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POWER WHEREVER YOU ARE

3600 Engine Family


Pocket Guide

P. O. Box 3600 Engine Family Pocket Guide Registration Caterpillar Dealer Name (please print) Dept./Div./Section/Area

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3600 Family
Whether your needs are marine, industrial, or electric power generation, the Caterpillar 3600 Engine Family will provide you with proven power to get the job done. The 3600 Engines are the most powerful and reliable power sources ever produced by Caterpillar. Operating economy and durability make it the logical choice; worldwide product support makes it the only choice. The 3618 Marine Propulsion Engine is the newest addition to the 3600 Family. It was specifically designed to meet the needs of our marine fast ferry customers. For more information on the new Caterpillar 3600 engine, consult your local dealer (see page 48 for publications). This pocket guide is a quick reference to determine which 3600 Engine will best meet your needs. If you should have any questions, please consult your local Caterpillar dealer. If you need assistance in finding a dealer, consult one of our Caterpillar offices (pp. 46-47).

Caterpillar Inc. P.O. Box 5319 Morton, IL 61550 U.S.A. Attention: Corporate Literature
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Table of Contents
Ratings Ratings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Conditions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Distillate and Heavy Fuel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-11 Fast Vessel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 3600 Distillate Fuel Consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Engine and Generator Set Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Product Features. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-18 Overhaul Intervals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Overhaul Descriptions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-21 Lube Oil Experience List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-23 SOSSM Oil and Coolant Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-25 Range of Available Ratings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-27 Distillate Fuel Specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Heavy Fuel Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Performance Calculations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 English. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31-34 SI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35-38 BMEP, Piston Speed, Output Factor, Prop Demand. . . . . 39 Load Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Fuel Consumption. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Fuel Consumption Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42-43 Conversions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44-45 Addresses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46-47 Reference Publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

Ratings
Generator Set Ratings Continuous Rating: Typical application is base load generator set, 8000 hrs/year, load factor < = 100%, 10% overload. Prime Power: Typical application is peak shaving, 6000 hrs/year, load factor < = 60%. Rated load (100%) usage is 1 hour in 12, 10% overload. Standby: Typical application is emergency generator set, < 200 hrs/year, 100% during emergency outage, no overload. Marine Ratings Continuous Service Rating (CSR): Typical application is U.S. inland river vessel, continuous engine operation, fuel stop power equals rated power. Maximum Continuous Rating (MCR): Typical application is tugboat, 1 hour in 12 at rated power, fuel stop power equals rated power.

Conditions
The following engine ratings are based on SAE J1995 January 1990 and ISO 3046 standard conditions of 100 kPa (99 kPa dry barometric pressure) and 25 C air. Performance and fuel consumption are based on 35 API, 16 C fuel having an LHV of 42 780 kJ/kg used at 29 C with a density of 838.9 g/L. Tolerances include -0/+5% on specific fuel consumption and 3% on brake kilowatt power at the flywheel demonstrated at the Caterpillar production test cell. The maximum inlet air temperature to the turbocharger is 45 C before derating. Engine ratings are net power and include deduction for the following parameters: cooling water pumps, lube oil pumps, fuel pump, typical exhaust restriction, and typical air filter restriction.

3612 Cutaway

3600 Cylinder Head

3606 EPG RATINGS DISTILLATE


RPM APPL 1000 bkW ekW 900 bkW ekW 750 bkW ekW 720 bkW ekW RPM APPL 1000 bkW ekW

3608 EPG RATINGS DISTILLATE


900 bkW ekW 750 bkW ekW 720 bkW ekW

SB 2240 2150 2090 2000 1800 1730 1750 1680 PP 2030 1940 1900 1820 1640 1570 1590 1525 CN 1850 1760 1730 1650 1490 1420 1440 1375 HEAVY FUEL CN 1680 1600 1570 1500 1350 1280 1310 1250
CN = Continuous Generator Set (+10% overload) PP = Prime Power Generator Set (+10% overload) SB = Standby Generator Set (no overload)

SB 2980 2860 2790 2660 2400 2290 2320 2220 PP 2710 2600 2530 2420 2180 2080 2110 2020 CN 2460 2350 2300 2200 1980 1890 1920 1830 HEAVY FUEL CN 2240 2160 2090 2000 1800 1720 1740 1650
CN = Continuous Generator Set (+10% overload) PP = Prime Power Generator Set (+10% overload) SB = Standby Generator Set (no overload)

3606 MARINE PROPULSION/INDUSTRIAL RATINGS DISTILLATE


RPM APPL 1000 bkW bhp 900 bkW bhp 800 bkW bhp 750 bkW bhp

3608 MARINE PROPULSION/INDUSTRIAL RATINGS DISTILLATE


RPM APPL 1000 bkW bhp 900 bkW bhp 800 bkW bhp 750 bkW

bhp

MCR 2030 2722 1900 2548 1720 2307 1640 2199 CSR 1850 2481 1730 2320 1560 2092 1490 1998 HEAVY FUEL
RPM APPL 1000 bkW bhp 900 bkW bhp 825 bkW bhp 750 bkW bhp

MCR 2710 3634 2530 3393 2290 3071 2180 2923 CSR 2460 3299 2300 3084 2080 2789 1980 2655 HEAVY FUEL
RPM APPL

1000 bkW bhp

900 bkW bhp

825 bkW bhp

750 bkW bhp

MCR 1850 2481 1730 2320 1490 1998 1485 1991 CSR 1680 2253 1570 2105 1355 1817 1350 1810
CSR = Marine/Industrial Continuous Service Rating MCR = Marine only Maximum Continuous Rating (intermittent) Marine Controllable Pitch Propellers only NOTE: See Applications and Installation Guide for limit line curves (Power vs. Speed) NOTE: Coolant temperature to the aftercooler is 32 C nom. (38 C worst condition) for all heavy fuel ratings. Altitude < = 200 meters.

MCR 2460 3299 1980 2655 MCR 2320 3111 2300 3084 1980 2655 CSR 2240 3004 1800 2414 CSR 2110 2830 2090 2803 1800 2414

CSR = Marine/Industrial Continuous Service Rating MCR = Marine only Maximum Continuous Rating (intermittent) Marine Controllable Pitch Propellers only NOTE: See Applications and Installation Guide for limit line curves (Power vs. Speed) NOTE: Coolant temperature to the aftercooler is 32 C nom. (38 C worst condition) for all heavy fuel ratings. Altitude < = 200 meters. 9

3612 EPG RATINGS DISTILLATE


RPM APPL 1000 bkW ekW 900 bkW ekW 750 bkW ekW 720 bkW ekW RPM APPL 1000 bkW ekW

3616 EPG RATINGS DISTILLATE


900 bkW ekW 750 bkW ekW 720 bkW ekW

SB 4480 4300 4180 4000 3600 3460 3500 3360 PP 4060 3880 3800 3640 3280 3140 3180 3050 CN 3700 3520 3460 3300 2980 2840 2880 2750 HEAVY FUEL CN 3360 3240 3140 3000 2700 2560 2620 2500
CN = Continuous Generator Set (+10% overload) PP = Prime Power Generator Set (+10% overload) SB = Standby Generator Set (no overload)

SB 5960 5720 5580 5320 4800 4580 4640 4440 PP 5420 5200 5060 4840 4360 4160 4220 4040 CN 4920 4700 4600 4400 3960 3780 3840 3660 HEAVY FUEL CN 4480 4320 4180 4000 3600 3440 3480 3350
CN = Continuous Generator Set (+10% overload) PP = Prime Power Generator Set (+10% overload) SB = Standby Generator Set (no overload)

3612 MARINE PROPULSION/INDUSTRIAL RATINGS DISTILLATE


RPM APPL 1000 bkW bhp 900 bkW bhp 800 bkW bhp 750 bkW bhp

3616 MARINE PROPULSION/INDUSTRIAL RATINGS DISTILLATE


RPM APPL 1000 bkW bhp 900 bkW bhp 800 bkW bhp 750 bkW

bhp

MCR 4060 5444 3800 5096 3440 4613 3280 4398 CSR 3700 4962 3460 4640 3120 4184 2980 3996 HEAVY FUEL
RPM APPL 1000 bkW bhp 900 bkW bhp 825 bkW bhp 750 bkW bhp

MCR 5420 7268 5060 6785 4580 6142 4360 5847 CSR 4920 6598 4600 6169 4160 5579 3960 5310 HEAVY FUEL
RPM APPL 1000 bkW bhp 900 bkW bhp 825 bkW bhp 750 bkW bhp

MCR 3700 4962 3460 4640 2980 3996 2970 3983 CSR 3360 4506 3140 4211 2710 3634 2700 3621
CSR = Marine/Industrial Continuous Service Rating MCR = Marine only Maximum Continuous Rating (intermittent) Marine Controllable Pitch Propellers only NOTE: See Applications and Installation Guide for limit line curves (Power vs. Speed) NOTE: Coolant temperature to the aftercooler is 32 C nom. (38 C worst condition) for all heavy fuel ratings. Altitude < = 200 meters.

MCR 4920 6598 3960 5310 MCR 4640 6222 4600 6169 3960 5310 CSR 4480 6008 3600 4828 CSR 4220 5659 4180 5605 3600 4828
CSR = Marine/Industrial Continuous Service Rating MCR = Marine only Maximum Continuous Rating (intermittent) Marine Controllable Pitch Propellers only NOTE: See Applications and Installation Guide for limit line curves (Power vs. Speed) NOTE: Coolant temperature to the aftercooler is 32 C nom. (38 C 11 worst condition) for all heavy fuel ratings. Altitude < = 200 meters.

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FAST VESSEL RATINGS


MARINE DIESEL OIL COMMERCIAL
Engine rpm bkW bhp PS Max. Air Temp. to Turbocharger/ Sea Water Temp. rpm PP CN 1000 190

3600 DISTILLATE Fuel Consumption

(g/bkWhr)
IN-LINE ENGINES EPG RATINGS

3606
900 186.4 750 183 720 184.3 rpm PP CN 1000 191 189.8

3608
900 188 750 720 186.3 185.3 185.4 184.9 185.3

3612 3616

800 1000 800 1000

3400 4250 4500 5650

4560 5700 6035 7575

4625 5780 6120 7685

45/32 C 45/32 C 45/32 C 45/32 C

190.2 186.5 183.4 184.8

MARINE PROPULSION/INDUSTRIAL RATINGS

3606
rpm MCR CSR 1000 190 900 187.6 800 185 750 183 rpm CSR 1000 189

3608
900 800 750 180 MCR 190.1 190.2 182.7 181.2 188.5 181.1

The above ratings are based on the following approximate load profile: 85% of the engine operating hours at 100% of rated power 15% of the engine operating hours at less than 50% of rated power These ratings correspond to the ISO 3046 Fuel Stop Power definitions.

189.1 187.4 183.2 183.4

VEE ENGINES

MILITARY
Engine rpm bkW bhp PS Max. Air Temp. to Turbocharger/ Sea Water Temp.

EPG RATINGS

3612
rpm PP CN 1000 900 750 720 rpm PP CN 1000 189.2 189.7 186.1 184.1 183.9 189.9 186.3 183.9 183.4

3616
900 187 750 720 184.1 183.8

3612 3616

1000 1000 1000 1000

4500 4625 6000 6150

6035 6200 8045 8245

6120 6290 8160 8360

45/32 C 25/25 C 45/32 C 25/25 C

188.1 186.7 182.9 183.7

MARINE PROPULSION/INDUSTRIAL RATINGS

3612
rpm MCR CSR 1000 900 800 750 rpm CSR 1000 191 190 189.1 187.4 186.1 184.1 MCR 188.3 187.2 184.4 183.9

3616
900 800 750 193.2 191.3 185.4 191.6 189.7 184.4

Factory demonstration of overload is available. The above military ratings are based on the following approximate load profile: 3% of the engine operating hours at 100% of rated power 82% of the engine operating hours at 85% of rated power 15% of the engine operating hours at less than 50% of rated power These ratings correspond to the ISO 3046 Fuel Stop Power definitions.

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PP = Standard Prime Power Generator Set Rating (+10% overload) CN = Standard Continuous Generator Set Rating (+10% overload) CSR = Standard Marine/Industrial Continuous Service Rating MCR = Standard Marine only Maximum Continuous Rating (intermittent) The above fuel consumption is based on SAE J1995 January 1995 and ISO 3046 standard conditions of 100 kPa (99 kPa dry barometric pressure) and 25 C air. The fuel consumption is based on 35 API, 16 C fuel having an LHV of 42 780 kJ/kg used at 29 C with a density of 838.9 g/L. Tolerances are -0/+5% on specific fuel consumption. Specific fuel consumption is based on gross engine power and does not include the power deductions for cooling water pumps, lube oil pump, and fuel pump (i.e. Fuel Consumption without pumps). See page 40 for fuel consumption comparison example.

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Caterpillar Propulsion Engine Dimensions

3600 Engine Features


The 3600 Engine Family is a modern, highly efficient engine series consisting of in-line six and eight cylinder engines and vee engines of 12 and 16 cylinders. These are four stroke, non-reversible engines rated at speeds from 720 to 1000 rpm. They are turbocharged and aftercooled with a direct injection fuel system that uses unit fuel injectors. Engine Model 3606 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . In-line 6 cylinder 3608 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . In-line 8 cylinder 3612. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vee 12 cylinder 3616. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vee 16 cylinder Specifications Bore mm (in) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280 (11) Stroke mm (in). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300 (11.8) Displacement per cyl. L (in3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.5 (1127) Rotation (from flywheel end). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cw or ccw Compression Ratio (Distillate/HFO) . . . . . . . . . . 13.0:1/12.4:1 Aspiration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Turbocharged-Aftercooled Rated Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7201000 rpm Piston Speed m/s (ft/s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 (23.6) 10.0 (32.8) Engine blocks are made from a heavily ribbed, one piece gray iron alloy casting. Integral air intake plenums run the full length of the block, providing an even air distribution to the cylinders. The engine block is designed for four or six point mounting. Crankshafts are forged with a continuous grain flow, induction hardened, and regrindable. Counterweights at each cylinder are welded to the crankshaft and ultrasonically inspected to assure weld integrity. The crankshaft end flanges are identical, allowing full power to be taken from either end.
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3606 L 3988 (157) mm (in) W 1748 (69) mm (in) H1 2035 (80) mm (in) H2 841 (33) mm (in) 15 700 Weight (dry) kg (lb) (34 500)

3608 4808 (189) 1748 (69) 2035 (80) 841 (33) 19 000 (41 800)

3612 4562 (180) 1714 (67) 2574 (101) 976 (38) 25 100 (55 300)

3616 5482 (216) 1714 (67) 2574 (101) 976 (38) 30 000 (65 900)

Caterpillar Generator Set Dimensions

3606 L mm (in) W mm (in) H mm (in) Weight (dry) kg (lb) 14 7950 (313) 2425 (96) 3480 (137) 34 100 (75 000)

3608 9240 (364) 2425 (96) 3480 (137) 41 400 (91 000)

3612 8970 (353) 2515 (99) 4110 (162) 51 200 (112 700)

3616 10 260 (404) 2515 (99) 4110 (162) 64 500 (141 800)

Pistons are two-piece with a forged steel crown and forged aluminum skirt. This piston construction ensures excellent strength and durability, and minimal weight. Pistons have four rings two in hardened grooves in the piston crown, and two in the skirt. The top ring is plasma coated; this provides extra wear resistance and lowers lube oil resistance and consumption. The two middle rings are taper faced and chrome plated. The lower oil control ring is double rail and chrome faced with a spring expander. Main bearings are made of steel backed aluminum with a nickel bonded lead/tin/copper overlay. Rillenlager technology, which alternates stripes of aluminum and overlay on the surface, is used. This provides higher load carrying capability and reduces wear rates when compared to trimetal aluminum bearings. The bearings have no grooves in the lower bearing shell. This greatly reduces unit pressure loading when compared to grooved bearings. Rod and camshaft bearings are made of steel backed aluminum with a copper bonded lead/tin overlay. Aluminum bearing material provides better characteristics in the areas of heat conduction, resistance against corrosion, and ability to embed small particles that may otherwise damage journal surfaces. Bearings have no grooves, greatly reducing unit pressure load on the bearings.

Cylinder liners are induction hardened. The combination of induction hardened liners, one chrome/plasma-coated piston top ring, and three chrome-coated piston rings provides the lowest wear on running surfaces. The 3600 liners are plateau honed for better oil control.

Cuff

Piston Rings

Located at the top of the liner is a sleeve or cuff that removes carbon deposits from the top land of the piston. This sleeve prevents the loss of oil control and reduced cylinder liner life by preventing carbon deposits from accumulating and polishing the cylinder liner. Connecting rods are forged, heat treated, and shot peened before machining. The special four-bolt design and the elimination of bearing grooves allows for an extra large bearing which reduces bearing load and extends bearing life. Valves seat on replaceable induction-hardened inserts. Rotators on all valves maintain uniform temperature and wear pattern across the valve face and seat. The exhaust valves used in heavy fuel engines are given special attention to extend their life. The exhaust valve temperature is reduced to approximately 410 C to minimize the possibility of vanadium induced corrosion. A mnemonic 80A material is used in the exhaust valve. The valve head is coated with ceramics and water-cooled valve seats are used to maintain the low valve temperatures.
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16

Cylinder Liner

Cooling System. There are two basic cooling system configurations: single circuit and separate circuit. Both configurations include an engine mounted plate-fin aftercooler designed for high heat transfer. Both configurations include two water pumps that are engine driven from the front gear train. The right-hand pump (as viewed from the flywheel end) supplies coolant to the cylinder block, heads, and turbochargers. The left-hand pump supplies coolant to the aftercooler and oil cooler. Unit injectors eliminate the need for high pressure fuel lines. Maximum injection pressure is 1400 bar on MDO engines and 1520 bar on HFO engines. These pressures provide good fuel atomization which is required for low fuel consumption and heavy fuel operation. The 3600 unit injectors have tip cooling for heavy fuel operation.

Estimated Overhaul Intervals


Distillate Fuel (hrs) Periodic Component Service Top End Overhaul Major Overhaul 8000-12 000 16 000-24 000 Heavy Fuel (hrs) 4000-6000 8000-12 000

36 000-44 000 16 000-24 000

Overhaul intervals are based on: normal wear, proper preventive maintenance, good quality lube oil, regular lube oil analysis, and load factor within defined parameters. NOTE: The above distillate intervals typically do not apply to fast vessel applications.

Periodic Component Service


Heavy Fuel (4000-6000 hrs): CLEAN AND INSPECT Fuel injectors, turbochargers, aftercooler core Distillate and Heavy Fuel (8000-12 000 hrs): INSPECT/REPLACE Temperature regulators (oil and water), water pump seals, exhaust shields CLEAN AND INSPECT Cooling system INSPECT/CHECK Engine protection devices, turbocharger, driven equipment alignment, torsional coupling, governor/actuator, damper and crankshaft seals, camshaft roller followers

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19

Top End Overhaul


Remanufacture or rebuild Unit injectors, cylinder heads, intake and exhaust inserts, valve springs, valve spring guides, valve locks, valve rotocoils, intake and exhaust valves, dowels, grind and lap valves and seats (if not replaced), lap valves for full face contact, and air shutoff valve (distillate) Replace Cylinder head gaskets, seals, o-ring seals and plugs, turbocharger bearings, bushings and seals, oil pump bearings and seals, fuel transfer pump seals, oil cooler seals, water temperature regulators and seals, oil temperature regulators and seals, exhaust manifold gaskets, thermocouples (if equipped), water pump bearings and seals, intake air seals, and valve lubricator pump (if equipped) Inspect/Replace Exhaust shields, cylinder sleeves (cuff), connecting rod bearings Clean and inspect Oil cooler core, oil suction screen, piston under crown

Major Overhaul
Remanufacture or rebuild Centrifugal filter bearings, starting motors, cylinder heads and air shutoff valve (HFO) Replace Fuel injectors, accessory group bearings, front gear train bearings, cylinder head valves and valve guides, grind and lap valves and seats (for full face contact), exhaust manifold seals and bellows, exhaust shields, intake air lines seals, water temperature regulators and seals, oil temperature regulators and seals, and cylinder head valve spring guides Inspect/Replace Aftercooler core, pistons, piston rings, cylinder liners, cylinder sleeves (cuff), main bearings, connecting rod bearings, thrust bearings (except crankshaft), crankshaft, camshafts, camshaft bearings, rocker arm bearings, front gear group, rear gear group, rear gear train bearings, seals, o-ring seals and plugs, valve mechanism group, exhaust manifolds, shutoff controls and alarms, priority valve, turbocharger bearings, bushings and seals, oil pump bushings and seals, fuel transfer pump seals, oil cooler seals, thermocouples (if equipped), water pump bearing and seals, intake air liner seals and valve lubricator pump, gaskets and seals, connecting rod bearings Clean and inspect Oil cooler core, lube oil suction screen, crankcase side covers, central structure covers, camshaft front covers, camshaft drive gear covers, front housing group, gear inspection group, rear housing group, rear structure covers, power take-off covers, priority valve group, crankshaft, valve mechanism covers, oil lines, all water lines, oil cooler, vibration damper, and fuel lines

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21

Lube Oil Experience List for 3600


Successful lube oil experiences in 3600 Series Engines are summarized in the table on page 23. Inclusion in this list indicates that the particular lube oil has been successful only in a particular application and site. This list is not an endorsement nor recommendation for any particular lube oil. Caterpillar does not recommend any lube oil for 3600 Engines other than our own branded Caterpillar DEO in distillate fuel burning applications. When consumables such as oil, filters, additives, and similar items made by other manufacturers are used on or in Caterpillar equipment, the Caterpillar warranty is not affected simply because of such use. The Caterpillar warranty continues to cover defects caused by Caterpillar material and workmanship. Failures resulting from usage of other manufacturers consumables are not Caterpillar factory defects and therefore are NOT covered by the Caterpillar warranty. Use of other manufacturers consumables is at the discretion of the customer, who assumes ALL risks for the effects resulting from usage.
SUPPLIER

LUBE OIL EXPERIENCE LIST FOR 3600 DISTILLATE FUEL


NAME SAE VISCOSITY GRADE TBN HIGH LOAD > 85%

Caterpillar British Petroleum Chevron Exxon

DEO (CF) DEO (CG-4) Vanellus C3 (CG-4) Delo 6170 Delo 477 DeMar Xt CM477 IOLUBE MDY 40 Mobilgard ADL Delvac MX (CG-4) Mobilgard HSD (CG-4) Rimula (North America) DDS 9207

40 15w-40 15w-40 40 40 40 40 40 40 15w-40 15w-40 40 40

13.5 10.5 11 17 17 13 14 13 15 10.1 10.1 12 13 40 40 30 40 40 30

YES UNKNOWN UNKNOWN UNKNOWN UNKNOWN YES YES UNKNOWN UNKNOWN UNKNOWN YES UNKNOWN UNKNOWN EXPECTED YES YES YES YES

Mobil

Shell Valvoline Caltex/Chevron Mobil Shell Texaco

HEAVY FUEL
Delo 3400 Marine Mobilgard 440 Argina-T Argina-X Taro 40XL40 Taro 30DP40 40 40 40 40 40 40

YES: Lube oil has had successful experience in engines operating above 85% load factor UNKNOWN: All documented experiences with the lube oil have been below 85% load factor EXPECTED: A field trial is in progress and the initial results are positive

Caterpillar cannot control base stock variations and lube oil additive packages at locations around the world and therefore takes no responsibility. Differences in load cycle, fuel quality, maintenance practices, and ambient conditions further prohibit a guarantee of lube oil performance at any installation. Past performance of a particular brand does not guarantee future results due to changes in formulation and regional differences. It is the responsibility of the oil producer to verify the consistency and quality level of the product.
22 23

SOSSM Oil Analysis


The SOS oil analysis tests have been developed by Caterpillar engineers and chemists to evaluate the condition of your engines rather than just the condition of the oil. Additional tests may be performed if needed. Following is a brief description of the standard oil analysis tests offered in the SOS program. Wear Rate Analysis monitors wear by detecting, identifying, and assessing the amount and type of metal wear elements in the oil. The rate at which wear metal particles increase from sample to sample is as important as the quantity of particles in the oil. For this reason, regular sampling at specified intervals is necessary to establish wear rate trends for each oil-lubricated compartment. Oil Contamination Analysis Silicon, which indicates dirt entry, is quantified with spectrometric analysis on the oil sample. Additional tests are conducted for contamination of the oil by fuel, water, and glycol (coolant/antifreeze). Oil Condition Analysis determines loss of the oils lubricating properties. An infrared analysis instrument is used to compare the properties of new oil to the properties of your used oil sample. This test allows technicians to determine the extent to which the oil has deteriorated during use and to verify that the oil is performing up to specification during the entire oil change period. Oil samples for these tests are generally taken by the customer. However, your Cat dealer can do it for you as part of a customer support agreement designed to meet your needs.

SOSSM Coolant Analysis


Coolant or cooling system problems contribute to more than 50 percent of all engine failures. These failures can be due to inadequate cooling system maintenance, incorrect concentration, poor operational procedures such as extensive lugging or inadequate cooldown procedures, or system problems such as stray electrical current or block heater failure. These problems will eventually affect the oil condition, and may cause oil oxidation or antiwear additive dropout. SOS coolant analysis is a two-level program that does more than just check the condition of your coolant. It determines the overall condition of the cooling system and can identify problems with maintenance procedures and operational practices. Level 1: Basic Coolant Maintenance Check consists of four analytical tests and four observational parameters that not only show major problems with the coolant, but can also predict some major cooling systems problems. Level 1 results can also determine when Level 2 analysis is needed. Level 2: Comprehensive Cooling System Analysis involves an extensive chemical evaluation of the coolant and its overall effects on the inside of your cooling system. This series of comprehensive tests can identify subtle cooling system problems, determine probable causes, and help prioritize the urgency of needed corrections.

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25

3600 Range of Available Ratings (bkW) 1000 3606


Heavy Fuel Distillate

2000
Distillate

3000

4000

5000

6000

Engine

3608
Heavy Fuel Distillate

3612
Heavy Fuel Distillate

3616
Heavy Fuel

CATERPILLAR DISTILLATE DIESEL FUEL SPECIFICATIONS


Specifications (ASTM Test) Aromatics (D 1319) Ash (D 482) Carbon Residue on 10% bottoms (D524) Cetane Number (D613) Cloud Point (D97) 40 minimum maximum not above lowest expected ambient temperature Copper Strip Corrosion (D130) Distillation (D86) No. 3 maximum 10% @ 282 C (540 F) maximum 90% @ 360 C (680 F) maximum Flash Point (D93) API Gravity (D287) Pour Point (D97) legal minimum 30 minimum/45 maximum 6 C (10 F) minimum below ambient temperature Sulfur (D3605 or D1552) Viscosity (D445) Kinematic @ 40 C (104 F) Water & Sediment (D1796) Water (D1744) Sediment (D473) Gums & Resins (D381) Lubricity by Scuffing Load Wear Test or High Frequency Reciprocating Rig 3% maximum 1.4 cSt minimum 20.0 cSt maximum 0.1% maximum 0.1% maximum 0.05% weight maximum 10 mg/100 ml maximum 3100 g minimum 0.45 mm maximum at 60 C (140 F) or 0.38 maximum at 25 C (77 F) Requirements 35% maximum 0.02% weight maximum 1.05% weight maximum

CATERPILLAR HEAVY FUEL OIL SPECIFICATIONS


Specifications (ASTM Test) Viscosity (D 445) Density (D287) Flash Point (D93) Pour Point Carbon Residue (ISO 10370) Ash (D482) Total Sediment after aging Water (D1744) Sulfur (D3605) Vanadium (D3605) Aluminum & Silicon (D3605) Bunkered CIMAC K 55 55 cSt @ 100 C maximum 10102 kg/m3 maximum 60 C minimum 30 C maximum 22% (m/m) max. 0.15% (m/m) max. 0.1% (m/m) max. 1% (v/v) maximum 5% (m/m) max 6003 ppm max. 802 mg/kg (ppm) maximum As Delivered to Injectors 10-171 maximum 6 mg/kg (ppm)

Caterpillar Guidelines, in addition to CIMAC K55


Sodium (D3605) Vanadium/Sodium Calcium (D3605) Zinc (D3605) Asphaltnes (D1319) CCAI 503 ppm max. 53 minimum 40 mg/kg (ppm) maximum 10 mg/kg (ppm) maximum 15% (m/m) max 8604 max 0.2% (m/m) max

3600 HFO ENGINE DESIGN FEATURES


1. Mnemonic exhaust valves 2. Exhaust valve seat with direct water cooling 3. Unit type fuel injection w/ separate tip coolant passage 4. Oversized turbocharger for high air flow and cooling 5. Turbocharger water wash
4 1 2 3

Water & Sediment

Fuel temperature at engine inlet may not exceed 135 C Admissible with suitable treatment system only Vanadium and sodium compounds become corrosive at high exhaust temperatures, especially so when sodium concentration becomes more than 20% of the vanadium concentration. Consult factory for fuel with vanadium >300 ppm or sodium >30 ppm. Calculated Carbon Aromaticity Index limit is 850 for loads below 50% of rated kW output or for load cycling applications.

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ENGINE

ENGINE

30 3616 3612 3608 3612 3608 3606 3616 INCH 11.02 11.02 11.02 11.02 DISPLACEMENT IN3 280 280 280 280 L BORE MM 3606 13527.6 221.67 9018.4 147.78 6763.8 110.84 117.1 11.81 11.81 11.81 11.81 58.6 87.8 5.41 8.12 1.08 89.71 17.64 11.76 59.81 44.85 8.82 300 300 300 300 L8 L6 V12 V16 CONSTANTS FOR POWER CALCULATIONS K C ENGLISH SI ENGLISH SI INCH STROKE MM NUMBER OF CYLINDERS 18036.8 295.56 43.9 4.06 119.61 23.52

PERFORMANCE CALCULATIONS

CALCULATIONS ENGLISH
1. Fuel Rate (gallon/min)
Assume 35 API distillate fuel, fuel density = 7.001 lb/gal
grams bkWhr
REDUCED EQUATION

bkW 1

1 hr 60 min

2.205 lb 1000 g

1 U.S. gal U.S. gallon = 7.001 lb minute U.S. gallon (g/bkWhr)(bkW)(0.000005293) = minute

EXAMPLE

(200 g/bkW)(1850 bkW)(0.000005293) = 1.9

U.S. gallon minute

1.1

lb hphr

x
REDUCED EQUATION

hp 1

hr 60 min

1 gal 7.001 lb

U.S. gallon minute U.S. gallon (lb/hphr)(hp)(0.002381) =


31

minute
EXAMPLE

(0.329 lb/hphr)(2480 hp)(0.002381) = 1.9

U.S. gallon minute

CALCULATIONS ENGLISH
2. Heat Rate (BTU/ekWhr)
Assume fuel with a LHV of 42 780 kJ/kg, 96.5% efficient generator
g bkWhr
REDUCED EQUATION

32 33

1 bkW 0.965 ekW

1 kg 1000 g

42 780 kJ kg

BTU 1.055 kJ

BTU ekWhr

(g/bkWhr)(42.02) =
EXAMPLE

BTU ekWhr

(200 g/bkWhr)(42.02) = 8404

BTU ekWhr

CALCULATIONS ENGLISH
3. Power (hp)
POWER (hp) = = K= BMEP (psi) x SPEED (rpm) x DISP (in ) 792 000 BMEP (psi) x SPEED (rpm) K 792 000 DISPLACEMENT (in )
EXAMPLE
3 3

291 (psi) x 1000 (rpm) x 6763.8 (in ) 792 000

= 2485 hp

3.1 Power (hp)


POWER (hp) = TORQUE (lbft) x SPEED (rpm) 5252

CALCULATIONS ENGLISH
4. Torque (lbft)
TORQUE (lbft) = BMEP (psi) x DISPLACEMENT (in 3) 150.797

34 35

= BMEP x C C= DISPLACEMENT 150.797

4.1 Torque (lbft)


TORQUE (lbft) = POWER (hp) x 5252 SPEED (rpm)

EXAMPLE

13 051 (lbft) =

2480 (hp) x 5252 1000 (rpm)

CALCULATIONS SI
5. Fuel Rate (liters/min)
Assume 35 API distillate fuel, fuel density 838.9 g/L
grams bkWhr
REDUCED EQUATION

bkW 1

1 hr 60 min

1 liter 838.9 g

liters minute

(g/bkWhr)(bkW)(0.00001987) =
EXAMPLE

liters minute

(200 g/bkW)(1850 bkW)(0.00001987) = 7.35

liters minute

CALCULATIONS SI
6. Heat Rate (kJ/ekWhr)
Assume fuel with a LHV of 42780 kJ/kg, 96.5% efficient generator

36 37

g bkWhr
REDUCED EQUATION

1 bkW 0.965 ekW

1 kg 1000 g

42 780 kJ kg

kJ ekWhr

(g/bkWhr)(44.33) =
EXAMPLE

kJ ekWhr

(200 g/bkWhr)(44.33) = 8866

kJ ekWhr

CALCULATIONS SI
7. Power (kW)
POWER (kW) = = K= BMEP (kPa) x SPEED (rpm) x DISP (L) 120 030 BMEP (kPa) x SPEED (rpm) K 120 030 DISPLACEMENT (L)
EXAMPLE

2420 (kPa) x 1000 (rpm) x 295.56 (L) 120 030

= 5959 kW

CALCULATIONS SI
8. Torque (Nm)
TORQUE (Nm) = BMEP (kPa) x DISPLACEMENT (L) 12.566

38 39

= BMEP x C C= DISPLACEMENT (L) 12.566

8.1 Torque (Nm)


TORQUE (Nm) = POWER (kW) x 9552 SPEED (rpm)

EXAMPLE

17 671 (Nm) =

1850 (kW) x 9552 1000 (rpm)

CALCULATIONS MISCELLANEOUS
9. BMEP (kPa)
BMEP (kPa) = POWER (kW) x 120 030 SPEED (rpm) x DISPLACEMENT (L)

10. PISTON SPEED (m/s)


PISTON SPEED (m/s) = 2 x STROKE (mm) x SPEED (rpm) 1000 x 60

11. OUTPUT FACTOR


OUTPUT FACTOR = BMEP (kPa) x PISTON SPEED (m/s)

12. PROPELLER DEMAND CURVE


(i.e. cubic curve, prop curve)
POWER Speed x =
EXAMPLE

1458 bkW@ 700 rpm =


NOTE: bhp can replace bkW directly

( (

Speed x

Speed Match

700 rpm 1000 rpm

) )

x PowerMatch

x 4250 bkWMatch

CALCULATIONS MISCELLANEOUS
13. Load Factor (LF)
Assume fuel density = 838.9 g/L

40 41

LF (%) =

Consumed fuel per year (liters or gallons) Rated power fuel consumption per year (liters or gallons)

x 100

LF (%) =
EXAMPLE

[(PL x PL BSFC x Time) + (PL x PL BSFC x Time) + . . . ] x FD Rated Power x Rated Power BSFC x FD x 8000 hrs

x 100

LF (%) =

[(1000 x 260 x 2000) + (2000 x 220 x 2000) + (4920 x 200 x 4000) ] x 4920 x 200 x
1 838.9

1 838.9

x 8000

x 100 = 67.78%

NOTE: Total number of hours in the numerator must equal the total number of hours in the denominator.
PL = Part Load Factor (bkW or ekW) PL BSFC = Part Load Fuel Consumption (g/bkWhr) FD = Fuel Density (g/liter) Time (hrs)

CALCULATIONS MISCELLANEOUS
14. Fuel Consumption Example
Generator set package is producing 17.5 bkWhr/U.S. gallon What is the engines brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) in g/bKWhr? The fuel type is IF380 HFO with a Lower Heating Value (LHV) of 39 900 and a density of 8.3 lb/gal. Assume the generator to be 96.5% efficient.

To convert the IF380 fuel which has a heating value of 39 900 to a standard reference (i.e. distillate) LHV of 42 780 kJ/kg follow the procedure below:
LHVoriginal = 39 900 LHVnew = 42 780 BSFCnew = 207.6
g bkWhr

LHV original LHV new

BSFCnew = 193.6

g bkWhr

CALCULATIONS MISCELLANEOUS
15. Fuel Consumption Comparison ASSUMPTIONS
Assume the Caterpillar fuel consumption is 190 g/bkWhr without pumps, for a distillate 3616 engine at 1000 rpm CSR rating. This is based on ISO 3046 standard conditions of 100 kPa and 25 C and a fuel having a Lower Heating Value (LHV) of 42,780 kJ/kg. Assume that the competitors fuel consumption is 200 g/bkWhr with pumps, for a comparable engine rating, based on ISO 3046 standard conditions of 100 kPa and 25 C and a fuel having an LHV of 42,000 kJ/kg. Contact the manufacturer for the exact pump power consumption. We will assume the fuel consumption will decrease by 3% due to pump power losses.

42 43

COMPARISON
To make a comparison between the two fuel consumption values equal, it is necessary to base it on the same assumptions. We need to make the lower heating values the same and make both fuel consumptions based on having no pumps.

CALCULATIONS MISCELLANEOUS
15. Fuel Consumption Comparison, cont.
The Caterpillar brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) is based on an LHV of 42,780 kJ/kg. Referring to example 13 on the previous page, we can convert the heating value to 42,000 kJ/kg by:

BSFC = 190

g bkWhr

(
X

LHV original LHV new

) ) = 193.5
g bkWhr

BSFC = 190

g bkWhr

42 780 kJ/kg 42 000 kJ/kg

The competitors fuel consumption is calculated with pumps. To calculate the fuel consumption without pumps, use the following:
BSFC without pumps = BSFC with pumps - [(BSFC with pumps)*(% pump power losses)] BSFC without pumps = 200 g/bkWhr - (200 g/bkWhr)*(0.03) = 194 g/bkWhr
The Caterpillar BSFC is lower than the competitors.

CONVERSIONS
English > SI Millimeter (mm) = inch x 25.4 Liter (L) = inch3 x 0.016 Liter (L) = gallon x 3.79 Gram (g) = ounce x 28.3 Kilogram (kg) = pound x 0.454 Kilonewton (kN) = pound x 0.00445 Newton meter (Nm) = lbft X 1.36 Kilopascal (kPa) = psi x 6.89 Kilowatt (kW) = hp x 0.746 Kilowatt (kW) = Btu/min x 0.01758 Kilojoule (kJ) = Btu x 1.055 Celsius (C) = (F -32) /1.8 SI > English Inch = 0.03937 x mm Inch3 = liter x 61 Gallon = liter x 0.26 Ounce = gram x 0.035 Pound = kg x 2.2 Pound = kN x 225 Lb-ft = Nm x 0.74 psi = kPa x 0.145 hp = kW x 1.34 Btu = kJ x 0.948 Btu/min = kW x 56.869 Fahrenheit = (C x 1.8) + 32 SI Prefixes 1 000 000 000 G giga 1 000 000 M mega 1 000 k kilo 100 h hecto 10 da deca 0.1 d deci 0.01 c centi 0.001 m milli 0.000 001 micro 0.000 000 001 n nano
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CONVERSIONS
TEMPERATURE CONVERSION F 1020 1010 1000 990 980 970 960 950 940 930 920 910 900 890 880 870 860 850 840 830 820 810 800 790 780 770 760 750 740 730 720 710 700 690 680 670 660 C 550 540 530 520 510 500 490 480 470 460 450 440 430 420 410 400 390 380 370 360 350 F 1380 1370 1360 1350 1340 1330 1320 1310 1300 1290 1280 1270 1260 1250 1240 1230 1220 1210 1200 1190 1180 1170 1160 1150 1140 1130 1120 1110 1100 1090 1080 1070 1060 1050 1040 1030 1020 C 750 740 730 720 710 700 690 680 670 660 650 640 630 620 610 600 590 580 570 560 550

F 260 250 240 230 220 212 200 190 180 170 160 150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 32 20 10 0 -10 -20

C 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 -10 -20 -30

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Caterpillar Offices
If you have any questions, please consult your local Caterpillar dealer. If you need assistance in finding a dealer, consult one of our Caterpillar offices. Caterpillar Americas Co. 100 NE ADAMS ST. PEORIA, IL USA 61629-9340 Phone: ++1-309-675-1762 Fax: ++1-309-675-1764 Caterpillar Overseas S.A. 76, ROUTE DE FRONTENEX P.O. BOX 6000 1211 GENEVA 6 SWITZERLAND Phone: ++41 22 849 44 44 Fax: ++41 22 849 49 84 Caterpillar Asia PTE. LTD. 7 TRACTOR ROAD SINGAPORE 627968 REPUBLIC OF SINGAPORE 9161 Phone: ++65 662-8400 Fax: ++65 662-8414 Caterpillar Power Systems Inc. SANNO GRAND BLDG., 8TH FLOOR 2-14-2 NAGATACHO CHIYODA-KU, TOKYO 100 JAPAN Phone: (03) 3593-3231 Fax: (03) 3593-3238
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Caterpillar Offices
Caterpillar of Australia PRIVATE MAIL BAG 4 TULLAMARINE VICTORIA 3043, AUSTRALIA Phone: ++61 03 9339-9333 Fax: ++61 03 9338-9021 Caterpillar China Limited LEVEL 8 ONE PACIFIC PLACE 88 QUEENSWAY G.P.O. BOX 3069 HONG KONG Phone: ++852 2848-0333 Fax: ++852 2848-0440 Caterpillar North American Commercial Division (Mossville) P.O. BOX 610 MOSSVILLE, IL 61552 Phone: ++1-800-321-7332 Fax: ++1-309-578-2559 (Lafayette) 3701 S.R. 26 EAST LAFAYETTE, IN 47905 Phone: ++1-765-448-5000 Fax: ++1-765-448-5586 Listing does not include all Caterpillar offices.

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Reference Publications
To receive one of the following brochures, please consult your local dealer.

Notes:

Media #
LECQ4021 LECQ4022 LEDQ8363 LEHX5458 LEHX5459 PEHP7076 RENR1357 RENR1358 SEBD0640 SEBD0717 SEBD0970 SEBD9129 SEBU6965 SEBU6966 SEBU7003 SELU6965 SELU6966 LEHM6711

Description
3600 Family of Heavy Fuel Engines 3600 Family of Engines 3600 Diesel Lube Oil Selection 3600 Family Generator Sets for Heavy Fuel (Spec. Sheet) 3600 Family Generator Sets (Spec. Sheet) Performance Data Understanding the SOSSM Oil Analysis Tests Diesel Plant Operation Handbook 3600 Diesel Service Handbook (3-Volume Set) Oil and Your Engine Diesel Fuels and Your Engine Coolant and Your Engine 3600 Engine News Special Edition 3600 Diesel Operation and Maintenance Manual Distillate 3600 Diesel Operation and Maintenance Manual HFO 3600 Fluids Recommendations for Lube Oil, Fuel, and Coolants Maintenance Wall Chart Distillate Maintenance Wall Chart HFO 3618 Marine Propulsion Engine

3618 Publication

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Notes:

Notes:

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51

3612 Cutaway

LEXQ7766-02

Printed in U.S.A.

1998 Caterpillar Inc. All rights reserved.

Materials and specifications are subject to change without notice. The International System of Units (SI) is used in this publication.