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ø|SzbÔMG| ¼pSz z°

A}McAhM}u AxóbAx
ø|SzbÔG ` |xHÜuSMr| vS|ÞA|b ¨SêSMq|
brSY v{ñSM}SguS bM|Mhu vAx÷bÌzS|
PeS¦

ø|SzbÔG ¼rz ¼gSA|q ªM®AhM}u


½SK¨zSMi| PxsH PrMb¥ ¼gS|
bM|AhM}u Wu© Pb[ uu, ½SK
XM×S}Mu| ¨xMgM® iuA¼® PuqS
Pb~xgÜ P¨u¥ ½SKMs| zÚcv÷Y ¼rz
ø|SzbÔMG| zAªzS| brS iSAuM®
¼x¶SAs hSAvM®Ah}, q@S| ¨3MbÕ
¨ØxSs vA|Mx~u bM|Ah}¥ ø|SzbÔMG|
iHxubrS ` [vMs~ ¨Øb}u ¼rz ¼bS~
bM|AhM}u ½SK PuqS K÷M}Sb©uSr
¨Su©S}¥
^¨xY elAh} |xHÜuSMr| PqM|SæPgSs
xh| x®¨ PrMb¥ qS|` xS XMd ø|SzbÔG
AuMi PrMb bAx| AvqÏMsx PsMxÜuSr
mSbÌM|| ¨Mò PscS b|Mq q@SMs|
AgàvÚM|| xSA¬Mq ^M¨AhM}u¥
P¨AsMu| WiSuS, Wc©Sq, ¨SsSzSlS
ø|SzbÔMG| ¨Mò WAyiSq tuH xSzSu©
zªA¦ñ X}Sv bM|AhM}u sHeñêp, zÚí
ªM®AhM}u, ¨zSs| iSAuM®AhM}u¥
½SK ¨zSMi| ¼AqäSxSA¦ñbH| [à¨Mx
X¨S| iu© {Úxb ø|SzbÔGMb Xz°p
iSAuM®AhM}u ¼xHp PsMxÜuSr¥
P¨ ¨z® |xHÜuSr AhM}u cÚxY PhSl,
¨¨xq 2/3 xhM|| A~R¥ tM| AuMq ªMx,
ø|SzbÔG ^xØ |xHÜuSr P¨Asu v|Þ|Mb
PsMcuAu, PscM}` bS|` CÙAqvMl qS|
hSv vM¬Au¥ q@SMs| PscS ¼rz `
P~¦xSM|| zMqS ªM®Ah} XvS| ¨SbÌñ}S|
P|SnAèq ½SK bS~Hó| AzM÷| ¼S¨SMs¥
½SK ¨zSMi|Y X| ^b ¼AqäS xSA¦ñbH
[à¨Mx¥
ø|SzbÔG qcu ¨ÚAxc©Sq, q@S| yå
WMub, WuÚ|SdH X|` PxA~¥ |xHÜuSr,
x®¨ 21/22 xh|, c©SAq}Sy b|Mhu, q@S|
¨SAªq© ¼AqyS® xAózgÜ v{ñ× zÚí¥
bAx ¼AqTAqMq y|vÚ|¥ |xHÜuSr q@S|
13/14 xh| x®¨ PrMb ø|SzbÔMG| brS
RMu X¨Mhu, ½SK ¨zSMi| ¨Mò
ø|SzbÔMG| Pz}SMz~S| brS` iSMuu,
Abô bcu` `Y v|zªØ¨ uSMz vA|Agq
zSuÚ¦Al| ¼Aq XbÔã ªuAu¥ {As` AqAu
RMuMhu, q@S| PguS dS®b uM|u s§
qcu sAêMpóM|| v|zªØM¨| bSMh
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iSuMqu uS¥ Abô bAx| dSu AqAu
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q@SMb¥ uM|ÜuSr ø|SzbÔGMb P{
|xHܨòHqOA} RAuM®AhM}u P¨OA}
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uM|ÜuSr ^Y dSuAl |xHÜuSMr| bMíY
RMuAhM}u xM} WuÚzSu¥ AqAu
ø|SzbÔGMb X|` RAuM®AhM}u:
‘AsxSAuA~ bA|®S {qu, NsM®Mq
|MgAh X¨u’ ^xØ ‘PqSzSM|Y bA|®SAh
iHxMu| lÀxqS|S¥’ qMx |xHÜuSrMb
PscS| XMd ¼rz dSu sÁAlY ø|SzbÔG
RMuAhM}u, |gA®qS| uSz ¨¨xq
iSMuuAu¥
ø|SzbÔG ^xØ |xHÜuSMr| zMt© PscS
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PbSu` [à¨Sª iSMdAu¥ q@S|S v|Þ|Mb
PsMcMhu zS÷, XbÔã ªuAu¥ ø|SzbÔG
uM|ÜuSrMb ¼rz PsMcAhM}u [§|
b}bSqS| ^bAl xSA¬Mq, xSiMu|
¨A8}Mu| zMt©¥ uM|ÜuSrMb P¨cSMu
PnMb XuS ªM®Ah} dSu dS`®S| iu©¥
ø|SzbÔG dSu RMu gzàbÔq
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X¨S| Xz°p` iSAuM®AhM}u¥
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{Mrã ¼QAq AuM®, xSs©{°SAs `
AuiB ¨ªA~>HMs| ¨òMq AbÅ| bMí dHq
q@S| P¨AsMu| dSu bSMb uS zÚí
bM|Ah}? ø|SzbÔG` AuI®Y Xu×
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dS®b ` ¨òHq|A¨b–qxÚ ¨Ú¨Aõq, ¨ÚMx~,
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¥
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ø|SzbÔG ^xØ AxMxbSuM×| iHxuH
A}McAhM}u xM} Y[M|Sv v{ñ×
AdM® |xHÜuSr q@SMb tzb
AsM®AhM}u¥ Wrg P¨ ¨z® |xHÜuSr
uxHu {Úxb AhM}u uS¥ AqAu vA|pq
iHxMu PvR>MhMhu, ¨S|S AxMó
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Abô PscS {SMö, q@S| x®¨ X|` vA|pq
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zuMu| dyH|qS ` WuÚyÎAq| qHYqS
AuM® bS|` zMu PbSu` ¨Ø~® PuY¥
qShS¬S, ^blS xSDx ¨q© AqAu AuMi|
PgSMc PsMcAhM}u¥ 1883 ¨SM}| 2 Pz
u×u xSdSMu ø|SzbÔG AuzA°q ªM®`
[MvAêq ªM®AhM}u, |xHÜuSr P{u
q@S| AsMb AwM|` qSbSuAu¥ `Y
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bzMq 1930 ¨S} uSdSs qS ¼S® bvÛñM||
zMqS xSqSM¨ AzM~ AdM®Mh¥ X|
ø|SzbÔG P{u ¨S|S AxMó| XbS~iÁM¬
vScS PzM}Mhu¥ P|SzS P|>S}S ^Y
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[MsM~ YØM|Ai yS¦Mp
xM}AhM}u–‘‘|SzbÔG v|zªØM¨| zMqS
zªSu XßS|S ¨Mq©| ¨zé 8v PsMcu, xS `
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¼qH®zSu ª`®S| qSàv{ñ WuÚtSxu b|S|
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XvuSMs| xA}, XvuS|S {As ¼bÔqY
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|xHÜuSMr| ^Y xSpH ¨S|S AxMó
¼gSA|q ªM®Ah}¥
ø|SzbÔGMb ¼pSz iSAuM® |xHÜuSr
P{ bAxqSAl A}McAhM}u P¨ bAxqSAl|
YØM|Ai WuÚxSs AqAu AuMiY
bM|AhM}u¥ bAxqSAl XbSM| PhSl,
Abô ¼pSz z° X×A|bqS® dS¯ ªM}
XbSM| PhSlY ªM® rSMb¥ |xHÜuSMr|
vA|xAqñq sÈAãyAò ` zMq| vÛpñ Axx|p
` }Úð qr© [¸S| bM|Mhu ~Øb|H¼¨Ss x¨Ú
q@S| uSAqxÙªà ‘‘ø|SzbÔG BSzH
AxMxbSu× : |xHÜuSr mSbÌ|’’ éMý¥
sAêMpó| PrMb PiS¬S¨>SMbS, b}bSqS| [§|SØM~| ^Y sÁY vHmèSMu| sË|qñ
P¨bSM} Ah} ¼S® vSM® ª<SlSY¥ Abô ø|SzbÔMG| ¨Mò |xHÜuSMr| ¨SêSMq|
¼zSp AzM}Mh ^bxS|Y¥ |xHÜuSr ¨3MbÕ ø|SzbÔMG| tS|pS P¨ySMx iSuS
{S®Au¥ ø|SzbÔG ¨3MbÕ v|xqHñ ¨zM® |xHÜuSMr| tS|pS| [M=c qxÚ AbhÂlS
|M®Mh¥ Abô PscS, qS Ab RtÚ ^bxS|Y? ^Y ¼ª PiMdAh} WMuMb|Y¥
bAxO@| X¨Å iÇi®×H [v}Mê P¨Y¨x ¨Ø~M®| brSY AuMxsu bM|Mhu ªS|Stu
PgRtÚ|H

~©SzxSiSM|| BdñH® bS~Hó| AzM÷| vA|xSM|| ¨s¨©|S Xi` sAêMpóM| yxqSA|pH|


zA×M| PdM} mSbÌ| ø|SzbÔMG| ¼pSAz xSMX gS| XuSæXl XuS AuMxsu bM|u¥ ^Y
AuMxsu ¨StS|p ¼pSAz AªM¨Mx u®¥ ^Y ¼rS mSbÌM|| bSMh `Y vA|xSM|| ]pM~SMt| Wò¥
[uu¼Y ~qMb| P~¦vSMs qàbS}Hu u×uxSdSMu| ¼c©Sq Az÷xSA¬Mb mSbÌ| ^zuY ^b ]Mp|
iSM} iA¬M® AdM®Mhu, {S PbSu` bSM} P~St ª`®S| u®¥ sAêMpó| PrMb mSbÌ| `Y
xSA¬Mq tzñH® WuÚäSMu P{Sd AsMq {Su¥ {SqS®Sq xSxs mSbÌ|Mb Aqu lSbS sÁ XuS
dSA¬ yS¬S Ps`®S| brS Ah}¥ Abô WMub s| b¦SbA¦| v| dÙªBSzH Aqu lSbS Psu¥ bS~Hó|
AzM÷| [§| vÚ@M¦| P¼R¯ zSuxbÌzS| Az÷ xM}u, vÛxñvÚ@M¦| AuMsñM~ [§|¨ÛA||S
^YySMx mSbÌ|Mb ‘xMb®S dSA¬yS¬S’ AzAlM® {S`®S| x©SvSM| WòHbS|x¸¥ ^zubH
xSA¬Mq uxxtÛ ^M} q@SMb` ^Y AuMsñ~ C|p bA|M® Ps`®S ª®¥ ‘¨SzSu©’ ^Y eluS|
P¼êSvl Abô _AqªSA¨b¥ P{ P¼êSvMl| bÌ~H}x|S |SzbÔG v|zªØ¨Msx, zSçS| z~SY (‘|SzbÔG
brSzÙq’| ¨Øb}b øz), |ScS} zªS|Si (BSzH ½KSu×) ` PiS¬S¨>SMbS mSbÌ|xSA¬| ¼AqAuAt
|xHÜuSMr| zMqS dp©zSu© x©Aåñ¥ 1883 A;çSMý| 2 Pz, xÚtxSM|| AxMb}¥ sAêMpóM||
¨Stb vÚM|SAªq, zSjx®¨H |SzbÔG qcu b}bSqS ` X~vSM~| tSAzñb zªM} vA|Agq uSz¥ uM|
ÜuSr s§ qcu` AxMxbSu× ªuAu¥ ^| xh| PsM¬b XMd ^Y sÁY {ÚdvÚ@M¦| zMt© ¨SêSà
ªM®Mh zS÷¥ ÄAl~gSgñ bM}Mi| Ax ^ èSM~| PztSxH ` {ÚAåxSsH hS÷ 20 xhM|| uM|Mu|
Auq© {SqS®Sq g}Mh vSd} mSbÌM|| bSMh¥ Pb~xgÜ P¨Mu| zMqS ^A}l PµAp|
¼AqAuAtñbS|H Abh ½SK PuqS` q@S| bSMh {Su¥ mSbÌ|` ¨SéMª ªSAi| ªu AxAyÅ
½SKtzñSM}SguS®¥ |xHÜuSr qcu XiMb| qÍ}uS® ¨zHª iSdSMuS Pb[ uu¥ ¼SrñuS ¨ØdHq,
Wu© dSu, bAxqS Yq©SAs P}Mcu¥ ^bSAtb xY hSvS ªM®Mh¥ Abh W¼bSA~q |guS|
bHAqñ` q@S|¥ ¨SAªq© ¨9Sl xAózgMÜ| ªSMq` q@S| d}S® zS}S vM¬Mh ^bxS|¥ qMx
qcubS| ¨zSMi |Ax| X¨} cSAq| XAs ½SK ¨zSMi| ¼tSu PuqS zªA¦ñ PsMxÜuSMr| vÚ÷
AªM¨MxY¥ sÁ’xh| XMd AxM}q ¼xS¨ bSAlM® AwM|Mhu¥ |Ax| x®¨ xh| xSYM~| X~vS~¥
‘¨s|`®S}S’ bS~Hó|xSxÚ` AhM}u XAs ½SK ¨zSMi| ‘½KHSuH’ PuqS¥ xSA¬| ½SK zA×M|Y
Au|SbS| ½K| [vS¨uS b|Mqu¥ XxS| yAå b|Mqu ¨SbS| zSM®| ¨Stb mSbÌ| ø|SzbÔGMb`¥ q@S|Y
Xz°Mp mSbÌ| ^bSAtbxS| bS~Hó| AzM÷| xSA¬ AdM®Mhu¥ bS~HóM|| AqM|StSMu| v| P¨xS|
q@S| sÁY vÚ÷ øuSr ` {HuSr xSA¬Mq ½SK [à¨Mx| XM®Siu bM|u¥ `Y q@p|S` Xz°p iSuSu
mSbÌ|Mb `Y Ax~qz ½SK [à¨Mx¥ XzA°q zªA¦ñ PsMxÜuSr ¼AqAuAt vSAmM®AhM}u
q@S| bAuä vÚ÷ |AxMb¥
`Y zSMªÜêMp P¨ {ÚMd| Wu©qz Pµä sÁY zSuxqSxSsH| zMt© bH bH brSxSqñS ªM®Ah}?
|SzbÔGæAxMxbSu× yå qrS bAxO@| yåMs| zMt© ^Y ¼ª P¨Y PrMbY eÚ|vSb cSMö¥ X|`
^bAl ¼ª xS|xS| XM¨, `Y eluS| vM|` mSbÌ| Aqu xhM|| PxA~ bS} q>S| uó| PsMª AhM}u¥ `Y
¨zM®| zMt©` Ab q@SMs| zMt© PbSu` |bz ¨SêSà, XM}SguS ªM®Ah}?
|SzbÔGæAxMxbSu× dMx¦b ~Øb|H¼¨Ss x¨Ú xM}u, ^bzS÷ brSzÙMqY 1883 ¨SM}| 2 Pz’|
eluS| AbhÂlS Axx|p vS`®S {S®¥ qS` P¨cSMu |SzbÔG ` |xHÜuSMr| bMrSvbrMu| PbSu`
xpñuS Ps`®S ª®Au¥ B®Ø øz P¨cSMu [vAèq PrMb` {cu ^Y x©SvSM| XM}SbvSq bM|uAu,
qcu P¨Asu P¨cSMu q@SMs| zMt© brSxSqñS ªM®Ah} xM} PzMu Pu`®S ~å¥ ^|vM|` PbSu`
Asu q@S|S PbSu` èSMu AzA}q ªM®AhM}u xM} ¼zSp vS`®S {S® uS¥ `Y ¨SM}| 5 Pz ‘s©
Pçl¨z©Su’ vA÷bS®` ‘s© ~©SzxSiS| ½K¨zSi’ ~H¦ñb ^bAl PhSl ¨ØxSs hSvS ª®¥ mSbÌ|
P¨Asu tzñ ` uHAqbrS AuM® XM}SguS bM|AhM}u xM} qSMq [M=c Ah}¥ |xHÜuSr
¨3MbÕ x}S ª®, AqAu P¨cSMu ¨ØdHqSuÚäSu vA|gS}uS bM|AhM}u¥ ¨x AzA}M® `Y
eluSAlMbY qS>Ms| ¼rz ` P~¦ ¨SêSà xM} zMu b|S ª®¥
Xi AzAn®S| x©Svb ¼ySx¥ sÈ~© hAx ~ý Yq©SAs sHeñ bSM}| iu© P|bnñ bM| Pu`®S| ¼
{ÚAå` ¨StS|Mp| ªSMq| zÚMmS®¥ P¨bSM} ^¨x Ah} b>uSqHq¥ ø|SzbÔG PxsS× zMm| BSzH
XßMxStSuM×| XMêv ^Y AuM®¥ AqAu xM}u, [v{Úå ¼zSp PuY xM} ^Y x©SvSM| PiS|
AsM® Abh x}S {SMö uS¥ Abô q@SMs| zMt© P¨Asu PbSu` brS ª®Au, ^zu qr©Mb ¨q©
xM} PzMu Pu`®S` bAmu¥ P{zu Xz|S Pc>Si |SAcAu [§| b}bSqS| X|` bq xSA¬Mq P¼Mz|
mSbÌM|| vAx÷ vs|i vM¬Ah}¥
~©SzvÚbÌ|xSAl| ¨s¨© WAgש zÚMcSvSt©S®` ^bY XMêv bM|Mhu¥ AqAu xM}u, Zó|brS
XM}SguS ª`®S| cx| bSMu PdM}Y PbSu` |bz xShAxgS| hS¬SY mSbÌ| P¨cSMu P{Mqu,
ySxSAxã ªMqu¥ AxM~¦q ½SK [à¨xOA}Mq P{Mqu ^bSAtbxS|¥ P{zu A¨>Ar| PxApzStx
vSM}| [s©SuxSAl| ½SK [à¨Mx AqAu AdM®Mhu¥
Abh |SzbÔGæ|xHÜ dMx¦Mb| WuÚzSu, qcu |xHÜuSMr| Ag×SæPgquS Pqzu vA|pq ª®Au¥
ª®MqS qSY ¼rz PscS® mSbÌM|| zMqS x©AåMñ| ¨Mò XM}SguS® P{Sd Ps`®S| ¨ÚM{Sd`
ª®Au q@S|¥ ª®MqS ^bY bS|Mp øz (¨bÔsÁådÙªHqSMrñS }eÚªMDS AiqSê|Æ/
¨xñ~SE¨zSM}SbH ¼bÔMãS uSz P}cbÆ– gSpMb©| ^Y ¼xgu {>S| PêM÷ {rSrñ) [vAèq
PrMb` |Ax| P¨AsMu| yÎAzbS| AxDSA|q Axx|p Ps`®S| ¼M®Siu PxSt bM|uAu¥
qMx bS~Hó| AzM÷| xSA¬Mq P¨Asu |xHÜuSr¨ª mSbÌ|xSA¬| WMuMb dSu PdM®AhM}u
xM} ‘øø|SzbÔG brSzÙMq [A=Acq x©AåxÙM×| vA|g®’ Wt©SM® [M=c b|S ªM®Mh¥
|xHÜuSr bH dSu PdM®AhM}u qS Wx~© P¨cSMu x}S PuY¥ Wu©AsMb |xHÜuSMr| dSu
dS`®S| x©SvSM| ^MbxSM| Au@§| øz¥ ‘½MKSvS¨uS ` ø|SzbÔG’ ¼¨ò xpñuS b|Mq AdM®
AqAu xM}Mhu, ‘‘^YxS| [vS¨uS X|¨ ªYMx¥ [vS¨uS| xÙªà ¼MbSä ½SKyMå vA|vÛpñ ªY}¥
bM®bAl ½SAKbS eM|| [§|AsMb Pg®SM| XA¨®S xA¨M}u– ªSMq ¨òHqvÚDb¥ Av®SMuS `
ªS|MzSAu®Sz ¨ØM{SMd ½K¨òHq dHq ªYMq }SAd}¥ ¨òHq RAu®S mSbÌM|| XuM×| ¨HzS
|Aª} uS¥ ... PDS÷SAs vSm RAu®S mSbÌ| ySxSAxã ªYMqMhu¥’’ s© Pçl¨z©SMu|
A|MvSlñMb PzMu AuM® PbSu` PbSu` |SzbÔGyå WuÚzSu bM|u, |xHÜuSr P¨Asu mSbÌ|Mb
Av®SMuS xSAiM®` P~SuSu¥
dq 1 ` 2 Pz bS~Hó| AzM÷| xSA¬Mq øø|SzbÔG yåvA|¦Ms| [Ms©SMd tzñ¨yS WuÚAäq ª®¥
[v}ê `Y xSA¬Mq |xHÜuSr ` |SzbÔGMsMx| vsSvñMp| 125 xh|¥ [Ms©SåSMs| sSAx, P¨Asu
P¨cSMu |xHÜuSr P{¨x dSu mSbÌ|Mb RAuM®AhM}u P¨OA}| Wu©qz ‘‘XzSM| qÍAz WM~¦
bM|MhS, ^zuY }H}S qx¥’’ 2 Pz ¨¶©S® Kªz×H gMìSvSt©S® ^Y dSuAl P~SuSMuS| XMd`
vA|¦Ms| vê PrMb ^bY PeS¦pS b|S ª®¥
^cubS| xSA¨×S|S iS®dSAlMb X| u×uxSdSu uSMz PgMuu uS¥ XgS{ñ ¼wÌ=gÜ P|SMn|
tSM|| `Y ^}SbS wA¬®SvÚbÌ| uSMzY PxA~ vA|Agq¥ v|zªØM¨| XzM} iS®dSAlMq
xS®ÚM¨xMu| zMqS ¼~D Ah} xM} brSzÙMq x}S ªM®Mh¥ vA|¦Ms| vê PrMb `Y xSA¬Mq
P{ ¼D|w}b }SdSMuS ªM®Mh, qSMq` sSAx b|S ªM®Mh, 233 u6| XvS| ¨SbÌñ}S| P|SMn| `Y
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