjena, sto se znalo i prije. No, potrebno je jos mnogo 14C ispitivanja, kako bismo utvrdili zadovoljavajuci vremenski slijed od postanka do nestanka kulture, kao i tomu sukladno preispitivanje dosadasnjih obrazaca keramike. Premda je proslo mnogo godina od Dimitrijeviceva sastavljanja podataka o lasinjskoj kulturi, do danas nazalost nismo mnogo napredniji. I drugi arheolozi koji su nastavili promisljanja svojih predhodnika (Tezak-Gregl, Markovic, Homen i ini), nazalost nisu uspjeli u vecoj mjeri odgovoriti na stara i kljucna pitanja ove kulturne pojave. Problem je u nesretnim okolnostima zbog nesustavnih istrazivanja ovih nalazista ili njihova neobjavljivanja, koja bi zasigurno drukcijim pristupom dala mnogo vise odgovora.

First of all, both sites are relatively close to waterways and on very gently elevated or quite flat positions. This is a general trait of Lasinja sites and is typical not only of Blizna and Gromace 2 but also of the vast majority of aU other sites (DIMITRIJEVIC 1979, 147). The dugout houses at both sites have round bases, with a diameter of about 2 m, without clear traces of posts. They probably had round tentlike roofs constructed of light branches that did not leave a trace on the ground. This would fit with some sort of nomadic life, without the need for the construction of more permanent dwelling structures. The covering of the tent may have been of animal skins and transported from habitation to habitation. Dimitrijevic has indicated the nomadic-herding lifestyle of the Lasinja culture (DIMITRIJEVIC 1979, 140, 164, 165). Both sites are also neither large nor layered, so that we are truly justified in referring to them as period or temporary habitations. Testing of samples of radioactive carbon was carried out during the exploration of the three Lasinja culture sites using the AMS-14C method. The resuit of the analysis for pit J3A at Pustakovec yielded the latest dating, 356948 calBC; 346163 calBC. Testing of the charcoal from dugout house K4 at Blizna yielded a dating of 421487 calBC, while the charcoal from midden J l at Gromace 2 showed a dating of 429333 calBC. The recent exploration by Zizek of a Lasinja settlement at Hardek near Ormoz yielded 14C resuits ranging from about 4900 - 3300 BC (ZIZEK 2003a, 35), i.e. 3800 - 3300 BC (ZIZEK 2003a, 152). Several tests were carried out during the exploration of a pile dwelling of the KanzianibergLasinja group at Lake Keutschacher in Austria (SAMONIG 2003). The results of dendrochronological measurements indicate a period from 3947 to 3871 BC, while 14C testing shows a period ranging from 4100 to 3700 BC. Somogyi mentions an older 14C dating for the beginning of the Kanzianiberg-Lasinja group, 4240 - 3950 BC (SOMOGYI 2000, 46). It is evident that the results of these excavationsfitin part with those from other sites. Hardek has a result even 200 years later than that from Pustakovec (about 3500 BC), while the result from Blizna (about 4200 BC) is comparable to that from Lake Keutschacher, 100 years later or the same if compared to the overall Kanzianiberg group. We can not definitely include the result from Gromace 2 among those of the typical Lasinja culKATAL0G tare, because it may be an earlier version of the Sece. TABLA 1 - Pustakovec, Jama 2 Balaton-Lasinjalin Hungary has recently been 1- Dio posude izradene prostorucno, s primjesama dated between 4000 and 3500 calBC (result comkvarcita, slabe izrade, kroz prijelom: tamno crvene/ piling by Raczky, Kalicz, Porenbaher, Horvath, narancaste/crne/narancaste/tamno crvene boje. Hertelendi, WhittUe, Sherratt) or 4400 and 4000 2- Ulomak zlice izradene prostorucno, s malo calBC (according to Baldia), while Tezak-Gregl puts primjesa sitnih kvarcita, dobre izrade, tamno smede, the Lasinja culture in the territory of Croatia at a u prijelomu tamno sive boje. about the period from 3700 and 3200 BC (TEZAK3- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s malo GREGL 1998, 58). primjesa vecih kvarcita, slabe izrade, kroz prijelom: It appears that the Lasinja culture has, as of tamno sive/svijetlo smede/crne/svijetlo smede/tamno recently, been revealed as a truly long-lived one, be-

sides, which was known previously, also being spread across a very wide territory. Much more 14C testing is needed, however, if we are to establish a satisfactory temporal succession from the emergence to the disappearance of this culture, and, which follows, the reassessment of current ceramics patterns. Although many years have passed since Dimitrijevic compiled his data on the Lasinja culture, we have still not moved forward much. Other archaeologists too, who have continued the analysis of their predeTABLA 2 - Pustakovec, Jama 2 cessors (Tezak-Gregl, Markovic, Homen and oth1- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, prociscene ers) have, unfortunately, not managed to answer, in gline, kroz prijelom: tamno sive/narancaste/tamno any significant measure, the old and key questions sive/narancaste/tamno sive boje. Dio T2-4,5. of this cultural phenomenon. The difficulty is in the 2- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, prociscene unhappy circumstances caused by the unsystemgline, dobre izrade, svijetlo smede, a u prijelomu atic exploration of these sites or the lack of their tamno sive boje. publication, which would, if a different approach 3- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, prociscene were adopted, certainly provide many more answers. gline, dobre izrade, smede, a u prijelomu crne boje. 4- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, prociscene CATALOGUE gline, kroz prijelom: tamno sive/narancaste/tamno TABLE 1 - Pustakovec, Pit 2 sive/narancaste/tamno sive boje. Dio T2-1,5. 1- Part of a hand-made vessel, with a temper of 5- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, prociscene quartz, of mediocre manufacture, through the break: gline, kroz prijelom: tamno sive/narancaste/tamno of dark red/orange/black/orange/dark red colour. 2- Potsherd of a hand-made spoon, with a little temsive/narancaste/tamno sive boje. Dio T2-1,4. 6- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, prociscene per of fine quartz, of good manufacture, of dark gline, izvana tamno sive, a u prijelomu i iznutra brown colour, dark grey at the break. tamno smede boje. 3- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with a little tem7- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, prociscene per of coarser quartz, of mediocre manufacture, gline, dobre izrade, svijetlo smede, a u prijelomu through the break: of dark grey/light brown/black/ zute boje. light brown/dark grey colour. 8- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s malo 4- Part of a hand-made vessel, with a temper of primjesa sitnih kamencica, dobre izrade, smede, a u quartz, of mediocre manufacture, through the break: prijelomu crne boje. of light brown/orange/black/orange/dark red colour. 9- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s mnogo 5- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with a little temprimjesa kvarcita i kamencica, grube izrade, crne per of small pebbles, of mediocre manufacture, of boje. Izracunati promjer oboda oko 20 cm. brown colour, black at the break. 10- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, 6- Part of an axe made of polished light green stone prociscene gline, dobre izrade, kroz prijelom: smede/ of excellent quality. narancaste/smede/narancaste/svijetlo crvene boje. 11- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, TABLE 2 - Pustakovec, Pit 2 prociscene gline, dobre izrade, tamno crvene, a u 1- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of refined clay, prijelomu smede boje. through the break: of dark grey/orange/dark grey/ orange/dark grey colour. Part of T2-4, 5. TABLA 3 - Pustakovec, Jama 3 2- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of refined clay, 1- Posuda izradena prostorucno, s mnogo primjesa of good manufacture, of light brown colour, dark sitih kamencica i pijeska, glatke povrsine, kroz grey at the break. prijelom: smede/narancaste/smede/narancaste/ 3- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of refined clay, smede boje. Na zadebljanju suplje noge vidljivi su of good manufacture, of brown colour, black at the tragovi bojanja crnom bojom. Rekonstruirana. break. 2- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s malo 4- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of refined clay, primjesa kvarcita, tamno crvene, a u prijelomu crne through the break: of dark grey/orange/dark grey/ boje. orange/dark grey colour. Part of T2-1, 5. 3- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, prociscene 5- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of refined clay, gline, dobre izrade, kroz prijelom: tamno smede/ through the break: of dark grey/orange/dark grey/ crvene/crne/crvene/tamno smede boje. orange/dark grey colour. Part of T2-1, 4. 6- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of refined clay, TABLA 4 - Pustakovec, Jama 3 of dark grey colour outside, dark brown at the break 1- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, prociscene and on the inside. gline, dobre izrade, kroz prijelom: tamno sive/crvene/ 7- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of refined clay, crne/crvene/tamno sive boje. Mozda dio T4-3,6,9. of good manufacture, of light brown colour, yellow 2- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, prociscene at the break.

sive boje. 4- Dio posude izradene prostorucno, s primjesama kvarcita, slabe izrade, kroz prijelom: svijetlo smede/ narancaste/crne/narancaste/tamno crvene boje. 5- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s malo primjesa kamencica, slabe izrade, smede, a u prijelomu crne boje. 6- Dio sjekire od uglacanog svijetlo zelenog kamena izvrsne kvalitete.

191

192

gline, dobre izrade, kroz prijelom: tamno smede/ crvene/crne/crvene/svijetlo smede boje. 3- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, prociscene gline, dobre izrade, kroz prijelom: tamno sive/crvene/ crne/crvene/tamno sive boje. Mozda dio T4-l,6,9. 4- Zlica izradena prostorucno, neprociscene gline, grube izrade, smede boje. Jama 3a (bunar). 5- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s malo primjesa sitnih kvarcita, dobre izrade, svijetlo smede, a u prijelomu erne boje. Jama 3c. 6- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, prociscene gline, dobre izrade, kroz prijelom: tamno sive/crvene/ crne/crvene/tamno sive boje. Mozda dio T4-l,3,9. 7- Ulomak zlice izradene prostorucno, s mnogo primjesa kvarcita, kroz prijelom: crne/crvene/crne/ crvene/crne boje. 8- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s malo primjesa kvarcita, tamno crvene, a u prijelomu erne boje. 9- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, prociscene gline, dobre izrade, kroz prijelom: tamno sive/crvene/ crne/crvene/tamno sive boje. Mozda dio T4-l,3,6. 10- Sjekira od glacanog sivo smedeg kamena. Posebni nalaz 3.

8- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with a little temper of small pebbles, of good manufacture, of brown colour, black at the break. 9- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with a large amount of temper of quartz and pebbles, of rough manufacture, of black colour. The calculated diameter of the rim is about 20 cm. 10- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of refined clay, of good manufacture, through the break: of brown/ orange/brown/orangeAight red colour. 11- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of refined clay, of good manufacture, of dark red colour, brown at the break.

TABLE 3 - Puslakovec, Pit 3 1- Hand-made vessel, with a large amount of temper of small pebbles and sand, with a smooth surface, through the break: of brown/orange/brown/ orange/brown colour. At the thickening of the hollow foot there are visible traces of black colouring. Reconstructed. 2- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with a little temper of quartz, of dark red colour, black at the break 3- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of refined clay, of good manufacture, through the break: of dark TABLA 5 - Puslakovec, bakreno doba: Slojevi / brown/red/black/red/dark brown colour. ostalo: Slojevi 1- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s mnogo TABLE 4 - Puslakovec, Pit 3 primjesa vecih kvarcita, tamno smede, a u prijelomu 1- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of refined clay, tamno sive boje. Sonda I, Sloj 3. of good manufacture, through the break: of dark 2- Kamena glacana sjekira. Posebni nalaz 1. grey/red/black/red/dark grey colour. Perhaps a part 3- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, prociscene of T4-3, 6, 9. gline, dobre izrade, zuckasto do narancaste boje. 2- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of refined clay, Sonda D, Sloj 3. of good manufacture, through the break: of dark 4- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s mnogo brown/red/black/redAight brown colour. primjesa vecih kvarcita, svijetlo smede boje. Sonda 3- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of refined clay, I, Sloj 3. of good manufacture, through the break: of dark 5- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, prociscene grey/red/black/red/dark grey colour. Perhaps a part gline, dobre izrade, svijetlo smede, a u prijelomu of T4-1, 6, 9. narancaste boje. Sonda I, Sloj 3. 4- Hand-made spoon, of unrefined clay, of rough 6- Ostecena keramickatola,izvanredno dobre izrade, manufacture, of brown colour. Pit 3a (well). tamnosmeda a u prijelomu crvenskaste boje. S 5- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with a little temocuvanim pecatom MKONIG(...) SCHEMNITZ. per of fine quartz, of good manufacture, of light Sonda A, Sloj 2, kod Jame 1. brown colour, black at the break. Pit 3c. 6- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of refined clay, TABLA 6 - Puslakovec, bakreno doba: of good manufacture, through the break: of dark SlUCajni nalazi grey/red/black/red/dark grey colour. Perhaps a part 1- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s of T4-l, 3, 9. primjesama kvarcita, slabe izrade, kroz prijelom: 7- Potsherd of a hand-made spoon, with a large svijetlo smede/narancaste/tamno sive/narancaste/ amount of temper of quartz, through the break: of svijetlo smede boje. black/red/black/red/black colour. 2- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s malo 8- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with a little temprimjesa manjih kvarcita, dobre izrade, kroz per of quartz, of dark red colour, black at the break prijelom: smede/narancaste/tamno sive/narancaste/ 9- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of refined clay, smede boje. of good manufacture, through the break: of dark 3- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s malo grey/red/black/red/dark grey colour. Perhaps a part primjesa vecih kvarcita, dobre izrade, smede, a u of T4-1, 3, 6. prijelomu erne boje. 10- Axe made of polished grey-brown stone. Spe4- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s mnogo cialfind3. primjesa manjih kvarcita, neuredne izrade, smede,

a u prijelomu erne boje.


5- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, prociscene

TABLE 5 - Puslakovec, Copper Age:


Layers / Other: Layers

gline, dobre izrade, kroz prijelom: tamno sive/ narancaste/tamno sive/narancaste/tamno sive boje. 6- Ulomak posude izradene prostoracno, prociscene gline, dobre izrade, crvene boje. 7- Ulomak posude izradene prostoracno, s mnogo primjesa manjih kvarcita, svijetlo smede, a u prijelomu erne boje. 8- Ulomak posude izradene prostoracno, s primjesama manjih kamencica, neuredne izrade, svijetlo smede, a u prijelomu erne boje. 9- Oblutak bijelog kamena, donesen s nekog drugog mjesta na nalaziste, koristen kao cekic za izradu kremenih alatki. 10- Obradeni roznjak. 11- Obradeni roznjak.

1- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with a large amount of temper of coarser quartz, of dark brown colour, dark grey at the break. Trench I , Layer 3. 2- Polished stone axe. Special find 1 . 3- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of refined clay, of good manufacture, of yellowish to orange colour. Trench D, Layer 3. 4- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with a large amount of temper of coarser quartz, of light brown colour. Trench I , Layer 3. 5- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of refined clay, of good manufacture, of light brown colour, orange at the break. Trench I, Layer 3. 6- Damaged ceramic pipe, of exceptionally good manufacture, of dark brown colour, reddish at the break. With preserved stamp MKONIG(...) SCHEMNITZ. Trench A, Layer 2, at pit 1 . TABLE 6 - Pustakovec, Copper Age: Chance finds 1- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with a temper of quartz, of mediocre manufacture, through the break: of light brown/orange/dark grey/orange/light brown colour. 2- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with a little tem per of finer quartz, of good manufacture, through the break: of brown/orange/dark grey/orange/brown colour. 3- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with a little tem per of coarser quartz, of good manufacture, of brown colour, black at the break. 4- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with a large amount of temper of finer quartz, of slipshod manu facture, of brown colour, black at the break. 5- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of refined clay, of good manufacture, through the break: of dark grey/orange/dark grey/orange/dark grey colour. 6- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of refined clay, of good manufacture, of red colour. 7- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with a large amount of temper of finer quartz, of light brown colour, black at the break. 8- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with a temper of smaller pebbles, of slipshod manufacture, of light brown colour, black at the break. 9- Pebble of white stone, transported to the site from some other location, used as a hammer for the pro duction of flint tools. 10- Retouched flint. 11- Retouched flint.

193

194

Tablal.Cakovec-Gomji Pustakovec. J2. Table 1. Cakovec-Gornji Pustakovec. J2.

195

Tabla 2. Cakovec-Gornji Pustakovec. J2. Table 2. Cakovec-Gornji Pustakovec. J2.

196

Tabla 3. Cakovec-Gornji Pustakovec. J3, 356948 calBC. Table 3. CEakovec-Gornji Pustakovec. J3, 356948 calBC.

197

Tabla 4. Cakovec-Gornji Pustakovec. J3, 356948 calBC. Table 4. Cakovec-Gornji Pustakovec. J3, 356948 calBC.

Cakovec - Gornji Pustakovec

II

o< 0 .

>cb

II

01

6,

I*

CD

CD

1* O

199

Tabla 6. ^akovec-Gornji Pustakovec. Bakreno doba, slu~ajni nalazi. Table 6. ^akovec-Gornji Pustakovec. Copper Age, chance finds.

| 160,23 J D 160,16 160,79 I O 160,16 J v 3 159.87 160J80^r-r----'~"~^ 160,76 '160.25

J3A1,i^

1B0

|X>
Juieo.u

PN4 ^J^ \

16

(/\

160,36

160.71

P N i 160.31

160,71

B.C.D.I.J.K.L

I Q 159.9! J O 159.B!

U3S^ C0

*C fcN t f < *

180.! 160,61

160.71

M 160,04 I 159,91

160,69

,160,72 160,78 .160.05 \ \ J16Q.68 160,64

,160,80

160,81

J180.66

PUSTAKOVEC 2004
10

160,68 160.60 3.0U .160,01 ^160,50 160.68

H G

STARA VES KOD NEDEUSCA (CAKOVEC) Viseslojno razvedeno naselje


Prilikom arheoloskog nadzora izgradnje juzne obilazmce gradaCakovca^a prostoru novog rotora i kanala Trnava kod Nedelisca, otkrivena je veca kolicina sitnih arheoloskih nalaza. Istrazivanja su vodena u razdoblju odl6. 8. 2004. do 27. 9. 2004.g., kada je izvoditelju dopusteno zatrpavanje i dovrsetak gradevinskih radova. Nakon arheoloskih iskopavanja pokrenut je postupak preventivne registracije ovog nalazista kao kulturnog dobra pri Konzervatorskom odjelu u Varazdinu. Nalaziste je uvelike osteceno strojnim iskopom kanala sirine i dubine oko 2x2 metra. No, upravo tijekom radova na kanaka boravio sam u nadzoru te zamijetio arheoloske nalaze, pa je tako dio neostecenog nalazista ipak iskopan primjenom arheoloske metode. Otvorena je jedna sonda u kojoj je otkriveno vise jama, medu kojima dvije zemunicke kuce s gradivom koji pripada lasinjskoj kulturi u prvom i ranim Slavenima u dragom slucaju. Osim ova dva objekta i jama koji su iskopani u sondi, na prostoru vec iskopanog kanala pronadene su i brojne druge jame koje datiraju u bakreno, kasno broncano doba, kasnu antiku, rani, razvijeni i kasni srednji vijek. Ove jame iskopane su i dokumentirane izravno iz jarka, sto je dosad primjenjivano i u slicnim ovakvim situacijama na autocestama.

STARA VES NEAR NEDEUSCE (CAKOVEC) Dispersed Multilayer Settlement


A larger quantity of small archaeological finds was coUected in the area of the new roundabout and the Trnava canal at Nedelisce during archaeological supervision of the construction of the southern bypass of the city of Cakovec. The exploration was carried out during the period from August 16 to September 27, 2004 when the contractor was allowed to complete the fill and finish construction work. After the archaeological excavation the procedure was put in motion for the preventive registration of this site as a cultural good at the Conservation Department in Varazdin. The site suffered extensive damage from excavation by heavy machinery of a canal about 2 metres wide and about 2 metres deep. I was in the field on supervisory work during the construction work on the canal and noticed archaeological finds, so that an undamaged part of the site was in fact excavated using archaeological methods. A trench was opened which yielded several pits among which are two dugout houses with material from the Lasinja culture in the first one and from early Slavs in the second. Besides these two features and the pits excavated in the trench, numerous other pits that date to the Copper Age, late Bronze Age, late Roman period and early, high and late Medieval

203

Nedelisce-Stara ves. Nalaziste u trenutku obustavljanja radova. Nedelisce-Stara ves. The site at the moment construction work was stopped

204

Nedelisce-Stara ves. Praznjenje jame K5 na pokosu kanala. Nedelisce-Stara ves. Emptying pit K5 in the canals side.

Pronadena je veca kolicina dijelova keramickih posuda razlicitih oblika - nekolicina ih je restaurirana u cijelosti - te i malo metalnih nalaza (noz, strelica, praporac, novae itd.) te ulomak glacane kamene sjekire. Ovo nalaziste vrlo je zanimljivo po nalazima i broju zastupljenih razdoblja, ali treba napomenuti kako je razvedenog karaktera, koji je u novije vrijeme poznat s nekih drugih nalazista otkrivenih prilikom gradnje autocesta, osobito u Sloveniji. Naime, unatoc vecem broju, j a m e su siroko rasporedene na prostora do 1 kilometar (!) pa izmedu njih postoje praznine od oko 50 ili vise metara. Preostali dio naselja je izvan granica eksproprijacije i opsega prostora koji je predviden za radove na izgradnji obilaznice i pratecih objekata, pa tu nisu provodena istrazivanja. Stara ves naziv je polja na prostora izmedu naselja Nedelisce i z a p a d n o g p r e d g r a d a (industrrjske zone) grada Cakovca. Nadmorska visina polja je oko 166, 167 m. S juzne strane omedeno je starom cestom Nedelisce - Cakovec, sa istocne strane prometnim rotorom i cestom prema sjeveru, a na sjevernoj stranizeljeznickom prugom. Nakon pruge pocinje veliko podrucje Globetke, vjerojatno nekadasnja mocvarista, koje je metar do dva nize od polja Stare vesi. Kroz nalaziste prolaze stari rasteretni kanali rijeke Trnave, a nije poznat anticki tok rijeke. Svakako je na ovom prostora dosta krivudao, a na jednom mjestu smo ga i dokumentirali u novom iskopu, sa smjerom okomitim na danasnji rasteretni kanal (vidi veliki tloris). Dakle, rijec je o sirokom podrucju (oko 1 km2), lagano uzdignutom od ostalog prostora, koji je vjerojatno u davnini bio ispresijecan razigranim tokom i pritocima rijeke-rjecice Trnave. Do sada nije bilo poznato bilo kakvo arheolosko nalaziste u blizini zapadnog ulaza u grad Cakovec. Prvo, najblize nalaziste je srednjovjekovno gradiste sjeverno od Nedelisca, koje je svojedobno istrazivao Zeljko Tomicic, te ustanovio kako je rrjec o utvrdenom posjedu magistra Mihaela iz 13.st., koji

periods were found in the already excavated canal. These pits were excavated and documented directly from the canal a method that has been used previously in case like these on highways. A larger quantity of parts of ceramic vessels of various shapes were found - some have been restored in their entirety - and a smaller quantity of metal finds (a knife, an arrowhead, a jingle-bell, coin, etc.) and a shard from a polished stone axe. This site is very interesting both by its finds and by the number of represented periods, but it should be said that it is of a dispersed nature, known of late from some other sites discovered during the construction of highways, especially in Slovenia. Namely, despite there great number, the pits are spread across a wide area of up to 1 kilometre (!) so that there are empty spaces of about 50 or metres between them. The remainder of the settlement is outside the area of expropriation and the area foreseen for works on the construction of the bypass and its accompanying facilities, so that exploration was not carried out there. Stara ves is the name of a field that stretches between the settlement of Nedelisce and the western suburbs (the industrial zone) of the city of Cakovec. The field is about 166 to 167 m above sea level. To the south side it is bordered by the old Nedelisce Cakovec road, to the east side by the traffic roundabout and the northbound road, and to the north side by a railway line. The large Globetka area stretches out after the railway line, probably a former marshland, about a metre or two lower than the Stara ves field. The old overflow canal of the Trnava River passes through the site, while the rivers prehistoric route is unknown. It in any event meanders quite a bit in this area, and we documented it at one spot in the new excavation, running perpendicular to the present day overflow canal (see the large ground plan). This is, therefore, a large area (about 1 km2), raised slightly above the surrounding area, which was probably once intersected by the meandering lines of the main flow and backwaters of the Trnava River/creeks. No archaeological sites have been known of to date near the western entry to the city of Cakovec. The closest other site is a Medieval burg north of Nedelisce that was once explored by Zeljko Tomicic, who established that it was the fortified estate of a Master Mihael from the 13th century that was in function up to the 15th century (TOMICIC 1985b, 1986, 1990). This site is about a kilometre from Stara ves as the crow flies. Construction works on the rivers new overflow canal were secondary works during the construction of the bypass. Namely, in order to improve the flow of traffic the construction of a new roundabout was foreseen that the southern bypass joins onto. It was necessary, therefore, to fill in the old canal and dig a new one, up to 100 m away. The excavation of the canal was carried out to a depth and width of about 2x2 m. Given the foreseen gentle slope of the sides and the about 1 metre high raised embankments;

je djelovao do 15.st. (TOMICIC 1985b, 1986, 1990). Ovo nalaziste udaljeno je od Stare vesi oko kilometar zracne crte. Radovi na iskopu novog rasteretnog kanala rijeke posredni su radovi prilikom izgradnje obilaznice. Naime, kako bi se poboljsala protocnost prometa predvidena je gradnja novog rotora na koji se prikljucuje juzna obilaznica. Stoga je bilo potrebno zatpati stari kanal, te iskopati novi, do 100 m udaljen. Iskop kanala izvoden je na oko 2x2 m dubine i sirine. S obzirom na predvidene blage pokose i bocne nasipe visine 1 m, iskop je bio i malo veci. Prateci rad bagera na jos neiskopanom dijelu kanala, uocena je jama, te je tada zatrazeno zaustavljanje daljnih radova. Na torn mjestu postavljena je zastitna ograda od upozoravajucih traka, a arheoloska iskapanja zapoceta su u roku od dva dana .1 Istovremeno s radovima na arheoloskoj sondi, izveden je sustavni pregled cijelog podracja oko rotora. Pronadene su jos neke jame, kao i nekoliko mjesta s vecom gustocom keramike. Svi ovi radovi na nalazistu provodeni su u vrlo susnom kolovozu, sto je svakako otezavalo pronalazak arheoloskih struktura. Zarni grob u profilu pokosa pronaden je tek pocetkom rajna, nakon prve kise koja je isprala rastreseni sljunak. Tkko se moze predmnijevati kako u kanalu postoje i druge arheoloske strukture koje nisu zamijecene. Polje Stare vesi sastoji se od vrlo tankog pokrova zemlje, do 50 centimetara. U zemlji ima i malo sljunka. Odmah ispod till pola metra zemlje nalazi se vrlo tvrdi sloj manje i srednje velikog rijecnog sljunka do dubine od 2 m, a vjerojatno i vise. Sljunak

the actual excavation was slightly larger. A pit was found while supervising the work of an excavator on a still unexcavated part of the canal and a stop to further work was sought. A protective barrier of warning tape was set up on the spot and archaeological excavation got under way within two days. 1 A systematic survey of the entire area surrounding the roundabout was carried out parallel to the work on the archaeological trench. More pits were found, as were some places with a higher density of ceramics. All of these works on the site were carried out during a very drought-stricken August, which certainly make the finding of archaeological structures more difficult. An urn grave in the profile of the embankment was only found at the start of September, after the first rain that washed away the gravel strewn over it. It can be assumed, then, that there are other archaeological finds in the canal that have not yet been located. The Stara ves field consists of a very thin covering of soil, up to 50 centimetres in depth. There is a small amount of gravel in the soil. Directly under this half metre of soil is a very hard layer of small or mid-sized river gravel to a depth of 2 metres, probably more. This gravel is in places intersected by interspersed layers of very fine sand. All of the archaeological finds are found in the mentioned one half metre of soil and not a single one of them goes beyond the start of the geological layer of gravel. This is true of all of the historic periods represented at this site. The levels of digging can hardly be differentiated even though they cover a period of some 5500 years.

205

Nedelisce-Stara ves. Prastruga rijeke Trnave, otkrivena iskopom novog kanala. Nedelis}e-Stara ves. Ancient channel of the Trnava River, uncovered by the excavation of the new canal

'Voditelj arheoloskih radova je bio autor ovog rada. The author ofthis work led the archaeological work.

206

Nedelisce-Stara ves. Dio dna posude s urezanim ukrasom, J3. (T1-1) Nedelis}e-Stara ves. Part of the bottom of a vessel with engraved decoration, J3. (T1-1)

je mjestimice ispresijecan proslojcima vrlo sitnog pijeska. Svi arheoloski objekti nalaze se ukopani u spomenutih pola metra zemlje i ni jedan od njih ne zadire kroz pocetak geoloskog sloja sljunka. Tb vrijedi za sva povijesna razdoblja zastupljena na ovom nalazistu. Razine ukopavanja gotovo se ne mogu razlikovati, premda je rijec o razdoblju od oko 5500 godina. Vrlo je zanimljivo da arheoloske strukture dosad nisu bile ostecene, iako se nalaze na vec 20 cm od povrsine. Naime, rijec je o travnatim povrsinama koje su uglavnom koristene kao pasnjaci koji nisu nikad orani, sto su potvrdili i pojedini mjestani. Jedina prijasnja ostecenja plod su kopanja uz stam cestu, poglavito za plinovod, telefonske kabele te energetsku mrezu. Sonda je bila postavljena uz samo cvoriste spomenutih, ali je svejedno dala prilicno dobar arheoloski rezultat. Na tome mjestu otkriveni su nalazi iz ranog srednjeg vijeka, kao i bakrenog doba. Prepoznat je hodni sloj oba razdoblja, koji je, kolebajuci se ( 5cm), bio nadslojen jedan na drugi. Na drugim dijelovima nalazista, u iskopanom kanalu, jame su bile razbacane na velikim udaljenostima, a medu njima nalazi se prostor s vrlo malo nalaza ili gotovo nista bez njih. Sve strukture koje su mogle biti prepoznate iskopane su i dokumentirane kao i u drugim ovakvim primjerima pod oznakom K (vidi Blizna).

What is very interesting is that the archaeological structures have not yet been damaged, even though they start only 20 cm from the surface. These are, namely, grass-covered areas that have been used mostly as pastures and have never been ploughed, a fact confirmed by several of the local inhabitants. The only former damage came from excavation along the old road, mostly for the natural gas line, telephone cables and power grid. A trench was opened along the very hub of these but it stiU yielded a quite satisfactory archaeological result. Finds from the early Middle Ages and Copper Age were discovered at this spot. The occupational layers of both periods were recognised that were, fluctuating ( 5cm), layered on atop the other. At other parts of the site, in the excavated canal, the pits were scattered at great distances with spaces between them having very few or no finds. All of the structures that could be recognised were excavated and documented as in other cases of this kind under the designation K (see Blizna chapter).
COPPER AGE FEATURES

Nedelisce-Stara ves. Keramicki cep, J3. (T2-6) Nedelis}e-Stara ves. Ceramic plug, J3. (T2-6)

Only two pits from this period were excavated at the site, belonging to the Lasinja culture. J3 is a round dugout house that by its characteristics fits with pits from the same period found at the Gornji Pustakovec site, also excavated during construction BAKRENO DOBA work on this bypass. It is dug shallow (25 cm), and NALAZI a geological layer of gravel is revealed at its bottom. Na nalazistu su iskopane samo dvije jame iz ovog Numerous potsherds were found in the pits deposit, razdoblja, koje pripadaju lasinjskoj kulturi. J3 je as was part of a polished stone axe and a smaller obla poluzemunica koja po svojim karakteristikama amount of charcoal. J4 is probably a midden in odgovara istodobnim jamama pronadenim na which, besides several potsherds, the remains of wellnalazistu Gornji Pustakovec, takoder prilikom burnt soil were found, without an admixture of radova na ovoj obilaznici. Plitko je ukopana (25 organic material. It appears to be a baked floor as cm), a na dnu se otkriva geoloski sloj sljunka. U the top layer is smoothed out and there are small ispuni jame pronadeni su mnogobrojni ulomci pebbles underneath. This floor was probably in some keramike, dio glacane kamene sjekire i manja dugout house, where it served to firm up the gravel kolicina gara. J4 je vjerojatno otpadna jama u kojoj in the walking surface. Larger quantities of su osim nekoliko ulomaka keramike nadeni i ostaci potsherds from Lasinja ceramics were also found dobro paljene zemlje, bez primjesa organskih around these pits, in a very thin occupational layer materijala. Cini se kako je rijec o pecenom podu, jer Other Lasinja structures were not found at this je gornja povrsina ugladena, a u podlozi se nalaze site, with the exception of sporadic chancefindsof manji kameni obluci. Ovaj pod se vjerojatno nalazio pottery. K6 encompasses a larger ensemble of u nekoj zemunici, gdje je sluzio za ucvrscivanje potsherds from Lasinja ceramics, and there were sljunka u hodnoj podlozi. Veci broj ulomaka also some in K9. However, in these cases it can not lasinjske keramike pronaden je takoder oko ovih be were certainty determined were they are pits of jama, u vrlo tankom hodnom sloju. Druge lasinjske closed ensembles. strukture na ovom nalazistu nisu pronadene, osim mjestimicni slucajni nalazi keramike. K6 obuhvaca FINDS veci skup ulomaka lasinjske keramike a bilo ih je i u Ceramic finds K9. Ipak, u ovim slucajevima ne moze se zasigurno The majority of archaeological finds at this site govoriti o jamama ili zatvorenim cjelinama. are of pottery. The most particular finds are shown in the tables. The ceramics can be divided into a POKRETNI NALAZI rough and fine group. The rough pottery is Kerami~ki nalazi manufactured with a large amount of fine quartz Glavninu pokretnih arheoloskih nalaza na ovom and pebble temper, often of poorly fired clay. The nalazistu cini keramika. Na tablama su prikazani surface of these vessels is sometimes somewhat najkarakteristicniji nalazi. Keramika se moze smoothed-out so that the temper is visible only in podijeliti na grabu i finu. Grublja je izradena s the cross-section. The other vessels are made of weU-

mnogo primjesa sitnog kvarcita i kamencica, cesto slabo pecene gline. Pokatkad je povrsina ovili posuda malo zagladena, pa se primjese vide samo u presjeku. Drage posude izradene su od dobro prociscene i pecene gline, a takve su cesto ukrasene urezanim linijama i ubodima. Kao na nalazistu u Gornjem Pustakovcu, i ovdje se javljaju neke posude sa sendvic" presjekom u vise boja, sto je vjerojatno plod posebne tehnike pecenja i premazivanja glinom. Repertoar oblika je uglavnom tipican za lasinjsku kultura. Kao i dragdje na lasinjskim nalazistima, medu najcescim nalazima su vrcevi s jednom ili dvije duge rucke (Tl-11, T3-1; Balatonbogliar-Zinger-dulo SOMO-GYI 2000, kep.6-8), obicno fino izradeni. Kratke debeljuskaste ruckice obicno pri-padaju grubljim posu-dama (T2-2,4; Andocs-Nagytoldipuszta SOMOGYI 2000, kep.3-1-4). Zatim zdjele (Tl-1, 8, 9, 13, 14, T3-8,9), te zdjele na supljoj nozi (T2-1, T3-7) i zlice (T2-7, 8, 9, 10). Razmjerno je malo ukrasenih posuda na ovom nalazistu, ali su ukrasi uglavnom tipicni. Rjedi ukras je onaj u obliku kriza, na dnu zdjele (Tl-1), uvjetno slican zdjeli iz Beketinca (HOMEN 1990, si.6-10). Kao i dragdje, ovdje se javljaju prilijepljene polurackice u obliku roscica i bradavica, i to uglavnom pod obodom (Tl-9, 13, T3-2,8,9). Vrlo slicne su posude iz Brezja kod Varazdina, Krca kod Cerja Tuznog ali i daljih prostora; Ordashelii-Kecsi-melo, Savoly-Babocsa itd. (TOMICIC 1969a, t.XI-2, TOMICIC 1969b, t.XII-1; SOMOGY 2000, kep.15-4, kep.16-2). Zanimljiva je cepasta poluruckica visoko na obodu jedne od ovili zdjela (T3-2). Neobicna je i vrlo mala posudica, mozda igracka (T3-6). U jami J3 pronaden je i jedan cep, inace rijedak u lasinjskom gradivu. Za usporedbu moze se navesti slican iz

refined and well-fired clay, and are often decorated with engraved lines and pricks. Like the finds at Gornji Pustakovec, here to there are some vessels with a sandwich cross-section of several colours, probably the result of the use of special firing techniques and clay coating. The repertoire of shapes is mostly typical of the Lasinja culture. As elsewhere at Lasinja sites, jugs with long single or double handles are among the most frequent finds (Tl-11, T3-1; BalatonbogliarZinger-dulo SOMOGYI 2000, kep.6-8), usually of good manufacture. Short, plump, handles usually belong to the rougher vessels (T2-2, 4; AndocsNagytoldipuszta SOMOGYI 2000, kep.3-1-4). Then there are bowls (Tl-1, 8, 9, 13, 14, T3-8, 9), and bowls on a hoUow foot (T2-1, T3-7) and spoons (T2-7, 8, 9, 10). There are relatively few decorated vessels at this site, but the decorations are mostly typical. A less frequent decoration is one in the form of a cross on the bottom of a vessel (Tl-1), somewhat similar to a vessel from Beketinec (HOMEN 1990, sl.6-10). As elsewhere, attached semi-handles appear here too, in the form of small horns and nubs, usually just under the rim (Tl-9, 13, T3-2, 8, 9). Very similar to these are vessels from Brezje near Varazdin, Krce near Cerje Tuzni and elsewhere: Ordashehi-Kecsi-melo, Savoly-Babocsa etc. (TOMICIC 1969a, t.XI-2, TOMICIC 1969b, t.XII-1; SOMOGY 2000, kep.15-4, kep.16-2). A plug-like semi-handle placed high on the rim of one bowl is interesting (T3-2). T3-6 is an unusual and very small vessel, perhaps a toy. A plug was found in pit J3, otherwise rare among Lasinja material. A similar one found at Bukovje near Krizevci (HOMEN 1990 si.4-6) can be cited as similar for comparison.

207

Nedelisce-Stara ves. Dopola ispraznjena ostecena jama K2. Nedelisce-Stara ves. Half emptied, damaged pit K2.

208

Lithics assemblage A shard from a polished stone axe of grey-brown colour (T1-12), probably part of an axe-hammer, was collected in pit J3, dated based on finds of pottery to the Copper Age period. K6, dated based on finds of pottery to the Copper Age and Roman period, a flat polished stone of grey-green colour of unknown use was collected with traces of retouching/ use. The polished axe can based on accompanying finds be identified as being from the Copper Age. LATE BRONZE AGE FEATURES Two p i t s , K 2 and K 5 , both of smaller dimensions, originate in the late Bronze Age, i.e. from the Urnfield culture. They were found in the sides of the canal and were partially damaged. K5 contained numerous potsherds from which we managed to reconstruct one bowl. Other potsherds from this pit come mostly from very large vessels, probably pithos. K5 is situated in the far eastern part of the site. More than 350 m to the west is pit K2. It also contained a large quantity of potsherds, except that these are almost all are scorched and disfigured. Some charcoal was also found in K 2 . The ancient steep channel of a river was recognised only 10 m to the west, with remains of charred branches and tree trunks on the former river bottom along with a small quantity of late Bronze Age pottery. A cremation grave from this culture was found to the east of K2 and the ancient river channel. Grave K10 was found in the second phase of excavations, when the summer rains had washed over and made it visible in the excavated canal profile. It is about 25 m from K2 and it is not clear whether this was a solitary grave or the outer part of a cremation graveyard. The large urn was standing upright but it had already, in some distant past, broken into larger and smaller fragments. It appears that the opening of the urn was covered by a wide bowl, several potsherds of which were found. This covering must have been damaged during the working of this field at some time in the past. I n carrying out the construction excavation, the excavator damaged the urn laterally so that it has not been preserved in its entirety. I t was reconstructed with almost all of the available potsherds, while a part of the rim remained unused as there was no neck art to connect it to the rest in a whole. The urn is shaped like a wide pot with a flared rim with a ceramic ribbon attached to the bottom portion of the belly with impressed finger decorations. The cremated remains of the deceased were found inside the urn. There was no charcoal or ash in the vessel and it appears that the bone remains were washed before being placed in the urn. Right next to the urn was a grave good, a small bowl, cracked and in several parts during some early period, but with all its parts present. A careful survey of the nearby surroundings did not yield any other grave goods or graves. A n anthropological examination identified the burnt bones as coming

Nedelisce-Stara ves. Zarni grab K10 u trenutku pronalaska na pokosu kanala. / Ociscen zarni grab K10. Nedelis}e-Stara ves. Cremation grave K10 at the moment of its discovery in the side of the canal. / Cleaned-out cremation grave K10.

Bukovja kod Krizevaca (HOMEN 1990 sl.4-6). Kameni nalazi U jami J3, datiranoj na osnovi keramickih nalaza u razdoblje bakrenog doba, prikupljen je ulomak glacane sjekire, vjerojatno dio sjekire-cekica (T112), sivosmede boje. U K6, datiranoj na osnovi keramickih nalaza u razdoblje bakrenog i rimskog doba, prikupljen je glacani plosnati kamen sivozelene boje, s tragovima obrade/koristenja, nepoznate namjene. Glacana sjekira moze se na osnovi popratnih nalaza odrediti u razdoblje bakrenog doba. KASN0BR0NCAN0 DOBA NALAZI Kasnom broncanom dobu, odnosno kulturi zarnih polja, pripadaju dvije jame, K2 i K5, obje manjih mjera. Prepoznate su u pokosu kanala i

djelomicno ostecene. K5 je sadrzavala mnogobrojne keramicke ulomke od kojih smo bili u mogucnosti rekonstruirati jednu zdjelu. Drugi ulomci iz te jame uglavnom su pripadali vrlo velikim posudama, vjerojatno pithosima. K5 se nalazi na krajnje istocnom dijelu nalazista. Vise od 350 m zapadno nalazi se jama K2. U njoj je takoder pronadena veca kolicina keramickih ulomaka, s time da su potonji gotovo svi prepaljeni do izoblicenja. U K2 se pronaslo i nesto gara. Samo 10 m zapadnije od nje prepoznata je prastraga rijeke, u kojoj su na nekadasnjem dnu pronadeni ostaci pougljenjenih grana i debla te malo ulomaka kasnobroncanodobne keramike. Istocnije od K2 i prastruge pronaden je i paljevinski grob ove kulture. Grob K 10 pronaden je u dragom dijelu iskopavanja, kada su ga ljetne kise isprale i ucinile vidljivim u iskopanom profilu kanalu. Udaljen je oko 25 m od K2, a nije jasno da li je rijec o usamljenom grobu ili obodnom dijelu paljevinskoga groblja. Velika zara stajala je uspravno, ali se vec u neko davno doba raspala na vece i manje dijelove. Cini se da je otvor zare bio prekriven sirokom zdjelom od koje je pronadeno nekoliko ulomaka. Ovaj pokrov mora da je bio ostecen prilikom obrade polja u neko doba. Vrseci gradevinski iskop, bager je ostetio zaru bocno, ukoso, pa nam tako nije ostala sacuvana u cijelosti. Rekonstrairana je s gotovo svim raspolozivim ulomcima, dok j e j e d a n dio oboda ostao neiskoristen, jer nije bilo vratnog dijela koji bi ga povezivao s ostalima u ejelinu. Zara je u obliku sirokog lonca s razvracenim rubom, a preko donjeg dijela trbuha prilijepljena je keramicka traka s ukrasom izvedenim utiscima prstiju. Unutar zare nalazili su se spaljeni ostaci pokojnika. U posudi nije bilo gara i pepela, i cini se da su ostaci kostiju oprani prije polaganja u posudu. Tik do zare nalazio se grobni prilog, mala zdjelica, napukla u nekoliko dijelova jos u staro doba, ali sa svim dijelovima. Pomnom pretragom najblize okolice nije pronaden nikakav drugi grobni prilog ili drugi grob. Antropoloskim pregledom prepoznato je da su spaljene kosti pripadale muskoj osobi od 30 do 40 godina, na cijim ostacima nisu zabiljezene nikakve patoloske promjene. Nalaz groba K10 i jame s prepaljenom keramikom i garom K2 mogao bi biti u nekoj vezi. Mozda je rijec o ostacima pogrebnog obreda u vezi s tim ili nekim drugim grobom u blizini. U okolici nisu pronadeni tragovi naselja, osim vec spomenute zatrpane prastruge rijeke, za koju, s obzirom na nalaze keramike, mozemo reci da je iz tog razdoblja.

from a male from 30 to 40 years of age, on whose remains no pathological changes were determined. The find of grave K10 and the pit K2 with scorched pottery and charcoal could be in some sort of relation. Perhaps these are the remains of a funeral ritual related to this or some other grave in the vicinity. Traces of habitation were not found in the surrounding area, except the already mentioned fffled-in ancient river channel for which, given the finds of pottery, we can date to this period.

209

FINDS Ceramic finds


Finds from the late Bronze Age originate from two pits, K5 and K2, from grave K10 and as chance finds across the entire site. The total number is not great, with the most particular finds shown here. Numerous potsherds were found in K5; most, however, come from the thick walls of the bellies of large vessels, so that little typical material remained based on which some sort of conclusion could be formulated. A constricted bowl (T4-5) is unusual because it becomes thicker near the rim. Sketches in literature show vessels like this one to be relatively t h i n (for example Igrisce VRDOLJAK 1995 t.16-4, t.l7-4). A rim (T4-2) might come from a high, slightly conical vessel (Igrisce VRDO LJAK 19951.10-2). The remain ing potsherds, rims, ceramic ribbons with fingerprints and horizontal handles, only point to material from the Urnfield culture. The contents of grave K10 probably consisted of three vessels. The first is the urn itself in which burnt bones were found (T5-5, probably also T51), then a small vessel as a grave good (T5-3) and perhaps a bowl-urn lid (T5-2, 4). The urn is of unusual shape, having a quite wide bottom and a low centre of gravity. Also, a decoration in the form of a plastic ribbon is located on the lower part of the vessel. If potsherd T5-1 does in fact come from this urn, then its shape could be reconstructed in part. It is in part similar to a vessel fromlgrisce (VRDOLJAK 1995, t.62), but I was unable to find any real comparisons. Several potsherds from an accompanying bowl were found, that was probably placed upside down over the opening on the urn and served as a lid. This custom is not rare, but the bowl is unusual on account of its very constricted rim. The small vessel is reminiscent in shape of some larger vessels, typical products of the Urnfield culture. Pit K2 is situated near grave K10 and may be in
Nedelisce-Stara ves. Rekonstruirana zdjela, K5. (T4-5) Nedelis}e-Stara ves. Reconstructed bowl, K5. (T4-5)

Nedelisce-Stara ves. Djelomice rekonstruirana grobna zara s keramickom trakom s otiscima prstiju, K10. (T5-5). Nedelis}e-Stara ves. Partially reconstructed gave urn with ceramic ribbon bearing fingerprints, K10. (T5-5).

P0KRETNI NALAZI Keramicki nalazi


Kasnobroncanodobni nalazi potjecu iz dvije otpadne jame, K5 i K2, groba K10 te kao slucajni nalazi posvuda po nalazistu. Sveukupan broj nije velik, a ovdje su prikazani najosobitiji nalazi. U K5 pronadeno je mnogo keramickih ulomaka; medutim, vecina je pripadala debelim stijenkama trbuha velikih posuda, pa je ostalo malo tipicnoga

Nedelisce-Stara ves. Rekonstruirana zdjelica, prilog grobu K10. (T5-3) Nedelis}e-Stara ves. Reconstructed small bowl, grave good to K10. (T5-3)

210

Nedelisce-Stara ves. Presjek poluzemunice J1. Nedelisce-Stara ves. Cross-section of dugout house J1.

gradiva prema kojem se moze nesto vise zaljuciti. Zatvorena zdjela (T4-5) neobicna je zbog zadebljanja prije samog oboda. U literaturi se prema crtezima takve posude prikazuju kao relativno tanke (npr. Igrisce VRDOLJAK 1995 t.16-4, t.17-4). Obod (T4-2) mogao bi pripadati visokoj, lagano konicnoj posudi (Igrisce VRDOLJAK 1995 t.102). I ostali ulomci, obodi, keramicka traka s otiscima prstiju i vodoravna rucka, upucuju samo na gradivo kulture polja sa zarama. Sadrzaj groba K10 vjerojatno se sastojao od tri posude. Kao prvo, od same zare u kojoj su pronadene spaljene kosti (T5-5, vjerojatno i T5-1), zatim male posudice kao priloga (T5-3) te mozda zdjele poklopcazare (T5-2,4). Zara je neobicna po svom obliku, ima dosta siroko dno i nisko postavljeno teziste. Takoder joj se ukras u obliku plasticne trake nalazi na donjem dijelu posude. Ako je ulomak T51 uistinu pripadao zari, onda bi se oblik mogao djelomice rekonstruirati. Djelomicno slicna je posuda s Igrisca (VRDOLJAK 1995, t.6-2), ali pravih usporedbi nisam pronasao. Pronadeno je i vise ulomaka pripadajucih zdjeli, koja je vjerojatno bila postavljena naopacke na otvor zare i sluzila kao poklopac. Takav obicaj nije rijedak, ali je zdjela neobicna zbog veoma zatvorenog oboda. Mala posudica svojim oblikom podsjeca na neke vece posude, tipicne proizvode kulture polja sa zarama. Jama K2 nalazi se u blizini groba K10 i mozda je s njim u odredenoj vezi. Kao sto je vec receno, sva keramika odbacena u ovoj jami prepaljena je i unistena pa je bilo tesko izdvojiti neke karakteristicne primjerke. Ulomak posude s naglasenim prijelazom iz vrata u rame (T4-3) cest je u kasnom broncanom dobu, a posebice ga ima u ranijim fazama (Moravce SOKOL 1996 s.4-2, s.13-1 i ine). Isto vrijedi za rucku (T4-4) (Moravce SOKOL 1996 s.9-5, s.15-3 i ine). No, sve ove usporedbe nisu nam dovoljne da nalaze odredimo uze u odredenu fazu kulture polja sa zarama.

some kind of relation to it. As has already been said, aU of the pottery discarded into this pit was scorched and destroyed making it difficult to single out some characteristic specimens. A potsherd from a vessel with a marked transition from neck to shoulder (T4-3) is frequent in the late Bronze Age, and is especially prevalent in the earlier phases (Moravce SOKOL 1996 s.4-2, s.13-1 and others). The same goes for handle T4-4 (Moravce SOKOL 1996 s.95, s.15-3 and others). All of these comparisons are, however, insufficient to more exactly identify the finds as originating from some particular phase of the Urnfield culture.
THE LATE ROMAN AND EARLY MEDIEVAL PERIODS FEATURES

The finds that can be attributed to this period are the most numerous ones from our excavations. A dugout house ( J l ) was excavated in the archaeological trench that had only had its edge damaged by an excavator. Two middens were discovered right next to it that are layered on over the other on their outer parts (J2 and J2b). Numerous potsherds were found in the pit that originate from late Roman period and Slavic vessels. Along with the pottery, worked crystal, parts of an iron jingle-bell, animal bones and some charcoal were found in the pits deposit. Also found in the deposit of pit J l were a number of large, deliberately broken pebbles, but without traces of subsequent retouching. Pits J2 and J2b have similar deposits, and potsherds from the same vessels, so that it is possible that al three ensembles werefilled,entirely or in part, at the same time. 8 larger and smaller potsherds from Roman period roof tiles were found in pit J l . Of these two have traces of heavy scorching, and one may bear a four-cornered stamp. Two pieces from flue-tiles were also found along with these potsherds of Roman period construction material. There were 6 pieces of flue-tile in pit J2 among which one, most of which is preserved intact, has traces of impressed lines. Two potsherds from roof tiles were also found in this pit. Also found in pit J2 were 7 fragments of daub and something similar to daub. Part of a Roman period roof tile was found in the K8 ceramic ensemble. More potsherds from pottery and roof tiles originating in the same period were found in the direct vicinity of pits J l , J2 and J2B, lying in a thin occupational layer. A well-worn Roman coin (PN2) was also found here. A small pyramid-shaped iron arrowhead was found during the excavation of the dugout house, but it appears that it was in the grass having been ejected from the canal by the excavator so that it can not for certain be brought into connection with this ensemble of pits. The dugout deposit was dated using the AMS-14C method to the 7th century (calAD 6557). 2 All of the potsherds of early Slavic origin were found in these three pits, they were not found elsewhere at this site even as chance finds. The

211

Nedelisce-Stara ves. Ispraznjena poluzemunica J1. Na desnoj strani objekt je ostecen, ali je poznat njegov tocan oblik i mjere. Nedelis}e-Stara ves. Emptied dugout house J1. The right side of the structure is damaged, but its exact shape and dimensions are known.

KASNA ANTIKA I RANI SREDNJI VIJEK NALAZI

Iz nasih iskopavanja najbrojniji su nalazi koji se mogu pripisati ovom razdoblju. U arheoloskoj sondi je iskopana poluzemunica ( J l ) , samo djelomice mbno ostecena radom bagera. Tik do nje otkrivene su i dvije otpadne jame, koje se na rubnom cU>lu preslojavaju (J2 i J2b). U jami je pronadeno mnostvo keramickih ulomaka, koji pripadaju kasnoantickim i slavenskim posudama. Uz keramiku u ispuni je pronaden obradeni kristal, dijelovi zeljeznih praporaca, zivotinjske kosti i nesto gara. Takoder je u ispuni jame J l pronadeno i dosta vecih, namjerno lomljenih oblutaka, ali bez tragova neke naknadne obrade. Jame J2 i J2b imaju slicnu ispunu, a ima i ulomaka istih posuda, pa je moguce da su sve tri cjeline u potpunosti ili djelomice istovremeno zapunjavane. U jami J l , pronadeno je 8 vecih ili manjih ulomaka rimskih tegula. Od toga dvije imaju tragove jakog prepaljivanja, a jedna mozda i tragove cetverouglatog pecata. Uz te ulomke rimskoga gradevinskog materijala, tu su pronadena i dva dijela tabula. U jami J2 bilo je 6 komada tubula, medu kojima jedan, sacuvan u vecem dijelu, ima i tragove utisnutili crta. I u ovoj jami nadena su dva ulomka tegula. Takoder je u jami J2 pronadeno i 7 ulomaka ljepa ili necega sto sUci ljepu. Dio rimske tegule pronaden je i u skupu keramike K8. U neposrednoj blizini jama J l , J2 i J2B pronadeni su jos ulomci istodobne keramike i tegula, koji su lezali u tankom hodnom sloju. Tu je pronaden i jedan izlizani rimski novae (PN2).

situation with late Roman period finds is somewhat different as they have been found elsewhere at Stara ves. They are found sporadically along about 250 m of the canal. Of that, two larger ensembles of potsherds, K9 and K8 have been marked on the ground plan. The same potsherds of late Roman period vessels represented in J 1 , J2 and J2b are found in these two and elsewhere, but not early Slavic ones. FINDS Ceramic finds Based on its characteristics, most of the finds at Stara ves originate from the late Roman and early Medieval periods. But, as has already been explained in previous chapters, these are finds that come from the period of the 6th and 7th centuries and which were located in the same closed ensembles. I will therefore deal with both groups of finds in a single chapter. Roman period finds at Stara ves are of various methods of manufacture. Potsherds of orange coloured vessels are found, of well-refined clay and soft texture, manufactured on a fast potters wheel. There are also harder fired grey potsherds with a quantity of temper - of sand and fine pebbles - also manufactured on a potters wheel. The most numerous are, however, those made by hand with a very large quantity of crushed stone in the clay. The first pottery ensemble has late Roman period attributes, is of well refined clay, of light orange colour and manufactured on a fast potters wheel. Several potsherds that come from this ensemble are shown

212

Nedelisce-Stara ves. Ulomak tarionika, J1, 6557 calAD. (T8-4) Nedelisce-Stara ves. Potsherd of a mortar, J1, 655+7 calAD. (T8-4)

Prilikom kopanja zemunice pronadena je i jedna mala zeljezna piramidalna strelica, ali cini se kako se nalazila u travi izbacena bagerom iz kanala, pa ju ne mozemo sa sigurnoseu povezati s ovim sklopom jama. Ispuna zemunice datirana je AMS-14C metodom u 7.st. (calAD 6557). 2 U ove tri jame pronadeni su svi ulomci koji pripadaju ranim Slavenima, dok drugdje na nalazistu nisu pronadeni niti kao slucajni nalazi. Malo je drukcije stanje s kasnoantickim nalazima kojih se pronaslo i drugdje na Staroj vesi. Njih se mjestimicno pronalazi na duzini od oko 250 m po kanalu. Od toga su na tlorisu zabiljezene dva veca skupa keramickih ulomaka K9 i K8. U njima i dragdje pronalaze se ulomci istih kasnoantickih posuda zastupljenih u J l , J 2 i J 2 b , ali bez ranoslavenskih.

in the tables as examples. These are part of a mortar {mortarium) T8-4, part of a pot T9-7, a potsherd from an amphora T l l - 3 and part of a plate T l l - 8 . Mortars were long in use during the Roman period, and are especially frequent at late Roman period sites (for example Tinje nad Loko at Zusmu CIGLENECKI t.11-3). The amphora with its thin walls and shape can be identified as a late Roman period product. The plate-platter has traces of red colour and emulates sigillata vessels. It is similar to finds from Gornji trg in Ljubljana, for which the author does not provide any special explanation (VICIC 2002, t.10-1, 5). The finds from Gornji trg in Ljubljana are dated to the period from the 1st to 4th centuries. T l l - 6 , part of the unusual rim of a small vessel, should be regarded apart from this group. It is of orange colour, but of very well refined clay and of hard firing. The other group of pottery, of grey colour, often with a temper of sand and hard fired, can be, based on the represented shapes be identified as originating in the late Roman period. Interesting examples are the rim of a pot T9-4, a small wheel-decorated pot T9-6 and the potsherd of a small bowl T10-6 (Sveta gora over Bistrico ob Sotli CIGLENECKI 2000, sl.89-14). A potsherd from a wide greyish coloured pot or small bowl T l l - 5 , is unusuaUy hard and well manufactured, and also bears a dark, coloured on, decoration. I did not find a potsherd such as this one in the available literature on Roman period pottery, and it is also unknown to me from the repertoire of Medieval pottery, not even that of early Modern or Modern ceramics. The third ensemble of Romanic ceramic finds is also the most represented at Stara ves. It is characterised by hand manufacture with traces of finger modelling, thinner walls, a brownish colour and an abundance of temper of finely crushed pebbles. The majority of these are large pots, decorated with disorderly and shallow brushed surface engraving. Reconstructed pot, T8-1, belongs to this group, as do other fragments of pots T8-2, T9-1, 2, 3, 5 and perhaps also T l l - 2 . Despite the fact that pottery such as this has to date rarely been found or published, sufficiently convincing comparisons can be found in the material of elevated late Roman period refugium. T9-5, a small flaredmouth pot, for example - a similar one was found at Ajdovski Gradec nad Vranjem (CIGLENECKI 2000, sl.88-6). Examples similar to our larger pots have been found at other refugium (Ajdovski Gradec nad Vranjem, Korinjski Hrib nad Korinjem, Hruscica pri Podkraju etc. CIGLENECKI 2000, sl.86-8, sl.102-6, 7, sl.111-2-4). Although hand made and of irregular shape, this ensemble of pottery was certainly produced by the remaining indigenous Romanic population. The shapes of the necks, the distribution and kinds of decoration and temper,

POKRETNI NALAZI Keramicki nalazi


Prema svojim znacajkama, znatan dio nalaza sa Stare vesi pripada razdoblju kasne antike i ranog srednjeg vijeka. No, kako je vec objasnjeno u prethodnim poglavljima, rijec je o nalazima koji pripadaju razdoblju 6. i 7.st. a koji su se nalazili u istim zatvorenim cjelinama. Stoga eu obje grape nalaza prikazati u istom poglavlju. Anticki nalazi na Staroj vesi raznovrsni su po nacinu izrade. Pronalaze se ulomci narancastih posuda, dobro prociscene gline i meke fakture, izradenih na brzovrtecem kolu. K tome, tvrde peceni sivi ulomci, s odredenom kolicinom primjesa pijesak i sitni kamencici - takoder izradeni na kolu. Najbrojnije su pak posude izradene prostorucno, s veoma mnogo primjesa drobljenih kamencica u glini. Prvi keramicki skup kasnoantickog je obiljezja, dobro prociscene gline, svjetlije narancaste boje i izraden na brzovrtecem kolu. Na tablama je za primjer prikazano nekoliko ulomaka koji pripadaju torn skupu. To su dio tarionika {mortarium) T8-4, dio lonca T9-7, ulomak amfore T l l 3 i dio t a n j u r a T l l - 8 . Tarionici su upotrebljavani dugo tijekom rimskoga doba, a posebice sucesti na kasnoantickim nalazistima (npr. Tinje nad Loko pri Zusmu CIGLENECKI t.11-3). Amfora sa svojim tanjim stijenkama i oblikom takoder se moze odrediti kao kasnoanticki proizvod. Tanjur - pladanj ima tragove crvene boje i oponasa sigilatno posude. Slici pronadenim nalazima na Gornjem trgu u Ljubljani, za koje autor ne daje posebno tumacenje (VICIC 2002, t.10-1,5). Nalazi s Gornjeg trga u Ljubljani datiraju se od 1. do l.stoljeca. Izvan ove grape treba postaviti dio neobicnog oboda male posudice T l l - 6 . On je narancaste boje, ali izvrsno prociscene gline i tvrdog pecenja.

Nedelisce-Stara ves. Ulomak zdjelice, J2. (T10-5) Nedelisce-Stara ves. Potsherd of a small bowl, J2. (T10-5)

Nedelisce-Stara ves. Rekonstruirani lonac s okomitim metlicastim ukrasom, J1, 6557calAD. (T8-1) Nedelisce-Stara ves. Reconstructed pot with vertical brushed surface decoration, J1, 6557calAD. (T8-1)

2 AMS-14C dataeija izradena je u Leibniz Labor fiir Altersbestimmung und Isotopenforselmng, Christian-iUbreehts-Universitat u Eelu (KIA25320, BP 1375+20). Skraeena kalibraeija putem CalPal Online Radiocarbon Calibration izradena na Sveueilistu u Kolim. AMS-MG dating was done at the Leibniz LaborfiirAUersiestimm-mg und Isot^mforschung, C%nstian-Albrechts-Vnwersitmin Kiel (KIA-2S320: BP 137S 20). Shortened calibration using CaLPal Online Radiocarbon Calibration done at the University of Koln.

I dragi skup keramike, sivkaste boje, cesto s primjesama pijeska i tvrde pecen, moze se prema zastupljenim oblicima odrediti u kasnu antiku. Zanimljiviji primjerci su obod lonca T9-4, kotacicem ukrasen loncic T9-6 i ulomak zdjelice T10-6 (Svete gore nad Bistrico ob Sotli CIGLENECKI 2000, sl.89-14). Ulomak sivkastog sirokog lonca ili pak zdjelice T l l - 5 , neobicno je tvrd i kvalitetno izraden, a takoder ima tamno bojeni ukras. Ovakav ulomak nisam pronasao u dostupnoj literaturi o antickoj keramici, ali nije mi poznat ni iz repertoara srednjovjekovne, pa ni novovjeke i modernodobne keramike. Treci skup romanskih keramickih nalaza je ujedno i najzastupljeniji na Staroj vesi. Odlikuje se prostoracnom izradom s tragovima modeliranja prstima, tanjim stijenkama, smeckastom bojom i mnogim primjesama sitno drobljenih kamencica. Uglavnom je rijec o vecim loncima, ukrasenim neurednim i plitkim metlicastim urezivanjem. Ovom skupu pripada rekonstrairani lonac T8-1, i dragi dijelovi lonaca T8-2, T9-l,2,3,5 a i mozda T l l - 2 . Unatoc tome sto je ovakva keramika dosad rijetko pronalazena ili objavljivana, mogu joj se pronaci dovoljno uvjerljive usporedbe u materijalu kasnoantickih visinskih pribjezista (refugium). Naprimjer loncic sirokog usca T9-5, slican je pronadenom na Ajdovskom Gradecu nad Vranjem (CIGLENECKI 2000, sl.88-6). Vecim loncima slicni su pronadeni i na drugim pribjezistima (Ajdovski Gradec nad Vranjem, Korinjski Hrib nad Korinjem, H r u s c i c a pri P o d k r a j u itd. CIGLENECKI 2000, sl.86-8, sl.102-6,7, s l . l l l 2-4). Premda prostorucne izrade i nepravilnog oblika, ovaj keramicki skup zasigurno pripada proizvodnji preostalog starosjedilackog romanskog stanovnistava. Oblici grla, raspored i tip ukrasa pa i primjese, posvema ill odreduju kao kasnoanticku tradiciju, a ne kao slavensku keramiku tog doba. Kao i na Blizni, na Staroj vesi pronadeno je i nekoliko ulomaka posebnog keramickog skupa. Taj skup obiljezavaju prostorucno izradene posude, srednje do vrlo grube i nepravilne izrade. Glina je uglavnom prociscena, ali se u gradi posude ipak nalazi poneki neoubicajeno velik kamen. Boje variraju, ali su najcesce tamno smede ili erne. Kao sto je vec izlozeno za nalaze ovog keramickog skupa s Blizne, ovakve posude mogu se vrlo cesto pronaci u objavljenim nalazima 5 - 7.st, germanskog (TEBJAL 1987 abb.VIII,l.h; RYBOVA 1987, abb.XIV,21.i, XIV,23.f; Sisak VINSKI 1954, D itd.), slavenskog (NEVIZANSKY 1991 t.VII-6, t.XVI-16, t.XII-3,5 itd.) i avarskog (VILA 1999, t.142, 155, 156, 161 itd.) konteksta. Ulomak jedne takve posude pronaden je u jami J l , zajedno s k a s n o a n t i c k i m , bolje reci romanskim starosjedilackim i doseljenickim slavenskim materijalom. Ovaj ulomak posude (T8-5) je tamno smede boje, a zbog svoje n e p r a v i l n o s t i i nedosljednosti u obliku, tesko je zakljuciti cak i njegovu orijentaciju (gore - dolje), pa sam ju nacrtao na nacin koji mi se cinio najrazboritijim.

identify them entirely as coming from the late Roman tradition, and not from the Slavic pottery of the time. Like at Blizna, several p o t s h e r d s of a special ceramic ensemble were also found. This ensemble is characterised by hand-made vessels, of mid to very rough and irregular manufacture. The clay is for the most part refined, but there are nevertheless sporadic and unusually large stones in the material of these vessels. The colours vary, but are predominantly dark brown or black. As has already been said for the find of this pottery ensemble at Blizna, these kinds of vessels can very frequently be found in published finds from the 5th to 7th centuries of Germanic (TERJAL 1987 abb.VIII,l.h; RYBOVA 1987, abb.XT7,21.i, XIV23.f; Sisak VINSKI 1954, D etc.), Slavic (NEVIZANSKY 1991 t.VII-6, t.XVI-16, t.XII-3, 5 etc.) and Avar (VILA 1999, t.142, 155, 156, 161 etc.) contexts. A potsherd from one such vessel was found in pit J l , together with late Roman period, or rather indigenous Romanic and settler Slavic material. This potsherd of a vessel (T8-5) is of dark brown colour and, because of its irregular and inconsistent shape, it is difficult to conclude even what its orientation is (what is up and what is down), so that I have sketched it in the way that seemed most reasonable. The other potsherd that would come from this ensemble is a part of the bottom and the lower end of the belly ( T l l - 9 ) of a vessel, also of very irregular make. Nothing more can be said of this pottery ensemble for the moment other than that it in terms of stratigraphy, in other words temporally, coincides with finds from a time that covers somewhat more than the migration period, i.e. from the end of the 4th to the beginning of the 7th century. The finds of Slavic vessels at Stara ves can be directly linked to recent finds from explorations at highways in Slovenia, especiaUy with a large ensemble from this period at Nova | tabla near Murska Sobota. Slavic vessels are routinely porous on ' account of the temper of organic material in the walls prior to firing. There are no Slavic vessels at this site with any other kind of temper that " would remain preserved in the walls of the vessel. Some were slipped in liquid clay prior to being fired. Despite their irregular shapes and porousness, they are quite durable and do not crumble. As far a form go, only pots are represented, all hand-made, with the exception of several potsherds that were probably only finished off on a potters wheel. None of the vessels bottoms bear traces of the axle of a potters wheel, either as a circular depression or as a cross like relief. Many differences can be found in the pots indicating the hands of the many different potters

213

Nedelisce-Stara ves. Rekonstruirana zdjelica s nepravilnim metlicastim ukrasom, J1, 6557calAD. (T9-5) Nedelisce-Stara ves. Reconstructed small bowl with irregular brushed surface decoration, J1, 6557calAD. (T9-5)

Nedelisce-Stara ves. Dio lonca s metlicastim ukrasom, J1, 6557 calAD. (T9-2) Nedelisce-Stara ves. Part of a pot with brushed surface decoration, J1, 6557 calAD. (T9-2)

Nedelisce-Stara ves. Rekonstruirani lonac s urezanim ukrasom u obliku sunca, J1, 6557 calAD. (T6-5) Nedelisce-Stara ves. Reconstructed pot with engraved decoration in the shape of a sun, J1, 655+7 calAD. (T6-5)

214

Nedelisce-Stara ves. Ulomak poroznog lonca s visestrukim crtama i valovnicama, J2. Nedelisce-Stara ves. Potsherd of a porous pot with multiple lines and wavy lines, J2.

Nedelisce-Stara ves. Rekonstruirani lonac Ijevkastog vrata s visestrukim valovnicama i crtama, J1, calAD 6557. (T7-1). Nedelisce-Stara ves. Reconstructed pot with funnel-shaped neck with multiple wavy lines and lines, J1, calAD 655+7. (T7-1)

Drugi ulomak koji bi pripadao ovom skupu je dio dna i donjeg dijela trbuha ( T l l - 9 ) , takoder vrlo nepravilne izrade. Zasada se o ovom skupu keramike ne moze vise reel osim to da se stratigrafski, odnosno vremenski na oba nalazista uglavnom poklapa s nalazima iz vremena seobe naroda i nesto sire, odnosno od kraja 4. do pocetka 7.stoljeca. Nalazi slavenskih posuda na Staroj vesi mogu se izravno povezati s nedavnim nalazima s istrazivanja na autocestama u Sloveniji, posebice s velikim sklopom ovog razdoblja na Novoj tabli kod Murske Sobote. Slavenske posude su redovito porozne, zbog primjesa organske materije u stijenkama prije pecenja. Na ovom nalazistu nema slavenskih posuda s bilo kakvim dragim primjesama koje bi ostale sacuvane u stijenkama. Neke su bile i premazane tekucom glinom prije pecenja. Unatoc nepravilnom oblikovanju i poroznosti, prilicno su postojane i ne truse se. Od oblika su zastupljeni iskljucivo lonci, svi izradeni prostorucno, osim nekoliko ulomaka koji su vjerojatno samo doradeni na kolu. Ni jedno dno nema tragove osovine loncarskog kola, bilo kao krazno udubljenje ili krizoliki reljef. Kod lonaca se mogu pronaci brojne razlike koje ocituju vise razlicitih majstorskih raku koje su ih izradile. Vitki i nepravilni lonac tanjih stijenki (T6-1), razvracenog oboda, ima neobican ukras - nekoliko kraznica, izvedenih razjedinjenim eesljem.3 Ovakav ukras nisam nasao u meni dostupnim objavama keramike tog doba, osim mozda donekle slicne ukrase s najstarijih slavenskih posuda Poljske (KOSTRZEWSKI, 1947, ryc.23227-33). Lonac je izraden prostorucno, vrlo je porozan, a prije pecenja bio je premazan tekucom glinom. Oblik vitkog, duguljastog, lonca nije rijedak na ostalim slavenskim nalazistima (Breclav-Libiva MAHACEK 2002 br.7; B r o d s k i D r e n o v a c TOMICIC 2002, br.38 itd.). Znatno drukcije oblikovan je mali trbusasti lonac sa slabije razvracenim, odnosno ljevkastim v r a t o m i ukrasom dvostrukih ravnih crta i valovnicom unutar njih (T7-1). Izraden je prostorucno i poroznih je stijenki, ali relativno pravilno oblikovan (Lebeny - Kaszas-Domb TAKACS 2002, br.14; Bijelo Brdo TOMICIC 2002, br.22; Nova Tabla GUSTIN, TIEFENGRABER 2002, sl.9-1; Pod Kotom T U S E K 2002, br.24 itd). Trecu inacicu zastupa lonac T10-8, razvracenog oboda, visok i s najsirim promjerom u gornjoj polovici tijela. Nepravilne je i porozne izrade, s mnogo

who made them. A slender and irregular thin-walled pot (T6-1) with flared rims has an unusual decoration - several circles, executed by a fragmented comb. 3 I did not find a decoration like this one in the published materials available to me dealing with the pottery of that period, except perhaps for a possibly similar decoration from the oldest Slavic vessels in Poland (KOSTRZEWSKI, 1947, ryc.232-27-33). The pot is hand-made, very porous, but was slipped in liquid clay prior to firing The form of a slender, elongated, pot is not rare at other Slavic sites (Breclav-Libiva MAHACEK 2002 br.7; Brodski Drenovac TOMICIC 2002, br.38 etc.). Of significantly different shape is a small rotund pot with a slightly flared, or rather funnelshaped neck and a decoration consisting of double straight lines and a wavy line between them (T7-1). It is hand-made and has porous walls but is relatively regular in shape (Lebeny - Kaszas-Domb TAKACS 2002, br.14; Bijelo Brdo TOMICIC 2 0 0 2 , b r . 2 2 ; Nova Tabla GUSTIN, T I E F E N G R A B E R 2002, sl.9-1; Pod Kotom TUSEK 2002, br.24 etc.). The third version is represented by pot T10-8, having a flared rim, tall and with its greatest diameter in the upper half of the body. It is of irregular and porous manufacture with numerous traces of finger modelling. Pots like these are also the most frequent finds at Stara ves and elsewhere (Nova Tabla G U S T I N , T I E F E N G R A B E R 2 0 0 2 , si.7-2; BreclavPohansko MAHACEK 2000, obr.1-22 etc.). The majority of potsherds found are not decorated. Individual potsherds are decorated with various executions of comb-like engravings of two tofivelines. Decorations such as these have the most numerous combinations. Most often these are multiple wavy lines bordered to the top and bottom by straight lines (T7-1, 3, Tll-11), sets of horizontal lines, sometimes intersected by short perpendicular engravings (T7-6) or just short perpendicular engravings (T10-11). There are also very poorly executed frame decorations with horizontal and vertical lines (T7-2) under which is a false wavy line (without a proper sequence). There are rare finds of wavy lines on the inner part of the rim itself (T10-9) or holes or wide lines on the rim (T10-10). With the exception of the unique circular decoration on vessel T6-1, comparisons can be found for all of the others in the well published material from early Slavic sites (Nitra-Mikov dvor F U S E K 1991, Zagreb-Vehka Gorica TOMICIC 2002, M u r s k a S o b o t a - N o v a Tabla G U S T I N , T I E F E N G R A B E R 2002, Pod Kotom-cesta TUSEK 2002, Pod Kotom -Jug SAVEL 2002; Vyskovce nad Iplom N E V I Z A N S K Y 1 9 9 1 ; Brezno-Louny PLEINEROVA 2000; Breclav-

Razjedinjenim eesljem podrazumijeYam ad hoe" izraden splet stapieastili granfiea, eilj kojili je bilo oponasanje pravog eeslja s fiksim graneieama. Naime, lArasavanjeejekmtim ili fiksnim eesljem, tipieno kod romanske keramike tog doba, ostavlja uredan trag na posudi, dok se kod razjedinjenogeeslja granSee prilikom zagrebavanja vlazne gline M ^^ ilierte. A fragmented comb refers here to an ad hoc knit ofstick-like branches, the aim of which is to imitate a true comb with fixed branches. Decorating with an entire or fixed comb, namely, typical ofRomanic pottery of the time, leaves an orderly trace on the vessel, while the fragmented combs branches spread without any order when drawn across moist clay creating an irregular multiple wavy line or line.

tragova modeliranja prstima. Takvi lonci ujedno su i najcesci nalaz na Staroj vesi, pa i dragdje (Nova Tibia GUSTIN, TIEFENGRABER 2002, si.72; Breclav-Pohansko MAHACEK 2000, obr.1-22 itd.). Glavnina pronadenih ulomaka nije ukrasena. Pojedini su ulomci ukraseni, i to razlicito izvedenim cesljastim urezima s dvije do pet crta. Ovakvi ukrasi imaju najbrojnije kombinacije. Najcesce su to visestruka valovnica omedena s gornje i donje strane ravnim crtama (T7-l,3, T l l - 1 1 ) , nizovi vodoravnih crta, pokatkad presjeceni kratkim okomitim urezima (T7-6) ili samo kratki okomiti urezi (T10-11). Postoji i vrlo neuredno izvedeni okvirni ukras s vodoravnim i okomitim crtama (T7-2), ispod kojeg je lazna valovnica (bez pravog slijeda). Rijetko se moze pronaci i valovnica na unutrasnjem dijelu i samom obodu (T10-9), utiskivanje rupa ili sirih crta na obod (T10-10). Osim jedinstvenom kruznom ukrasu s posude T6-1, svima ostalima mogu se naci usporedbe u dobro objavljenom gradivu ranoslavenskili nalazista (Nitra-Mikov dvor FUSEK 1991, Zagreb-Velika Gorica TOMICIC 2002, Murska Sobota-Nova Tibia GUSTIN, TIEFENGRABER 2002, Pod Kotom-cesta TUSEK 2002, Pod Kotom -Jug SAVEL 2002; Vyskovce nad Iplom NEVIZANSKY 1991; Brezno-Louny PLEINEROVA 2000; Breclav-Pohansko MAHACEK 2000; Poljska KOSTRZEWSKI 1947, ryc.232 i dragdje). Vjerojatno najmladi ulomak ove cjeline iz ranosrednjovjekovnog doba je slucajni nalaz T l l 11. Valovnica i trake na njemu su izvedene pravim cesljem i mnogo urednije, a i tanjih je stijenki. Za njega bi se moglo reci kako je izraden rucno, ali doraden na sporovrtecem kolu, barem sudeci prema pravilnosti oblika. Pronadena su i tri prsljena (T75, T10-5, Tll-12), izradena od antickih opeka ili tegula, sto je uobicajeno i na drugim nalazistima. Opisani nalazi mogu se odrediti prema nekim od postojecih tipologija ranoslavenske keramike, a zemljopisno naprikladnije je prihvatiti nedavno objavljenu tipologiju na osnovi nalaza iz Nove Table u Murskoj Soboti (GUSTIN, TIEFENGRABER 2002). Prema tamo ustanovljenim i opisanim fazama razvoja, keramika iz Stare vesi pripadala bi fazi IB ili najkasnije 1C. Ove faze datiraju se apsolutnokronoloski u razdoblje prve polovine 7.stoljeca. Osnovne karakteristike faze IB su nestajanje keramike praskog tipa, pocetak ukrasavanja lonaca urezivanjem visestrukim crtama i valovnicama, poroznost materijala i jos prevladavajuca prostorucna izrada posuda. Datum dobiven AMS-14C ispitivanjem uzorka ugljena iz jame J l na Staroj vesi (6557 calAD), priblizno potvrduje ovo odredenje. Vec odavno raspravljalo se o pitanju postojanosti naseobina staroromanskog stanovnistva na prostoru Panonije i drugdje, uglavnom prema metalnim nalazima (VINSFJ1964, 113), a kasnije i prema keramickim nalazima. Za proucavanje

Pohansko MAHACEK 2000; Poljska KOSTRZEWSKI 1947, ryc.232 and elsewhere). Perhaps the latest potsherd of this early Medieval period ensemble is chance find Tll-11. The wavy line and ribbon on it are executed by a true comb and are in much better order, and it has thinner walls. It could be said of this piece that it was hand made, but finished off on a slow potters wheel, at least judging by the regularity of its shape. Three spindle whorls were also found (T7-5, T10-5, T l l 12), made of Roman period bricks or roof tiles, which is also typical of other sites. The described finds can be identified based on some of the existing typologies of early Slavic pottery, with the geographically most suitable being the recently published typology based on thefindsfrom Nova Tabla in Murska Sobota (GUSTIN, TIEFENGRABER 2002). According to the developmental phases established and described there, the ceramics from Stara ves would originate from the IB phase, or at the latest from the 1C phase. These phases are dated by absolute chronology to the period of the first half of the 7th century. The basic characteristics of phase IB are the disappearance of the Prague type ceramics, the beginning of decorations on the pots consisting of multiple line and wavy line engravings, the porosity of the material and the continuing predominance of hand manufacture. Datings arrived at through AMS-14C testing of charcoal samples from pit J l at Stara ves (6557 calAD) approximately corroborate this identification. The deliberations concerning the issue of the persistence of the settlements of old Romanic inhabitants in the area of Pannonia and elsewhere have been lead for some time now, mostly based on metal finds (VINSFJ 1964, 113), and later based onfindsof pottery. Of exceptional importance for the study of the ceramics of these Dark Ages is a publication of finds from Tinje nad Loko pri Zusmu (CIGLENECKI 2000), where at one location we can Mow the layering of late Roman, Germanic and early Slavic period pottery, and a few similar sites in Slovenia and the Czech Republic. I also feel that this small ensemble consisting of one dugout house and a few pits at Stara ves is key in understanding the technology transfer that took place between the indigenous Romanic and settler Slavic populations (PLETERSKI, BELAK 2002). At Stara ves, namely, we have hand-made Romanic pots with brushed surface decorations and multiple wavy lines (T8-1!) and both decorated and undecorated very early Slavic pottery in the same context, and much more than that, making this ensemble an exceptional source for the study of this period.

215

Nedelisce-Stara ves. Ulomak poroznog lonca s okvirnim ukrasom, J1, 6557 calAD. (T7-2) Nedelisce-Stara ves. Potsherd of a porous pot with frame decoration, J1, 655+7 calAD. (T7-2)

Nedelisce-Stara ves. Rekonstruirani lonac, J2b. (110-8) Nedelisce-Stara ves. Reconstructed pot J2b. (T10-8)

216

Nedelisce-Stara ves. Osteceni metalni praporac, J1-PN4, 6557 calAD. (T6-4) Nedelis}e-Stara ves. Damaged metal jingle-bell, J1-PN4, 655+7 calAD. (T6-4)

Nedelisce-Stara ves. Izlizan i prepaljen rimski novae. Na aversu vidljivo poprsje cara nadesno, a na reversu Mezija koja stoji s rukama nad bikom i lavom. PN2. Nedelis}e-Stara ves. Worn and scorched Roman period coin. The obverse depicts the half-length portrait of an emperor facing right, and on the reverse Moesia standing with hands over a bull and lion. PN2.

keramike ovog mracnog doba iznimno je bitna Metal finds objava nalaza s Tinja nad Loko pri Zusmu Metal finds are rare at early Slavic settlements (CIGLENECFJ2000), gdje se na jednom mjestu so that the few shards found in pit J l are a truly moze pratiti preslojavanje kasnoanticke, germanske happy circumstance. Part of a square iron beU (T6i ranije slavenske keramike, a i jos nekoliko slicnih 2 - PN4) was found, forged from a few plates bonded nalazista u SlovenijnCesloj\Takoder smatram da by forged copper. Roman period bells were made je i ovaj mali sklop jedne zemunice i nekoliko jama mostly by mould-casting, and this one is by its shape na Staroj vesi kljucan za razumijevanje and manufacture similar to one found in Hungary preuzimanja znanja o tehnici izrade keramike koje in a Hun context from the second third of the 5th je od starosjedilackog romanskog stanovnistva na century (Budapest-Zuglo KAZANSKI 2005, 36). pridoslo slavensko stanovnistvo i obratno There is also a round jingle-bell or button (PN5), (PLETERSKI, BELAK 2002). Na Staroj vesi, manufactured using a similar technique, the forging naime, imamo u istom kontekstu prostorucno of iron plates and the re-forging of the joints with izradene romanske lonce s metlicastim ukrasom ali copper. Round bells and jingle-bells are not a rarity i visestrukom valovnicom (T8-1!) te ujedno in Medieval material, but are frequent only from the neukrasenu i ukrasenu vrlo ranu slavensku 8th to 9th century, which makes thisfindone of the keramiku, kao i mnogo toga dmgog sto ove cjeline earliest known to me (Nin-Sv.Kriz, Zdrijac cini izvanrednim izvorom za proucavanje ovog doba. BELOSEVIC 1980, s.92, t.XXVI-28, 29, t.XLIV 17-20; Satu Nou FIEDLER 1992, abb.44-1 etc.). Metalni nalazi Bells and jingle-bells were probably used in cult Nalazi metala rijetki su u ranoslavenskim rituals, to make sound that called or caused evil naseljima, pa je nekoliko ulomaka pronadenih u spirits toflee.According to Uwe Fiedler, they were jami J l doista sretna okolnost. Pronaden je dio most often hung of a belt or sowed into childrens cetvrtastogzeljeznog zvonca (T6-2 - PN4), kovanog clothing to scare off evil forces (FIEDLER 1992, od nekoliko plocica povezanih raskovanim bakrom. 194, 195). Of similar form and manufacture are Anticka zvonca uglavnom su izradena lijevanjem, a buttons that served as earring and were a part of a ovo po obliku i izradi slici pronadenom u hunskom womans garb (Olmouc-Slavonin CIZMAR, kontekstu druge trecine sredine 5.st. u Madarskoj GEISLEROVA, UNGER 2000, obr.146; BEM (Budapest-Zuglo KAZANSKI 2005, 36). Zatim 2001, pic.72; Rumunjska FIEDLER 1992, okrugli praporac ili gumb (PN5), nacinjen slicnom abb.43). tehnikom, kovanjem zeljeznih plocica i prekivanjem A damaged massive wrought iron nail (Tll-10) spojeva bakrom. Obla zvonca i praporci nisu is probably of Roman period origin. A very worn rijetkost u ranosrednjovjekovnome materijalu, ali and scorched bronze coin (PN2) was found. Because su cesti tek od 8. do 9.st., pa je ovaj nalaz jedan od of its condition it is difficult to ascertain from which najranijih meni poznatih (Nin-Sv.Kriz, Zdrijac rulers period it comes from. It appears that the BELOSEVIC1980, s.92, t.XXVI-28,29, t.XLIV reverse depicts the well-known Vimnacium type, with 17-20; Satu Nou FIEDLER 1992, abb.44-1 itd.). Moesia standing with fist half-extended over a bull Zvonca i praporci sluzili su vjerojatno u kultne svrhe, to our left and a lion to the right. Also visible is the kao zvuk za prizivanje ili tjeranje zlih duhova. protruding and emphasised lower arm of the letter Prema Uwe Piedleru, najcesce su bili ovjeseni o L in the inscription PMS COL VIM, which is usual pojas ili usiveni u odjecu djece, kako bi odagnali zle on the majority of this type of reverse. This depiction sile (FIEDLER 1992, 194, 195). Slicnog oblika i was used from the time of Emperor Gordian III to izrade su i gumbi, koji su sluzili kao nausnice i Galien, but the obverse does not aUow us to conclude pripadali zenskoj nosnji (Olmouc-Slavonin of exactly whose depiction it might be. Here we can CIZMAR, GEISLEROVA, UNGER 2000, only make out the half-length portrait of the obr.146; BEM 2001, pic.72; Rumunjska Emperor facing right, without rayed crown. FIEDLER 1992, abb.43). Whatever the case, this money was minted during Ostecen masivni zeljezni kovani cavao (Tll-10) the period from 238 to 268, and given the debased vjerojatno je rimskodobni. Broncani novae (PN2) nominal (Ae20, in its initial form probably Ae25), pronaden je vrlo izlizan i prepaljen. Prema njegovu is most likely from one of the later rulers of this stanju tesko je tocno odrediti o kojem je vladaru period. rrjec. Cini se kako revers prikazuje poznati vimnacijski tip, s Mezijom koja stoji s Other finds poluispruzenom desnicom nad bikom s nase lijeve As far as Roman period glass is concerned, only strane i lavom s desne strane. Zamjecuje se takoder a single shard from the flat handle of a jug (?) was izbacena i naglasena donja hasta slova L u natpisu found at Stara ves as a chance find (Tll-7). It PMS COL VIM, sto je uobicajeno na velikoj vecini appears that the mass production of glass was ovih tipova reversa. Ovaj prikaz koristen je od cara already diminishing at the time. A shard from a Gordijana III. do Galijena, no avers ne daje stone object of unknown use (T6-6) was found in moguenosti da se zakljuci o kome je tocno rijec. Tu dugout house J l that is on its preserved side se zamjecuje samo poprsje cara udesno, bez zrakaste polished to a high gloss, and a small square-shaped krune. Kako god bilo, ovi novci kovani su u whetstone made of sandstone, worn by use on all

four sides (T6-7). An exceptional find is a partially retouched piece of transparent rock crystal (PN3). The crystal was formed into two irregular six-sided pyramids at its ends and with an elongated six-sided body, but was Ostali nalazi further ground (?) to achieve a more regular Sto se tice antickog stakla, na Staroj vesi refraction. There are no traces on it of boring for the pronaden je samo jedan ulomak plocaste rucke insertion of a ring or any hole on the basis of which vrca?, i to kao slucajan nalaz (Tll-7). Cini se kako one could conclude that this object was worn in a je u to doba masovna izrada stakla vec jenjala. U visible place (around the neck or the like). It was zemunici J l pronaden je ulomak kamenog probably used as a protection from spells and evil predmeta nepoznate namjene, koji je na ocuvanoj spirits and carried in a small leather bag just as strani uglacan do visokog sjaja (T6-6), te mali some people do to this day. Transparent ground cetvrtasti bms od pjescenjaka, izlizan uporabom sa rock crystals can be found in the inventory of svih strana (T6-7). Germanic graves from the migration period Izvanredan nalaz je djelimicno obradeni komad (Germany, QUAST 2001 s.438, b.504) but also prozirnoga gorskog kristala (PN3). Kristal se among early Slavic material (Poljska, formirao u dvije nepravilne sesterostranicne KOSTRZEWSKI 1947, 185, 186, ryc.185). They piramide na krajevima i s izduzenim are mostly six-sided or multi-sided pendants with seterostranicnim tijelom, ali je dodatno brusen (?) holes in the middle, but can also sometimes be da se postigne veca pravilnost loma. Na njemu nema without boring and/or in the shape of a sphere, shell tragova busenja za umetanje alke ili neke rape na and the like. osnovi kojih bi se moglo zakljuciti kako je predmet Although less representative, of equal importance nosen na vidljivome mjestu (oko vrata ili slicno). is a find of a damaged bone pendant (T10-4). This Vjerojatno je koristen kao zastita od uroka i zlih is a flat bone, well polished on all sides. A duhova, te nosen u koznoj vrecici, kao sto to neki longitudinal hole for a thread was bored thought he ljudi cine i u danasnje vrijeme. Prozirni braseni middle of the pendant. What would be most gorski kristali mogu se pronaci u inventarima interesting to discover is of what animal the bone is germanskih grobova iz doba seobe naroda from, which is difficult to determine as the shard (Njemacka, QUAST 2001 s.438, b.504) ali i u has been retouched. There is the possibility that it is ranoslavenskom gradivu (Poljska, a part of a human skull or a wide thighbone of some KOSTRZEWSKI 1947, 185, 186, ryc.185). ox or horse. As the bone itself is not a valuable raw Uglavnom su to sesterostranicni ili visestranicni material for the production of ornaments, nor is it privjesci s rapom u sredini, ali pokatkad mogu biti an artistically worked or decorated bone, I believe i neprobuseni, ili(i) u obliku kuglice, skoljke i si. that the true nature of the pendant is in the bones Premda manje reprezentativan, ali je jednako origin. Whether it is the bone of an ancestor or an vazan i nalaz ostecenog kostanog privjeska (T10- enemy, or even of some large and in the religious 4). Rijec je o plocastoj kosti, fmo uglacanoj sa svih sense important animal, is for now an open question. strana. Uzduzna rupa za konac bila je probusena Based on the several bones shards from pit J1 kroz sredinu privjeska. Najzanimljivije bi bilo only an ox (Bos sp.) was identified. The fragment saznati o kojoj je kosti rijec, sto je tesko odrediti jer of a tooth from pit J2b is from the same period, je ulomak obraden. Postoji mogucnost da je to from a small ruminant - a sheep or goat (Ovis aries, ulomak ljudske lubanje ili siroke bedrene kosti Capra hircus). The majority of bone shards found goveda ili konja. Kako kost sama po sebi nijeYrijedna in pits J1, J2, and J2b bear traces of gnawing, sirovina za izradu ukrasa, niti je rijec o umjetnicki probably from a carnivore (a dog?). obradenoj ili ukrasenoj kosti, vjerujem da je prava A microscopic analysis of soil samples did not bit privjeska u porijeklu kosti. Da li je rijec o kosti establish remains (seeds and the like) that would predaka ili neprijatelja, ili pak neke vece i u assist in determining the foliage or use of vjerskom smislu znacajnije zivotinje, zasad ostaje agricultural cultures at the time pit J1 was filled in. otvoreno pitanje. This site is key in the study of the interaction of Prema nekoliko ulomaka kostiju iz jame J l the remaining Romanic indigenous population and prepoznato je samo govedo (Bos sp.).lz istog the settling Slavic peoples in the earliest phases of razdoblja je i fragment zuba iz jame J2b, koji je their arrival. The number of finds, their complexity pripadao malom prezivacu - ovci ili kozi {(Ms aries, and the value of the data that could still be obtained Gapra HrcMs). Vecina ulomaka kostiju pronadenih demand an individual, detailed publication of the u jamama J l , J2, i J2b imaju tragove glodanja, material of this period at Stara ves, which shall be vjerojatno mesozdera (psa?). undertaken in the near future. Mikroskopskim pregledom uzoraka zemlje nisu LATER EARLY MEDIEVAL PERIOD ustanovljeni ostaci (sjemenke i si.) koji bi pomogli u FEATURES odredivanju biljnog pokrova ili iskoristavanja Two pits were found at the far western part of poljoprivrednih kultura u doba zapunjavanja jame the site. K3 is a larger pit of elongated shape the Jl. razdoblju od 238. do 268.g., a s obzirom na oslabljenu nominalu (Ae20, u prvobitnom stanju vjerojatno Ae25), vjerojatnije je rijec o nekom od kasnijih vladara tog razdoblja.

217

Nedelisce-Stara ves. Doracteni gorski kristal, J1-PN3, 655 7 calAD. (T6-5) Nedelisce-Stara ves. Retouched rock crystal, J1-PN3, 655+7 calAD. (T6-5)

218 ~

Ovo nalaziste kljucno je za proucavanje medudjelovanja preostalog romanskog, starosjedilackog stanovnistva i slavenskih pridoslica u najranijoj fazi njihova dolaska. Brojnost nalaza, kompleksnost i vrijednost podataka koji bi se jos mogli izvuci, iziskuje i zasebnu, podrobnu objavu materijala ovog razdoblja sa Stare vesi, sto ce i biti ucinjeno u skorije vrijeme. KASNIJI RANI SREDNJI VIJEK NALAZI Na krajnje zapadnom dijelu nalazista pronadene su dvije jame. K3 je oveca jama izduzenog oblika, u cijoj se ispuni pronaslo malo ulomaka keramike, dva glinena prsljena, jedan zeljezni nozic i nesto gara. Druga jama nalazi se u blizini, ali u njoj nije bilo nikakvih arheoloskih nalaza i nije zabiljezena na tlorisu. Cini se kako je jama K3 u doba svqjeg punjenja bila prepuna tekucine, jer je zemlja ispune bila zelenkasto obojena, poput mocvarnoga gliba. Mozda je rijec o nekadasnjoj fekalnoj jami. Tome u prilog govori i malen broj nalaza s obzirom na njezinu zapreminu. Gar iz jame ispitan je metodom AMS-14C a ishod upucuje na 11 st. (calAD 1080 47). 4 U jami K3 pronadeno je i 9 komada zemljanog poda. Podnica je bila nacinjena od gline bez organskih ili drugih primjesa, debela, prema ostacima, vise od 4 cm i dobro zagladene gornje povrsine. Rijec je ostacima neke nadzemne kuce koja pripada torn razdoblju. Nazalost, osim K3, nigdje drugdje na Staroj vesi nismo pronasli strukture, pa ni slucajne ulomke iz ovog razdoblja.

deposit of which contained a small number of potsherds, two clay spindle whorls, one iron knife and some charcoal. The other pit is located nearby but there were no archaeologicalfindsand it has not been marked on the ground plan. It appears that pit K3 was at the time of itsfillingfull of liquid as the soil of the deposit was greenish coloured, like that of marsh mud. Perhaps this is a former latrine. The small number of finds, given the volume of the pit, speaks in favour of this possibility. The charcoal from this pit was tested using the AMS-14C method and the result indicates the 11th century (calAD 108047).4 9 pieces of earthenflooringwere found in pit K3. The flooring was made of clay without organic or other temper, thick, based on the remains over 4 cm, and with a weU smoothed upper surface. These are the remains of a some raised house that comes from this period. Unfortunately, other than K3, we did not discover any structures anywhere else at Stara ves, or any other chance fragments from this period.

FINDS Ceramic finds The finds from pit K3 are about three hundred years later, but also from the early Medieval period. Midden K3 was dated using the AMS-14C method to the second half of the 11th century. Finds from this period have in Croatia not been published enough, with the exception of contemporary explorations of Tajana Sekelj-Ivancan, Tatjana Tkalcec and several other researchers. Finds from table T12 and T13 were found in POKRETNI NALAZI midden K 3 . A great deal more potsherds were found Keramicki nalazi in the pit, but so small that it would make no sense Tristotinjak godina mladi, ali takoder iz ranog to discuss them here. The ones detailed here are, srednjeg vijeka su nalazi iz jame K3. Otpadna jama however, enough to show the interesting pottery K3 datirana je AMS-14C metodom u drugu production of the period. The depicted potsherds polovinu ll.stoljeca. Nalazi ovog razdoblja u nas come from vessels that were for the most part made takoder nisu dovoljno objavljivani, uz iznimku on a slow potters wheel. Circular impressions on suvremenijih istrazivanja Tajane Sekelj-Ivancan, their bottoms, the trace of a wheel axle (T13-4) are Tatjane Tkalcec i nekolicine drugih istrazivaca. evidence of the use of a potters wheel on this relatively Nalazi s tabli T12 i T13 pronadeni su u otpadnoj rough and irregular pottery. Several sharp (T12jami K3. U jami je pronadeno mnogo vise ulomaka, 1, 4) or semi-rounded (T12-2, 5) pot rims are ali su oni toliko sitni da ih nije imalo smisla sve shown on table T12. There are cut off rims (T13ovdje prikazati. No, i ovo je dovoljno da pokaze 1, 2, 5) on table K13. The variety of the ends of zanimljivu keramicku proizvodnju tog razdoblja. these vessels indicates the period in which the Prikazani ulomci pripadaju posudama koje su transition was made from rounded rims, to ones ponajvise izradivane na sporovrtecem kolu. Dokaz that were cut off. This development did, za upotrebu kola na ovoj relativno gruboj i admittedly, last quite some time, but from the nepravilnoj keramici su kruzni otisci na dnu, ostaci accompanying finds at the majority of sites it is osovine kola (T13-4). Na tabli T12 prikazano je evident that from the 8th century, when they nekoliko ostrih (T12-l,4 ) ili poluzaobljenih appeared, to the 11th century, the number of cut (T12-2,5) oboda lonaca. Na tabli K13 nalaze se off rims had statistically grown so much that pak odrezani obodi (T13-l,2,5). Sarolikost ovih rounded or sharp rims (like those here) can zavrsetaka upucuje na razdoblje u kojem se odustalo hardly be found originating from the 12th century. od oblih oboda i preslo na one odrezane. Taj Most of thefindswith which these at Stara ves can razvoj doduse potrajao je prilicno dugo, ali prateci be compared unfortunately are to be found in
AMS-14C dataeija izradena je u Leibniz Labor fiir Altersbestimmung und Isotopenforselmng, Christian-Albreehts-Universitat u Eelu (KIA25319, BP 960 20). Skracena kalibracija putem CalPal Online Radiocarbon Calibration izra dena na S v e u 5 u u Kolnu. AMS-MG dating was done at the Leita Labor fUr Altersbestimmung und Isotopenforschung, Chnsttan-Albrechts-Vnwersitat in Kiel (KIA-2531 ft BP 960 20). Shortened calibration using GalPal Online Radiocarbon Calibration done at the University ofKoln.

Metal finds A damaged small iron knife, T12-9, was found in pit K3. Its length may have been even a little shorter than the depicted sketch of it. Metalni nalazi A very small pyramidal iron arrowhead on a U jami K3 pronaden je i osteceni mali zeljezni cylinder, found near pit J l , but as a chance find, is noz, T12-9. Njegova duzina mozda je bila i malo rare on account of its dimensions of about 3.8 cm kraca u odnosu na prikazan crtez. (T15-10). The most similar one I found was from Vrlo mala zeljezna piramidalna strelica na tuljac, material originating from the Adriatic seaboard. pronadena blizu jame J l , ali kao slucajni nalaz, According to Dragicevic, similarfindsof pyramidal rijedak je tip zbog svojih mjera od oko 3,8cm (T15- arrowheads from Bribir originate in the 14th century, 10). Najslicnije sam pronasao tek u gradivu s but her sketches do not, unfortunately, have jadranske obale. Prema Dragicevicewj, slicni nalazi measurements (DRAGICEVIC 1987, sl.22-8, 9). piramidalnih strelica s Bribira potjecu iz 14.st., ali The second find is from the legacy of Vladimir nazalost njezini crtezi nemaju mjerilo Mirosavljevic, who collected an almost identical (DRAGICEVIC 1987, sl.22-8,9). Drugi nalaz je iz arrowhead somewhere in the environs of Baska on ostavstine Vladimira Mirosavljevica, koji je gotovo the island of Krk. It appears that the difference is identicnu strelicu prikupio negdje u okolici Baske only in size, to the advantage of thefindfrom Baska na Krku. Cini se kako je razlika samo u velicini, u (about 5 cm long). Glogovic does not date it to any korist strelice iz Baske (oko 5 cm). Glogoviceva ju exactness, saying only that it was a medieval poblize ne datira, navodeci kako je rrjec o weapon (GLOGOVIC 1989, 100, sl.1-11). A srednjovjekovnom oruzju (GLOGOVIC 1989, sketch of an arrowhead from the Keglevic hill fort in 100, sl.1-11). Crtez strelice s Keglevica gradine u Mokro polje, which Delonga dates to between the Mokrom polju, koju Delonga datira izmedu 13. i 13th and 16th centuries, does not depict the 16.St., nema presjek ostrice, pa nije sigurno je li arrowheads cross-section, so that it is uncertain uopce rijec o piramidalnom zavrsetku. Ujedno su whether its tip is in fact pyramidal. The dimensions mjere te strelice vece (oko 6,2 cm) od nase of this arrowhead are also larger (about 6.2 cm) (DELONGA 1985, t.VIII-12). Zeljezne than ours (DELONGA 1985, t.VIII-12). piramidalne strelice na tuljac upotrebljavali su jos i Pyramidal iron arrowheads mounted on cylinders Rimljani, a ocigledno je kako su koristene i do were used by the Romans, and it is evident that they kasnog srednjeg vijeka. Nas primjerak zbog were used through to the late Middle Ages. Our nedostatka stratigrafskih podataka i uvjerljive specimen can not, because of a lack of stratigraphic usporedbe ne moze se datirati. data and convincing comparisons, be dated. Tako je i sazeljeznom ostricom T15-9. Ona je The same goes for iron blade T15-9. It is

nalaze na vecem broju nalazista uocljivo je kako se od 8.st., kada su se pojavljivali, do ll.st., statisticki povecao broj odrezanih oboda toliko da iz 12.st. oble, odnosno ostre (kao ovdje) gotovo i ne mozemo naci. Vecina nalaza s kojima se mogu usporediti ovi sa Stare vesi nazalost potjecu iz muzejskih depoa bez posebnih oznaka ili iz nesustavnih istrazivanja (SEKELJ-IVANCAN 2000, SEKELJ-IVANCAN 2001, SEKELJIVANCAN, TKALCEC, SILJEG 2003). Oblik lonca T12-l,3, slici pronadenome u Borovljanima (SEKELJ-IVANCAN 2000) koje autorica okvirno datira od 8. do lO.stoljeca. Ostri obodi poznati su s razlicitih nalazista (Vrba, SarvasGradac, Torcec-Blazevo Pole, Vinkovci-Duga ulica, SEKELJ-IVANCAN 2001, br.50, 250, 299, 372). Poluzaobljeni obodi kao T12-2,5 slice pronadenima u Dugoj ulici u Vmkovcima ( SEKELJ-IVANCAN 2001, br.336, 394). Odrezani obodi, od kojih neki mogu vec imati i slabo razlucene utore u vrhu oboda pronadeni su na nalazistima Lipovac-Ivanac, Gradac-Sarvas, Vinkovci-Duga ulica, (SEKELJIVANCAN 2001, br.153, 249, 350, 354, 385). Ukras nepravilnog vodoravnog metlicastog ukrasavanja (T12-10) takoder se pronalazi i drugdje (Vinkovci-Duga ulica, SEKELJIVANCAN 2001, 385). Svi usporedni nalazi mogu se postaviti u razdoblje od 8. do 12.stoljeca. U jami K3 pronadena su i dva neobicna prsljena. Prvi je vrlo malih mjera (T13-6), a drugi neobicnog izduzenog i tankog oblika (T13-7).

museum depots, without special markings or from unsystematic explorations (SEKELJ-IVANCAN 2000, SEKELJ-IVANCAN 2001, SEKELJIVANCAN, TKALCEC, SILJEG 2003). The shape of pot T12-1, 3 is similar to one found at Borovljani (SEKELJ-IVANCAN 2000) that the author dates approximately to the period from the 8th to 10th centuries. Sharp rims are known from various sites (Vrba, Sarvas-Gradac, Torcec-Blazevo Pole, Vinkovci-Duga ulica, SEKELJ-IVANCAN 2001, br.50, 250, 299, 372). Semi-rounded ones like that on T12-2, 5 are similar to ones found at Duga ulica in Vinkovci (SEKELJIVANCAN 2001, br.336, 394). Cut rims, of which some can have barely distinguishable grooves in the top of the rim, have been found at the sites LipovacIvanac, Gradac-Sarvas, Vinkovci-Duga ulica, (SEKELJ-IVANCAN 2001, br.153, 249, 350, 354, 385). An irregular, horizontal, brushed surface decoration (T12-10) can also be found elsewhere (Vinkovci-Duga ulica, SEKELJ-IVANCAN 2001, 385). All of the parallel finds can be placed in the period from the 8th to 12th centuries. Two unusual spindle whorls were found in pit K3. The first is of very small dimensions (T13-6), and the second has a very elongated and slender shape (T13-7).

219

220

ostecena na oba kraja, a slici na manji noz ili britvu. Zanimljivi su urezi u nizu na jednoj strani ostrice, ali oni ne svjedoce da je sluzila za piljenje, vec se njome ipak rezalo. Ostali nalazi U jami K3, pronaden je zub goveda (Bos sp.). RAZVIJENI SREDNJI VIJEK TE RANI NOVI VIJEK NALAZI Sirom nalazista Stara ves moguce je pronaci ulomke koji pripadaju kasnom srednjem vijeku i ranom novom vijeku. Ipak, pronadena je samo jedna straktura, oznacena kao K l . Rijec je o vrlo velikoj jami, dugoj gotovo 10 m, koja se proteze u profilu pokosa kanala. Djelomicno je ostecena bagerom, a vjerojatno se proteze pod novoizgradenim nasipom. Zbog nedostatka vremena i novca, ova jama nije iskopana u cijelosti, ali je djelomicno dokumentirana. Osim malogzeljeznog cavlica i nekoliko zivotinjskih kostiju, u njoj se nalazi samo velika kolicina ulomaka keramike, a ti nalazi vjerojatno pripadaju kasnom 16.stoljeca. POKRETNI NALAZI Kerami~ki nalazi Usamljeni ulomak keramickog lonca T15-3, pronaden kao slucajni nalaz, zbog grube bi izrade, nepravilnog pecenja, grade stijenke, dvostrukih valovnica i ravnih crta valjalo datirati u razdoblje 12. ili 13.stoljeca. Drugih nalaza iz tog doba na Staroj vesi nije bilo. U golemoj jami K l nalaze se mnogobrojni keramicki ulomci raznolikih posuda. Na tabli 14 prikazan je odreden broj tipicnih ulomaka. Prema nacinu izrade, svi su vrlo srodni, pa je vjerojatno rijec o otpacima iz obliznje, nepronadene radionice. Najblize usporedbe i najslicnije su n a m iz i s t r a z i v a n j a n a l a z i s t a Nedelisce-Gradisce (TOMICIC 1985b, TOMICIC 1990). Lonac T146 slici loncu si.8-1, lonac T15-5 vjerojatno loncu sl.8-3. Dno T14-12 mozda peharu sl.8-7, ali je kriz ovdje uokviren kruznicama i krajnji rub dna nema naglasenu tanku nogu. Zato ga je mozda bolje usporedivati s dnom sl.9-2. Rucka T15-1 s ukrasom urezanih tankih crta vrlo slici brojnim nalazima prikazanim na si.10, a posebice primjerku sl.1011. Oblik zdjelice T15-2 po svojem presjeku podsjeca na si.8-8. Tbmicic nalaze s NedeliscaGradisca datira u razdoblje od sredine 13.st. do sredine 15.st. (TOMICIC 1985b, 62), dok su nalazi sa Stare vesi i malo mladi. Naime, nasi nalazi vise nemaju znacajke 13. st, kao sto je jednostavan obod bez rebara i deblje stijenke (npr. Ciglenica Tl,2) ili trnasta produzenja istih oboda (Dornenmnd), pa niti znacajke 14.st. kao okomito trakasto izveden obod {Leistenmnd) i debeljuskasta tijela lonaca. Kod ulomaka sa S t a r e vesizamjetljivi su veoma razvraceni siroki trakasti obodi s vise rebara {Karniesmnd) koji se javljaju tek od 15.st, te ostro naglaseni utori za cepove na unutrasnjoj strani oboda, karakteristicni za kasni srednji vijek i rani

damaged at both ends, and resembles a smaUer knife or razor. A series of engravings on one side of the blade are interesting, but they do not bear witness to its possible use as a saw, as it was used only for cutting. Other finds An ox tooth (Bos sp.) was found in pit K3. HIGH MEDIEVAL AND POST MEDIEVAL PERIODS FEATURES Finds can be located across the entire breadth of the Star ves site that originate in the late Medieval and Post Medieval periods. Only a single structure was found, however, designated as K l . This is a very large pit, almost 10 m long, which runs along the profile of the canals side. It was partially damaged by an excavator, and probably extends under the newly constructed embankment. A lack of time and funds did not allow us to excavate this pit in its entirety, but it is partially documented. Besides a small iron nail and several animal bones, it contained only a large amount of potsherds, these finds originating probably in the late 16th century. FINDS Ceramic finds A solitary potsherd from a T15-3, a pot, was found as a chance find, that can be, on account of its rough manufacture, irregular firing, the structure of its waUs, a double wavy line and a straight line, be dated to the 12th or 13th century. There were no other finds from this period at Stara ves. The huge pit K l contains numerous potsherds from a variety of vessels. Table 14 shows a number of typical potsherds. Based on the method of their manufacture they are aU related, so that it is likely that they are refuse from a probable nearby workshop that has not been found. The closest comparisons and most similar specimens are from the exploration of the Nedelisce-Gradisce site (TOMICIC 1985b, TOMICIC 1990). Pot T14-6 is similar to pot sl.8-1, pot T15-5 probably to pot sl.8-3. Bottom T14-12 perhaps to beaker sl.8-7, but the cross here is framed by circles and the far edge of the bottom does not have an emphasised thin foot. It is, therefore, perhaps better compared to bottom sl.9-2. Handle T15-1 decorated with thin engraved lines is very similar to numerous finds shown in si.10, and especially to the specimen in sl.10-11. The shape of small bowl T15-2 is in its cross section reminiscent of si.8-8. Tbmicic dates the finds from Nedelisce-Gradisce to the period from the mid 13th century to the mid 15th century (TOMICIC 1985b, 62), while the finds from Stara ves are somewhat later. Our finds, namely, no longer have the characteristics of the 13th century such as a simple rim without ribs and thicker walls (Ciglenica T l , 2 for example) or the thorn-like extensions of these same r i m s (Dornenrand), nor the characteristics of the 14th century, like a vertical ribbon-executed rim (Leistenmnd) and rotundish pot bodies. Very flared, wide, ribbon-like rims with

Nedelisce-Stara ves. Dio rucke s utisnutim ukrasima u nizu. Slucajni nalaz. (T15-1) Nedelis}e-Stara ves. Part of a handle with an impressed series of decorations. Chance find. (T15-1)

Nedelisce-Stara ves. Dio oboda iz K1 Nedelis}e-Stara ves. Part of a rim from K1

novi vijek Ove znacajke karakteristicne su za kasnije razvqjne stupnjeve Ciglenice (15., i 16.st.) i Canjeva (15..-17.st.). Ujedno nacin, odnosno kvaliteta izrade primjeraka sa Stare vesi vise odgovara 16. i 17. St., pa smatram da jamu Kl i njeno gradivo naposljetku mozemo datirati oko 1600.godine.

Ostali nalazi
Kao slucajni nalazi prikupljena su dva slomljena brasna kamena, koji se mogu datirati u novovjeko doba (T15-6,7), te jedna glacana izradevina (T158), upitne namjene i datacije. U jami Kl pronadeno je nekoliko ulomaka kostiju goveda (Bos sp.), medu kojima na jednoj kosti postoje tragovi skidanja mesa ostrim predmetom. U istoj jami pronaden je i jedan zub svmje (Sus sp.). ZAKLJUCAK Podrucje Stare vesi kod Nedelisca siroki je prostor koji je bio naseljen od bakrenog doba do ranog novog vijeka. Naseobinama na ovom nalazistu pogodovali su lagano uzdignut i neplavljen polozaj te blizine vodotokova. Istrazivanje na Staroj vesi zapravo je samo zapocelo, jer je velika vecina nalaza jos pod zemljom. Prema onome sto je iskopano, cini se kako ni jedna od zastupljenih kultura na ovome mjestu nije imala naselje s gusto rasporedenim stambenim objektima. Rijec je o visekratno naseljavanom, sirokom nizinskom prostora, uz vodotokove, na kojem su vjerojatno rastrkano zivjele manje skupine ljudi, iskoristavajuci okolni prostor koji im je bio dovoljan za prezivljavanje. Vrlo slicnog karaktera je nalaziste Nova Tabla kod Murske Sobota, u novije vrijeme istrazena i djelomicno objavljena (GUSTIN,

multiple ribs (Karniesrand) are evident in the potsherds from Stara ves that appear only by the 15th century, and sharply emphasised grooves for plugs on the inside of the rim, typical of the late Medieval and Post Medieval periods. These traits are characteristic of the later developmental levels at Ciglenica (15th and 16th century) and Canjevo (15th - 17th century). Also, the method, i.e. the quality of manufacture of the specimens from Stara ves a more consistent with the 16th and 17th centuries, so that I feel that pit Kl and its material can, finally, be dated to around the year 1600. Other finds Two broken whetstones were coUected as chance finds that can be dated to the Early Modern period (T15-6, 7), and on polished artefact (T15-8), of unknown use and dating. Several bone shards from an ox (Bos sp.) were found in pit Kl, on one of which there are traces of the removal of meat with a sharp object. The tooth pf a pig (Sus sp.) was also found in this it. CONCLUSION The Stara ves area near Nedelisce is a wide area that was settled from the Copper Age to the Post Medieval period. The settlements at this site were favoured by a slightly elevated and flood-free position and the proximity of a waterway. The exploration of Stara ves has, in fact, only started, as many of the finds are still underground. Based on that which has been excavated, it appears that not a single one of the cultures represented at this location had a settlement with densely distributed dwellings. This is a wide lowland area, near a waterway, that was settled on several occasions, were

221

Nedelisce-Stara ves. Arheoloski radovi na sondi A. Desno ispraznjena poluzemunica J1, a u sredini jos neotkopane jame J2 i J2b. Nedelis}e-Stara ves. Archaeological work at trench A. To the right is emptied dugout house J1, and in the middle are still unexcavated pits J2 and J2b.

222

TIEFENGRABER, 2003). smaller, dispersed, groups of people lived, making Kronoloski prva kultura na ovom nalazistu je use of the surrounding area, which was sufficient lasinjska kultura. Uz slucajne nalaze, pronadene for their survival. The Nova Tabla site near Murska su dvije jame. Jedna je manja, otpadna, J4, a druga Sobota, recently explored and partially published, je kruzna poluzemunica, J 3 . Takva kruzna has very similar characteristics (GUSTIN, poluzemunica pronadena je i na nalazistu Gornji TIEFENGRABER, 2003). Pustakovec. Opcenito su nalazi i strukture s oba Chronologically, the first culture here was the ova nalazista slicni.6 Lasinja. Two pits were found along with the chance Drugo po redoslijedu je kasno broncano doba, finds. The smaller one, J4, is a midden, while the odnosno razdoblje kulture polja sa zarama. Uz other, J3, is a round dugout house. A round dugout slucajne nalaze, pronaden je i ostecen zarni grob house like this one was found at the Gornji (K10) kao i jama s veoma prepaljenim keramickim Pustakovec site. In general the finds and structures ulomcima u blizini (K2). Poneki ulomci pronadeni of both these sites are similar.6 su i u zatrpanoj stragi rjecice Trnave. Kako nije The next period in line is the late Bronze Age, i.e. rijec o osamljenom grobu, svjedoci i otpadna jama the Urnfield culture period. A damaged cremation K5, pronadena prilicno daleko od spomenutih grave (K10) was found along with chance finds, as nalaza Ostaci stambeniliobjekata na nalazistu zasad was a nearby pit (K2) containing very scorched nisu pronadeni, ali sudeci prema poznatim potsherds. Sporadic potsherds were also found in strukturama, i oni bi mogli biti rastrkani po polju. the steepfilled-inchannel of the Trnava creek. That Kao i na Blizni, ovo naselje nalazilo se u nizini, na this is not a solitary grave is indicated by midden otvorenom i obrambeno nezasticenom polozaju. K5, found quite a way from the mentioned finds. Zeljeznodobnih i ranoantickih nalaza zasad nije The remains of dweUings have not yet been found at bilo. Medutim, proistjece da je polje Stara ves the site, but judging by the known structures, they ponovno naseljeno u doba kasne antike. Za to too could be dispersed around the field. Like at nemamo strukturalno jasnih dokaza, ali su relativno Blizna, this settlement was situated on a lowland brojni nalazi kasnoanticke keramike posvuda po area, in the open and in a defensively unprotected nalazistu. position. Vjerojatno se na ovo doba izravno, bez prekida, Iron Age and early Roman period have not been veze i doba ranog srednjeg vijeka. Naime, u jami, found yet. It, however, follows that the Stara ves zapravo poluzemunici J l te otpadnim jamama J2 i field was again settled in the late Roman period. We J2b, pronadeno je, uz mnostvo ranoslavenskih i have no structurally clear evidence of this, but finds mnogo nalaza koji se mogu pripisati prezivjelom of late Roman period pottery are relatively frequent romanskom stanovnistvu. Prilikom iskopavanja all over the site.

Nedelisce-Stara ves. Sonda A. S lijeve strane ispraznjena poluzemunica J3, a desno ispraznjene otpadne jame J2 i 2b. Nedelis}e-Stara ves. Trench A. To the left is emptied dugout house J3, to the right are emptied middens J2 and J2b.

5 Zayise podatakawdi zakljueni dio poglavlja o Gomjem Pustakoveu. For more data see the concluding section ofthe chapter on Gornji Pustakovec.

ustanovljeno je kako su sve tri spomenute cjeline bile netaknute od vremena svojeg zatrpavanja. Zatrpane su u cijelosti i u kratkom razdoblju jedna za drugom ili cak istovremeno. Starosjedilacki lonci ubacivani su u jame gotovo citavi, sto znaci da sve kasnoanticke nalaze nisu Slaveni prikupili kao razbijene ulomke i ovdje ostavili, sto je inace uobicajeno.6 Premda je istrazen mali prostor, cini se kako je na Staroj vesi prezivjela manja zajednica Romana, koji su ovdje docekali i dolazak nekog ranoslavenskog roda ili obitelji. S obzirom na staroromanske posude u ranoslavenskoj zemunici, moze se zakljuciti kako su zivjeli u dobrosusjedskim odnosima. U posudama su se mogli nalaziti kupljeni, bolje reel zamijenjeni proizvodi, ciji je omot zavrsavao kao otpadak u napustenoj zemunici. Ovakve jasno citljive situacije prilicno su rijetke u dosadasnjim istrazivanjima naseljavanja Slavena, pa je stoga Stara ves iznimno vazna za daljnje proucavanje suzivota Romana i Slavena. Jama J l , poluzemunica je izduzenog i oblog oblika. Premda su u torn dobu bile ceste cetvrtaste poluzemunice s oblim kutovima, nasa nije jedinstvena. Medu inim, izdvajam inace dosta srodno nalaziste Nova Tabla kod Murske Sobote (GUSTIN, KNIFIC, 2003). Tamo pronadene poluzemunice po obliku, a i po mjerama (oko 5-6 x 2,5-3m) potpuno odgovaraju nasoj zemunici (oko 5 x 2,5m). Zajednicko im je i to sto nisu imale ocuvane tragove krovne strukture, poput tragova stupova, sto se tumaci tako da su bile pokrivene laganom konstrukcijom od grana i krovnim pokrovom od trstike. Ova konstrukcija mogla je imati i svezane nosive grede, sto nam prikazuje jedna od brojnih idealnih rekonstrukcija (WAWRUSCHKA 1999, abb.lO, prema Kobylinski). Mladi nalazi blizi su danasnjem naselju, Nedeliscu. Jama K3 pripada ll.st. Njezin karakter je zasigurno otpadni, ali nalazi tvrdo pecenog poda upueuju na postojanje nadzemnih kuca, zasad neotkrivenih. Iz razdoblja izmedu 11. i 16.st. nije otkriveno mnogo nalaza, ali nam je prema Tomicicevim istrazivanjima poznato kako se na kilometar udaljenom polozaju nalazilo utvrdeno gradiste iz 13. do 15.st. (TOMICIC 1985b, TOMICIC1990). Moguce je da se stanovnistvo sa Stare vesi u to doba povuklo u sigurnost ovog utvrdenog naselja. Takoder je pronadena i osamljena jama Kl. Nalazi iz ove vrlo velike jame upueuju na to kako se uz nju vjerojatno nalazila keramicarska radionica. Tako bi gotovo iskljucivo keramicki nalazi pronadeni u ovoj vise od 10 m dugoj jami pripadali radionickom otpadu. Oni se mogu datirati oko 1600.g., a nije jasno u kojem je odnosu ova moguca keramicarska radionica bila prema starrjem naselju Nedelisce-Gradisce i

It is likely that there was a smooth, unbroken, transitionfromthis period to the early Middle Ages. Namely, along with the numerous early Slavic finds in pit, or rather dugout house, J l , and in middens J2 and J2b, there were also many found that can be attributed to the surviving Romanic population. During the excavation it was established that all three of the mentioned ensembles had remained untouched since having been filled in. They were entirelyfilledin one after the other or perhaps even simultaneously. The indigenous pots were thrown in almost intact, which means that the Slavs did not gather all of the late Roman period finds as broken potsherds and leave them here, which is otherwise the usual case.6 Although the area explored was small, it appears that a smaller community of Romanic people survived Stara ves to await the arrival of some early Slavic clan or family. Considering the old Romanic vessels in an early Slavic dugout house, it can be concluded that they had good neighbourly relations. These vessels might have contained purchased, or rather traded products, whose packaging ended up as refuse in the abandoned dugout house. Clearly readable situations like this one are quite rare in the explorations to date of Slavic settlement, making Stara ves of exceptional significance in the farther study of the coexistence of Romanic and Slavic populations. Pit J l , a dugout house, has an elongated and rounded shape. Although square dugout houses with rounded corners were frequent at the time, ours is not unique. Among others I can single out the otherwise quite related site at Nova Tabla near Murska Sobota (GUSTIN, KNIFIC, 2003). The dugout house found there both in shape and in dimensions (around 5-6 x 2.5-3m) is entirely consistent with our dugout house (about 5 x 2.5m). They also have in common that they both did not have preserved traces of a roof structure such as postholes, which is interpreted as meaning that they were covered by a light construction of branches and a roofing of reeds. This construction may have had tied support joists, which is depicted in one of the numerous ideal reconstructions (WAWRUSCHKA 1999, abb.10, based on Kobylinski). Later finds are closer to the present day settlement of NedeUsce. Pit K3 originates in the 11th century. Its attributes are certainly those of a midden, but the presence of a hard-fired flooring indicates the existence of raised houses, for now undiscovered. Not manyfindswere collected from the period between the 11th and 16th century, but based on Tomicic's explorations we know that there was a fortified hill fortfromthe 13th to 15th century about a kilometre away (TOMICIC 1985b,

223 ~

6 U ranoslavenskim zemunieama na nalazistu Nova tabla kod Murske Sobota nalazilo se sitnili ulomaka rimskog stakla, sigilate, tegula i si Razridno je kako su to predmeti koje su naseljeniei prikupljali s rimskili ruserina kao za njili zanimljwe predmete. I s drugili nalaziste poznato je upotrebljavanje rimskog novea, staila i sigilate za izradu privjesaka. There were very small shards of Roman period glass, sigillata, roof-tiles and the like at the early Slavic dugout houses found at the Nova tabla site near Murska Sobota. It is evident that these were objects that the settlers gatheredfrom the Roman ruins as objects ofinterest to them. The use ofRoman coins, glass and sigilattafor the production of pendants is also known from other sites.

224

mladem, danasnjem Nedeliseu. Kao sto je vec receno, nalaziste Stara ves zapravo je tek nasluceno, a samo visegodisnja i prostorno opsirna iskopavanja mogla bi u cjelini otkriti sto se sve ovdje dogadalo kroz dugo razdoblje od oko 5500 godina.

KATALOG TABLA 1 - Stara ves, Jama 3


1- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, prociscene gline, dobre izrade, tamno smede, a u prijelomu erne boje. 2- Ulomak posude izradene prostomcno, s malo primjesa kvarcita, dobre izrade, kroz prijelom: tamno smede/svijetlo smede/crne/svijetlo smede/tamno smede boje. 3- Ulomak posude izradene prostomcno, prociscene gline, dobre izrade, tamno smede, a u prijelomu sive boje. 4- Ulomak posude izradene prostomcno, prociscene gline, dobre izrade, svijetlo smede, a u prijelomu narancaste boje. 5- Ulomak posude izradene prostomcno, prociscene gline, dobre izrade, svijetlo smede boje. 6- Ulomak posude izradene prostomcno, s malo primjesa kvarcita, dobre izrade, kroz prijelom: tamno smede/narancaste/sive/narancaste/tamno smede boje. 7- Ulomak posude izradene prostomcno, prociscene gline, dobre izrade, kroz prijelom: tamno smede/ narancaste/sive/narancaste/tamno smede boje. 8- U l o m a k p o s u d e i z r a d e n e p r o s t o r u c n o , neprociscene gline, izvana narancaste, u prijelomu sive a iznutra tamno sive boje. 9- U l o m a k p o s u d e i z r a d e n e p r o s t o r u c n o , neprociscene gline, smeckaste boje. 10- Ulomak posude izradene p r o s t o r u c n o , neprociscene gline, sive boje. Naknadno posve prepaljena. 11- Ulomak posude izradene p r o s t o r u c n o , prociscene gline, kroz prijelom: tamno smede/ narancaste/sive/narancaste/tamno smede boje. 12- Ulomak sjekire od glacanoga, sivosmedeg kamena dobre kvalitete. 13- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s mnogo primjesa kvarcita, kroz prijelom: crne/narancaste/ tamno sive/narancaste/crne boje. 14- Ulomak posude izradene p r o s t o r u c n o , prociscene gline, dobre izrade, kroz prijelom: tamno smede/narancaste/sive/narancaste/tamno smede boje.

TOMICIC1990). It is possible that the inhabitants of Stara ves withdrew to the safety of this fortified settlement during this period. Also found was solitary pit, K l . The finds from this very large pit indicate that there was probably a ceramics workshop situated nearby. The almost exclusively ceramic finds found in this over 10 m long pit would then be the refuse of this workshop. They can be dated to about the year 1600, and it is not clear in what relationship this possible ceramics workshop may have had to the older settlement of Nedelisce-Gradisce and the later, present day one of Nedelisce. As has already been said, only the surface has been scratched at the Stara ves site, and only several years of excavation over a wider area could provide a complete picture of its development over a long period of about 5500 years.

CATALOGUE TABLE 1 - Stara ves, Pit 3


1- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of refined clay, of good manufacture, of dark brown colour, black at the break. 2- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with a little quartz temper, of good manufacture, through the break: of dark brown/light brown/black/light brown/ dark brown colour. 3- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of refined clay, of good manufacture, of dark brown colour, grey at the break. 4- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of refined clay, of good manufacture, of light brown colour, orange at the break. 5- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of refined clay, of good manufacture, of light brown colour. 6- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with a little quartz temper, of good manufacture, through the break: of dark brown/orange/grey/orange/dark brown colour. 7- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of refined clay, of good manufacture, through the break: of dark brown/orange/grey/orange/dark brown colour. 8- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of unrefined clay, of orange colour outside, grey at the break and of dark grey colour on the inside. 9- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of unrefined clay, of brownish colour. 10- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of unrefined clay, of grey colour. Subsequently entirely scorched. 11- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of refined clay, through the break: of dark brown/orange/grey/ orange/dark brown colour. 12- Shard of an axe made of polished, grey-brown stone of good quality. 13- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with a large quantity of quartz temper, through the break: of black/orange/dark grey/orange/black colour. 14- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of refined clay, of good manufacture, through the break: of dark brown/orange/grey/orange/dark brown colour.

TABLA 2 - Stara ves, Jama 3


1- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, slabije prociscene gline, dobre izrade, kroz prijelom: smede/ narancaste/sive/narancaste/smede boje. 2- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s mnogo primjesa kvarcita, izvana narancaste, u prijelomu

sive a iznutra svijetlo smede boje. 3- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s mnogo primjesa kvarcita, izvana svijetlo smede, u prijelomu erne, a iznutra svijetlo smede boje. 4- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, neprociscene gline, izvana narancaste, u prijelomu sive, a iznutra tamno sive boje. 5- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s mnogo primjesa kvarcita, kroz prijelom: crne/narancaste/ tamno sive/narancaste/crne boje. 6- Cep posude izraden prostorucno, neprociscene gline, dobre ali nepravilne izrade, sive do narancaste boje. 7- Ulomak zlice izradene prostorucno, prociscene gline, dobre ali nepravilne izrade, svijetlo smede do narancaste boje 8- Ostecenazlica izradena prostorucno, s mnogo primjesa vecih kvarcita, slabije izrade, sive boje. 9- Ulomak zlice izradene prostorucno, s mnogo primjesa manjih kvarcita, dobre izrade, tamno smede boje. Vidljivi tragovi glacanja povrsine stapicem. 10- Ulomak zlice izradene prostorucno, s mnogo primjesa manjih kvarcita, dobre izrade, tamno smede boje. TABLA 3 - Slara ves, bakreno doba: K9 / Sonda E,F,G, SIOJ4 / SIUCajni nalazi 1- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, prociscene dine, svijetlo smede, a u prjelomu erne boje. I- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s primjesama kvarcita, kroz prijelom: tamno smede/ svijetlo smede/tamno sive/svijetlo smede/tamno

TABLE 2 - Slara ves, Pit 3 1- Potsherd oOf a hand-made vessel, of poorly refined clay, of good manufacture, through the break: of
brown/orange/grey/orange/brown colour. 2- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with a large quantity of quartz temper, of orange colour outside, grey at the break and of light brown colour on the inside. 3- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with a large

225 ~

quantity of quartz temper; of light brown colour outside, back at the break, and of light brown colour 0 n the inside. 4- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of unrefined clay, of orange colour outside, grey at the break, and of dark grey colour on the inside. 5" Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with a large quantity of quartz temper, through the break: of black/orange/dark grey/orange/black colour.
6- Hand-made plug of a vessel, of unrefined clay, of good but irregular manufacture, of grey to orange colour. 7- Potsherd of a hand-made spoon, of refined clay,

of good but irregular manufacture, of light brown to orange colour. 8- Damaged hand-made spoon, with a large quantity of coarse quartz, of mediocre manufacture, of grey colour. 9- Potsherd of a hand-made spoon, with a large quantity of fine quartz, of good manufacture, of dark brown colour. Visible traces of surface poUshing
m

t h a sma11 stlck 10" Ptsherd f a hand"made ^ ^ with a ^ TktoJnlluT^' ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ mVm *"" TABLE 3 - Slara veS, Copper Age: K9 / Trenches

smede boje.
3- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s malo primjesa vecih kvarcita, kroz prijelom: svijetlo smede/svijetlo smede/crne/svijetlo smede/svijetlo smede boje 4- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, prociscene gline, crne i narancaste boje. Prepaljeno. 5- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, prociscene gline, kroz prijelom: tamno smede/narancaste/ tamno sive/narancaste/tamno smede boje. 6- Posudica izradena prostorucno, neprociscene gline, neuredne izrade, tamno smede i crvenkaste boje. 7- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, neprociscene gline, kroz prijelom: crno/svijetlo smede/tamno sive/svijetlo smede/crne boje. 8- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, neprociscene gline, izvana svijetlo smede, iznutra i u prijelomu sive b -e 9- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s primjesama kvarcita, izvana svijetlo smede, u prijelomu sive, iznutra crvenkaste boje. 10- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, prociscene gline, izvana sive, u prijelomu i iznutra

E, F, G, Layer 4 / Chance finds


1- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of refined clay, of light brown colour, black at the break. 2- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with quartz temper, through the break: of dark brown/light brown/dark greyAight brown/dark brown colour. 3" Potsher f of a hand-made vessel, with a little
temper of coarse quartz, through the break: of light brown/light brown/black/light brown/light brown colour. 4- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of refined clay, of black and orange colour. Scorched.

5- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of refined clay, through the break: of dark brown/orange/dark grey/ orange/dark brown colour. 6- Small hand-made vessel, of unrefined clay, of slipshod manufacture, of dark brown and reddish colour. 7- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of unrefined clay, through the break: of black/light brown/dark greyAight brown/black colour.
8- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of unrefined clay, of light brown colour outside, grey at the break and on the inside. 9- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with quartz

temper; of light brown colour outside; grey at the

226 ~

svijetlo smede boje. TABLA 4 - Slara ves, K2 / K5 1- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, neprociscene gline, narancaste, sive i erne boje. Prepaljeno. 2- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, neprociscene gline, smede, a u prijelomu sive boje. Prepaljeno. 3- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, neprociscene gline, narancaste i sive boje. Prepaljeno. 4- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, neprociscene gline, sive boje. Prepaljeno. 5- Posuda izradena prostorucno, neprociscene gline, tamno smede, a u prijelomu erne boje. Eekonstruirana 6- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, neprocis cene gline, narancaste, a u prijelomu smede boje. 7- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, neprocis cene gline, izvana smede, u prijelomu tamno sive, a iznutra tamno smede boje. 8- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, neprociscene gline, izvana narancaste, u prijelomu erne, a iznutra tamno smede boje. 9- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, neprociscene gline, grube izrade, tamno smede boje. TABLA 5 - Slara ves K10 1- Ulomak posude 'izradene prostorucno, neprociscene gline, izvana svijetlo smede, u prijelomu erne, a iznutra tamno smede boje. Vjerojatno dio 2- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, neprociscene gline, smede, u prijelomu crne boje. Vjerojatno dio T5"43- Posudica izradena prostorucno, neprociscene gline, tamno smede, a u prijelomu erne boje. Rekonstruirana. 4- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, neprociscene gline, smede, u prijelomu erne boje. Vjerojatno dio T5-2 5- Dio posude izradene prostorucno, neprociscene gline, izvana svijetlo smede, u prijelomu erne, a iznutra tamno smede boje. Vjerojatno dio T5-1.

break, and of reddish colour on the inside. 10- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of refined clay, of grey colour outside, light brown at the break and on the inside.
TABLE 4 - Slara ves, K2 / K5

1- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of unrefined clay, of orange, grey and black colour. Scorched. 2- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of unrefined clay> of brown colour> grey at the break Scorched 3_ Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of unrefined clay of orange and grey colour. Scorched. 4- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of unrefined clay, of grey colour. Scorched. 5- Hand-made vessel, of unrefined clay, of dark brown colour, black at the break. Reconstructed.
6- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of unrefined clay, of orange colour, brown at the break. 7- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of unrefined clay, of brown colour outside, dark grey at the break, and of dark brown colour on the inside. 8- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of unrefined
d ay, 0 f

orange colour outside, black at the break, and of dark brown colour on the inside. 9- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of unrefined clay, of rough manufacture, of dark brown colour.
TABLE 5 - Stara ves, K10

!" Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of unrefined clay ofUght brown colour outside, black at the break, and of d a A b colour on the inside' Probably f ^ ^ of & hand_made ^ rf unrefined clay, of brown colour, black at the break. Probably ^ 0f T5 4 3. SmaU hand.made vessel, of unrefined clay, of dark brown colour, black at the break.Eeconstructed. 4- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of unrefined clay, of brown colour, black at the break. Probably part of T5-2. 5- Part of a hand-made vessel, of unrefined clay, of %ht brown colour outside, black at the break, and of dark brown colour on the inside. Probably part of T5 _ 1
TABLE 6 Stara ves, Pit 1

1- Hand-made vessel, with a large quantity of temper of organic material, of porous and irregular TABLA 6 - Slara ves, Jama 1 manufacture, of light brown to black colour. 1- Posuda izradena prostorucno, s mnogo primjesa Decoration executed in a slipshod fashion, using organske materije, porozne i nepravilne izrade, sticks. Coated in a thin layer of liquid clay. svijetlo smede do erne boje. Ukras izveden neuredno, 2- Part of an iron bell? Made by forging small iron stapicima. Preljevena tankim slojem tekuce gline. plates. Joints strengthened by hammering in copper. 2- Dio zeljeznog zvonca? Izradeno kovanjem Special find PN4. zeljeznih plocica. Spojevi ojacani ukivanjem bakra. 3" Part of an iron object. Posebni nalaz PN4 4- Damaged iron jingle-beU or button. Manufactured by forging small, t h i n , iron plates. Joints 3- Dio zeljeznog predmeta. strengthened by hammering in copper. Special find 4- Ostecen zeljezni praporac ili gumb. Izradeno PN5. kovanjem tankih zeljeznih plocica. Spojevi ojacani 5- Highland crystal, transparent, of irregular shape, ukivanjem bakra. Posebni nalaz PN5. surface retouched using an unknown tool. Special
find PN3.

5- Gorski kristal, proziran, nepravilnog oblika,

povrsine urectivane nepoznatom alatkom. Posebni nalaz PN3 6- Obradeni kamen nepoznate namjene. Jedna sacuvana powslna uglacana do visokog sjaja. Smede boje. 7- Mali bras od kamena pjescenjaka. TABLA 7 Stara ves, Jama 1 1- Posuda izradena prostomeno, s mnogo primjesa organske materije, porozne izrade, erne boje. Ukras izveden neuredno, stapicima. Eekonstruirana. 2- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s mnogo primjesa organske materije, porozne izrade, izvana tamno smede a iznutra erne boje. Ukras izveden vrlo neuredno, stapicima. Preljevena tankim slojem tekuce gline 3- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s mnogo primjesa organske materije, porozne izrade, tamno smede do erne boje. Ukras izveden neuredno, stapicima. 4- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s mnogo primjesa organske materije, porozne izrade, tamno smede boje. Preljevena tankim slojem tekuce gline. 5- Dio prsljena nacinjenog od dijela tegule?, s primjesama drobljene opeke, tamno narancaste boje koja ostavlja trag. Materijal identican tubulusu na T10_6. 6- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s mnogo primjesa organske materije, porozne izrade, izvana narancaste a u prijelomu i iznutra erne boje. Ukras izveden neuredno, stapicima. Preljevena tankim slojem tekuce gline. 7- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s mnogo primjesa organske materije, porozne izrade, tamno smede boje. Preljevena tankim slojem tekuce gline. 8- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s mnogo primjesa organske materije, porozne izrade, tamno smede boje.

6- Retouched stone of unknown use. One preserved surface polished to a high gloss. Of brown colour. 7- Small whetstone made of sandstone. TABLE 7 Stara ves, Pit 1 1- Hand-made vessel, with a large quantity of temper of organic material, of porous manufacture, of black colour. Decoration executed in a slipshod fashion, using sticks. Reconstructed. 2_ Potsherd of a hand.made vessel ; with a large quantity of temper of organic material, of porous manufacture, of dark brown colour outside and black on the inside. Decoration executed in a very slipshod fashion, using sticks. Coated in a thin layer of liquid clay. 3- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with a large quantity of temper of organic material, of porous manufacture, of dark brown to black colour Decoration executed in a slipshod fashion, using sticks. 4- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with a large quantity of temper of organic material, of porous ma ira facture ; 0 f dark brown colour. Coated in a thin iayer 0 f iiqUid ciay 5- Part of a spindle whorl made from part of a roof tile (), with temper of crushed brick, of dark orange colour that leaves a mark. Of material identical to the flue-tile at T10-6. 6- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with a large quantity of temper of organic material, of porous manufacture, of orange colour outside, black at the break and on the inside. Decoration executed in a slipshod fashion, using sticks. Coated in a thin layer of liquid clay. 7- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with a large q U antity of temper of organic material, of porous manufacture, of dark brown colour. Coated in a thin layer of liquid clay. 8- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with a large quantity of temper of organic material, of porous manufacture, of dark brown colour. TABLE 8 Stara ves, Pit 1 1- Vessel manufactured on a slow potters wheel or made by hand, with a large quantity of temper of small pebbles, of rough manufacture, of dark brown and in places orange and light brown colour. Traces of finger modelling along the bottom. Reconstructed. 2- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a slow potters wheel or made by hand, with a large quantity of temper of small pebbles, of rough manufacture, of light brown colour, black at the break. Visible traces on the inside of finger modelling. 3- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a potters wheel, with a large quantity of temper of small P e b b H of rough manufacture, of light brown colour outside, grey at the break, and of black colour on the inside. Decoration executed with a stick. 4- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, of refined clay, of yellowish colour. Crushed quartz attached to the inside. 5- Part of a hand-made vessel, of refined clay but

227

TABLA 8 - Stara ves, Jama 1


1- Posuda izradena na sporovrtecem kolu ili prostorucno, s mnogo primjesa manjih kamencica, grube izrade, tamno smede i ponegdje narancaste i svijetlo smede boje. Uz dno tragovi modeliranja prstima. Eekonstruirana. 2- Ulomak posude izradene na sporovrtecem kolu ili p r o s t o r u c n o , s mnogo primjesa manjih kamencica, grube izrade, svijetlo smede, a u prijelomu erne boje. Vidljivi tragovi modeliranja prstima iznutra 3- Ulomak posude izradene na kolu, s mnogo primjesa manjih kamencica, grube izrade, izvana svijetlo smede, u prijelomu sive, a iznutra erne boje. Ukras izveden stapicem. 4- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, prociscene gline, zuckaste boje. Iznutra prilijepljen drobljeni kvarcit.

228

5- Dio posude izradene prostorucno, prociscena ali s nekoliko vecih rapica, vjerojatno od kamencica koji su ispali, nepravilne izrade, tamno smede a u prijelomu crvenkaste boje. Vidljivi tragovi modeliranja prstima i malom letvicom. 6- Ulomak posude izradene na kolu, uglavnom prociscena ali s rapicama, vjerojatno od organske materije, pomalo nepravilne izrade, izvana erne u prijelomu svijetlo sive a iznutra tamno sive boje. TABLA 9 - Stara ves, Jama 1 1- Ulomak posude izradene na sporovrtecem kolu ili prostorucno, s mnogo primjesa manjih kamencica i kvarcita, grube i nepravilne izrade, tamno smede, a u prijelomu erne boje 2- Ulomak posude izradene na sporovrtecem kolu ili p r o s t o r u c n o , s mnogo primjesa manjih kamencica, grube i nepravilne izrade, tamno smede, a u prijelomu erne boje. 3- Ulomak posude izradene na kolu, s mnogo primjesa sitnih kamencica i kvarcita koji se truse, narancaste a u prijelomu erne boje. 4- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s mnogo primjesa sitnih kamencica i kvarcita, svijetlo sive a u prijelomu crvenkaste boje. 5- Posuda izradena na sporovrtecem kolu ili prostorucno, s mnogo primjesa manjih kamencica, grube i nepravilne izrade, erne, a iznutra erne i smede boje. Rekonstruirana. 7- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, prociscene gline, dobre izrade, svijetlo sive, a u prijelomu crvenkaste boje. 6- Dio posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, prociscene gline, dobre izrade, sive boje. Ukras izveden kotacicem. TABLA 10 - Stara ves, Jama 2 / Jama 2b 1- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s mnogo primjesa organske materije, porozne i vrlo nepravilne izrade, svijetlo do tamno smede, iznutra erne boje. 2- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s mnogo primjesa organske materije, porozne izrade, tamno smede boje. 3- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s mnogo primjesa organske materije, porozne izrade, tamno smede boje. Ukras izveden neuredno, stapicima. Preljevena tankim slojem tekuce gline? 4- Dio kostanog privjeska, glacanih povrsina, s probijenom rupom. 5- Prsljen, prociscene gline, sive boje koja ostavlja trag. 6- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama kamencica i pijeska, tvrde izrade, sive boje. 7- Dio tubulusa, s primjesama drobljene opeke tamno narancaste boje koja ostavlja trag, na povrsini, gdje su urezane cite, tragovi zalijepljenog

with several holes, probably from pebbles that have fallen out, of irregular manufacture, of dark brown colour, reddish at the break. Visible traces of modelling with fingers and with a small lath. 6- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a potters wheel, largely refined but with small holes probably from organic material, of somewhat irregular manufacture, of black colour outside, light grey at the break, and of dark grey colour on the inside. TABLE 9 Stara ves, Pit 1 1- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a slow potters wheel or made by hand, with a large quantity of temper of small pebbles and quartz, of rough and irregular manufacture, of dark brown colour, black at the break 2- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a slow potters wheel or made by hand, with a large quantity of temper of small pebbles, of rough and irregular manufacture, of dark brown colour, black at the break. 3- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a potters wheel, with a large quantity of temper of fine pebbles and quartz that crumbles, of orange colour, black at the break. 4- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, with a large quantity of temper of fine pebbles and quartz, of light grey colour, reddish at the break. 5- Vessel manufactured on a slow potters wheel or made by hand, with a large quantity of temper of small pebbles, of rough and irregular manufacture, of black colour, black and brown on the inside. Reconstructed. 7- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, of refined clay, of good manufacture, of light grey colour, reddish at the break. 6- Part of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, of refined clay, of good manufacture, of grey colour. Decoration executed with a small wheel. TABLE 10 Stara ves, Pit 2 / Pit 2b 1- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with a large quantity of temper of organic material, of porous and very irregular manufacture, of light to dark brown colour, black on the inside. 2- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with a large quantity of temper of organic material, of porous manufacture, of dark brown colour. 3- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with a large quantity of temper of organic material, of porous manufacture, of dark brown colour. Poorly executed decoration, using sticks. Coated in a thin layer of liquid clay? 4- Part of a bone pendant, of polished surface, with a hole bored into it. 5- Spindle whorl, of refined clay, of grey colour that leaves a mark. 6- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, with a temper of pebbles and sand, of harder manufacture, of grey colour. 7- Part of a flue-tile, with a temper of crushed brick

pijeska (zbuka). 8- Posuda izradena prostorucno, s mnogo primjesa organske materije, porozne i vrlo nepravilne izrade, smede i narancaste boje. 9- Ulomak posude izradene prostomcno, s mnogo primjesa organske materije, porozne izrade, tamno smede bqje. Ukras izveden cesljem. Preljevena tankim slqjem tekuce gline. 10- Ulomak posude izradene prostomcno, s mnogo primjesa organske materije, porozne izrade, izvana svijetlo smede a iznutra tamno smede bqje. Ukras izveden neuredno, stapicima. 11- Ulomak posude izradene prostomcno, s mnogo primjesa organske materije, porozne izrade, izvana narancaste, inace crne bqje. Ukras izveden neuredno, stapicima. 12- Ulomak posude izradene prostomcno, s mnogo primjesa organske materije, porozne izrade, izvana tamno smede, inace narancaste bqje. TABLA 11 - Stara ves, kasno broncano doba:

of dark orange colour that leaves a mark, traces of attached sand (mortar) on the surface where there are engraved lines. 8- Hand-made vessel, with a large quantity of temper of organic material, of porous and very irregular manufacture, of brown and orange colour. 9- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with a large quantity of temper of organic material, of porous manufacture, of dark brown colour. Decoration executed using a comb Coated in a thin layer of iiquid ciay 10- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with a large quantity of temper of organic material, of porous manufacture, of light brown colour outside, and of dark brown colour on the inside. Decoration executed a slipshod fashion, using sticks.
11- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with a large quantity of temper of organic material, of porous manufacture, of orange colour outside, otherwise of black colour. Decoration executed in a slipshod fashion, using sticks. 12- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, with a large quantity of temper of organic material, of porous

229 ~

Slucajni nalaz / antika i rani srednji vijek:


SlUCajni nalazi i SlOJevi 1- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, neprociscene gline, narancaste, a u prijelomu erne boje. Slucajni nalaz. 2- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s mnogo primjesa pijeska koji se tmsi, svijetlo smede boje. Slucajni nalaz. 3- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, prociscene gline, narancaste boje koja ostavlja trag. Amfora. Slucajni nalaz.

ma im fac ra re, 0 f dark brown colour outside,


otherwise of orange colour.

TABLE 11 - Stara ves, late Bronze Age: Chance find / Roman period and early Medieval period: Chance finds and layers 1- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel, of unrefined clay, of orange colour, black at the break. Chance find. 2- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, with a large quantity of sand temper that crumbles, of light brown colour. Chance find. 4- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s 3_ Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast mnogo primjesa kamencica i pijeska koji se trusi, potters wheei; of refined ^ of orange coiour that tamno smede boje. Slucajni nalaz. leaves a mark. Amphora. Chance find. 5- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s 4- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast malo primjesa pijeska, dobre, tvrde izrade, sive boje. potters wheel, with a large quantity of pebble and sand temper that crumbles, of dark brown colour. Linije izvedene crnom bojom. Slucajni nalaz. Chance find. 6- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, prociscene gline, vrlo dobre i tvrde izrade, narancaste 5- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, with a little temper of sand, of good boje. Slucajni nalaz. and hard manufacture, of grey colour. Lines 7- Ulomak staklene posude, prozirne executed in black colour. Chance find. zelenkastoplave boje. Slucajni nalaz. 6- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast 8- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, potters wheel, of refined clay, of very good and hard prociscene gline, narancaste, a u prijelomu svijetlo manufactare; of orange coiour. Chance find. sive boje. Na povrsini tamno narancasti premaz. 7_ Shard of a giass vessei; 0 f transparent greenishSigilata 1 Slucajni nalaz. blue colour. Chance find. 9- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, 8- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast neprociscene gline, porozne i nepravilne izrade, potters wheel, of refined clay, of orange colour, light svijetlo i tamno smede do narancaste, a u prijelomu grey at the break. A dark orange slip on the surface. sive boje. Slucajni nalaz. Sigillata? Chance find. 10- Zeljezni cavao. Slucajni nalaz. 9" Ptsherd of a hand-made vessel, of unrefined clay, of porous and irregular manufacture, of light 11- Ulomak posude izradene prostomcno?, s mnogo and dark brown to orange colour, grey at the break. primjesa organske materije, porozne izrade, tamno Chance find. smede do erne boje. Ukras izveden cesljem. Sonda 10- Iron nail. Chance find. D, E, P, Sloj 4. 11- Potsherd of a hand-made vessel (?), with a large 12- Dio prsljena nacinjenoga od dijela tegule?, s quantity of temper of organic material, of porous

230

primjesama drobljene opeke, narancaste boje koja ostavlja trag. Sonda F, Sloj 2.
TABLA 12 - Stara ves, K3

l-Dio posude izradene na kolu, s primjesama kamencica i kvarcita, izvana zuckaste, a u prijelomu i iznutra tamno sive boje. Vjerojatno dio T3-2. 2- Ulomak posude izradene na sporovrtecem kolu, s mnogo primjesa sitnih kvarcita koji se truse, svijetlo sive, a iznutra narancaste boje. Prepaljeno. 3- Dio posude izradene na kolu, s primjesama kamencica i kvarcita, izvana zuckaste, a u prijelomu i iznutra tamno sive boje. Vjerojatno dio T3-1. 4- Ulomak posude izradene na kolu?, s primjesama kvarcita koji se truse, izvana narancaste, a u prijelomu i iznutra tamno sive do erne boje. Iznutra tragovi modeliranja prstima. 5- Ulomak posude izradene na kolu, s malo primjesa kvarcita i kamencica, smede boje. 6- Ulomak posude izradene na kolu, s mnogo primjesa kvarcita, izvana crvenkaste, u prijelomu tamno sive i svijetlo narancaste boje. 7- Ulomak posude izradene na sporovrtecem kolu, s malo primjesa kamencica i kvarcita, tvrde izrade, tamno smede boje. 8- Ulomak posude izradene na sporovrtecem kolu ili prostorucno?, s malo primjesa kvarcita, tvrde izrade, izvana crvene tamno smede i erne, a u prijelomu tamno smede boje. Iznutra vidljivi tragovi grebanja viska gline ostrim predmetom. 9- Osteceni mali zeljezni noz. Rekonstruiran. 10- Ulomak posude izradene na sporovrtecem kolu, s malo primjesa kvarcita, tvrde izrade, izvana tamno smede, a u prijelomu i iznutra smede boje.

manufacture, of dark brown to black colour. Decoration executed with a comb. Trenches D, E, F, Layer 4. 12- Part of a spindle whorl made from part of a roof tile (?), with a temper of crushed brick, of orange colour that leaves a mark. Trench F, Layer 2.

boje. 3- Ulomak posude izradene na kolu, s malo primjesa sitnih kvarcita, svijetlo smede, a u prijelomu erne boje. 4- Ulomak posude izradene na sporovrtecem kolu, s mnogo primjesa kvarcita i kamencica koji se truse, izvana crvenkaste, u prijelomu sive a iznutra smede boje. Na dnu otisak osovine jednostavnog loncarskog kola. Mozda dio T13-l. 5- Ulomak posude izradene na sporovrtecem kolu, s mnogo primjesa kvarcita i kamencica koji se truse, narancaste i svijetlo smede boje. Prepaljeno. 6- Prsljen nacinjen od keramike s primjesama drobljene cigle, narancaste boje koja ostavlja trag. Od anticke tegule ili sl?

TABLE 12 Stara ves, K3 1- Part of a vessel manufactured on a potters wheel, with a temper of pebbles and quartz, of yellowish colour outside, dark grey at the break and on the inside. Probably a part of T3-2. 2- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a slow potters wheel, with a large quantity of temper of fine quartz that crumbles, of light grey colour, and of orange colour on the inside. Scorched. 3- Part of a vessel manufactured on a potters wheel, with a temper of pebbles and quartz, of yellowish colour outside, dark grey at the break and on the inside. Probably a part of T3-1. 4- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a potters wheel (?), with a temper of quartz that crumbles, of orange colour outside, and of dark grey to black colour at the break and on the inside. Traces of finger modelling on the inside. 5- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a potters wheel, with a little quartz and pebble temper, of brown colour. 6- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a potters wheel, with a large quantity of quartz temper, of reddish colour outside, dark grey and light orange at the break. 7- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a slow potters wheel, with a little temper of pebbles and quartz, of harder manufacture, of dark brown colour. 8- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a slow potters wheel or made by hand (?), with a little quartz temper, of harder manufacture, of red, dark TABLA 13 - Stara ves, K3 brown and black colour outside, dark brown at the 1- Ulomak posude izradene na sporovrtecem kolu, break. Traces visible on the inside of the removal of s mnogo primjesa kvarcita i kamencica koji se truse, excess clay using a sharp object. svijetlo sive a iznutra crvenkaste boje. Prepaljeno. 9- Damaged small iron knife. Reconstructed. 10- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a slow Mozda dio T13-4. potters wheel, with a little quartz temper, of harder 2- Ulomak posude izradene na sporovrtecem kolu?, manufacture, of dark brown colour outside, brown s primjesama kvarcita i kamencica, tamno smede at the break and on the inside. TABLE 13 Stara ves, K3 1- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a slow potters wheel, with a large quantity of quartz and pebble temper that crumbles, of light grey colour, reddish on the inside. Scorched. Perhaps a part of T13-4. 2- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a slow potters wheel (?), with a temper of quartz and pebbles, of dark brown colour. 3- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a potters wheel, with a little temper of fine quartz, of light brown colour, black at the break. 4- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a slow potters wheel, with a large quantity of quartz and pebble temper that crumbles, of reddish colour

7- Dio prsljena nacinjena od prociscene gline, grube izrade, smede, a u prijelomu erne boje. TABLA 14 - Slara ves, K1 1- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama sitnog pijeska, tvrde i pravilne izrade, svijetlo smede boje. 2- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama sitnog pijeska, tvrde i pravilne izrade, smede boje. 3- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama sitnog pijeska, tvrde i pravilne izrade, smede boje. 4- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama sitnog pijeska, tvrde i pravilne izrade, smede boje. 5- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama sitnog pijeska, tvrde i pravilne izrade, narancaste boje. 6- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama sitnog pijeska, tvrde i pravilne izrade, smede boje. 7- Cep posude izraden na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama sitnog pijeska, tvrde i pravilne izrade, crno do tamno smede boje. Rekonstruiran. 8-Zeljeznicavlic. 9- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama sitnog pijeska, tvrde i pravilne izrade, smede boje. 10- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, prociscene gline, tvrde i pravilne izrade, svijetlo smede boje. 11- Ulomak cepa posude izraden na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama sitnog pijeska, tvrde i pravilne izrade, svijetlo smede boje. 12- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama sitnog pijeska, tvrde i pravilne izrade, smede boje. 13- Ulomak cepa posude izraden na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama sitnog pijeska, tvrde i pravilne izrade, smede boje.

outside, grey at the break and of brown colour on the inside. Imprint of the axle of a simple potters wheel on the bottom. Perhaps a part of T13-1. 5- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a slow potters wheel, with a large quantity of quartz and pebble temper that crumbles, of orange and light brown colour. Scorched. 6- Spindle whorl made of ceramic with a temper of crushed brick, of orange colour that leaves a mark. From a Roman period roof tile or the like? 7- Part of a spindle whorl made of refined clay, of rough manufacture, of brown colour, black at the break.

231

TABLE 14 Stara ves, K1 1- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, with a temper of fine sand, of hard and regular manufacture, of light brown colour. 2- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, with a temper of fine sand, of hard and regular manufacture, of brown colour. 3- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, with a temper of fine sand, of hard and regular manufacture, of brown colour. 4- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, with a temper of fine sand, of hard and regular manufacture, of brown colour. 5- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, with a temper of fine sand, of hard and regular manufacture, of orange colour. 6- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, with a temper of fine sand, of hard and regular manufacture, of brown colour. 7- Plug of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, with a temper of fine sand, of hard and regular manufacture, of black to dark brown colour. Reconstructed. 8- Small iron nail. 9- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, with a temper of fine sand, of hard and regular manufacture, of brown colour. 10- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, of refined clay, of hard and regular manufacture, of light brown colour. 11- Plug of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, with a temper of fine sand, of hard and regular TABLA 15 - Stara ves, srednji vijek: Slucajni nalazi manufacture, of light brown colour. / Ostali slucajni nalazi 12- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast 1- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s potters wheel, with a temper of fine sand, of hard primjesama sitnog pijeska, tvrde i pravilne izrade, and regular manufacture, of brown colour. svijetlo smede a u prijelomu sive boje. 13- Plug of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters 2- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s wheel, with a temper of fine sand, of hard and regular primjesama sitnog pijeska, tvrde i pravilne izrade, manufacture, of brown colour. smede a u prijelomu sive boje. TABLE 15 Stara ves, Medieval period: 3- Ulomak posude izradene na kolu, s primjesama Chance finds / Other chance finds sitnih kamencica, tamno smede, a u prijelomu sive 1- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast boje. potters wheel, with a temper of fine sand, of hard 4- Ulomak cepa posude izraden na brzovrtecem and regular manufacture, of light brown colour, grey kolu, prociscene gline, tvrde i pravilne izrade, at the break. zuckasto bijele boje. 2- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast 5- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s potters wheel, with a temper of fine sand, of hard

232 ~

primjesama sitnog pijeska, tvrde i pravilne izrade, narancaste a u prijelomu sive boje. 6- Kameni brus 7- Kameni brus

and regular manufacture, of brown colour, grey at the break. 3- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a potters wheel, with a temper offinepebbles, of dark brown 8- Obraden kamen nepoznate namjene. Samo jedna colour, grey at the break. 4- Plug of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters strana uglacana je do viskog sjaja. wheel, of refined clay, of hard and regular 9- Ostrica nepoznatog zeljeznog predmeta. Ukrasi? manufacture, of yellowish-white colour. urezivanjem izvedeni samo duz jedne strane. 5- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast 10- Vrhzeljezne strelice s tuljcem. Posebni nalaz 1. potters wheel, with a temper of fine sand, of hard and regular manufacture, of orange colour, grey at the break. 6- Whetstone. 7- Whetstone. 8- Retouched stone of unknown use. Only one side polished to a high gloss. 9- Blade from an unknown iron object. Engraved decorations (?) executed only along one side. 10- Iron arrowhead with cylinder. Special find 1.

233

Tabla 1 Nedelisce-Stara ves. J3. Table 1 Nedelisce-Stara ves. J3.

234

Tabla 2 Nedelisce-Stara ves. J3. Table 2 Nedelisce-Stara ves. J3.

235

Tabla 3 Nedelisce-Stara ves. 1, K9. / 2-6, sonda E,F,G, Sloj 4. / 8-10, slucajni nalazi. Table 3 Nedelisce-Stara ves. 1, K9. / 2-6, trenches E, F, G, Layer 4. / 8-10, chance finds.

236

Tabla 4 Nedelisce-Stara ves. 1-4, K2. / 5-9. K5. Table 4 Nedelisce-Stara ves. 1-4, K2.15-9. K5

237

Tabla 5 Nedelisce-Stara ves. K10. Table 5 Nedelisce-Stara ves. K10.

238

Tabla 6 Nedelisce-Stara ves. J1, 655 7 calAD. Table 6 Nedelisce-Stara ves. J1, 655+7 calAD.

239

Tabla 7 Nedelisce-Stara ves. J1, 6557 calAD. Table 7 Nedelisce-Stara ves. J1, 655+7 calAD.

240

Tabla 8 Nedelisce-Stara ves. J1, 655 7 calAD. Table 8 Nedelisce-Stara ves. J1, 655+7 calAD.

241

Tabla 9 Nedelisce-Stara ves. J1, 6557 calAD. Table 9 Nedelisce-Stara ves. J1, 655+7 calAD.

Nedelisce - Stara ves

II

II

II

it

243

Tabia 11 Nedelisce-Stara ves. 1, kasno broncano doba, slucajni nalaz. / 2-12, antika i rani srednji vijek, slucajni nalazi i slojevi. Table 11 Nedelis}e-Stara ves. 1, late Bronze Age, Chance find. / 2-12, Roman period and the early Medieval period, chance finds and layers.

244

Tabla 12 Nedelisce-Stara ves. K3, 108047 calAD. Table 12 Nedelisce-Stara ves. K3, 1080+47 calAD.

245

Tabla 13 Nedelisce-Stara ves. K3, 108047 calAD. Table 13 Nedelisce-Stara ves. K3, 1080+47 calAD.

246

Tabla 14 Nedelisce-Stara ves. K1. Table 14 Nedelisce-Stara ves. K1.

247

Tabla 15 Nedelisce-Stara ves. Ostalo: Slucajni nalazi. Table 15 Nedelisce-Stara ves. Other: Chance finds.

% \

>A %

STARA VES 2004.

166,10

166,11

165,75

iee K9 165

STARAVES2004.
o
10

OSTALA NALAZISTA NA TRASI I U NJEZINOJ BLIZINI


Prilikom arheoloskog nadzora pregledavani su i prostori uz trase cestovnih smjerova u izgradnji, pa se tako doslo do vrlo vrijednih novih arheoloskih nalaza i nalazista. Ova novopronadena nalazista nisu bila iskopavana u sklopu ovog projekta, pa su obradena u zajednickom poglavlju. Takoder je dat pregled nekoliko vise ili manje objavljenih nalazista koja su svojedobno istrazivali dragi arheolozi, a poradi svoje blizine trasi autoceste se takoder moraju spomenuti. Sva ovdje navedena nalazista bitan i neodvojiv su dio arheoloske slike podrucja na kojima je gradena ova autocesta i njezine prilazne ceste. Uglavnom mozemo sa sigurnoseu zakljuciti kako su ona istodobna, a poradi svoje blizine su komunicirala s novootkrivenim i iskopavanim nalazistima u sklopu ovog projekta. GRADISCE 1 I 2 K0D MATUSINA (BREZNICKI HUM) Viseslojno utvrcTeno naselje Godine 2002., kada se gradio dio autoceste kod Breznickog Huma, pregledavana je osim same trase i njezina bliza okolica. Pregledom Registra arheoloskih nalazista sjeverozapadne Hrvatske, na ovom dijelu trase nije bilo zabiljezenih nalaza, osim navodno antickog kamenog spomenika uz staru cestu (Registar, br.374.). Obradeni kamen i danas

OTHER SITES ON THE ROUTE AND ITS VICINITY


Surveys carried out during the archaeological supervision of areas along the route of the roads under construction lead to the uncovering of very valuable new archaeological finds and sites. These newly discovered sites were not excavated as a part of this project and are, therefore, covered in a single chapter. Also here is an overview of several more or less published sites that have been previously researched by other archaeologists, and should be mentioned on account of their proximity to the highways route. All of the sites mentioned here are vital and inseparable parts of the archaeological picture of the area in which this highway and its access roads are built. Jbr the most part we can with certainty conclud that they are synchronous and that, given their mutual proximity, they communicated with the newly excavated sites, uncovered in the frame of this project. GRADISCE 1 and 2 NEAR MATUSINI (BREZNICKI HUM) Multi-layer Fortified Settlement The route and direct vicinity of the Breznicki Hum section of the highway was surveyed while under construction in 2002. A review of the Register of archaeological sites of north western Croatia showed that there were no registered sites on this part of the route with the exception of an allegedly

253

Matusini-Gradisce. Lijevo Gradisce 1, desno Gradisce 2; pogled iz sela Matusini. Matusini-Gradisce. To the left Gradisce I to the right Gradisce 2; view from the village of Matusini.

254

se nalazi uz cestu, na polozaju malog izvora. Njegova datacija i mozebitno odredenje kao anticki sarkofag vrlo su upitni.1 Sa sjeverne strane autoceste, a lijevo i desno od mjesne ceste koja vodi prema zaseoku Matusini i dalje, nalazi se nekoliko zanimljivih uzvisina sada pokrivenih gustom sumom, medu kojima i jedna nazvana Gradisce. Tijekom radova na ovom dijelu trase u nekoliko navrata sam ih obisao i ustanovio kako je rijec o nekoliko arheoloskih nalazista. Na strmom brdu Gradisce, i njegovoj najvisoj koti (k.288), nalaze se tragovi zidova vezanih vapnom, te nekoliko ulomaka keramike, koji se mogu datirati u srednji vijek. No, na malo nizoj koti Gradisca,

Matusini-Gradisce. Povrsinski ociscen trag zida na Gradiscu 1. Zid je vezan zbukom. Matusini-Gradisce. Cleaned surface trace of a wall at Gradisce 1. The wall is joined by mortar.

koja se poput izduzene grede uzdize nad potok i mjesnu cestu prema Matusinima, nalazi se veliko utvrdeno naselje, s brojnim nalazima iz razlicitih doba. Kako ova nalazista nisu bila ugrozena gradnjom ceste, ovom prilikom nisu bila opseznije istrazivana, a prikupljeni povrsinski nalazi posluzili su postupku Preventivne registracije ovih

Roman period stone monument along the old road (Register, No. 374). The worked stone is to this day located near the road, near a small spring. Its dating and possible identification as a Roman period sarcophagus is highly questionable.1 To the left of the highway, left and right of the local road that today leads to the small village of Matusini and farther on, are a few interesting elevations now covered in dense forest, among which is one called Gradisce. During construction on this part of the route I made tours of them on several occasions and established that there were archaeological sites here. On the steep Gradisce hill and its highest elevation (el. 288) are traces of walls bound with mortar, and several potsherds that can be dated to the Middle Ages. On a slightly lower elevation on Gradisce, which rises like an elongated ridge above a nearby creek and the local road to Matusini, is a large fortified settlement with numerous finds from the various periods. As these sites were not threatened by the construction of the highway, they were not at the time thoroughly investigated and the collected surface finds served to initiate the Preventive registration procedure of these newly located cultural goods, ongoing at the Conservation Department in Varazdin. Since these are two distinct sites, separated by some two hundred metres, they have been for the time designated as Gradisce 1 and 2 near Matusini. Gradisce 1 is located at a higher elevation (el. 288), on most maps designated directly by that name, while Gradisce 2 is a lower ridge with the remains of a large hill fort. Gradisce 1 is situated on the peak of an elongated hill stretching in a north - south direction. All of its approaches are more or less steep. On the peak itself there is a small flat elongated area. The hill is rocky in structure and stone veins are discernable at several places. Gradisce 2 is similar, being the natural continuation of this highland ridge. Gradisce 2, however, has a gentler slope to its east side and a very gentle approach from the north side. The southern and western sides of Gradisce 2 are nevertheless, very steep, and for the most part consists of sheer stone faces rising several tens of metres, virtually impossible to climb. The local road passes along the creek through a defile under the south side of the hill fort. The top of the elevation is wide, mostly flat and forms a closed area. Lower, to the south sides of both hills, is an expansive plateau that may also contain archaeological objects; this has yet, however, to be confirmed by concrete finds. What can be discerned without excavation in the dense forest and undergrowth on Gradisce 2 are the remains of a very massive defensive wall that

1 Miroslav Fulir spominje ovaj spomenik te ga opisuje kao anticki, koji na tabuli ansati ima reljef glave s pletenicama, sto bi odgovaralo spomeniku s keltskim reminiscencama (FULIR 1969, 389). Prema misljenju Ante Vrankoviea, niz einjenica, a najjasnije nafin izrade (klesanja) spomenika upueuje kako nije rijee o antiekom sarkofagu, vee o novovjekovnom koritu za skupljanje izvorske vode, postavljenom tu za izgradnje ceste u 18.st. Miroslav Fulir mentions this monument and describes it as beingfromthe Roman period, that on the tabua ansata there is the reliefof a head with braids, which wouldfitwith a monument reminiscent ofthe Celtic (FULIR 1969, 389). In the opinion of Ante Vrankovic, several facts, of which most clearly the method of the monuments production (sculpting indic this is not a Roman period sarcophagus, but rather an early Modern basin for gathering spring water, placed here during road construction in the 18th century.

novopronadenih kulturnih dobara, koja je u tijeku pri Konzervatorskom odjelu u Varazdinu. Kako je rijec o dva razlicita nalazista, medusobno udaljena dvjestotinjak metara, ona su uvjetno oznacena kao Gradisce 1 i 2 kod Matusina. Gradisce 1 je na visoj koti (k.288), na vecini karata izravno oznaceno tim nazivom, a Gradisce 2 niza greda sa ostacima velike gradine. Gradisce 1 nalazi se na vrtm izduzenog brda u pravcu sjever - jug. Sve prilazne strane su mu vise ili manje strme. Na samom vrhu postoji manji izduzeni zaravnati prostor. Brdo je kamenito i na vise mjesta uocava se kamen zivac. Slicno je na Gradiscu 2, koje je prirodni nastavak ove planinske grede. No, Gradisce 2 ima blazu padinu na istocnoj strani, i vrlo blag pristup sa sjeverne strane. Ipak, juzna i zapadna strana Gradisca 2 vrlo su strme, a vecim se dijelom pretvaraju u kamene litice od vise desetaka metara, uz koje se gotovo nemoguce uspeti. Ispod juzne strane gradine, klancem prolazi mjesna cesta uz potok. Vrh uzvisine je prostran, uglavnom ravan i cini zatvorenu cjelinu. Nize, s juzne strane oba vrha, nalazi se prostrana visoravan, na kojoj bi se mogli takoder nalaziti arheoloski objekti, ali to za sada nije potvrdeno konkretnim nalazima. Ono sto se u gustoj sumi i zbunju na Gradiscu 2 bez iskopavanja moze zamijetiti jest mjeri ostatak vrlo masivnog obrambenog zida koji gredu dijeli od blagog nastavka prema sjevernoj strani. Sumski puteljak koji ovuda prolazi donekle je urezan u bedem, ali zapravo samo prelazi preko bedema. Urusenja bedema su terasasta, pa je ovdje mozda rijec i o dva zida. Na samom zaravanku, unutrasnjem dijelu utvrde, a poblize sjevernom bedemu, uocljivi su skromni ostaci cetverokutnih gradnji u vidu pravilnih gromaca. I drugdje na zaravanku zamjeeuju se ostaci nekih gradnji u kamenu, a na jednome mjestu i oveca rupa, vjerojatno trag vadenja kamena. Zapadni i juzni bedem gotovo potpuno nedostaju. Mozda ill na tim mjestima nije ni bilo, ali vjerojatno su u neko novije vrijeme namjerno sruseni u dolinu, kako bi se kamen iskoristio za nove gradnje. Mjestani Matusina s kojima je razgovarano, potvrdili su da su njihovi preci odronjavali kamenje s Gradisca 1 kako bi zidali svoje kuce. Na toj utvrdi se, kao sto je vec spomenuto, zamjeeuju barem dva zida koja kroz gusto raslinje izviruju na povrsinu. Oba zida prate duze strane ovog uskog vrha, a bez iskopavanja je nemoguce tocnije odrediti njihove mjere. Na Gradiscu 2 pronadeno je relativno mnogo ulomaka keramike i ostalih nalaza s obzirom da su prikupljeni s povrsine. Najvise ill je pronadeno uz bedem i u korijenu jednog srusenog stabla. Oblici svjedoce kako je zivot na gradini poceo u kasno broncano i starije zeljezno doba. Na tablama je prikazan manji dio nalaza. Posude s prilijepljenom keramickom trakom mogu se pripisati kasnom broncanom i starijem zeljeznom dobu (Tl-2,8) (Kucar DULAR J., CIGLENECKI S., DULAR A. 1995, t.21-6, t.77-

separates the ridgefromthe gentle extension towards the north side. The forest path that passes this way is somewhat cut into the ramparts, but in fact only passes over it. The ruins of the ramparts are terraced so that these may in fact be two walls. On the plateau itself, the interior of the fortification, and closer to the northern ramparts, the modest remains of a four-cornered edifice are discernible in the form of regularly shaped rock piles. The remains of construction in stone are also visible elsewhere on the plateau, and a larger hole on one spot, probably the traces of stone quarrying. The western and southern ramparts are almost entirely missing. Perhaps there were none there, although it is more likely that they were deliberately demolished and pushed into the valley so that the stone could be exploited for new construction. The inhabitants of Matusini with which we spoke confirmed that their ancestors rolled stones from Gradisce 1 to build their houses. On this fortification, as has already been stated, at least two walls are discernable that break through the thick undergrowth to the surface. Both walls follow the longer sides of this narrow peak; their exact dimensions can not be determined without excavation. Given that they were collected from the surface, a relatively large amount of potsherds and other finds were found at Gradisce 2. Most were found along the ramparts and the roots of a fallen tree. Their forms bear witness to the fact that life on this hill fort started in the late Bronze Age and early Iron Age. A smaller part of the finds are shown in the tables. Vessels with applied ceramic ribbons can be attributed to the late Bronze and early Iron Age (Tl-2,8) (Kucar DULAR J., CIGLENECKI S., DULAR A. 1995, t.21-6, t.77-5 and others). Applied ceramic ribbons of triangular cross-section on flared-rim vessels or on pekva (baking lid)

255

Matusini-Gradisce. Strme litice sjeverne strane Gradisca 2. Matusini-Gradisce. Steep cliffs on the north side of Gradisce 2.

256

Matusini-Gradisce. Ulomak crno glacanog vrca, Gradisce 2. (T1-3) Matusini-Gradisce. Potsherd of a burnished black jug, Gradisce 2. (T1-3)

5 i druge). Prilijepljene keramicke trake trokutastog presjeka na posudama otvorenog oboda ili pekvama (Tl-4) takoder se nalaze na nalazistima starijeg zeljeznog doba (Turska kosa CUCKOVIC 2004, si.14; Sv.Petar Ludbreski VINSKI-GASPARINI 1987, t . X X I I I - 7 , 1 0 ; K u c a r D U L A R J . , CIGLENECKI S., DULAR A. 1995, t.20-4,7,8, t.52-6, t.58-5; HajndlZIZEK 2003, t.7-3). Treba doduse reel da su takve trake i ukras i na posudama kasnobroncanog doba (Doljnji Lakos DULAR 2002 s.157, 0-1). Medu neprikazanim ulomcima takoder ima i drugih koji se mogu datirati u kasnobroncano doba. Ipak, vecina prapovijesnih nalaza pripada starijem zeljeznom dobu. Posebno su uocljivi ulomci s dobro uglacanom crnom vanjskom povrsinom, npr. dio zdjelice (Tl-3) narebrene na najsirem dijelu a koja je vjerojatno imala visoku rucku (Sv.Petar Ludbreski VINSKI-GASPARINI 1987, t.XXIII1). Od ostalih tipicnih nalaza starijeg zeljeznog doba izdvajam ulomak (Tl-7) keramicke pokretne peci (Sv.Petar Ludbreski VINSKI-GASPARINI 1987, t.XXIII-8; Kucar DULAR J., CIGLENECKI S., DULAR A. 1995, t.36, t.55-1 i druge), te iznutra ostro prelomljenu zatvorenu zdjelu (Tl-1) (Kucar D U L A R J., C I G L E N E C K I S., D U L A R A 1995,t.73-2 i ini), i na kraju prsljen (Tl-6) s najsirim dijelom u donjoj polovici (Kucar DULAR J., CIGLENECKI S., DULAR A. 1995,t.4-10 i ini). Spomenuti nalazi mogu se pronaci i u gradivu kasnog broncanog doba, ali su zajedno, kao skup, osobitiji za starije zeljezno doba. U mnogo manjem broju negoli prapovijesni, ali ipak jasno, zastupljeni su ulomci kasnoanticke keramike. Na tabli je prikazano nekoliko tipicnih ulomaka. Sretnim slucajem (rijetko kod slucajnih nalaza) rekonstruirana je u cijelosti mala zdjelica (T2-1) koja po Cigleneckom pripada osnovnom tipu 3 kasnoantickih zdjelica. One su pronadene u vise inacica na Tinju ali i drugdje u slicnim kontekstima (Tinje CIGLENECKI 2000, sl.79; t.29-8, t.30-1). Dijelovi lonaca (T2-2,4) takoder se mogu pronaci u gradivu kasne antike. Rjeda je zdjela (T2-3) koja slici pronadenoj na Ancikovu gradiscu (STRMCIK 1997, t.5-1). Kasnoanticka keramika s Gradisca 2 vjerojatno potjece iz razdoblja kasnog 3. i 4. stoljeca. Naime nedostaje ranije, kao i kasnije gradivo. Mozda ce biti p r o n a d e n o prilikom b u d u c i h arheoloskih istrazivanja. Od metalnih nalaza na tabli je prikazana ostrica noza bez drske (T2-5). I ona vjerojatno pripada kasnoantickom dobu. Pronaden je jos jedan veci dio predmeta nepoznate namjene od prekovanog zeljeza, koji nije prikazan na tabli. Nadena su dva ulomka zuckastog kasnoantickog stakla, ali bez rubova koji bi pomogli u tipoloskom odredenju. U korijenu srusenog stabla je zajedno s brojnom keramikom p r o n a d e n a i odredena kolicina zivotinjskih kostiju. Provedeno je arheozoolosko odredenje. Prepoznata je bedrena kost dabra (Cas-

(Tl-4) are also found at sites from the early Iron Age (Turska kosa CUCKOVIC 2004, si.14; Sv Petar Ludbreski VINSKI-GASPARINI 1987, t.XXIII-7, 10; Kucar DULAR J., CIGLENECKI S., DULAR A. 1995, t.20-4, 7, 8, t. 52-6, t.58-5; Hajndl ZIZEK 2003, t.7-3). It should be said that ribbons like these are also decorations on vessels from the late Bronze Age (Doljnji Lakos DULAR 2002 s.157,0-l). Among the potsherds not shown here are others that can be dated to the late Bronze Age. Nevertheless, the majority of prehistoric finds come from the early Iron Age. Especially evident are potsherds with well-burnished black outer surfaces, for example part of a bowl (Tl-3) ribbed at its widest point and that probably had a highlyplaced handle (Sv. Petar Ludbreski VINSKIGASPARINI 1987, t.XXIII-1). Of the other typical finds from the early Iron Age, potsherd Tl-7 stand out, from a portable ceramic stove (Sv. Petar Ludbreski VINSKI-GASPARINI 1987, t.XXEI8; Kucar DULAR J., CIGLENECKI S., DULAR A. 1995, t.36, t.55-1 and others), as does a closed bowl, sharply folded from the inside (Tl-1) (Kucar D U L A R J., C I G L E N E C K I S., D U L A R A 1995,t.73-2 and others), and also the end of a spindle whorl (Tl-6) with its widest part in the lower half (Kucar D U L A R J., C I G L E N E C K I S., D U L A R A. 1 9 9 5 , t . 4 - 1 0 and o t h e r s ) . The mentioned finds can also be found among material from the late Bronze Age, but are together, as a group, more typical of the early Iron Age. In significantly smaUer numbers than those from the prehistoric period, but nevertheless clearly represented, are potsherds from the late Roman period. Several typical potsherds are shown in the tables. By a happy chance (rare with surface finds) a small vessel (T2-1) was entirely reconstructed, that according to Ciglenecki belongs to the basic type 3 late Roman period bowls. Several versions of these bowls were coUected at Tinje and elsewhere in similar contexts (Tinje CIGLENECKI 2000, sl.79; t.298, t.30-1). Parts of a pot (T2-2, 4) can also be found among material from the late Roman period. A less frequent find is a bowl (T2-3) similar to one found at Ancikovo gradisce (STRMCIK 1997, t.5-1). Late Roman period ceramics from Gradisce 2 probably originate in the period of the late 3rd and 4th centuries. Early, namely, and later material is missing. Perhaps it will be found during future archaeological exploration. Of metal finds, the blade of a knife without handle (T2-5) is shown on the table. It too probably comes from the late Roman period. Also found was a larger part of an object or unknown use of wrought iron, not shown on the table. Two shards of yellowish late Roman period glass were collected, but without edges that could help in identifying their type. There were a number of animal bones mixed with numerous pieces of ceramics among the roots of a fallen tree. An archaeological identification was

tor fiber), zastopalna kost konja (Equus cabalus L.) i lopatica svinje (Sus sp.). Ostalih 6 ulomaka nije moglo biti odredeno. Kost dabra otkriva vrlo zanimljiv podatak. Odmah pod gradinom i sada tece potok Lonja, gdje su dabrovi u ono doba mogli naci svoje staniste. A da li je dabar bio iskoristen kao lovina, za prehranu, nije jasno. Ostaci dabra pronadeni su i na kasnoantickom pribjezistu Ajdovski gradec nad Vranjem (KNIFIC 1994, 215). Nalazi konjskih ostataka uvijek su posebno zanimljivi - uglavnom nisu koristeni u prehrani ljudi, sto se pak, sudeci prema nalazima, moze tvrditi za svinje. Za Gradisce 1 nemamo vise nego dva ulomka keramike, za koje je jedino sigurno kako su nacinjeni grubo, ali na brzovrtecem kolu. Ni prema ostalim pokazateljima na ulomcima ne moze se reci vise nego to da bi mogli pripadati kasnoj antici ili srednjem vijeku. P r e m a skromnim nalazima prikupljenim obilaskom nalazista zasad se moze reci da je na Gradiscu 2 sagradeno vece starijezeljeznodobno utvrdeno naselje s velikim kamenim suhozidom na sjevernoj strani. Ovaj strateski polozaj obnovljen je u osvit kasne antike i tada je vjerojatno sluzio kao utvrdeni kastrum. Poslije toga razdoblja, cini se, na Gradiscu 2 nije se vise zivjelo. Da li je Gradisce 1 sluzilo u kasnoj antici kao osmatracnica ili predstraza naselju na Gradiscu 2 ili se na torn visem vrhu nalazila kasnija srednjovjekovna kula, za sada se ne moze reci. Ako se iskopavanjima na MatusiniGradiseu 2 potvrdi postojanje kasnoantickog utvrdenog naselja, morat ce se ponovno razmisliti i o konkretnoj namjeni ovakvog naselja. Jer smatra se kako je otprilike ovaj put, preko Breznickog Huma bio nekoc cesta koja je povezivala rimski grad Poetovio (danasnji Ptuj), putnu postaju Pyrri (Komin) i dalje prolazila prema rimskim gradovima Andautomp (Scitarjevo) i Siscioi (Sisak). Prema karti FJemenca i Sarije, (KLEMENC, SARIA 1936, 91, karta), ova trasa prolazila je zapadno od Matusina preko kote 377 iznad Huma. Autor je takvu trasu preko najviseg vrha u okolici (?!) ucrtao u kartu, vjerojatno poradi nalaza rimskog natpisa u Hrascini. No, FJemenc je mnogo godina kasnije promijenio polozaj trase, tako da ju je pretpostavio istocno od Matusina, prema Paki (KLEMENC 1953, 84, karta). No, ne bi bilo naodmet razmisliti o moguenosti da je ista cesta prolazila dolinom Lonje iz pravca Makojisca pokraj Matusina, i ispod nase utvrde, dalje na Breznicki Hum i Komin. Uostalom, i jedino je suvislo to da je put vodio dolinom kao i danas na torn pravcu. Stoga s vecim razlogom mozemo opravdati postojanje i kasnoantickog, te prapovijesnog utvrdenog naselja, koje je tako moglo izravno nadgledati i kontrolirati vaznu prometnu vezu sjevera i juga kroz ovaj brdski kraj, i to kada prolazi kroz mozda najuzi klanac. Pronalazak starijezeljeznodobne gradine i kasnoantickog kastruma, koji ce se nakon iskopavanja mozda usporedivati sa slicnim stanjem na slovenskom Kucaru kod Podzemelja arheolosko je iznenadenje.

257

undertaken. Identified were the thighbone of a beaver (Castor fiber), the heel bone of a horse (Equus cabalus L.) and the shoulder blade of a pig (Sus sp.). The remaining six bone shards could not be identified. The beaver bone reveals a very interesting fact. The Lonja creek runs to this day directly under the hill fort, where beavers might, at the time, have found their habitat. As to whether the beaver was hunted then, used as a source of food, is uncertain. Beaver remains have been found at the late Roman period refugium at Ajdovski gradec nad Vranjem (KNIFIC 1994, 215). Finds of horse remains are always especially interesting they were usuaUy not used as food for humans which can not be said, judging by the finds, for pigs. Gradisce 1 did not yield more than two potsherds, for which we know only that they are of rough fabrication, made on a fast potters wheel. Nothing more can be stated even based on the other indicators on the potsherds, other than that they could be from the late Roman period or Middle Ages. Based on the modest finds collected during the visits of the sites it can be said for the moment that a larger fortified early Iron Age settlement was constructed at Gradisce 2 with a massive drystone wall to the northern side. This strategic location was renewed at the dawn of the late Roman period and probably served at the time as a fortified castrum. It appears that human habitation ceased at Gradisce 2 after this period. Whether Gradisce 1 served in the late Roman period as a watch post or fore guard to the settlement at Gradisce 2 or whether there was on this higher point a later medieval tower cannot be said for the moment. If excavations at MatusiniGradisce 2 confirm the existence of a fortified late Roman period settlement, more thought will have to be given to the purpose of a settlement of this kind. Because it is considered that at approximately this route, over Breznicki Hum, a road once went that linked the Roman town of Poetovio (modern day Ptuj), the Pyrri travel station (Komin) and went further on to the roman towns olAndautonia (Scitarjevo) and Sisda (Sisak). According to the map by Kemenc and Saria, (KLEMENC, SARIA 1936, 91, map), this route passed west of Matusini over elevation 377 above Hum. The author drew this route passing over the highest peak in the surroundings (?!) into the map, probably on account of the find of a Roman inscription at Hrascine. Klemenc, however, many years later altered the location of the route, presuming its position to be east of Matusini, towards Paka (KLEMENC 1953,

Matusini-Gradisce. Rekonstruirana kasnoanticka zdjelica. (T2-1) Matusini-Gradisce. Reconstructed late Roman period bowl. (T2-1)

258

Tabla 1. Matusini-Gradisce. Gradisce 2, slucajni prapovijesni nalazi. Table 1. Matusini-Gradisce. Gradisce 2, chance prehistoric finds.

Katalog TABLA 1 - Matusini 2, prapovijest: Slucajni nalazi 1- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, neprociscene gline, tvrde izrade, izvana smede, u prijelomu erne, iznutra svijetlo smede boje. Vanjska povrsina uglacana. 2- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, neprociscene gline, tvrde izrade, sivo smede boje. Prepaljeno. 3- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, prociscene gline, tvrde izrade, erne boje. Vanjska povrsina uglacana do visokog sjaja.

84, map). It would not however be unwarranted to give thought to the possibility that this same route went by way of the Lonja valley from the direction of Makojisce near Matusini, and passed under our fortification, onwards to Breznicki Hum and Komin Besides, it is only logical that the way led along the valley as it does today on that route. We can, therefore, with greater reason justify the existence of a late Roman period and prehistoric fortified settlement, that could thereby directly oversee and control a vital north-south traffic link through this hilly terrain, as it passes through perhaps the

259

Matusini-Gradisce. Tabla 2. Gradisce 2, slucajni anticki nalazi. Matusini-Gradisce. Table 2 Gradisce 2, chance Roman period finds.

4- Ulomak posude izradene prostoracno, neprocis cene gline, tvrde i grube izrade, zuckaste boje. 5- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, prociscene gline, tvrde izrade, svijetlo smede do narancaste boje. Vanjska povrsina uglacana. 6- Ulomak prsljena, neprociscene gline, svijetlo smede boje. 7- Ulomak pokretne peci izradene prostoracno, neprociscene gline, grabe i tvrde izrade, svijetlo smede boje. 8- Ulomak posude izradene prostoracno, neprocis cene gline, tvrde izrade, izvana erne, u prijelomu svijetlo smede, iznutra smede boje. TABLA 2 - Matusini 2 antika: Slucajni nalazi 1- Posuda izradena na brzovrtecem kolu, s mnogo primjesa manjih kvarcita, dobre izrade, erne, a u prijelomu tamno smede boje. Rekonstruirana. 2- Posuda izradena na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama kvarcita i kamencica, dobre i tvrde izrade, tamno sive do smede, a u prijelomu i iznutra narancaste do smede boje. 3- Posuda izradena na brzovrtecem kolu, s malo primjesa manjih kamencica, dobre izrade, tamno sive a u prijelomu svijetlo sive boje. 4- Posuda izradena na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama kvarcita i kamencica, dobre i tvrde izrade, svijetlo smede boje. 5- Diozeljeznog noza.

narrowest defile at that. The find of an early Iron Age hiU fort and a late Roman period castrum, that may, Mowing excavations, be found comparable to a similar situation at Slovenias Kucar near Podzemelj, is from an archaeological aspect a surprise. Catalogue TABLE 1 - Matusini 2, Prehistory: Chance finds 1- Potsherd of a hand made vessel, of unrefined clay, of hard fabrication, of brown colour outside, black at the break, of light brown colour inside. With burnished outer surface. 2- Potsherd of a hand made vessel, of unrefined clay, of harder fabrication, of grey-brown colour. Scorched. 3- Potsherd of a hand made vessel, of refined clay, of harder fabrication, of black colour. With outer surface burnished to a high gloss. 4- Potsherd of a hand made vessel, of unrefined clay, of harder and rough fabrication, ofyellowish colour. 5- Potsherd of a hand made vessel, of refined clay, of harder fabrication, of light brown to orange colour. With burnished outer surface. 6- Potsherd from a spindle whorl, of unrefined clay, of light brown colour. 7- Potsherd from a hand made mobile stove, of unrefined clay, of rough and harder fabrication, of light brown colour. 8- Potsherd of a hand made vessel, of unrefined clay, of harder fabrication, of black colour outside, light brown at the break, of brown colour inside.

260

Paka-Selo. Pogled na zaravanak u selu Paka, izme|u dva vijadukta. Tragovi nalaza in situ prona|eni su tek prilikom probijanja ovog jarka. Paka-Selo. View of the plateau in the village of Paka, between two viaducts. Traces of in situ finds were found only during the excavation of this ditch.

PAKA (NOVI MAROF) Tragovi obitavanja iz rimskog i srednjovjekovnog doba Prilikom pregleda vec zapocetih radova na izgradnji vijadukta Paka i Sajan, 14. kolovoza 2002.g., pronadeni su arheoloski vazni ulomci keramike. Vec su bili iskopani temelji za stupove, a blaga uzvisina iznad potoka koja povezuje dva vijadukta tada je zasipana kamenom lomljencem. Ovaj polozaj od tada se posebno nadzirao, ne bi li se uslo u trag mogucim arheoloskim strukturama. Pregledi su provodeni sve do dovrsenja trase i oba vijadukta; medutim, nije bilo dovoljno elemenata za provodenje arheoloskog iskopavanja. Rijec je o blagoj uzvisini iznad potoka Paka, usred istoimenog sela. Ova uzvisina je obronak brda koje se takoder blago uspinje na oko 200 m visine. Na krajnje zapadnom dijelu uzvisine nalazi se nekoliko kuca koje su i danas nastanjene. Pedesetak metara istocno od tih kuca prolazi trasa autoceste. Na taj kratak prostor nadovezuju se dva vijadukta. Nakon pronalaska ulomaka keramike, cijeli prostor je pomno pregledan kako bi se ustanovilo odakle dopiru nalazi. Oni su naime na pocetku pronadeni u zemlji koja je strojno vec bila preokrenuta, pa je trebalo utvrditi njihovo porijeklo. Prvo mjesto na kojem su nalazi pronadeni u profilu iskopa, dotad netaknuti strojem, bilo je na juznom dijelu, odnosno na zadnjem sjevernom iskopu stupa za vijadukt Paka. Vrlo usitnjena keramika pronalazena je na relativnoj dubini od oko 50 cm, a u profilima se nisu ukazivali tragovi gradnje ili jama. Ti nalazi bili su prikupljani, ali je bilo ocigledno kako je njihov karakter na ovome mjestu naplavinski, te da pravo nalaziste treba traziti na visem polozaju. Pregled brda obraslog sumom nije polucio rezultatima. Prilikom daljnjih pregleda pronalazeni su samo pokoji ulomci keramike, uglavnom u prekopanoj zemlji na sedlu uzvisine. Pri kraju gradevinskih radova, ovdje su strojno prokopani odvodni kanali uz trasu. Tom je prilikom napokon ustanovljen arheoloski sloj u kojem su

TABLE 2 - Matusini 2, Roman period: Chance finds 1- Vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, tempered with a large quantity of fine quartz, of good fabrication, of black colour, dark brown at the break. Reconstructed. 2- Vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, with temper of quartz and pebbles, of good and harder fabrication, of dark grey to brown colour, orange to brown at the break and on the inside. 3- Vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, with little temper of small pebbles, of good fabrication, of dark grey colour, light grey at the break. 4- Vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, with temper of quartz and pebbles, of good and harder fabrication, of light brown colour. 5- Part of an iron knife. PAKA (NOVI MAROF) Traces of Habitation from the Roman and Medieval Periods Potsherds of archaeological significance were found during an August 14, 2002, survey of work already under way on the construction of the Paka and Sajan viaducts. Foundations for the viaducts columns had already been dug and the gentle rise above the creek that connected the two viaducts was then covered in crushed rock. Monitoring of this position was from then on given special attention with the aim of locating traces of possible archaeological structures. Surveys were carried out right up to the completion of the route and both viaducts; there were not, however, sufficient elements for the launch of an archaeological excavation. This is a slight elevation above Paka creek, in the midst of the village of the same name. The elevation is part of the slope of a hill that also rises gently to a height of about 200 m. To the far west of the elevation are several houses that are currently inhabited. The highway route passesfiftymetres to the east of these houses. The two viaducts pass over this narrow area. After the finds of potsherds the entire area was carefully surveyed to establish from where the finds originated. They were, namely, initially found in earth that had already been excavated by heavy machinery and their origin had to be determined. The first placefindswere located in the excavation profile, as yet undisturbed by machinery, was the southern part, i.e. the far northern excavation for a column of the Paka viaduct. Highly fragmented ceramic was located at a relative depth of about 50 cm, and the profiles did not yield traces of construction or pits. Thesefindswere collected, but it was obvious that they had come there by flooding action and that the real site should be sought at a higher position. A survey of the forest-covered hill did not give results. Further surveys yielded only sporadic potsherds, mostly in the excavated soil at a saddle on the elevation. Drainage canals running along the route were dug here near the end of construction work. An archaeological layer was

prevladavali rijetH ulomci rimske keramike. Sloj se nalazio na relativnoj dubini od cetrdesetak centimetara, u duzini od desetak metara. Smjesten je na najvisem dijelu ove uzvisine, sedla izmedu vijadukta. Ni u profilu ovog iskopa nisu pronadeni tragovi anticke gradnje, a nalazi su takoder bili rijetki. Ipak, moze se reci da je ova mikrolokacija ipak bliza nepoznatome nalazistu nego prethodna, u iskopu stupa za vijadukt. Kako nalazi nisu potvrdili postojanje objekata bilo koje vrste a gradevinski su radovi bili zavrseni, ovdje nisu provodena arheoloska iskopavanja. Ipak, pronalazak rimskodobnog hodnog sloja potvrduje kako se ovdje tadasnjicovjek duze zadrzavao, pa je ovo nalaziste posebno izdvojeno. Skromni ulomci keramike pronadeni na nalazistu ipak donekle mogu svjedociti o nekadasnjoj naseobini. Nalazi srednjocarskog razdoblja su veci ulomak trbuha amfore (nije prikazan) i ulomak lonca Tl-4 (npr. Obvoznica Ptuj, TUSEK 1993, t.12-6). Ovaj lonac moze biti i mnogo kasnija kopija takvih originala jer je nas nacinjen od neprociscene gline. Najveci broj ulomaka pripada razdoblju najkasnije antike. Tome dobu pripadaju dijelovi lonaca (Tl-1,5,6,8,9,10) a mozda i dno (Tl-7). Lonac Tl-1 izraden je prostorucno, a ocit je izravan prijelaz iz ramena u obod, bez vrata posude. Takvih je nalaza posvuda po kasnoantickim pribjezistima (npr. Toncov grad pri Kobaridu, CIGLENECKI 2000, sl.125-7; Sonnenburger Huegel, RODRIGUEZ 1997, t.1093). Takoder je znacajan ulomak s metlicastim ukrasavanjem s obje strane stijenke posude (Tl5), kakav se takoder nalazi na kasnoantickim pribjezistima (Kathreinkogel, CIGLENECFJ2000 sl.131-18,25 po Rodriguez; ovdje: Sarnica Kelemen Tl-9). Dno posude (Tl-7) prema nacinu izrade i obliku vrlo slici nekima pronadenim na Blizni, a koje takoder mozemo opredijeliti u kasnu antiku (Blizna T26-9,10,ll). Ulomak poroznog lonca s tragovima prstiju uz obod (Tl-3) mogao bi se povezati s razdobljem ranog srednjeg vijeka i slavenskom seobom u ove krajeve. Pronadene su i dvije kamene cijepane izradevine. Cijepane izradevine morfoloski spadaju u lomljevinu, od kojih jedna ima 40% okorine. Sirovinski materijal je sive i zelene boje, slabih karakteristika cijepanja, a na osnovi postojecih nalaza nije moguce izvuci nikakve zakljucke. Ovaj polozaj morat ce, nazalost, ostati bez definitivnog odredenja kako po dataciji, tako i po svom karakteru. Ocigledno je to da se u anticko i kasnoanticko doba ovdje boravilo, a mozda jos i u ranom srednjem vijeku. Neki ulomci keramike upueuju i na prapovijesno doba, ali to ipak treba ostaviti samo kao ne bas cvrstu pretpostavku. Mozemo pretpostaviti kako su ti nalazi ovdje u vezi s FJemencovim pretpostavljenim smjerom rimske ceste, koji je kroz ovaj klanac mogao biti koristen i u druga vremena (ELEMENC 1953, 84, karta). Da li su sve predmete odbacili mnogobrojni putnici, ili je na ovom polozaju bilo i stambenih struktura, ostat

finally unearthed then in which sporadic potsherds from Roman period ceramics predominated. The layer was at a relative depth of about forty centimetres, about ten metres long. It is situated at the highest part of this elevation, the saddle between the viaducts. Here again, in the profile of this excavation, there were no traces of Roman period construction found, and the finds were also few. Nevertheless, it can be said that this micro-location is closer to the unknown site than the previous one, in the hole excavated for a column of the viaduct. As the finds did not confirm the existence of structures of any sort and the construction work had been completed, no archaeological excavation was undertaken here. The find of a Roman period occupational layer, however, confirms extended human presence, and the site has been therefore treated here individually. The modest potsherds found at the site do, however, bear witness to some extent of the nature of the former settlement. Finds from the Middle Empire are a larger potsherd from the belly of an amphora (not shown) and the potsherd of pot Tl4 (for example Obvoznica - Ptuj, TUSEK 1993, t.12-6). This pot may be a much later copy of originals like these as ours is made of unrefined clay. The majority of potsherds come from the period of the latest Roman period. Also from this period are parts of a pot (Tl-1, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10) and perhaps a bottom (Tl-7). Pot Tl-1 is hand-made, and the direct transition from shoulder to rim, without a neck on the vessel, is obvious. These kinds of finds appear all over the place at late Roman period refugium (for example at Toncov grad pri Kobaridu, CIGLENECKI 2000, sl.125-7; Sonnenburger Huegel, RODRIGUEZ 1997, t.1093). Also significant is a potsherd with brushed surface decoration on both sides of the vessels walls (Tl-5), the likes of which are also found at late Roman period refugium (Kathreinkogel, CIGLENECKI 2000 sl.131-18, 25 according to Rodriguez; here: Sarnica - Kelemen Tl-9). The bottom of a vessel (Tl-7) in the method of its manufacture and shape are very similar to some found at Blizna, and which we can also attribute to the late Roman period (Blizna T26-9, 10, 11). The potsherd of a porous pot with traces of fingers along the rim (Tl-3) could be connected to the period of the early Middle Ages and the Slavic migration in these parts. Two knapped stone artefacts were also found. The knapped artefacts belong morphologically to debris of which one has 40% cortex coverage. The raw material is of grey and green colour, of poor knapping characteristics. No conclusions can be made based on the existing finds. This position will, unfortunately, have to remain without a definite determination both in date and in its character. It is obvious that there was human presence here in the Roman and late Roman period, perhaps also in the early Middle Ages. Some of the potsherds indicate the prehistoric period, but this

261

262

Tabla 1. Paka-Selo. Slucajni nalazi. Table 1. Paka-Selo. Chance finds.

ce nam nepoznato, mozda i zauvijek, ako je gradnja autoceste uistinu unistila sve preostale nalaze.
Katalog TABLA 1 - Paka: Slucajni nalazi

1- Ulomak prostorucno izradene posude s tragovima prstiju, primjese pijeska i kamencica, izvana tamno smeda, prijelom crn. 2- Ulomak posude, mozda izradene prostorucno, dobro prociscene gline, sive boje koja ostavlja trag. 3- Ulomak prostorucno izradene posude s tragovima prstiju, supljikave povrsine od primjesa pljeve, tamno smede boje. 4- Ulomak posude, mozda izradene prostorucno, s mnogo primjesa kamencica, kvarcita i pijeska koji se osipa, crvenkaste boje. 5- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s primjesama pijeska i manjih kamencica, izvana i u prijelomu crvene a iznutra tamno smede boje, s grubo izvedenim metlicastim ukrasom na obje strane stijenke. 6- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s primjesama pijeska i manjih kamencica, izvana i iznutra tamno smede a u prijelomu crvene boje, s grubo izvedenim metlicastim ukrasom s vanjske strane stijenke. 7- Ulomak prostorucno izradene posude, s mnogo primjesa pijeska, kamencica i kvarcita koji se truse, izvana svijetlo smede, a u prijelomu i iznutra crne boje. 8- Ulomak prostorucno izradene posude, s primjesama kamencica, tvrde izrade, s metlicastim ukrasom s vanjske strane stijenke. 9- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s

should be considered as only a not very firm possibility. We can presume that these finds being here are connected to Klemencs presumed route of the Roman road, that could have been used at other times through this defile (KLEMENC 1953, 84, map). Did numerous travellers discard all the objects, or were there lodging structures at this position, remains unknown to us, perhaps forever, if the construction of the highway really destroyed all remaining finds. Catalogue TABLE 1 Paka: Chance finds 1- Potsherd of a hand made vessel with traces of fingerprints, with temper of sand and smaller pebbles, of dark brown colour outside, black at the break. 2- Potsherd of a vessel, possibly made by hand, of well-refined clay, of grey colour that leaves a mark. 3- Potsherd of a hand made vessel with traces of fingerprints, with a porous surface caused by a temper of chaff, of dark brown colour. 4- Potsherd of a vessel, possibly made by hand, with a large quantity of pebble, quartz and sand temper that crumbles, of reddish colour. 5- Potsherd of a hand made vessel, with temper of sand and smaller pebbles, of red colour outside and at the break, dark brown on the inside, with a rough brushed surface decoration on both sides of the wall. 6- Potsherd of a hand made vessel, with temper of sand and smaller pebbles, of dark brown colour outside and inside, red at the break, with a rough brushed surface decoration on the outer wall. 7- Potsherd of a hand made vessel, with a large

primjesama pijeska i manjih kamencica, izvana i iznutra svijetlo smede a u prijelomu erne boje, s grubo izvedenim metlicastim ukrasom s vanjske strane stijenke. 10- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, s primjesama pijeska i manjih kamencica, izvana zuckaste a iznutra i u prijelomu smede boje, s grubo izvedenim metlicastim ukrasom s vanjske strane stijenke. GRADISCE KOD PAKE (NOVI MAROF) Srednjovjekovna kula Utvrdu Paka otkrila je Marina Simek u proljece 2001.g. Vec sljedece godine zapocelo je istrazivanje i sanacija zidova, sto traje do danas (SIMEK 2003). Utvrda se nalazi na strmom brdu, odnosno izdvojenom jeziccu iznad istomenog potoka. Njezin polozaj je obrambeno vazan, a vjerojatno je sluzila za nadgledanje prometa dolinom potoka kroz Kalnicko gorje. Sagradena je kao pravokutni objekt, velicine oko 18x9 m. Unutar tog jedinstvenog prostora nalazi se pregradni zid, koji nije uzidan u bedem. Tako utvrda djeluje kao oveca kula, s odvojenim stambenim i dvorisnim prostorom. Na podu kule otkriveni su tragovi paljevine i izgorjele drvene grade, sto upueuje da je objekt bio spaljen. U arheoloskim iskopavanjima pronadena je veca kolicina keramike (i jedna cijela rebrasta casa), zeljezni cavli, karika lanca, kuka, dvodijelne zvale, potkova itd. Zanimljiv je i nalaz kamene osmerokutne posude, koja je vjerojatno sluzila kao muzar (SIMEK 2003, sl.2,3). Takoder je pronaden i odreden broj zivotinjskih - telecih, junecih, govedili, svinjskih (domacih i divljih) i kokosjih kostiju (SIMEK 2002, 2). Prema dosad objavljenim obavijestima, moze se

quantity of sand, pebble and quartz temper that crumbles, light brown outside, black at the break and on the inside. 8- Potsherd of a hand made vessel, with temper of pebbles, of hard fabrication, with a brushed surface decoration on the outer wall. 9- Potsherd of a hand made vessel, with temper of sand and smaller pebbles, of light brown colour outside, light brown on the inside and black at the break, with a rough brushed surface decoration on the outer wall. 10- Potsherd of a hand made vessel, with temper of sand and smaller pebbles, of yellowish colour on the outside, brown on the inside and at the break, with a rough brushed surface decoration on the outer waU. GRADISCE NEAR PAKA (N0VI MAR0F) Medieval Tower The Paka Portress was discovered by Marina Simek in the spring of 2001. Exploration and conservation of the walls started by the next year, and continues to this day (SIMEK 2003). The fortress is situated on a steep hill, that is to say a separate foot above the creek of the same name. Its position is defensively significant, and it probably served to oversee traffic using the creeks valley through the Kalnicko gorje highlands. It was constructed as a quadrangular structure, about 18x9 m in size. Within this undivided area is a partition wall, not built into the ramparts. The fortress in this way resembles a large tower with a separate lodging area and courtyard. Traces of scorching and of charred wooden material, indicating that the structure had been burnt. A larger quantity of ceramics was found during the archaeological excavation (and one entire ribbed

263

Gradisce kod Pake (Novi Marof) Srednjovjekovna kula Gradisce kod Pake (Novi Marof) Medieval Tower

264

zakljuciti kako je ova obrambena utvrda sluzila za nadzor prometa kroz dolinu potoka Pake. Sudeci po nalazima, sagradena je tijekom 13.st., vjerojatno nakon mongolskih provala. Drugi nalazi mogu se datirati u razdoblje koje seze do u 15.st, pa se njezino unistenje i napustanje zasad moze datirati u to vrijeme. BUDINEC KOD LJUBESCICE (NOVI MAROF) Srednjovjekovna osmatracnica Prilikom visednevnih pregleda izgradnje autoceste u dolini Bednje u visini sela Ljubescica, pregledana je i uzvisina znakovitog toponima Budinec. Budinec je osamljeno brdo sa sjeverne strane Kalnickoga gorja i nalazi se u dolini rijeke Bednje. Njegovi relativno strmi obronci kao i strateski polozaj izdvajaju ga od ostalih u njegovoj blizini. Geoloski gledano, sazdano je od mekog kamena slabije kvalitete, sljunka i tankog zemljanog pokrova. Na samom vrhu danas raste suma, a tlo je prekriveno liscem. Tu se nalazi rov koji su po svemu sudeci iskopali pripadnici nekadasnje JNA, s nekoliko oblih ukopa za mitraljeska gnijezda. U ovim poluzatrpanim rovovima dobro se vidi grada tla, rijecni sljunak, vjerojatno ostaci nekadasnjih pranaplavina otopina ledenjaka koje su tekle kroz danasnju dolinu Bednje. U takvom tlu ne mogu se razaznati ostaci nekih struktura, bilo zidanih ili drvenih, ali je pronadeno nekoliko ulomaka keramike. Ulomci su tipoloski tesko odredivi, ali za dva se s velikom vjerojatnoseu moze reci kako pripadaju srednjem vijeku. S obzirom na svoju grubu izradu, primjese sitnog drobljenog kvarca i ostalo, moglo bi ih se datirati u razdoblje od 13. do 16. st. Budinec se svojim polozajem namece kao prikladno mjesto s kojeg se moze nadzirati tok Bednje od danasnjeg Novog Marofa pa sve do

glass), iron nails, chain links, a hook, a two-part curb bit, a horseshoe etc. Thefindof an eight-sided stone vessel, probably used as a mortar, is interesting (SIMEK 2003, sl.2, 3). Also found were a number of animal bones - of various ages of oxen, pig (domes ticated and wild) and chicken (SIMEK 2002, 2). According to materials published to date it can be concluded that this defensive fortification served to control traffic running through the Paka creek valley. Judging by the finds, it was constructed during the 13th century, probably after the Mongol incursions. Other finds can be dated to a period stretching to the 15th century so that its destruction and abandonment can, for now, be dated to this time. BUDINEC NEAR LJUBESCICA (NOVI MAROF) Medieval Watchtower During the several days of surveying of the highway construction in the Bednja valley, at the elevation of the village of Ljubescica, a height was surveyed of the indicative toponym of Budinec. Budinec is a solitary hill on the north side of the Kalnicko gorje highlands and is situated in the Bednja river valley. Its relatively steep slopes and strategic position set it apart from the others in the vicinity. As regards its geology, the hill is made of soft stone of mediocre quality, gravel and a thin covering of soil. A forest grows today on its peak, with the ground being covered in leaves. There is a trench here that was most likely dug by members of the former Yugoslav Peoples Army (JNA), with several rounded excavations for machine gun nests. The structure of the ground is easily discernable here in these half-buried trenches, of river gravel, probably the remains of some prehistoricfloodingof glacial runoff waters thatflowedthrough the present day Bednja valley The remains of structures can not be discerned in this kind of ground, whether stonewall or made of wood, but several potsherds were collected. The typology of these potsherds is difficult to determine, but for two it can be with a high degree of certainty be said that they originate from the Middle Ages. Considering their rough fabrication, the temper of finely crushed quartz and other indicators, they could be dated to the period from the 13th to 16th century. The position occupied by Budinec offers itself as a suitable place from where to monitor theflowof the Bednja from present day Novi Marof all the way to Hrastovec, a distance of about a dozen kilometres. Along with this there is another, perhaps more important advantage. The old way passes under Budinec that passes through the defiles of the Kalnicko gorje highlands and to this day provides easy access directly under the northern ramparts of the Veliki Kalnik fortification. The Veliki Kalnik fortress is situated on an easily defended position on a high and steep rock, from where a beautiful vista shoots out to the south side. The fortress is, however, blind to the north and the advance of a potential belligerent armed force could

Ljubescica-Budinec. Hrpt uzvisine na kojem se mogu naci srednjovjekovni nalazi. U prvom planu stari vojni rov. Ljubes~ica-Budinec. Ridge of the elevation on which Medieval period finds can be found. In the foreground are old military trenches.

Hrastovca u duzini od desetak kilometara. No k tome, postoji josjedna, mozda i vaznija prednost. Naime, ispod Budinca prolazi stari put kojim se kroz klance Kalnickoga gorja i dan-danas s lakocom dolazi izravno pod sjeverne bedeme utvrde Veliki Kalnik. Utvrda Veliki Kalnik nalazi se na lako branjivom polozaju visoke i strme kamene stijene, s koje se pruza predivan pogled prema juznoj strani. No, prema sjevera utvrda je slijepa i navala potencijalne neprijateljske vojske mogla bi se zamijetiti tek stotinjak metara pod utvrdom,sto je svakako prekasno za poduzimanje obrane. I zato izgleda kako je poradi obrane Velikog Kalnika na Budincu morala biti smjestena osmatracnica. To je mogao biti mali drveni cardak, cija bi posada mogla dojaviti svojoj maticnoj utvrdi na Kalniku prilazak vece turske ili neke druge neprijateljske vojske. Nalazi keramike tog doba na Budincu, iako skromni, daju odredenu tezinu ovoj pretpostavci, a daljnja sondiranja ce ju mozda i potvrditi.
GRADEC KODSKARNIKA (VARAZDINSKE TOPLICE) Viseslojno utvrcTeno naselje

be perceived only some hundred metres from the fortress, in any event to late to mount a defence. It appears that a watchtower had to be placed on Budinec for the defence of Veliki Kalnik. This may have been a small wooden guard tower, whose garrison could warn its home base at Kalnik of the approach of a larger Turkish or some other enemy troops. Finds of ceramics from that period at Budinec, while modest, give a certain weight to this hypothesis, which further sondages may confirm.

265

Skarnik-Gradec. Prapovijesna i kasnoanticka gradina, u prvom planu niza naseobinska terasa. Skarnik-Gradec. Prehistoric and late Roman period hill fort, a lower settlement terrace is in the foreground.

Obilazeci moguca arheoloska nalazista u blizini Varazdinskih Tbplica, kako bi se razjasnila prilicno nejasna prapovijesna slika ovog dijela toka Bednje, pregledan je i brijeg Gradec iznad sela Skarnik Na prilicno strmoj uzvisini, pronadeni su brojni ulomci prapovijesne keramike te ostaci nekadasnjih bedema i naseobinskih terasa gradine. Rijec je o novootkrivenom utvrdenom visinskom naselju, te je zahvaljujuci ucincima ovih pregleda pokrenut postupak Preventivne registracije kulturnog dobra koji se vodi pri Konzervatorskom odjelu u Varazdinu. Gradec kod Skarnika stozast je i strm brijeg s pogledom na velik dio doline Bednje prema zapadu i istoku. Ovo mjesto nalazi se iznad veceg zavoja rijeke Bednje kod Varazdinskih Tbplica, pa je samim time strateski vrlo vazno, jer se odavde, osim velikog dijela doline Bednje, mogu pratiti i dogadanja na suprotnom brdskom masivu, gdje su danas smjestene Toplice i izlaz vaznog prapovijesnog puta kroz dolinu Koscevca. Na vrhu brijega danas stoji zidana vikendica i uredeni vinograd. Vlasnik vinograda na brijegu, Josip Ratkovic Pepi, sjeca se kako je prilikom oranja pronalazio keramicke ulomke, ali tome nije pridavao veliku paznju. Jedan pronadeni keramicki prsljen iskoristio je kao rucicu za pecna drva. Na brdu Gradec nalazi se srednje velika gradina, koja je vjerojatno bila utvrdena zemljanim bedemima i drvenim palisadama, jer ne postoji dostupno leziste kamena. Tragovi moguce akropole obicnim pregledom nisu vidljivi. Ispod vinograda i u sumi, tragovi zavrsnog, vanjskog bedema, upucuju na naseobinsku terasu koja okruzuje vrh sa sjeverne strane. Vinograd je u vise navrata rigolan pa nisu vidljivi ostaci objekata. Ipak se u izoranoj zemlji mogu pronaci ulomci keramike i ljepa, pa ill je nekoliko prikazano na tabli.

GRADEC NEAR SKARNIK (VARAZDINSKE TOPLICE) Multi-layered Fortified Settlement

Tburing possible archaeological sites in the vicinity of Varazdinske Tbplice in order to shed light on the quite unclear prehistoric picture of this part of the Bednja River, a survey was made of the Gradec hill above the village of Skarnik. Numerous potsherds from prehistoric ceramics were found on a quite steep elevation as were the remains of a former ramparts and the settlement terraces of a hill fort. This is a newly-discovered fortified settlement on an elevated position, and thanks to the effects of these surveys the procedure ha been put into motion for the Preventive registration of a cultural good that is currently underway at the Department of Conservation in Varazdin. Gradec near Skarnik is a conical and steep hill with a view of the larger part of the Bednja valley to the west and east. This place is situated above a larger bend in the Bednja river at Varazdinske Toplice, and it is precisely in this of strategic importance, because events can be monitored from here, besides on a large part of the Bednja valley, also on the opposite highland massif, the place where Toplice is situated today and where a key prehistoric route left the Koscevec valley. There is now atop the hill a weekend cottage and cultivated vineyard. The vineyards proprietor, a Josip Batkovic Pepi, says

266

Skarnik-Gradec. Ulomak erne glacane zdjelice s ruckom. (T1-4) Skarnik-Gradec. Potsherd of a small burnished black bowl with handle. (T1-4)

Skarnik-Gradec. Keramicki prsljen, prebojen i upotrebljen kao rucica na peci. Skarnik-Gradec. Ceramic spindle whorl, repainted and used as a stove handle.

Unatoc vecem broju prikupljenih povrsinskih nalaza, tek je manji dio njih pogodan za bilo kakvo tipolosko odredenje. Neki oblici ukazuju na kasno broncano doba, ali ih se vecina moze postaviti u starije zeljezno doba. Posuda s prilijepljenom keramickom trakom moze se pripisati kasnom broncanom i starijem zeljeznom dobu (Tl-5,6) (Kucar DULAR J., CIGLENECKI S., DULAR A. 1995, t.21-6 i ini). Tu je i lagano zatvorena posuda ravnog oboda (Tl-1) (Kucar DULAR J., CIGLENECKI S., DULAR A. 1995, t.74-10 i ini). Medu tipicno starijezeljeznodobno gradivom isticem ulomake keramickih pokretnili peci (Tl2,3) (Sv.Petar Ludbreski VINSKI-GASPARINI 1987, t.XXIII-8; Kucar DULAR J., CIGLENE CKI S., DULAR A. 1995, t.36, t.55-1 i ine) i zdjelicu uglacane povrsine s visoko postavljenom ruckom (Tl-4). Za nju mozemo naci mnoge usporedbe u gradivu starijeg zeljeznog doba (Budinjak CUCKOVIC 2004, sl.19, s.10; Kucar DULAR J., CIGLENECKI S., DULAR A. 1995, s.70-5), ali i u kasnom broncanom dobu (Staro Cice BALENLETUNIC 1996 s.7-6). Unatoc tim slicnostima u oblicima, na odredenom broju ulomaka koji nisu prepaljeni, ostala je sacuvana brizljivo uglacana crna povrsina, koja nam potvrduje kako vecina prapovijesnih nalaza pripada starijem zeljeznom dobu. Treba dodati kako je nacin izrade nekih posuda vrlo slican onima pronadenim na Bukovju kod Banjscine, a donekle i onom s Huste kod Jakopovca. Za te nalaze, koji su datirani u mlade zeljezno doba, a imaju mnoge osobine i oblike starijeg zeljeznog doba, vec je receno kako vjerojatno pripadaju starosjedilackom stanovnistvu, Jasima. Stoga je moguce da je i na Gracu starijezeljeznodobna tradicija prezivjela do mladeg zeljeznog doba, kada je gradina propala na duze vrijeme. Nekoliko manjih ulomaka upueuje kako se i u doba kasne antike boravilo na ovom brdu. Dio

he remembers finding potsherds when ploughing, but did not give it much attention. He has made use of a ceramic spindle whorl he collected as a handle for a wood-burning stove. There is a mid-sized hill fort on the Gradec hill, probably fortified by earthworks and wooden palisades, as there is no accessible source of stone. The traces of a possible acropolis are not visible upon a simple survey. Traces of final, outer, ramparts under the vineyard and in the forest indicate a settlement terrace that encircled the peak from the north side. The vineyard was deeply ploughed on several occasions so that the remains of a structure are not visible. Potsherds and fragment of daub can be found in the ploughed soil however, and several are shown in the table. Despite a large number of collected surface finds, only a small number of them are suitable for any kind of typological determination. Some shapes point to the late Bronze Age, but the majority can be attributed to the early Iron Age. A vessel with applied ceramic ribbon can be attributed to the late Bronze and early Iron age (Tl-5, 6) (Kucar DULAR J., CIGLENECKI S., DULAR A. 1995, t.21-6 and others). Here too is a slightly constricted vessel with s t r a i g h t rim ( T l - 1 ) ( K u c a r D U L A R J . , CIGLENECKI S., DULAR A. 1995, t.74-10 and others). Among the typical early Iron Age material I would single out a potsherd from a mobile ceramic stove (Tl-2, 3) (Sv Petar Ludbreski VINSKIGASPARINI 1987, t.XXIII-8; Kucar DULAR J., CIGLENECKI S., DULAR A. 1995, t.36, t.55-1 and others) and a smaU bowl with burnished surface with a highly placed handle (Tl-4). We can find numerous comparisons for it among material from the early Iron Age (Budinjak CUCKOVIC 2004, sl.19, s.10; Kucar DULAR J., CIGLENECKI S., DULAR A. 1995, s.70-5), but also in the late Bronze Age (Staro Cice BALEN-LETUNIC1996 s.7-6). Despite the similarities in form, a meticulously polished black surface has remained preserved on a number of the potsherds that have not been scorched, which confirms that the majority of the prehistoric finds belong to the early Iron Age. It should be added that the method of fabrication of some of the vessels is very similar to those found at Bukovje near Banjscina, and to some extent also with those from Husta near Jakopovec. Of these finds, dated to the late Iron Age and having many traits and forms of the early Iron Age, it has already been said that they probably belong to the indigenous inhabitants, the Iasi. It is possible then that at the early Iron Age tradition survived at Gradec to the late Iron Age, when the hill fort fell into decay for a longer period of time. Several smaUer potsherds indicate that there was human presence on this hill in the late Roman period. Part of a small bowl (Tl-7) can be found at other late Roman period sites (Invillino, CIGLENECKI 2000 sl.143-4, according to Bierbrauer; or Gradisce nad Basljem, CIGLENECKI 2000, sl.122-6).

zdjelice (Tl-7) moze se pronaci na drugim kasnoantickim nalazistima (Invillino, CIGLENECK3 2000 sl.143-4, po Bierbrauer; ili Gradisce nad Basljem, CIGLENECKI 2000, sl.122-6). Gradec kod Skarnika, osim sto upucuje na vrlo vjerojatne kasnobroncane i starijezeljeznodobne faze, moguce je utvrdeno naselje Jasa koji su s ovog polozaja nadzirali veliki dio doline rijeke Bednje, te izvore tople vode na nasuprotnom brijegu. Ovo je zasad prvo naselje koje bi u konacnici moglo materijalno opravdati rimski naziv Aquae Iasae, jer dosad nisu bili pronadeni tragovi koji bi potjecali od stanovnika koji su na Bednji i izvorima tople vode docekali Rimljane. Naime, prilikom iskopavanja koja se vise desetljeca vode u Parku u Tbplicama, ni u blizoj i daljoj okolici dosad nisu prepoznati nalazi koji bi se mogli opredijeliti u zeljezno doba. Time bi ovaj zeljeznodobni polozaj dobio znacenje u pogledu proucavanja rimskog osvajanja jaskog podrucja. Dosadasnji rezultati povijesnih istrazivanja pokazuju kako je prostor juzno od Save pa do Drave, sve do rimskog osvajanja drzalo panonsko pleme Jasi. Arheoloski gledano, ova je postavka uglavnom valjana, uz napomenu da se polagano prikupljaju podaci koji pokrivaju podrucja sa sigurnim keltskim etnikom i razdvajaju od onih na kojima su zivjeli panonski narodi. Potonje je zasad arheoloski tesko prepoznati zbog njihove postojanosti od starijeg zeljeznog doba. Ipak, potkraj stare ere vec su djelomicno latenizirani, barem prema nekim materijalnim dobrima preuzetim od Kelta. U torn pogledu ce trebati vise paznje posvetiti arheoloskim nalazistima na kojima se mijesa starosjedilacko, starijezeljeznodobno gradivo, s pridoslim, keltsko-latenskim gradivom. Kasnoanticki nalazi svjedoce kako su se i na Gradec kod Skarnika sklanjali stanovnici rimskog naselja Aquae Iasae prilikom brojnih provala barbarskih naroda. Katalog TABLA 1 - Gradec: Slucajni nalazi 1- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, neprociscene gline, tvrde izrade, zuckaste boje. 2- Ulomak pokretne peci izradene prostorucno, neprociscene gline, grube i tvrde izrade, svijetlo smede boje. 3- Ulomak pokretne peci izradene prostorucno, neprociscene gline, grube i tvrde izrade, svijetlo smede boje. 4- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, neprociscene gline, dobre izrade, izvana erne, inace smede boje. Vanjska povrsina uglacana. 5- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, neprociscene gline, zute boje. Prepaljeno. 6- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, neprociscene gline, grube i tvrde izrade, narancaste boje. Prepaljeno. 7- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama pijeska, tamno sive, a u prijelomu narancaste boje.

Gradec near Skarnik, other than indicating very probable late Bronze Age and earlylron Age phases, is also a possible fortified settlement of the Iasi who, from this position, controlled a large part of the Bednja river valley, and the hot water springs on the opposite hill. This is for now the first settlement that might in the end provide material justification for the Boman name olAquae Iasae, because up to now no traces have been found that might originate from the people that awaited the Romans at Bednja and the thermal springs. The excavations that have been carried out for several decades now at the Park in Toplice, namely, have not yet yielded in the nearer or more distant vicinity any finds that might be attributed to the Iron Age. That would make this site significant in the aspect of studying Roman occupation of Iasi territory. The current results of research into the past show that the area south of the Sava River to the Drava River was held by the Pannonian tribe of Iasa right up until the Roman occupation. Prom the archaeological aspect, this hypothesis is valid in general, with an observation that data is slowly being gathered that cover the area with definite Celtic ethnicity which is being separated from the areas on which Pannonian nations lived. The latter is for the moment difficult to recognise from an archaeological aspect on account of their stability from the early Iron Age. Nevertheless, near the end of the old era they were already partially Latenised, according to at least some material goods adopted from the Celts. In this regard more attention will have to be given to archaeological sites at which the indigenous, early Iron Age population is mixed with the incursive, Celtic-Laten material. Late Roman period finds bear witness to the fact that the inhabitants of the Roman settlement of Aquae Iasae also sought refuge at Gradec near Skarnik during the numerous incursions by barbaric nations. Catalogue TABLE 1 - Gradec: Chance finds 1- Potsherd of a hand made vessel, of unrefined clay, of harder fabrication, of yellowish colour. 2- Potsherd from a hand made mobile stove, of unrefined clay, of rough and harder fabrication, of light brown colour. 3- Potsherd from a hand made mobile stove, of unrefined clay, of rough and harder fabrication, of light brown colour. 4- Potsherd of a hand made vessel, of unrefined clay, of good fabrication, of black colour outside, otherwise of brown colour. With burnished outer surface. 5- Potsherd of a hand made vessel, of unrefined clay, of yellow colour. Scorched. 6- Potsherd of a hand made vessel, of unrefined clay, of rough and harder fabrication, of orange colour. Scorched. 7- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, with sand temper, of dark grey colour, orange at the break.

267

268

Tabla 1. Skarnik-Gradec. Slucajni nalazi. Table 1. Skarnik-Gradec. Chance finds.

8- Ulomak posude izradene prostorucno, neprociscene gline, tamno sive boje. Prepaljeno. GROMACE 3 KOD VARAZDINSKIH TOPLICA Anticka Vila rustica Prilikom arheoloskih radova na izgradnji obilaznice Varazdinskih Tbplica, 2001 - 2003.g, pregledavani su i prostori na obroncima brda Selnica, iznad rijeke Bednje. Tom prilikom otkrivena je trasa rimske ceste na polozaju nazvanome Gromace 1 i bakrenodobna naseobina lasinjske kulture na polozaju Gromace 2. U arheoloskim krugovima smatra se da se na poljima zvanim Gromace nalazilo rimsko groblje, prema obavijestima jos iz 1867.g., kada su ga pronasli Ivan Kukuljevic i irski grof Karlo MacDonell, ali ono prilikom radova na obilaznici nije pronadeno. Stoga su nastavljeni pregledi ovog velikog podrucja i nakon zavrsetka gradnje ceste. U toj potrazi za danas izgubljenim antickim grobljem na poblize neodredenom polozaju na Gromacama, pronadeni su ostaci rimskih gradevina. Stotinjak metara istocno od stare ceste, u blizini stupa za dalekovod, ukazali su se ostaci anticke vile

8- Potsherd of a hand made vessel, of unrefined clay, of dark grey colour. Scorched. GROMACE 3 NEAR VARAZDINSKE TOPLICE Roman Period Villa Rustica During archaeological works on the construction of the Varazdinske Toplice bypass from 2001 - 2003, the area of the slopes of the Selnica hill, above the Bednja River, were also surveyed. The route of a Roman road was discovered at that time at a position designated as Gromace 1 and a Copper Age settlement of the Lasinja culture at the Gromace 2 position. It is considered in archaeological circles that the fields caUed Gromace were the site once of a Roman period graveyard, based on reports dating as far back as 1867 when it was found by Ivan Kukuljevic and the Irish count Karlo MacDoneU, but it was not found during construction work on the bypass. Surveys of this large area were, therefore, continued even after construction of the road was completed. The remnants of Roman construction were found in this search for the now lost Roman period graveyard situated at some not precisely defined

269

Vara`dinske Toplice-Groma~e 3. Uzvisina na kojoj se nalaze ostaci rimskih zgrada i sitnih nalaza. Vara`dinske Toplice-Groma~e 3. An elevation on which the remains of a Roman building and small finds were located.

rustice. Sudeel prema nalazima, rijecje o vaznom novootkrivenom rimskom gradevinskom sklopu, te je zahvaljujuci ucincima ovih pregleda pokrenut postupak Preventivne registracije kulturnog dobra koji se vodi pri Konzervatorskom odjelu Ministarstva kulture u Varazdinu. Gromace 3 nalaze se na blagim obroncima brda Selnica, koji se sa zapada spustaju prema dolini rijeke Bednje. Najveca gustoca nalaza je na maloj izdvojenoj uzvisini u obliku grebena, gotovo u dolini. Na nekoliko poljoprivrednih cestica, koje obuhvacaju ovo nalaziste, mogu se pronaci ulomci tegula, opeke, zbuke i gara. Brojni su i ulomci razlicitih keramickih posuda, rasuti podrucjem od otprilike 100 x 50 m. Nekoliko karakteristicnih ulomaka prikazano je ovdje na tablama. Na dva mjesta se u grmljem zaraslim medama uocavaju gromace s antickim gradevinskim materijalom. Pronadena keramika moze se nedvojbeno odrediti u anticko doba. Ulomci uglavnom pripadaju svakodnevnom posudu, i to malim i velikim loncima, vrcevima i zdjelicama. Dio cepa Tl-8 slici primjerku iz Ptuja (Ptuj-Cafuta STRMCNIK-GULIC1993, t.9-16 itd.) iz srednjocarskog doba. Obod lonca Tl1 slici primjerku iz ranorimskoga gradevinskog sklopa na Gornjem trgu u Ljubljani (VICIC 2002, 195, t.3-25). Pronaden je i dio velike posude kvalitetno izradene od sive gline i ukrasene visemanje pravilnim metlicastim ukrasom (Tl-7). Ovakve posude vrlo su ceste na rimskim nalazistima i obicno se odreduju u 1. i 2. st. (Drenje, SKOBERNE 1987 s.28, t.1,2,3,4; Petrijanec SARIC 1975, t.XVI-1-6). Prema pronadenim ulomcima, cini se kako nedostaje gradivo iz kasnog 3. i 4.st., sto ce se ustanoviti tek sustavnim iskopavanjima.

location at Gromace. The remains of a Roman period villa rustica were revealed a hundred metres east of the old road, near a high power-transmission line tower. Judging by the finds, this is an important newly-discovered Roman construction complex, and thanks to the effects of these surveys the procedure has been put into motion for the Preventive registration of a cultural good that is currently underway at the Department of Conservation in Varazdin. Gromace 3 is situated on the gentle slopes of the Selnica hills that drop from the west towards the Bednja river valley. The highest density of finds is on a slightly detached elevation in the form of a ridge, almost in the vaUey itself. Potsherds from roof tiles and bricks, mortar and charcoal can be found on the several agricultural plots that cover this site. There are numerous varied ceramic vessels, scattered across an area of roughly 100 x 50 m. Several characteristic potsherds are shown here in the tables. At two places, in overgrown plot boundaries, stone heaps are discernable containing Roman period construction material. The located ceramics can be definitely identified as being from the Roman period. The potsherds come predominantly from everyday vessels, small and large pots, jugs and small bowls. Part of a stopper Tl-8 is similar to a specimen from Ptuj (Ptuj-Cafuta, STRMCNIK-GULIC 1993, t.9-16 etc.) from the Middle empire period. The rim of pot Tl-1 resembles a specimen from an early Roman period construction complex on Ljubljanas Gornji trg (VICIC 2002, 195, t.3-25). Also located was part of a large vessel, well manufactured of grey clay, and decorated with more or less regular brushed surface decorations (Tl-7). Vessels like these are

27

Tabla 1.Varazdinske Toplice-Gromace 3. Slucajni nalazi. Table 1.Vara`dinske Toplice-Groma~e 3. Chance finds.

Vara`dinske Toplice-Groma~e 3. Dio oboda (T1-6) Vara`dinske Toplice-Groma~e 3. Part of a rim (T1-6)

Dvije su moguenosti za tumacenje ovog nalazista. very frequent at Roman sites and are usually Prva je kako se na Gromacama 3 nalazila klasicna identified as coming from the 1st and 2nd centuries villa rustica koja bi morala imati i pripadajuce (Drenje, SKOBERNE 1987 s.28, t.l, 2, 3, 4; gospodarske zgrade, ako pretpostavimo da je na Petrijanec SARIC1975, t.XVI-1-6). Based on the sredistu nalazista bila raskosna kuca rimskog located potsherds, it appears that material is missing patricija. No, saznanja o takvim dodatnim from the late 3rd century and the 4th century, which zgradama koje bi morale pripadati gospodarskom will only be established by systematic excavation. kompleksu zasad nema. Tu se otvara i druga There are two scenarios to explain this site. The mogucnost tumacenja. Mozda je rijec o first is that there was a classic villa rustica at ljetnikovcu, odnosno osamljenoj raskosnoj Gromace 3 that would have had to have its stambenoj zgradi nekog imuenog uglednika, koji se accompanying outbuildings, if we suppose that there ovdje smjestio radi odmora i lijecenja u velikom i was at the centre of the site the luxurious house of a vaznom ljecilistu u obliznjem rimskoni gradu Aquae roman patrician. There is, however, at present no Iasae. Dakako, takve pretpostavke zasad treba knowledge of any such additional edifices that would ostaviti otvorenim. U ovom su kontekstu zanimljivi have had to belong to this estate. This opens the i rimski ostaci na polju Gradisce u Tuhovcu. Naime, other possible explanation. It is perhaps a summer rijec je o topografski gotovo identicnom polozaju, o residence, that is to say a solitary luxurious lodging blagoj, izdvojenoj uzvisini iznad Bednje, koja je of some wealthy notable that set up accommodations priblizno jednako udaljena od sredista Aquae Iasae. here for rest and healing at the large and important Materijalni nalazi svjedoce o slicnom razdoblju, health spa in the nearby Roman town o Aquae Iasae. otprilike 1 - 3. st.pr.Kr., a takoder su rasporedeni Naturally, these kinds of hypotheses should for the na manjem podrucju, otprilike 50 x 100 m. time being be left open to discussion. The Roman remains on a field Gradisce - Tuhovec are also Katalog interesting in this context. The position is, namely, TABLA 1 - Gromace 3: Slucajni nalazi topographically identical, a gentle, detached l-Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, elevation above the Bednja, approximately the same prociscene gline, tvrde izrade, svijetlo sive boje koja distance from the centre of Aquae Iasae. Material ostavlja trag. finds indicate a similar time frame, from about the

Catalogue TABLE 1 - Gromace 3: Chance finds l-Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, of refined clay, of harder fabrication, of light grey colour that leaves a mark. 2- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, of refined clay, of good and harder fabrication, of orange colour that leaves a mark. 3- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, with temper of pebbles and quartz, of harder fabrication, of dark grey colour, light brown at the break. 4- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, with a smaU quantity of sand temper, of good and harder fabrication, of light grey colour. 5- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, with pebble temper, of harder fabrication, of light grey colour. 6- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, with a smaU quantity of sand temper, of good and harder fabrication, of light grey colour, light brown at the break. 7- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, with temper of pebbles, quartz and sand, of good and harder fabrication, of dark grey GRADISCE U VARAZDINSKIM TOPUCAMA colour, brown at the break. 8- Potsherd from a vessels stopper manufactured Viseslojni tragovi obitavanja Prilikom nadzora izgradnje autoceste Zagreb - on a fast potters wheel, of refined clay, of good and Gorican, 2002.g., pregledane su i uzvisine iznad harder fabrication, of light brown colour, light grey same trase. Tom prilikom otkriveno je novo on the inside. arheolosko nalaziste koje se nalazi iznad 9- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast Varazdinskih Toplica, iznad stijena koje se pokadsto potters wheel, of refined clay, of good and harder nazivaju i Pecine. Na kartama se samo uzvisenje fabrication, of dark grey colour, light grey at the oznacava kao Gradisce. break. Traces of black colouring. Rijec je o novootkrivenom prapovijesnom 10- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast nalazistu, te je zahvaljujuci ucincima ovih pregleda potters wheel, of refined clay, of harder fabrication, pokrenut postupak Preventivne registracije of brown colour. kulturnog dobra koji se vodi pri Konzervatorskom odjelu Ministarstva kulture u Varazdinu. GRADISCE IN VARAZDINSKE TOPLICE Brdo Gradisce nalazi se na samom izlazu iz Multi-layer Traces of Habitation Varazdinskih Toplica, prema zapadu i autocesti. The elevations above the route itself were surveyed Istaknutog polozaja, brdo se poput dugoga grebena in 2002 during supervision of the construction of strmih obronaka izdvaja prema dolini. Geloski the Zagreb - Gorican highway. A new archaeological varazdinske Toplice-Gradisce Roznjacke sastav su sedrene stijene koje su stoljecima koristene site was discovered then located above Varazdinske izradevine. kao kamenolom za izgradnju grada Toplica. Te Toplice, above a rock that are sometimes referred to Varazdinske Toplice-Gradisce. Flint stijene su 15 metara debele naslage termaJnih izvora, as Pecine (Caves). The elevation itself is on maps artefact. koji su na tome mjestu danas gotovo nestali designated as Gradisce. (CABRIAN 1973, 4). Osim ovog zatrpanog termalThis is a newly-discovered prehistoric site, and nog vrela na Gradiscu i svima poznatoga u thanks to the effects of these surveys the procedure Gradskom parku u Toplicama, postajalo je i vrelo u has been put into motion for the Preventive registra Petkovcu, gdje je takoder bilo prapovijesnih nalaza tion of a cultural good that is currently underway at (CABRIAN 1973, 4). the Department of Conservation in Varazdin. Prema Registra arheoloskih nalaza, Stjepan The Gradisce hill is situated at the very exit from Vukovic je 1955.g. sakupio dio arheoloskog i Varazdinske Toplice, westwards and towards the paleontoloskog gradiva u podnozju brda, gdje se highway. Of a prominent position, the hill runs lomio i odvozio sedreni kamen. Godine 1956. towards the valley like a long, steeply sloped, ridge. provodio je i pokusno iskopavanje nalazista koje je Its geological composition is of limestone rock that obuhvacalo sustav pukotina, pecina i polupecina has for centuries been used as a quarry for the (REGISTAR 1997, br.434). Pronadeni su kameni construction of the city of Toplice. These rocks are

2- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, prociscene gline, dobre i tvrde izrade, narancaste boje koja ostavlja trag. 3- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama kamencica, kvarcita, tvrde izrade, tamno sive a u prijelomu svijetlo smede boje. 4- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s malo primjesa pijeska, dobre i tvrde izrade, svijetlo sive boje. 5- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama kamencica, tvrde izrade, svijetlo sive boje. 6- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s malo primjesa pijeska, dobre i tvrde izrade, svijetlo sive, a u prijelomu svijetlo smede boje. 7- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama kamencica, kvarcita i pijeska, dobre i tvrde izrade, tamno sive, a u prijelomu smede boje. 8- Ulomak cepa posude izraden na brzovrtecem kolu, prociscene gline, dobre i tvrde izrade, svijetlo smede, a iznutra svijetlo sive boje. 9- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, prociscene gline, dobre i tvrde izrade, tamno sive, a u prijelomu svijetlo sive boje. Tragovi bojenja crnom bojom. 10- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, prociscene gline, tvrde izrade, smede boje.

1st to 3rd century BC, and are also dispersed across a smaller area, about 50 x 100 m.

271

272

Varazdinske Toplice-Gradisce.Viseslojni tragovi obitavanja Varazdinske Toplice-Gradisce. Multi-layer Traces of Habitation

15 metres thick layers of thermal springs that have at this location almost entirely disappeared (CABRIAN 1973, 4). Besides thisffled-inthermal spring at Gradisce and the widely known one at the municipal park in Toplice, there was also a spring at Petkovec, where there were also prehistoric finds (CABRIAN 1973, 4). According to the Register of archaeological finds, Stjepan Vukovic in 1955 collected a part of the archaeological and paleontological material at the foot of the hill, where limestone rock was broken off and transported. In 1956 he carried out an exploratory excavation of the site that included system of cracks, caves and half-caves (REGISTAR 1997, br.434). Stone artefacts of Middle Palaeolithic, Mousterian, origin were found. The results of his research show that the site was destroyed, and is as such described in the Register. A careful survey of the plateau on the elevation above the former stone quarry, however, has established that there was a settlement here from an undetermined prehistoric period. A quantity of small potsherds was found, as artefakti srednje paleolitickog, musterijenskog pori- were flint flakes, mostly over the precipice, where jeMa. Rzultati njegova istrazivanja pokazuju kako the soil layer was crumbling into the valley. The je nalaziste unisteno, te je tako i opisano u Registru. plateau had become overgrown in deep grass and Medutim, pazljivim pregledom zaravanka na bushes. There are also old military trenches on the uzvisini iznad bivseg kamenoloma, ustanovljeno je peak in which archaeological finds have been kako se tu nalazilo naselje iz poblize neodredenog coUected. As the character of the site and its position pra-povijesnog razdoblja. Pronadeno je ponesto is different from the one explored in 1956,1 feel sitnih ulomaka keramike kao i roznjackih odbitaka, that the site atop Gradisce should be differentiated uglavnom nad ponorom, gdje se sasipavao zemljani from the one at its feet, where Vukovic discovered pokrov u dolinu. Inace je zaravanak zarastao u Palaeolithic finds in the rocks. The relatively small duboku travu i grmlje. Na vrtm takoder postoje quantity of finds does not necessarily mean that stari vojni rovovi u kojima se takoder mogu otkriti there was not a settlement here, rather that they arheoloski nalazi. Kako je karakter nalazista i njegov simply cannot be located in the grass without polozaj drukciji od onoga istrazivanoga 1956.g., excavation. smatram da se nalaziste na vrtm Gradisca treba Only very small potsherds from vessels were razluciti od nalaza u podnozju, gdje je Vukovic u coUected during several rounds of surveying, so that stijenama otkrivao paleoliticke nalaze. Razmjerno it is hard to give a precise time frame to this site. maJi broj nalaza ne mora znaciti da na ovome mjestu What is certain, however, is that the potsherds come nije bilo naselje, vec da se oni bez iskopavanja u from rough prehistoric vessels, while some are Roman travi naprosto ne mogu pronaci. period or medieval. Small flint flakes can be found Prilikom pregleda u nekoliko navrata skupljeni along with the ceramic finds, which indicates that su samo vrlo sitni ulomci posuda, pa je tesko tocnije stone tools were also produced here. odrediti vremensku pripadnost ovog nalazista. The Gradisce nad Pecine position in Tbplice is a Sigurno je, medutim, da ulomci pripadaju grabim suitable position for a prehistoric settlement. It is prapovijesnim posudama, a neki antickim i surrounded at three sides by steep cliffs and is srednjovjekovnim. Uz keramicke nalaze, moguce je accessible only by way of the narrowest, western side. naci i sitne odbitke roznjaka, sto upueuje kako su The plateau on the hill itself is spacious and soilovdje izradivane i kamene alatke. covered. The position allows for a view of the fertile Polozaj Gradisca nad Pecinama u Tbplicama valley of the Bednja River and indirectly over the prikladan je polozaj za prapovijesno naselje. S tri Koscevec valley, that is, its approach from the strane okruzuju ga strme litice, a pristupacan je northwest side. It is, therefore, reasonable to consider samo s najuze, zapadne strane. Sam zaravanak na that it had been inhabited not only in prehistoric brdu je prostran i prekriven zemljom. Polozaj times but also during later periods. Only sondages omogueuje pregled nad plodnom dolinom rijeke will, however, be able to establish the nature of this Bednje i posredno nad dolinom Koscevca, odnosno site. prilazom sa sjeverozapadne strane. Prema tome razborito je predmnijevati kako je bio naseljen ne POLJE NEAR VARA@DINSKE TOPLICE samo u doba prapovijesti vec i u kasnija razdoblja. Traces of Habitation from the Roman No, tek sondiranjima moci ce se utvrditi osobitosti and late Medieval Periods ovog nalazista. The launch of construction on the 2nd phase of

POLJE KOD VARAZDINSKIH TOPLICA Tragovi obitavanja iz rimskog i kasnosrednjovjekovnog doba Pocetak radova na obilaznici Varazdinskih Tbplica - 2 faza zapoceo je u travnju 2003.godine. Prvi dio, od same autoceste u dolini Koscevec pa do novog raskrizja kod danasnjega groblja u Toplicama zavrsen je jos 2002.godine. Za drugu fazu predviden je nastavak proboja nove ceste kroz polja juzno od grada sve do istocnog izlaza prema Tuhovcu. Buduca trasa pregledana je u cijeloj duzini nakon iskolcenja, aJi nisu zamijeceni arheoloski nalazi, osim sitnih ulomaka uglavnom novovjeke keramike. Prvo su zapoceli radovi na istocnom dijelu ove trase. Kako je rijec o uglavnom ravnoj dolini, izvrseno je samo humusiranje na dubini od dvadesetak centimetara. I ti su radovi nadzirani, ali ni tada nisu zamijeceni nalazi. No prilikom kopanja jaraka za odvodne kanale uz cestu ukazala su se dva zanimljiva mjesta na ovoj trasi - prvo je nazvano Polje a drugo Gromace 2, prikazano u posebnom poglavlju. Polozaj Polje prostire se juzno do jugoistocno od Tbplica, u poljima prema rijeci Bednji. Nalazi su rijetko rasporedeni s obje strane nove obilaznice, otprilike na mjestu gdje se prilazni puteljak iz pravca trafo-stanice i skole spaja s obilaznicom. Nakon kopanja jaraka uz novu obilaznicu, u iskopanoj zemlji i samim jarcima pronaden je odreden broj ulomaka rimske i novovjeke keramike. Anticki nalazi se na nekim mjestima vide i u profflu jaraka, a novovjeki nalazi uglavnom su na povrsini. U jarcima s obje strane obilaznice nisu pronadeni ostaci struktura objekata ili jama, niti se vide promjene u slojevima koje bi imale arheoloskoi znacenje. Stoga ovdje nisu provodena arheoloska iskopavanja. Ipak, kako je na torn polozaju izrazito povecana gustoca antickih nalaza, ovaj je polozaj zasebno dokumentiran. Svi prikupljeni nalazi

the Varazdinske Toplice bypass was in April of 2003. The first part, from the highway itself in the Koscevec vaUey up to the new crossing at the present day cemetery in Toplice was completed by 2002. Phase 2 foresaw the continuation of breaking ground for the new road through the fields south of the city right up to the eastern exit towards Tuhovec. The entire length of the future route was surveyed after being staked out, but archaeologicalfindswere not found with the exception of very small potsherds of mostly early Modern pottery. Work first started on the eastern part of this route. As this is a predominantly flat valley, only humusing was done to a depth of about twenty centimetres. This work was also supervised, but there were nofindsnoticed even then. During the digging of ditches for drainage canals along the road to interesting places on the route were revealed - the first was designated as Polje and the second as Gromace 2, detailed in a separate chapter. The Polje position extends south to southeast from Toplice, over the fields towards the Bednja River. Thefindsare scattered sparsely to both sides of the bypass, about where the access path from the direction of the electric transformer station and school meet with the bypass. After the ditches along the new bypass were dug a number of potsherds from Roman and early Modern ceramics were found both in the excavated soil and in the ditches themselves. The Roman period finds can in places be seen in the ditches profile while the early Modern finds are predominantly on the surface. The remains of features, structures or pits, were not found in the ditches on either side, nor are changes visible in the layers that would have archaeological significance. Archaeological excavations were not, therefore, undertaken here. The position has, however, been separately

273

Vara`dinske Toplice-Polje. Po~etak radova na drugom dijelu obilaznice grada. Polo`aj Polje nalazi se kod dalekovodnog stupa. Vara`dinske Toplice-Polje. Start of construction works on the second part of the city bypass. The Polje site is situated near the high power transmission tower.

274

potjecu s prostora velicine oko 30 x 30 metara, te su documented on account of the exceptionally high oznaceni posebnom oznakom Polje. Pronadeni rise in the density of Roman period finds. AH of the su u zemlji koja je strojno izvucena iz jaraka i collected finds originate from an area about 30x 30 raskopanoj zemlji u bUzini jaraka ili iz samih jaraka. metres in size and have been separately designated Najdublji strojni ukop jarka je oko 75 cm, a as Polje. They were found in the soil that had keramika in situ nalazi se najdublje na 50 cm od been excavated from the ditches by heavy machinery danasnje povrsine zemlje. Nalazi su razmjerno and in the excavated soil from near the ditches or in ravnomjerno rasporedeni na spomenutoj povrsini. the ditches themselves. The maximum depth of the Medu pronadenom keramikom, glavnina excavation by heavy machinery in the ditches is about pripada gruboj provincijalnoj izradi kasnije antike. 75 cm, and the pottery in situ is found at the deepest Kao i na Gromacama 1, ovdje se nalaze dva ulomka at 50 cm from the present-day surface. The finds are (Tl-8,7?) velike spremisne posude (inacice do^e) relatively equaUy dispersed over the mentioned area. koja datira u kasnu antiku. Ove posude nisu toliko Among the coUected ceramics, the majority is of grubo nacinjene kao primjerak s Gromaca 1 (Tl- the rough provincial manufacture of the late Roman 15), ali ih svejedno mozemo datirati u to doba na period. Like at Gromace 1, here too are two osnovi slicnih p r i m j e r a k a (Rifnik i Tinje, potsherds (Tl-8, 7?) from large storage vessels (a CIGLENECKI 2000, sl.84-1, donekle sl.83-10; version of the Dottum) that dates from the late t.24-5). Roman period. These vessels are not as roughly Pronaden je dio rimskog krovnog crijepa, s manufactured as the specimens from Gromace 1 dijelom utisnutog pecata od kojeg se sacuvalo samo (Tl-15), but we can nevertheless date them to this slovo F. Pecati na tegulama najcesce imaju utisnuto period on the basis of similar specimens (Rifnik natpisno poljcpa su im slova teko ispupcena^reljefu. and Tinje, CIGLENECKI 2000, sl.84-1, to some Na nekima su utisnuta samo slova, pa nemaju niti extent sl.83-10; t.24-5). omedeno natpisno polje. Ovakvi primjerci uglavnom Part of a Roman roof tile was found with part of an impressed seal of which only the letter F is datiraju od 1. do 3.st. (npr Q.GLODI AMBROSI; C.TITI HERMEROTIS, TOMASOVIC 1995, preserved. Seals on roof tiles usually have impressed s.31; L.B.SEG, P E T R U 1972, t.XLVI-14, s.66). inscription fields so that their letters are protruding, Ostali ulomci ne izdvajaju se posebno medu ostalim in relief. Only letters are impressed onto some and antickim keramickim nalazima s podrucja Toplica, they do not have bordered inscription fields. i moze se samo reel kako vjerojatno potjecu iz Examples like these usually date from the 1st to razdoblja o d l . do 4.stoljeca. 3rd centuries (for example Q.GLODI AMBROSI; Pronaden je i jedan ulomak crnog sjajnog C.TITI HERMEROTIS, TOMASOVIC 1995, neprozirnog roznjaka, osrednjih karakteristika s.31; L.B.SEC, P E T R U 1972, t.XLVI-14, s.66). cijepanja. Morfoloski, rijec je o lomljevini sa 20 % The other potsherds do not stand out in particular okorine. Moguce je da je rijec o naplavini s obliznjeg among the other Roman pottery finds from the bakrenodobnog nalazista Gromace 2. Toplice area, and it can only be said that they probably originate from the period from the 1st to ZakljUCak 4th centuries. S obzirom na dataciju i relativnu gustocu A single fragment of lustrous black transparent antickih nalaza na ovome mjestu, cini se kako je flint was found, of mediocre knapping characteririjec o tragu nekog zasad neotkrivenog nalazista. sties. Morphologically it is a fragment with 20% Vjerojatno se ovdje nalazio neki omanji gospodarski cortex. It is possible that this is an object carried objekt ili gradevinski sklop tog obiljezja. Zasad nije here by floodwaters from the nearby Copper Age jasno da li se on nalazi na vecoj dubini pa nije otvoren site at Gromace 2. strojnim iskopom jaraka, ili se nalazi pod nekim od zatravnjenih povrsina u blizini. Objekt svakako nije Conclusion graden od kamena ili opeke, jer bi se na ovome Considering the dating and relative density of mjestu sigurno nasli barem neki ostaci gradevnog Roman period finds at this location, it appears that materijala. Zapravo je pronaden samo jedan malen this is a trace of some for the moment uncovered ulomak tegule. Moglo bi se pretpostaviti da je ovo site. It is likely that there was a smaUer outbuilding mjesto bilo plavljeno vodama Bednje u rimsko doba, here or a construction complex of that character. pa je i objekt bio graden ad hoc, kao privremeno ili Jbr the moment it is not clear whether it is located at radno boraviste. Kako je vec potvrdena masivna a greater depth and has not been opened by heavy gradnja drvom u rimskim Toplicama (VIKIC- machine excavation of the ditch, or whether it is BELANCIC 1973), postoji mogucnost da se i ovi located under one of the grass-covered areas in the objekti pronadu kao tragovi drvenih stupova ili cak vicinity. The structure was certainly not built of stone drvenih pregrada na nekoj vecoj dubini ili obliznjem or brick, because at least some remains of prostora. construction material would be found at this place. Only a single small potsherd from a roof tile was Kalalog actually found. It could be presumed that the waters TABLA 1: Polje: SlUCajni nalazi of the Bednja flooded this location in Roman times, 1- Ulomak krovnog crijepa - tegule, s primjesama and that the structure was constructed ad hoc, as a

275

Tabla 1 . Vara`dinske Toplice-Polje. Slu~ajni anti~ki nalazi. Table 1 . Vara`dinske Toplice-Polje. Chance finds from the Roman period.

drobljene keramike, svijetlo crvene boje koja ostavlja trag, s ocuvanim dijelom pecata F... 2- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, prociscene gline, tamno sive, a u prijelomu crne boje koja ostavlja trag. 3- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s mnogo primjesa kamencica koji se truse, svijetlo smede boje. 4- Ulomak posude mozda izradene na kolu, s primjesama pijeska, tvrde izrade, svijetlo smede a u prijelomu crne boje. 5- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s malo primjesa pijeska i kamencica, tvrde izrade, sive boje. 6- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama sitnih kamencica, tvrde izrade, izvana crvenkaste a u prijelomu sive boje. 7- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s

temporary or working lodgings. As massive wood construction has already been confirmed in Roman period Toplice (VIKIC-BELANCIC 1973), there is a possibility that these structures could be located as traces of wooden posts or even wooden partitions at some greater depth or in the nearby area. Catalogue TABLE 1: Polje: Chance finds 1- Potsherd of a roof tile, with temper of crushed ceramics, of light red colour that leaves a mark, with part of a seal preserved: F... 2- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, of refined clay, of dark grey colour, of black colour at the break that leaves a mark. 3- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, with a large quantity of pebble temper that crumbles, of light brown colour.

276

malo primjesa kamencica i drobljene keramike, svijetlo naradzaste boje. 8- Ulomak posude mozda izradene na kolu, s mnogo primjesa kamencica koji se trase, sive boje. 9- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s vrlo malo primjesa pijeska, izvana erne, iznutra svijetlo sive a u prijelomu sive boje. 10- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, bez primjesa, crvene boje koja ostavlja trag. VARAZDINSKE TOPLICE Aquae Iasae, anticki grad Varazdinske Toplice u b r a j a j u se medu najpoznatijia arheoloska anticka nalazista u Hrvatskoj. Brojni nalazi dugi su niz godina izlazili na vidjelo prilikom gradnji u sredistu grada, dok se mjesto nalaza za druge ne zna, osim da potjecu iz Tbplica, sto je moglo ukljucivati i sira okolicu. Najslabije je poznato prapovijesno razdoblje. Prapovijesni nalazi s Gradisca u Tbplicama, opisani su u drugom poglavlju. Nalazi iz sredista Tbplica, zapravo, i nisu poznati. U literaturi se spominje nalaz kamenog oruda i ognjista iznad prilaza u bivsu vodospremu, iznad danasnjeg vrela u gradskom

4- Potsherd of a vessel possibly manufactured on a potters wheel, with sand temper, of hard fabri cation, of light brown colour, black at the break. 5- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, with a small quantity of sand and pebble temper, of hard fabrication, of grey colour. 6- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, with temper of small pebbles, of hard fabrication, of reddish outside, grey at the break. 7- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, with a small quantity of temper of pebbles and crushed ceramics, of light orange colour 8- Potsherd of a vessel possibly manufactured on a potters wheel, with a large quantity of pebble temper that crumbles, of grey colour. 9- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, with very little sand temper, of black colour outside, light grey on the inside, grey at the break. 10- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, without temper, of red colour that leaves a mark

VARAZDINSKE TOPLICE Aquae Iasae, Roman Period Town Varazdinske Toplice is counted among the bestknown archaeological sites from the Roman period in Croatia. Numerous finds have for years been uncovered during construction works in the town centre, while the locations otherfindswere located is unknown, other than that they originate from Toplice, which could include its wider surroundings. The least is known of the prehistoric period. Prehistoric finds from Gradisce in Toplice, are described in another chapter. Finds from the centre of Toplice, in fact, are not known. Only the find of stone tools and a hearth above the approach to the former water reservoir, above the present day spring in the municipal park are mentioned in literature (CABRIAN 1973, 4). Hungarian newspapers in 1845 apparently ran a news item of the discovery in Toplice of 45 pieces of bronze axes, but where is not known, or if the information is correct. There are three bronze sickles and a piece of bronze in the municipal museum whose origin is also questionable (CABRIAN 1973, 4). Alleged finds of Greek, Thracian, Macedonian, Illyrian and Roman money from the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC are also very Varazdinske Toplice. Aquae lasae, anticki p a r k u ( C A B M A N 1 9 7 3 , 4). Navodno j e u questionable (CABRIAN 1973, 5). No pre-Roman grad madarskim novinama 1845.g. objavljena vijest finds have been uncovered during the several decades Vara`dinske Toplice. Aquae Iasae, Roman kako je u Tbplicama pronadena ostava od 45 archaeological excavations have been lead in the Period Town komada broncanih sjekira, no nije poznato gdje, municipal park, from 1953 to the present.2 That kao ni da li je ta vijest uopce tocna. U Gradskome does not mean there will not be any in the future, muzeju nalaze se tri broncana srpa i komad bronce, but the fact that there has been none after so many cije je porijeklo takoder upitno (CABRIAN 1973, years of exploration is becoming significant. The 4). Navodni nalazi grckog, trackog, makedonskog, current general opinion that the Iasi lived here and Uirskog i rimskog novca iz 3. i 2.st.pr.Krista, takoder made use of the spring can not after all be accepted su krajnje upitni (CABRIAN 1973, 5). U tijeku without any material evidence. arheoloskih iskopavanja u gradskom parku koja The situation is different with find from the su vodena vise desetljeca, od 1953.g. do danas, nije Roman period. Drawn by the then already known otkriveno nista od predrimskih nalaza.2 Tb ne znaci finds of Roman inscriptions and parts of da ih u dogledno vrijeme nece biti, ali cinjenica da ih architecture, the first recorded expert excavation
2

Na osnoYi dosad objavljenilirezultata iskopavanja i usmene obayijesti Doriee Nemeth-Erlieli, na eemu joj zahvaljujem. Based on results of the excavation published to date and the verbal report of Dorica Nemeth-Erlich, for which I thank her.

nakon toliko godina istrazivanja nema ipak postaje znakovitom. Dosadasnji opceniti stav da su tu zivjeli Jasi i iskoristavali ovo vrelo, ne moze se ipak prihvatiti bez ikakvih materijalnih dokaza. Drukacije je s antickim nalazima. Povedeni tada vecpoznatim nalazima rimskih natpisa i dijelova arhitekture, prvo zabiljezeno strucno iskopavanje izveli su Ivan Kukuljevic i grof Karlo McDonell 1867.g., u dvoristu napram onoga dvorista, gdje mprije niMiko godmah izkopali nimfej.... Tamo su pronasUnatpis sa spomenom Nimfa i razne zidine (TKALCIC 1869, 23). No, tek je 1953.g. Arheoloski muzej u Zagrebu u organizaciji Branke Vikic-Belancic i Marcela Gorenca te Valerije Damevski, zapoceo prva sustavna iskopavanja u tadasnjem gradskom parku u Tophcama (VIKIC-BELANCIC, GORENC 1958, 75). Od tada pa do 1982. g. trajala su istrazivanja koja se nisu ogranicila samo na gradski park, vec i na neke druge lokacije u Toplicama (robna kuca) (VIKIC-BELANCIC 1961; VIKICBELANCIC, GORENC 1961; VIKIC-BELANCIC, GORENC 1969; VIKIC-BELANCIC 1973; GORENC, VIKIC 1980, itd.). Nakon gotovo 10 godina stanke u arheoloskim radovima, zapocela su 1991.g. nova istrazivanja, cilj kojih je danas konacna konzervacija i prezentacija cijelog antickog kompleksa u toplickom gradskom parku (NEMETH-ERLICH, KUSAN 1997). U gradskom parku su tijekom istrazivanja otkriveni dijelovi javne arhitekture, kupaliste s bazilikom, forum, kapitolij itd. Ispod ove prirodne geoloske terase, kod danasnje robne kuce i trznice, otkriveni su ostaci stambeno - gospodarske gradske cetvrti. Svi ovi nalazi svjedoce o nekadasnjem rimskom gradu Aquae Iasae, koji se razvio oko termalnih izvora kao ljeciliste i provincijalno trgovacko srediste odl. do 4.stoljeca. Dokazana je upotreba termalne vode u l.st., kada je ljeciliste uglavnom sluzilo rimskim vojnicima. No, u 2.st. obnovljeno je kupaliste, a ocigledno je da se i sam grad razvijao kao odrediste rimskih gradana opcenito. Tijekom provala Gota, kompleks je spaljen, ali ga je u monumentalnom omjeru obnovio car Konstantin, o cemu je sacuvan i natpis (NEMETH-ERLICH, KUSAN 1997). Nakon propasti Rimskog Carstva, o Toplicama se dugo nije nista znalo. Prvi pisani spomen datira tek iz 1181.g., kada je kralj Bela III. izdao ispravu u kojoj se spominje ovaj posjed (CABRIAN 1973a, 16). Tijekom vremena Toplice su se razvijale, te dobile status trgovista, naselja, a sagraden je i kastel (CABRIAN 1973a, 17). Tako su se Toplice pocele izdvajati medu okolnim mjestima, i ponovno kao malo gradsko srediste, razvijati sve do danas.

was carried out by Ivan Kukuljevic and count Karlo McDonell in 1867 in the yard opposite that yard, where a few years ago a nympheum was dug up... They found there an inscription that mentions a nymph and various walls (TKALCIC 1869, 23). It was only in 1953, however, that the Archaeological Museum in Zagreb under the leadership of Branka Vikic-Belancic, Marcel Gorenc and Valerija Damevski, started the first systematic excavation in the then municipal park in Toplice (VIKIC-BELANCIC, GORENC 1958, 75). Exploration lasted from then to 1982 that were not limited only to the municipal park, but extended to other locations in Toplice (department store) (VIKIC-BELANCIC 1961; VIKIC-BELANCIC, GORENC 1961; VIKIC-BELANCIC, GORENC 1969; VIKIC-BELANCIC 1973; GORENC, VIKIC1980, etc.). After an almost 10 year hiatus in archaeological works, new exploration started in 1991 the goal of which is now thefinalconservation and presentation of the entire Roman period complex in the Toplice municipal park (NEMETHERLICH, KUSAN 1997). Part of public architecture, a bathhouse with basilica, forum, capitol and more was uncovered during the exploration. The remains of a residential and commercial town quarter were discovered beneath these natural geological terraces, near the present-day department store and market. All of thesefindsbear witness to the former Roman town olAquaelasae, which developed around the thermal springs as a sanatorium and provincial centre of commerce from the 1st to 4th centuries. It has been established that the thermal waters were in use in the 1st century when the sanatorium was use predominantly by Roman soldiers. The pools were renovated in the 2nd century and it is obvious that the town itself developed as a destination for Roman citizens in general. The complex was burned down during the Gothic incursions, but was reconstructed in monumental proportions by Emperor Constantine, to which a preserved inscription bears witness (NEMETH-ERLICH, KUSAN 1997). Nothing is known of Toplice for a long period after the faUof the Roman Empire. Thefirstwritten record dates from as late as 1181 when Kng Bela III issued a document in which this possession is mentioned (CABRIAN 1973a, 16). Toplice developed over time and received the status of a commercial centre, settlement, and a castle was built (CABRIAN 1973a, 17). Toplice in this fashion began to stand out among the surrounding places and to once again as a small town centre, to develop to this day.

277

278

GRADISCE IN TUHOVEC (VARAZDINSKE TOPUCE) Roman Period Villa Rustica

Tuhovec-Gradisce. Na izoranom polju nalaze se brojni anticki nalazi. Tuhovec-Gradis}e. There are numerous finds from the Roman period on the ploughed field.

GRADISCE U TUHOVCU (VARAZDINSKE TOPUCE) Anticka Vila rustica

Prilikom arheoloskog nadzora na regulaciji rijeke Bednje, 2004.g., pregledano je i zaboravljeno arheolosko nalaziste u selu Tuhovec. Pregledom polja koje se zove Gradisce, a nalazi se na odvojku koji od glavne ceste u Tuhovcu vodi prema starome mlinu na rijeci Bednji, pronadeni su ostaci gradevinskog materijala te nesto keramickih ulomaka. Sve otkriveno govori o tome kako se na polju Gradisce nalazila rimska villa rustica koja je bila istrazivana jos u 19.st., te se od tada samo uzgred spominje (REGISTAR, br.418). Naime, Tklacic je opisao kako su Ivan Kukuljevic i grof Karlo McDonell, 1867.g., u ondasnjem stilu iskopavali na Gradiseu i drugdje po Tuhovcu. Navodno su otkrili zidove i sitne nalaze, koji posvjedocuju kako je rimska vila u neko doba bila spaljena i napustena (TKALCIC1869, 24).3 Kako je rijec o neistrazivanom i pravno nezasticenom antickom nalazistu, zahvaljujuci ucincima ovih pregleda pokrenut je postupak Preventivne registracije kulturnog dobra koji se vodi pri Konzervatorskom odjelu Ministarstva kulture u Varazdinu. Polozaj Gradisce u Tuhovcu cini jedan uzdignuti zemljani jezicac koji se blago izdvaja iz uzvisine na kojoj se nalazi selo. Ovaj jezicac smjera na polja pred rijekom Bednjom, koja ovdje blago skrece prema istoku. Tako je polozaj izdvojen od ostalih uzvisina, i znatno uzdignut nad rijecnom dolinom.

The forgotten archaeological site in the village of Tuhovec was also surveyed during the 2004 archaeological supervision of the regulation of the Bednja River. The remains of construction material and a number of potsherds were found during a survey of the field known as Gradisce, situated at the branch of the main road in Tuhovec that leads to the mill on the Bednja river. All that was discovered tells of how there was a Roman villa rustica on the Gradiscefieldthat was explored back in the 19th century and has since then been mentioned only in passing (REGISTAR, br.418). Tkalcic, namely, described how Ivan Kukuljevic and count Karlo McDonell in 1867 excavated, after the fashion of the times, at Gradisce and elsewhere around Tuhovec. The apparently discovered waUs and smaUfindsthat indicated that the Roman villa had at some time been burned down and deserted (TKALCIC 1869, 24).3 As this is an unexplored and legally unprotected Roman period site, thanks to the effects of these surveys the procedure has been put into motion for the Preventive registration of a cultural good that is currently underway at the Department of Conservation in Varazdin. The position of Gradisce in Tuhovec is of an elevated strip of land that is slightly detached from the elevation on which the village is located. This strip of land is pointed in the direction of the Bednja River that bends here gently to the east. This elevation is therefore detached from the other nearby ones and raised considerably above the river valley As has been said, it is topographically similar to the position of Gromace 3. During the regulation of the Bednja River in the Gradisce area, a hundred metres to the west, excavation of the riverbed by heavy machinery threw out several potsherds of Roman period and prehistoric pottery, which indicates the utilisation of the river and floodplain under the elevation. On the fields of the elevation, constantly under cultivation and regularly ploughed, a large quantity of mortar, Roman brick, stones and other Roman period construction debris is found; especially to the western slope where it appears that the layers above the walls are at their thinnest, as the most construction material has been ejected here. A great deal of Roman period pottery can be found along with early Modern ceramics across the entire Gradisce elevation, unfortunately quitefinelyfragmented by

3 Tkalfie svjedofi ovako: Ostaviv ovdje kopanje, prodjose prema Tulioveu, 1/2 sata udaljenom od mjesta, i tu pokusase vise izkapanjali, stranom u Tulioveu, stranom u polju Gradiseu, i po seljaekili dvoristili. Nakon duljeg izkapanja, pronadjose predkuee rimskog dvorea (Vila) sto okruglili, sto ravnili zidovali, ploenik iz tu&na kamena, velike opeke, miedeno posudje, erijepovlje stakleno i medju uglevjem saevrta olova i zeljeza, i tri bakrena novea od Proba, Karakale i Konstansa. Sve te rusevine, kao takodjer i izkopana izgorjela okostniea dijeteeja, i kosti njeke domaee zivotinje posute su uglevjem, te nam svjedoee, da je i poslie Konstantinovili vremenali pozar, i to od neprijateljske ruke podmetnut, unistio Aquae Jasae. (TKALCIC 1869, 24). Tkaltic says this: sed digging here and went on to Tuhovec, a halfhour from the settlement, and essayed here several excavations, to the side of Tuhovec and to the side of the Gradiscefield,and in villagers courtyards. After extensive excavation wefound the outbuildings ofa Roman palace (Villa) of both round and straight walls, a gravel walkway large bricks, brass vessels, glass tiles, lead and iron slag among charcoal, and three copper coins from Probus, Caracalla and Constans. All ofthese ruins, a burned childs skeleton that was also excavated, and the bones ofsome domestic animal, are covered in charcoal, whi at, after Constants time, a fire ae Iasae (TKALCIC 1869, 24).

279

Tabla 1. Tuhovec-Gradisce. Slucajni anticki nalazi. Table 1. Tuhovec-Gradisce. Chance finds from the Roman period.

Kao sto je vec receno, topografski odgovara polozaju Gromace 3. Prilikom regulacije rijeke Bednje, u blizini Gradisca, stotinjak metara zapadnije, iz rijeke su bageri izbacili i nekoliko ulomaka anticke i prapovijesne keramike, sto govori o koristenju rijeke i plavne doline pod uzvisinom. Na njivama uzvisine koje se stalno obraduju i ora, pronalazi se mnogo vapna, rimske opeke, kamena i ostalog antickog gradevinskog otpada. Osobito na zapadnoj padini cini se kako su slojevi nad zidovima najtanji, jer je ovdje izbaceno i najvise gradevinskog materijala. Po cijeloj uzvisini Gradisca mogu se uz novovjeku keramiku pronaci i vece kolicine anticke keramike, nazalost potpuno usitnjene stalnim oranjem i kopanjem. Stoga su na tabli samo tri ulomka, koja se mogu zasigurno odrediti kao rimski. Keramika se prema izradi i nekoliko prepoznatljivijih oblika moze odrediti kao ranocarska i srednjocarska. Zasada ovdje nisu pronadeni ulomci iz kasne antike, no Kukuljevic je ovdje osim novca Karakale i Proba nasao i novae Konstansa, sto znaci da je naselje - vila bilo nastanjeno i u kasnoj antici. Ulomak Tl-1 vjerojatno pripada vecoj posudi za spremanje hrane koja se na antickim nalazistima javlja cesto, i to kroz dugo vrijeme (Petrijanec SARIC t.XI-1,2,5; Varazdinske Toplice-Polje Tl7,8). Ovaj primjerak mogao bi se postaviti okvirno u srednjocarsko doba. I nacin izrade rucke Tl-2 takoder bi se mogao postaviti u to doba. Sudeci prema tome, na Gradiseu u Tuhovcu nalazila se anticka villa rustica, a moguce i neko manje naselje. Tadasnji stanovnici iskoristavali su plodna polja doline Bednje i blizinu veceg naselja gmda Aquaelasae, a vrlo vjerojatno su bili i cestovno povezani s udaljenijom Ioviom, danasnjim Ludbregom. Daljnjim pregledima doline rijeke Bednje vjerojatno ce se pronalaziti jos takvi gospodarski sklopovi, kao sto je onaj nedavno pronaden na Gromacama 3, ili moguci na polozaju Cigliste kod Novog Marofa (REGISTAR, 369.).

the constant ploughing and digging. There are only three potsherds in the tables for this reason that can be certainly identified as being from the Roman period. The pottery can by its fabrication and by several recognisable forms be identified as being from the early or middle Empire period. There have not been any potsherds found here from the late Roman period, but Kukuljevic here, besides Caracalla and Probus coins, also found a Constans coin, which means that the settlement - villa was also inhabited during the late Roman period. Potsherd Tl-1 probably comes from the kind of larger food storage vessel that appears frequently at Roman period sites, throughout a long period (Petrijanec SARIC t.XI-1, 2,5; Varazdinske ToplicePolje Tl-7,8). This specimen can be tentatively attributed to the middle Empire period. The method of manufacture of handle Tl-2 can also be attributed to this period. Judging by this, there was a Roman period villa rustica at Gradisce in Tuhovec and possibly some smaller settlement. The inhabitants of the time made use of the fertile fields of the Bednja valley and the proximity of a larger settlement - the town olAquae Iasae, and were very likely connected by road to the more distant Iovia, present day Ludbreg. Further surveys of the Bednja river valley will probably yield more of these kinds of estate, like the one recently found at Gromace 3, or the possible one at the Cigliste position at Novi Marof (REGISTAR, 369.). Catalogue TABLE 1 - Tuhovec - Gradisce: Chance finds 1- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, with a large quantity of temper of sand and small pebbles, of good and hard fabrication, of light brown colour, light grey at the break. 2- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters Tuhovec-Gradisce. Ulomak rimske wheel, of refined clay, of good and hard fabrication, of keramike. Tuhovec-Gradisce. Roman potsherd. dark grey colour, light grey at the break.

280

Katalog TABLA 1 - Tuhovec - Gradisce : Slucajni nalazi 1- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s mnogo primjesa pijeska i sitnih kamencica, dobre i tvrde izrade, svijetlo smede, a u prijelomu svijetlo sive boje. 2- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, prociscene gline, dobre i tvrde izrade, tamno sive, a u prijelomu svijetlo sive boje. 3- Ulomak posude izradene na brzovrtecem kolu, s primjesama pijeska, porozne i tvrde izrade, smede, a u prijelomu tamno smede do crvene boje.

3- Potsherd of a vessel manufactured on a fast potters wheel, with sand temper, of porous and hard fabrication, of brown colour, dark brown to red at the break. LUZAK NEAR JAKOPOVEC (VARAZDIN) Traces of Habitation from the Late Bronze Age and Remains of a Demolished Early Modern Estate During the survey of the last 500 metres of the Novi Marof - Varazdin section, along with the find of the large Blizna site, another place with

Jakopovec-Lu`ak. Razgovor s vlasnikom njive Lu`ak. U prvom planu prona|eni ulomci kasnobron~anodobne keramike. Jakopovec-Lu`ak. In discussion with the owner of Lu`ak field. In the foreground are collected potsherds of late Bronze Age ceramics.

LUZAK K0D JAK0P0VCA (VARAZDIN) Tragovi obitavanja iz kasnog broncanog doba i ostaci srusenog posjeda iz novog vijeka. Prilikom pregleda posljednjih 500 metara dionice Novi Marof - Varazdin uz otkrice velikog nalazista Blizna, otkriveno je jos jedno mjesto s arheoloskim nalazima. Kako je prilikom istrazivanja ustanovljeno da postoji arheoloski jalov prostor izmedu nalazista Blizna i Luzaka na udaljenosti visoj od 150 metra, ovaj se polozaj opisuje kao zasebno nalaziste. Na topografskim kartama ova su polja oznacena kao Marofi, ali smo saznali da ihrnlactizovu Stara spiritana, dok stariji tvrde da se polozaj nekada zvao Luzak Odlucili smo se za naziv Luzak jer je to najstariji toponim. Prema podacima koje smo prikupili od mjestana, na ovom se polozaju od 18. do 20. stoljeca nalazio grofovski marof a kasnije i tvornica spirita. Uoci Prvoga svjetskog rata postrojenje je preseljeno u Petrijanec, a ostaci marofa i tvornice razneseni kao gradevinski material (usporedi BARIC 2003c, 12). Polja su sada obradena, a u izoranim brazdama pronalazi se mnostvo ulomaka opeke, crijepa i

archaeological finds was discovered. As the exploration of the area revealed an archaeologically barren area in excess of 150 metres between the Blizna and Luzak sites, this position is covered here as a separate site. Thesefieldsare designated as Marof (estate) on topographic maps but we discovered from the younger local inhabitants that they referred to them as Stara spiritana (Old Distillery), while the older ones say that the area was once known as Luzak. We opted for the name Luzak, as it was the oldest toponym. According to the information gathered from the local inhabitants there was a counts homestead at this site from the 18th to 20th century and later a distillery. The distillery was moved to Petrijanec on the eve of the First World War and the remains of the homestead and factory demolished and used as construction material (compare to BARIC 2003c, 12). The fields are now under cultivation and numerous potsherds from bricks, roof tiles and early Modern pottery are found in the furrows of the ploughed fields. This is probably the remaining construction material of the distillery and its

281

Tabla 1 . Jakopovec-Lu`ak. Slu~ajni kasnobron~anodobni nalazi. Table 1 . Jakopovec-Lu`ak. Chance finds from the late Bronze Age.

novovjeke keramike. Vjerojatno je rijec o preostalom gradevinskom materijalu spiritane i njezinim izoranim temeljnim stopama. Medutim, u odvodnom jarku autoceste na vidjelo su osim spomenutih nalaza izasli i ulomci prapovijesne karamike. Gotovo sva keramika je s tragovima naknadnog progorijevanja, te sada prilicno slabog stanja. Neki ulomci izobliceni su do neprepoznatljivosti. Ova keramika lezala je u raznim slojevima koji pripadaju urusenju novovjekih zgrada, pomijesana s opekama i crijepom. Zasigurno nije rijec o nalazima in situ. Pomnim pregledom okoUce nije se moglo pronaci prostor koji bi upucivao na nedirnuto ili bar manje osteceno arheolosko stanje. Stoga na ovome mjestu nisu provodena daljnja istrazivanja. Gotovo svi nalazi, iskljucivo keramicki, bili su prepaljeni do izoblicenja. Izabrana su tri bolje

ploughed foundations. In the highways drainage ditches, however, besides the mentioned finds, potsherds of prehistoric ceramics also came to light. Almost all of the pottery now bears traces of being burned through and are now in a quite poor state. Some of the potsherds are so deformed as to be unrecognisable. This pottery lay in various layers that belong to the decaying of the early Modern edifice, mixed with brick and roof tiles. These are by no way finds i n situ. A careful survey of the surroundings did not reveal an area that might have an untouched or at lest less damaged archaeological situation. Further exploration of the area was for this reason not carried out. Almost all of the finds, exclusively ceramic, were burned through until deformed. The three bestpreserved pieces were chosen to represent the typical

282

ocuvana komada za predocenje tipicnih oblika za ovo nalaziste. Prvi je primjer visoka posuda bez naznacenog oboda (Virovitica VINSKIGASPARINI 1973, t.7-6; Igrisce VRDOLJAK 1995 t.10-2; Mackovac KARAVANIC S., MIHALJEVIC M., KALAFATIC H. 2002, A3-5; Doljnji Lakos DULAR 2002 s.146, tip LI), zatim posuda s prema dolje izvijenim obodom (Virovitica VINSKI-GASPARINI 1973,t.8-l; Doljnji Lakos DULAR 2002 s.149, tip L8 ) i na kraju posuda s ruckom uz obod i plasticnom trakom (Igrisce VRDOLJAK 19951.2-4; Moravce SOKOL 1996, sl.8-1; Mackovac KARAVANIC S., MIHALJEVIC M, KALAFATIC H 2002, t.1-7; Doljnji Lakos DULAR 2002s.l52, si.8, tip S7). Svi ovi nalazi se prema navedenim usporedbama mogu pripisati 1. fazi kulture polja sa zarama, odnosno virovitickoj grupi. Tesko je bez iskopavanja procijeniti sto se na ovome mjestu zbivalo u broncano doba. Jedina logicna pretpostavka je to da se ovdje, nadomak naselja kasnog broncanog doba na Blizni, nalazio jedan ili nekoliko prapovijesnih objekata u kojem jezivjela manja zajednica ljudi, vjerojatno jedna obitelj. Takoder mozemo pretpostaviti da su se ovdje, na osami, bavili poljoprivredom i stocarstvom, te naginjali vecem obliznjem naselju na Blizni. U 18. ili 19. st. ovdje je sagraden marof i kasnije zidana spiritana, koji su svojim temeljima, mozda i podrumima, unistili tragove prapovijesnih objekata, a arheolosko se gradivo izmjesalo sa suvremenim. Budu li provodena arheoloska istrazivanja marofa iz 19.st, mozda ce sretno biti pronadeni i neki preostali tragovi ovog, mnogo starijeg naselja.
Katalog TABLA 1 - Luzak: Slucajni nalazi

forms found at this site. The first is a specimen of a high vessel without marked rim (Virovitica VINSKIGASPARINI 1973, t.7-6; Igrisce VRDOLJAK 1995 t.10-2; Mackovac KARAVANIC S., MIHALJEVICM., KALAFATICH. 2002, A3-5; Doljnji Lakos DULAR 2002 s.146, type LI), then a vessel with rim curved downwards (Virovitica VINSKI-GASPARINI 1973,t.8-1; Doljnji Lakos DULAR 2002 s.149, type L8) andfinallya vessel with handle along the rim and plastic ribbon (Igrisce VRDOLJAK 19951.2-4; Moravce SOKOL 1996, sl.8-1; Mackovac KARAVANIC S., MIHALJEVIC M., KALAFATIC H. 2002, t.1-7; Doljnji Lakos DULAR 2002s.l52, si.8, type S7). All of these finds can, based on the cited comparisons, be attributed to the 1st phase of the Urnfieldsculture, that is to say, the Virovitica group. It is difficult without excavation to evaluate what was going on here in the Bronze Age. The only logical hypothesis is that there were here, near the late Bronze Age settlement at Blizna, one or several prehistoric structures in which a smaUer community lived, probably a single family. We can also hypothesise that they were active, here in seclusion, in agriculture and cattle breeding and gravitated to the nearby larger settlement at Blizna. A homestead was built here in the 18th or 19th century and later a distillery, whose foundations, and perhaps cellars, destroyed the traces of prehistoric structures, and mixed archaeological material with contemporary. If archaeological exploration of the 19th century homestead is carried out perhaps happy circumstance will lead to the location of some remaining traces of this much older settlement.
Catalogue

1- Dio posude izradene prostorucno, nepro-ciscene TABLE 1 - Luzak" Chance finds gline, grube povrsine, smede, a mjestimice zbog i_ Part of a hand made vessei; of unrefined clay, prepaljivanja svijetlo narancaste boje. ^h coarse surface; of brown coiour; Ught orange in 2- Dio posude izradene prostorucno, neprociscene piaces because of scorching gline, smede, a mjestimice zbog prepaljivanja svijetlo 2_ Part of a hand made vessei; 0f unrefined clay, of narancaste boje. brown colour, light orange in places because of 3- Dio posude izradene prostorucno, neprociscene SCOrching gline, smede, a mjestimice zbog prepaljivanja svijetlo 3_ Part of a hand made vessei; 0f unrefined clay, of narancaste boje. brown colour, light orange in places because of
POD LIP0M K0D ZBELAVE (VARAZDIN) Bakrenodobno slarijezelieznodobno i ranosrednjovjekovno naselje ^ ^

POD LIP0M NEAR ZBELAVA (VARAZDIN) Copper Age, Early Iron Age and Early Medieval Settlement The Zbelava-Pod lipom site has been known for a long time. The area is a slightly elevated position north of the Plitvica River, near the village of Zbelava. Miroslav Fulir first mentioned it in 1961. Marina

Nalaziste Zbelava-Pod lipom poznato je duze vrijeme. Rijecje o blago uzvisenom polozaju sjeverno od rijeke Plitvice, u blizini sela Zbelava. Prvi put ga spominje Miroslav Fulir 1961.godine. Marina Simek je, nakon nekoUko obilazenja polozaja, izvela pokusno sondiranje 1986.g., te torn prilikom pronasla starijezeljeznodobni objekt i ranosrednjovjekovnu jamu. Medu prapovijesnim nalazima izdvaja se kamena glacana sjekira, ulomci keramike licenske kulture, te nekoliko ulomaka mladezeljeznodobne i anticke keramike. Sto se tice ranosrednjovjekovnih nalaza, izdvajaju se zeljezno kresivo u obliku lire i dva roznjaka. K tome

simek ca m ed out control sondages in l 986 after a

few tours of the position and at the occasion found an early Iron Age structure and an early Medieval pit. Among the prehistoric finds a polished stone axe stands out, as do potsherds from the Litzen culture and several potsherds of early Iron Age and Roman period ceramics. As far as early Medieval finds is concerned, an iron fire starting apparatus

283

POD LIPOM KOD ZBELAVE (VARA@DIN) Bakrenodobno, starije`eljeznodobno i ranosrednjovjekovno naselje POD LIPOM NEAR ZBELAVA (VARA@DIN) Copper Age, Early Iron Age and Early Medieval Settlement

pronadeni su ulomci ranosrednjovjekovne porozne keramike, te ulomci posuda izradenih na primitivnom kolu. Rezultati iskopavanja iz 1986.g zasad nisu objavljeni, vec samo nekoliko prethodnih izvjesca (Begistar br.454; SIMEK 1987; SIMEK 1994; SIMEK 1998b ; SIMEK 1999c, 39). Amelio Vekic 1997.g. je proveo zastitna arheoloska iskopavanja, uoci gradnje tog dijala autoceste. Prilikom iskopavanja, prema rijecima voditelja, otkriveni su nalazi iz bakrenog doba koji pripadaju lasinjskoj kulturi, a iz ranog broncanog doba nalazi licenske kulture. Pronadeni su i nalazi kasnog broncanog doba, a posebno su brojni oni koji pripadaju starijem zeljeznom dobu. Otkriveni su takoder i poneki ranosrednjovjekovni nalazi. Sesto metara sjeveroistocno, takoder na trasi, pronadeno je i nekoliko ranorimskih paljevinskih grobova i vjerojatno pripadajuce kasnolatensko naselje u blizini, koje nrje istrazivano (BARIC 2003f, 33). Nakon ovih iskopavanja, nalaziste je prekrio vijadukt, aU je od njega ipak preostala jedna trecina, koja se nalazi izvan podrucja autoceste.4 SARNICA KOD KELEMENA (VARAZDIN) Anticka i kasnoanticka vila rustica Nalaziste je otkrio Stjepan Vukovic jos 1947.g prilikom radova na reguliranju toka rjecice Plitvice sjeverno od Kelemena.6 Ustanovio je postojanje temelja mosta od kamena i rimske opeke, sto je tadasnjim radovima unisteno. K tome pregledao je

in the shape of a lyre and two flints stand out. Also found along with this are potsherds from porous early Medieval pottery and potsherds from vessels manufactured on a primitive potters wheel. The results of the 1986 excavations have yet to be published, there are only a few preliminary reports (Registar no.454; SIMEK 1987; SIMEK 1994; SIMEK 1998b ; SIMEK 1999c, 39). Amelio Vekic in 1997 carried out rescue archaeology excavations prior to the construction of that part of the highway. According to the dig leader finds from the Copper Age, originating from the Lasinja culture, and from the early Bronze Age belonging to the Litzen culture, were found during the excavation. Finds from the late Bronze Age were also collected with particularly numerous finds from the early Iron Age. A few early Medievalfindswere also discovered. Six hundred metres to the northeast, also on the route, several early Roman cremation graves were found and the probably accompanying nearby late Laten settlement, which was not examined (BARIC 2003f, 33). The site was spanned by a viaduct after these excavations, but a third of it is still intact, situated outside of the highways area.4 SARNICA NEAR KELEMEN (VARAZDIN) Roman Period and Late Roman period Villa Rustica Stjepan Vukovic discovered the site back in 1947

Ishod istrazivanja zasad nije objayljen, ali su pokretni nalazi uprayo u obradi. The results ofthe exploration have not yet been published, but the finds are currently being processed
5 Nalaziste je Stjepan VukoYienazrao BartoloTee, a BraiiaTiie-Belaneie Jalzabet. S obzirom kako su spomenuta naselja dosta udaljena, te izmedu njili postoje i druga nalazista, trebalo bi prostor jasno utvrditi drugim nazivom. Na velikoj vefini topografskih karata ova polja se ZOTO Sarniea, a s obzirom kako se na njih dolazi izrao iz najblizeg sela Kelemen, to je bolja odrednieasireg prostora. Stjepan Vukovi ccalled the site Bartolovec, while Bran Belancic named it JalSabet. Considering that these settlements are quite distant, and that there are otherfindsbetween them, the area should be clearly i entified by another name. Thisfieldis called8arnica on the majority oftopographic maps, and considering that they are accessed directlyfromthe nearest village of Kelemen, this is a better designation ofthe wider area

284

Kelemen-Sarnica. Lijevo rijeka Plitvica, a desno polje u kojem se nalaze ostaci brojnih antickih gractevina i sitnih nalaza. Kelemen-Sarnica. To the left is Plitvica River, to the right field in which there are the remains of numerous Roman period buildings and small finds.

Kelemen-Sarnica. Ulomak kvalitetno izractenog antickog pladnja. (T1-8) Kelemen-Sarnica. Potsherd from a wellmade Roman period platter. (T1-8)

zrtvenik posvecen Silvanu, izvucen iz korita, 6 te keltski mac koji je dobio od radnika Vodoprivrede koji su ga 1954.g. takoder nasli u Plitvici (VIKICBELANCIC 1968, 75, SIMEK 1981b). Nakon ovih nalaza iskopao je i manju sondu uz rub nalazista prema Plitvici, te pronasao anticki gradevinski gruh, keramiku icavle. Godine 1962. i 1963. izvedena su arheoloska istrazivanja pod vodstvom Branke Vikic-Belancici Marcela Gorenca. Rezultati istrazivanja sazeto su objavljeni 1968.g. s prilicno losim crtezima pokretnih nalaza (VIKIC-BELANCIC 1968). Iz objave vidljivo je kako su u gotovo svim sondama pronadeni zidovi, koji su pripisani rimskoj vili rustici. U dvije sonde pronadeni su i ostaci rimske ceste. Prema nalazima keramike i novca, zakljucuje se kako je vila rustica djelovala od 1. do 4.stoljeca. Prema nalazima debljeg sloja gara, autorica smatra kako je kompleks u 2.st. bio spaljen i obnovljen odmah nakon toga. U kasnoj antici, dodaje ona, vila je bila utvrdena poput ostalih panonskih vila koje su u ta nemirna vremena zadobile i obrambenu funkciju (ugaoni rizaliti-kule, VIKIC-BELANCIC 1968, 96 - 98). Spominje i nalaze srednjovjekovne keramike, ali ne govori o bilo kakvim gradevinskim ostacima iz tog vremena. Istrazivanja Miroslava Fulira (FULIR 1969; 1970) daju odredenu sliku rimske cestovne mreze na ovom podrucju. Prema njegovu misljenju, na Sarnici se nalazila putna postaja, koja je u intinereru zabiljezena kao mutatio Populos. Ova postaja nalazila se na cesti Poetovio - Mursa, a obliznje postaje bile su Aqua Viva - Petrijanec na sjeverozapadu, te Iovia Botivo - Ludbreg na jugoistoku. 7
6

during construction works on the regulation of the Plitvica stream north of Kelemen.5 He established the existence of the foundations of a bridge of stone and roman brick, destroyed by the construction of the time. He also examined an altar dedicated to Silvan extracted from the riverbed,6 and a Celtic sword he received from a Waterworks labourer that had also found it in Plitvica in 1954 (VIKICBELANCIC 1968, 75, SIMEK 1981b). After these finds he excavated a smaller trench along the edge of the site towards the Plitvica, and found Roman period construction rubble, ceramics and nails there. Archaeological exploration was carried out under the leadership of Branka Vikic-Belancic and Marcel Gorenc in 1962 and 1963. The outcome of the exploration was published in summary form in 1968 with quite poor sketches of the finds (VIKICBELANCIC 1968). From the report it is evident that walls were found in almost all of the trenches, attributed to a Roman villa rustica. The remains of a Roman road were found in two trenches. Based on the finds of pottery and money, it was concluded that the villa rustica was in function from the 1st to 4th century. Based on the find of a thick layer of charcoal, the author concludes that the complex was burned down in the 2nd century and rebuilt immediately afterwards. In the late Roman period, she adds, the villa was fortified like other Pannonian villas that in those troubled times gained a defensive function (protruding corner towers, VIKICBELANCIC 1968, 96 - 98). She also makes mention of medieval pottery, but not of any kind of remains of construction activity from the period. The research carried out by Miroslav Fulir (FULIR 1969; 1970) offers a picture of the Roman road network in this area. According to him there was a travel station at Sarnica, recorded in the itinerary as mutatio Populos. This station was on the Poetovio - Mursa road and the nearby stations were Aqua Viva - Petrijanec to the northwest, and Iovia Botivo - Ludbreg to the southeast. 7 Sarnica is a slightly elevated river ridge running directly along the left bank of the Plitvica River. South of the ridge is a parallel depression, probably intentionally dug to take a part of the flow of the Plitvica. That would make this ridge into a much more easily defended island. The finds, however, are also spread across the other, longer river ridge the elevation continuing on from the mentioned one. This are is today regularly ploughed and is covered in plantations of oilseed rape and corn. Ploughing throws up parts of Roman buildings (stone, brick, mortar, roof tiles) and the fields are full of potsherds, bone shards and other archaeological finds. Several of these surface finds collected during recent surveys

Naalost, natpis je nestao prije nego ga je Vukovieuspio odnijeti u muzej, a prema njegovom prijepisu bi glasio: The inscription disappeared, unfortunately, before Vukovic could take it to the museum, and would, based on his transcription, read: SILVANO SACR FLAVIVS VICTORINVS MIL.LEG.XIII G VSLL M

Sarnica je blago uzdignuta rijecna greda uz samu lijevu obalu rijeke PUtvice. Juzno od grede nalazi se uzduzna depresija, koja je vjerojatno namjerno iskopana, kako bi se u nju naveo dio toka PUtvice. Tako bi se ova greda pretvorila u lakse branjivi otok. No nalazi se rasprostira i na dragu, duzu rijecnu gredu - uzvisinu u nastavku spomenute. Danas se ovo podrucje sustavno ore te je pokrivenao nasadima uljane repice i kukuruza. Oranjem na vidjelo izlaze dijelovi rimskih zgrada (kamen, opeke, vapno, tegule) a polja su prepuna ulomaka keramickih posuda, kostiju i ostalih arheoloskih nalaza. Nekoliko takvih povrsinskih nalaza iz nedavnih pregleda nalazista prikazano je na tabli. Sadasnji korisnik polja, Nikola Lipovec, l