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mean
2nd moment
variance
std.dev.

0.5
0
0
0
0.5
3.0
13.00
4.00
2.00

0.3
0
0
0
0.7
3.8
17.80
3.36
1.83

0.35
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.35
3.0
12.00
3.00
1.73

0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
3.0
11.00
2.00
1.41

0.1
0.2
0.4
0.2
0.1
3.0
10.20
1.20
1.10

0.1
0.1
0.6
0.1
0.1
3.0
10.00
1.00
1.00

0.05
0.05
0.80
0.05
0.05
3.0
9.50
0.50
0.71

0
0
1
0
0
3.0
9.00
0.00
0.00

TABLE.

Standard Deviation of a 3-Point Likert Scale

3-Point Likert Scale:

Disagree

Neutral

Agree

1
p

3
q

5
r

(a) VARIANCE

p, P(Disagree):

q,
P(Neutral)

p/q
0

0
0.00

0.1
1.44

0.2
2.56

0.3
3.36

0.4
3.84

0.5
4.00

0.6
3.84

0.7
3.36

0.8
2.56

0.9
1.44

0.1

0.36

1.64

2.60

3.24

3.56

3.56

3.24

2.60

1.64

0.36

0.2

0.64

1.76

2.56

3.04

3.20

3.04

2.56

1.76

0.64

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0.3

0.84

1.80

2.44

2.76

2.76

2.44

1.80

0.84

0.4

0.96

1.76

2.24

2.40

2.24

1.76

0.96

0.5

1.00

1.64

1.96

1.96

1.64

1.00

0.6

0.96

1.44

1.60

1.44

0.96

0.7

0.84

1.16

1.16

0.84

0.8

0.64

0.80

0.64

0.9

0.36

0.36

0.00

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(b) STANDARD DEVIATION

p, P(Disagree):

q,
P(Neutral):

Examples.

p/q
0

0
0.00

0.1
1.20

0.2
1.60

0.3
1.83

0.4
1.96

0.5
2.00

0.6
1.96

0.7
1.83

0.8
1.60

0.9
1.20

0.1

0.60

1.28

1.61

1.80

1.89

1.89

1.80

1.61

1.28

0.60

0.2

0.80

1.33

1.60

1.74

1.79

1.74

1.60

1.33

0.80

0.3

0.92

1.34

1.56

1.66

1.66

1.56

1.34

0.92

0.4

0.98

1.33

1.50

1.55

1.50

1.33

0.98

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0.5

1.00

1.28

1.40

1.40

1.28

1.00

0.6

0.98

1.20

1.26

1.20

0.98

0.7

0.92

1.08

1.08

0.92

0.8

0.80

0.89

0.80

0.9

0.60

0.60

0.00

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(i) (p,q,r) = (.1,.8,.1) represents a high degree of consistency, and sigma is only 0.89.
(ii) (p,q,r) = (.3,.4,.3) represents a low degree of consistency, and sigma is 1.55.
(iii) (p,q,r) = (.4,.2,.4) represents a polarized population, and sigma is 1.79.
(iv) (p,q,r) = (.5,0,.5) represents a completely polarized population, and sigma is 2,
the maximum possible.

1
0.00

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