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Human Resource Development in the Indian Army

Submitted by: KARAN RAGHAV BBS 2C 8111


The Indian Army (Bharatiya Sthalsena) is one of the armed forces of India and has the responsibility for land-based military operations. Its primary objectives include defending India from external aggression, maintaining peace and security within the country, patrolling borders and conducting counter-terrorist operations. It also conducts rescue and humanitarian operations during calamities and disturbances. Control and operation of the Army is administered by the Ministry of Defence. With more than 1,130,000 soldiers in active service and about 1,200,000 reserve troops, the Indian Army is the world's second largest. It is a completely voluntary service and though there is a provision for military draft in the Indian constitution, it has never been imposed. The Indian Army was formed soon after India gained independence in 1947 and retained most of the regiments of the British Indian Army. The Army is deployed in many of the world's conflict zones as a part of the United Nations Peacekeeping forces. The force is currently headed by the Chief of Army Staff, General Deepak Kapoor. The Field Marshal is the highest attainable rank in the Indian Army and it is awarded by the President of India, on advise of the Union Government, only in exceptional circumstances. So far, only two officers have attained this rank. OBJECTIVES The Indian Army doctrine defines the role of the Indian Army as - "The Indian Army is the land component of the Indian Armed Forces which exist to uphold the ideals of the Constitution of India." As a major component of national power, along with the Indian Navy and the Indian Air Force, the roles of the Indian Army are as follows : Primary: Preserve national interests and safeguard sovereignty, territorial integrity and unity of India against any external threats by deterrence or by waging war. Secondary: Assist Government agencies to cope with proxy war and other internal threats and provide aid to civil authority when requisitioned for the purpose."

STRUCTURE OF THE INDIAN ARMY Initially, the army's main objective was to defend the nation's frontiers. However, over the years, the army has also taken up the responsibility of providing internal security, especially in insurgent-hit Kashmir and north-east. The army has a strength of about a million troops and fields 34 divisions. Its headquarters is located in the Indian capital New Delhi and it is under the overall command of the Chief of Army Staff (COAS), currently General Deepak Kapoor.

The army operates 6 tactical commands . Each command is headed by General Officer Commanding-in-Chief with the rank of Lieutenant General. Each command is directly affiliated to the Army HQ in New Delhi. These commands are given below in their correct order of raising, location (city) and their commanders. There is also one training command known as ARTRAC.

Command Southern Command Eastern Command Central Command Western Command Northern Command South Western Command

Command HQ Pune Kolkata Lucknow Chandimandir (Chandigarh) Udhampur Jaipur

GOC-in-C Lt Gen Noble Thamburaj Lt. Gen. V K Singh Lt Gen. H.S. Panag,PVSM,AVSM*,ADC Lt. Gen. TK Sapru Lt. Gen. P C Bhardwaj Lt. Gen. C.K.S. Sabu

Corps Field formation

A Corps is an army field formation responsible for a sector within a Command. There are 3 types of Corps in the Indian Army: Strike, Holding & Mixed. A Command generally consists of 2 or more Corps. A corps has Army Divisions under its command. The Corps HQ is the highest field formation in the army.

Corps 1 Corps 2 Corps 3 Corps 4 Corps 9 Corps

Head Quarter Mathura, Uttar Pradesh Ambala, Haryana

Command Central Command Western Command

Divisions 4 Inf Div (Allahabad), 6 Mtn Div (Bareilly), 33 Armd Div (Hisar) 1 Armd Div (Ambala), 14 RAPID (Dehradun), 22 Inf Div (Meerut) 23 Inf Div (Ranchi), 57 Mtn Div (Leihmakong) 2 Mtn Div (Dibrugarh), 5 Mtn Div (Bomdila), 21 Mtn Div (Rangia) 26 Inf Div (Jammu), 29 Inf Div (Pathankot), 2,3,16 Ind Armd Bdes 16 Inf Div (Sri Ganganagar), 18 RAPID (Kota), 24 RAPID (Bikaner), 6 Ind Armd Bde

Rangapahar Eastern Command (Dimapur), Nagaland Tezpur, Assam Yol, Himachal Pradesh Eastern Command Western Command Western Command

10 Corps Bhatinda, Punjab

11 Corps Jalandhar, Punjab

Western Command South Western Command

7 Inf Div (Firozpur), 9 Inf Div (Meerut), 15 Inf Div (Amritsar), 23 Armd Bde, 55 Mech Bde 4 Armd Bde, 340 Mech Bde, 11 Inf Div (Ahmedabad), 12 Inf Division (Jodhpur)

12 Corps Jodhpur, Rajasthan 14 Corps Leh, Ladakh 15 Corps Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir Nagrota, Jammu & Kashmir

Northern Command 3 Inf Div (Leh), 8 Mtn Div (Dras),[21] artillery brigade Northern Command 19 Inf Div (Baramulla), 28 Inf Div (Gurez, Bandipora District), artillery brigade 10 Inf Div (Akhnoor),[22] 25 Inf Div (Rajauri), 39 Inf Div (Yol), artillery brigade, armoured brigade? 17 Mtn Div (Gangtok), 20 Mtn Div (Binnaguri, Jalpaiguri district), 27

16 Corps

Northern Command

33 Corps Siliguri, West Bengal Eastern Command

Regimental Organisation
In addition to this (not to be confused with the Field Corps mentioned above) are the Regiments or Corps or departments of the Indian Army. The corps mentioned below are the functional divisions entrusted with specific pan-Army tasks.

1. 2. 3. 4. Indian Infantry Regiments Armoured Corps Regiments - The Armoured Corps School and Centre is at Ahmednagar. Regiment of Artillery - The School of Artillery is at Devlali near Nasik. Corps of Engineers - The College of Military Engineering is at Dapodi, Pune. The Centers are located as follows- Madras Engineer Group at Bangalore, Bengal Engineer Group at Roorkee and Bombay Engineer Group at Khadki, Pune. 5. Corps of Army Air Defence-Center at Gopalpur in Orissa State. 6. Mechanised Infantry - Regimental Center at Ahmednagar. 7. Corps of Signals 8. Army Aviation Corps

1. Army Dental Corps 2. Army Education Corps - Center at Pachmarhi. 3. Army Medical Corps - Center at Lucknow. 4. Army Ordnance Corps - Centers at Jabalpur andSecunderabad. 5. Army Postal Service Corps 6. Army Service Corps - Center at Bangalore 7. Corps of Electrical and Mechanical Engineers- Centers at Bhopal and Secunderabad . 8. Corps of Military Police [2] - Center at Bangalore 9. Intelligence Corps - Center at Pune. 10. Judge Advocate General's Deptt. - Institute of Military Law kamptee,Nagpur. 11. Military Farms Service 12. Military Nursing Service 13. Remount and Veterinary Corps 14. Pioneer Corps

Other Field Formations

Division: An Army Division is an intermediate between a Corps and a Brigade. It is the largest striking force in the army. Each Division is headed by [General Officer Commanding] (GOC) in the rank of Major General. It usually consists of 15,000 combat troops and 8,000 support elements. Currently, the Indian Army has 34 Divisions including 4 Rapid (Re-organised Army Plains Infantry Divisions) Action Divisions, 18 Infantry Divisions, 10 Mountain Divisions, 3 Armoured Divisions and 2 Artillery Divisions. Each Division composes of several Brigades. Brigade: The Brigade is smaller than the Division and generally consists of 3 Infantry Battalions along with elements of various Combat & Support Arms & Services. It is headed by a Brigadier equivalent to a Brigadier General. The Indian Army also has 5 Independent Armoured Brigades, 15 Independent Artillery Brigades, 7 Independent Infantry Brigades, 1 Independent Parachute Brigade,3 Independent Air Defence Brigades, 2 Independent Air Defence Groups and 4 Independent Engineer Brigades. These Independent Brigades operate directly under the Corps Commander (GOC Corps). Battalion: A Battalion is commanded by a Colonel and is the Infantry's main fighting unit. It consists of more than 900 personnel. Company: Headed by the Major, a Company comprises 120 soldiers. Platoon: An intermediate between a Company and Section, a Platoon is headed by a Lieutenant or depending on the availability of Commissioned Officers, a Junior Commissioned Officer, with the rank of Subedar or Naib-Subedar. It has a total strength of about 32 troops. Section: Smallest military outfit with a strength of 10 personnel. Commanded by a Non-commissioned officer of the rank of Havildar or Sergeant.

Regiments Infantry Regiments

There are several battalions or units under the same formation in a Regiment. The Gurkha Regiment, for instance, has several battalions. All formations under a Regiment are battalions of the same arms or Corps (i.e., Infantry or Engineers). Regiments are not exactly field formations; they mostly do not make a formation. All Regiments of the Gurkha's for instance would not fight together as one formation, but can be dispersed over various Brigades or Corps or even Commands.

Artillery Regiments
The Regiment of Artillery constitutes a formidable operational arm of Indian Army. Historically it takes its lineage from Moghul Emperor Babur who is popularly credited with introduction of Artillery in India, in the Battle of Panipat in 1526. However evidence of earlier use of gun by Bahmani Kings in the Battle of Adoni in 1368 and King Mohammed Shah of Gujrat in fifteenth century have been recorded.



Indian Army statistics Active Troops Reserve Troops 1,300,000 1,200,000

Territorial Army Main Battle Tanks Artillery Ballistic missiles Cruise missiles Aircraft Surface-to-air missiles

200,000** 4500 12,800 100 (Agni-1,Agni-2) BrahMos 10 squadrons of helicopters 90000

* includes 300,000 1st line troops and 500,000 2nd line troops ** includes 40,000 1st line troops and 160,000 2nd line troops

4 RAPID (Reorganised Army Plains Infantry Divisions) 18 Infantry Divisions 10 Mountain Divisions 3 Armoured Divisions 2 Artillery Divisions 13 Air Defence Brigades + 2 Surface-to-Air Missile Groups 5 Independent Armoured Brigades 15 Independent Artillery Brigades 7 Independent Infantry Brigades 1 Parachute Brigade 4 Engineer Brigades 14 Army Aviation Helicopter Units

63 Tank Regiments 7 Airborne Battalions 200 Artillery Regiments 360 Infantry Battalions + 5 Para (SF) Battalions 40 Mechanised Infantry Battalions 20 Combat Helicopter Units 52 Air Defence Regiments

RANK STRUCTURE The various rank of the Indian Army are listed below in descending order:

COMMISSIONED OFFICERS Field Marshal1 General (the rank held by Chief of Army Staff) Lieutenant-General Major-General Brigadier Colonel Lieutenant-Colonel Major Captain Lieutenant Second Lieutenant2

JUNIOR COMMISSIONED OFFICERS (JCOS) Subedar Major/Honorary Captain Subedar/Honorary Lieutenant Subedar Major Subedar Naib Subedar

NON COMMISSIONED OFFICERS (NCOS) Regimental Havildar Major Regimental Quarter Master Havildar Company Havildar Major Company Quarter Master Havildar Havildar Naik Lance Naik Sepoy

Note: 1. Only two officers have been made Field Marshall so far: Field Marshal K M Cariappa the first Indian Commander-in-Chief (a post since abolished) and Field Marshal S H F J Manekshaw, the Chief of Army Staff during the Army in the 1971 war with Pakistan. 2. This has now been discontinued. Non-Commissioned Officers in the rank of Havildar are elible for Honorary JCO ranks. 3. Given to Outstanding JCO's Rank and pay of a Lieutenant, role continues to be of a JCO.


For the purpose of classification, Indian honours and awards can be divided into two categories : (a) Gallantry awards. (b) Non-gallantry awards. The gallantry awards are again divisible into two categories:

(a) Those for gallantry in the face of the enemy. (b) Those for gallantry other than in the face of the enemy. The first category of the gallantry awards comprises : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Param Vir Chakra Maha Vir Chakra Vir Chakra Sena, Nao Sena and Vayu Sena Medal Mention in Dispatches Chiefs of Staff Commendation Card

The second category of the gallantry awards comprise the following : 1. Ashoka Chakra * 2. Kirti Chakra * 3. Shaurya Chakra * * These were originally named Ashoka Chakra Class I, Class II, Class III

Military Academies in India

Sainik Schools:
The Scheme to establish Sainik Schools was started in 1961 to broad base recruitment and remove regional imbalance in the officer's cadre of Defence Forces. Sainik Schools are joint venture of the Central and States Governments. At present 18 Sainik Schools are being administered by Sainik Schools Society. The Sainik Schools are fully residential and admit students in classes VI & IX only, strictly in order of merit decided as per the All India Sainik Schools Entrance Examination, held in February each year subject to medical fitness. The medium of instructions in Sainik Schools is English although knowledge of English is not a pre-requisite for admission in these schools. Schools give due attention to both co-curricular and extra-curricular activities for all round development of their cadets. These Schools are affiliated to Central Board of Secondary Education and follow 10+2 pattern in science stream only. During the year 2002, a total of 108 students from Sainik Schools joined NDA, which takes about 600 cadets every year. Besides, 16 students joined Navy and Army through technical 10+2 entry scheme during 2001. As on date, about 6000 officers of the Defence Forces are alumni of Sainik Schools.

Military Schools
There are five Military Schools in the country. Chail Military School Chail (oldest one) (Previously known as King George Royal Indian Military College) Shimla Ajmer Military School Ajmer Bangalore Military School Bangalore Belgaum Military School Belgaum Dholpur Military School Dholpur

They admit boys in Class VI based on an All India Entrance Examination. In Military Schools, 67% vacancies are reserved for the wards of the JCOs/Other Ranks called "entitled category". Out of 33% non-entitled category seats, 20% are reserved for the wards of service officers and 13% for the wards of civilians. The aim of the Military Schools is to impart quality education to enable the boys to take the All India Secondary School Examination and Senior Secondary Certificate Examination conducted by the CBSE and also to facilitate their entry into the NDA.

Rashtriya Indian Military College (RIMC), Dehradun

The Rashtriya Indian Military College (RIMC) was founded on March 13,1922 with the objective of providing necessary preliminary training for boys of Indian birth or domicile, wishing to become officers in Indian Armed Forces. The institution now serves as a feeder institution to the National Defence Academy, Khadakwasla (Pune), where in cadets of the Army, Navy and Air Force receive their initial training. The aim of this College is to train

suitable candidate for admission to NDA. Selection for the RIMC is through a written examination-cum-viva-voice conducted through the state government. Seats for respective States are reserved based on their population. Intake into RIMC is biennial in January and August, 25 cadets per term with maximum strength of RIMC being 250. The intake of boys is at class VIII in the age group of 11& 1/2 years to 13 years. The College run classes from 8th to 12th on 10+2 CBSC patternThe Rashtriya Indian Military College (RIMC), Dehradun was founded on 13 March 1922 with the object of providing necessary preliminary training for boys of Indian birth or domicile, wishing to become officers in Indian Armed Forces. The institution now serves as a feeder institution to the National Defence Academy, Khadakwasla (Pune), wherein cadets of the Army, Navy and Air Force receive their initial training.


The chief institutions training its officers are:

National Defence Academy ( NDA):

The National Defence Academy (NDA), Khadakwasla is a premier Inter-Service training institution where future officers of Armed Forces are trained. The training involves an exacting schedule of three years before the cadets join their respective Service Academics, viz., Indian Military Academy, Naval Academy and Air Force Academy. The National Defence Academy (NDA) is a premier Joint Services institution for training of young cadets as future officers of Defence Services. It has four fold aim : (a) Attain requisite educational standard and acquire mental, moral and physical qualities essential to the cadet's progressive and continued development as officers of the fighting services. (b) Obtain such basic service training as will assist in developing their character, initiative, self-confidence and above all qualities of leadership. (c) Develop ability to appreciate inter-service aspect of the armed forces; and also (d) Develop interest in extracurricular activities particularly out-door oriented. Entry into NDA is based on a competitive examination conducted by UPSC. Cadets of all three Services viz Army, Navy and Air Force undergo combined training at NDA for three years. After passing out from the NDA, the Cadets go to their respective Service academies for specialized training before being commissioned in the Armed Forces. The Academy is a unique institution wherein Inter Services aspects are developed right from the formative stages of an officer, thus developing a bond of friendship and respect for each other's service. The academic curriculum of NDA is in tune with the national educational format of 10+2+3. The syllabus of the Academy has been approved by the Jawaharlal Nehru University for grant of B.A. or B.Sc. degree at the time of passing out from the Academy. The training curriculum at NDA is structured to impart Service and Academic training to the cadets with a great amount of emphasis being laid on extracurricular and out-door activities to develop the concept of holistic man and the finer qualities which are pre-requisites of the officer cadre in the Defence ServicesA number of cadets from friendly foreign countries like Bhutan, Nepal, Seychelles, Singapore, Afghanistan, Tanzania, Ghana, Maldives etc have undergone training at NDA.

Indian Military Academy (IMA):

The Indian Military Academy, founded in 1932, boasts of a glorious and colorful history. The Academy is located between the Shivalik ranges and the Himalayan foothills in the beautiful valley of Dehradun. Aim of IMA is to train Gentlemen Cadets (GCs) for commission into the Army. It also has a Wing for training Service cadets selected for commission in the Army. It aims at the fullest development of intellectual, moral and physical qualities with basic military training and abroad academic education. It develops the qualities of dynamism, initiative and understanding, which form the very of leadership in war, as well as in peace. The various modes of entry into IMA are:(a) (b) (c) On graduation from NDA; On graduation from Army Cadet College, which is a Wing of the IMA itself; Direct entry graduate cadets, who join on qualifying in the Union Public Service Commission Examination and the Services Selection Board; (d) (e) Technical graduates; University Entry Scheme for engineering college students in Final/Pre-Final year of studies; and

(f) 10+2 Technical Entry Scheme for candidates who have passed 10+2 with more than 70% marks in Physics, Chemistry, Math. The IMA also imparts training to Gentlemen Cadets from friendly countries. The Indian Military Academy (IMA), Dehradun transforms young men into courageous, dynamic and erudite young officers of integrity, who are to bear the brunt of battle, or hardship whilst guarding the Nation's frontiers. The IMA established in 1932, caters training to cadets for commission into the Army.

Army Cadet College:

Army Cadet College (ACC), Dehradun is a Wing of IMA which caters for training of service cadets selected for commission. The academic format is similar to the NDA on the lines of 10+2+3 and the syllabus is common. On completion of the course, these cadets also qualify for a B.A. or B.Sc. degree, recognized by the Jawaharlal Nehru University.

Armored Corps Centre and School (ACCS):

The Indian Cavalry has a proud heritage and a glorious history with some of its older regiments tracing their origins to as far back as 1773. Mechanization of the Indian Army began in 1938, and a need was felt for formal institutionalized training for the Armored Corps. The Cavalry and now the Armored Corps has its alma mater as the

Armored Corps Centre and School, Ahmednagar, which is the seat of learning for all disciplines of mechanized warfare. Role Impart basic military training for Armored Corps recruits. Train all Armored Corps personnel in the tactical and technical aspects of mechanized warfare.

Officers Training Academy (OTA):

The Officers Training Academy (OTA), Chennai moulds young men and women into courageous, dynamic and honorable officers of the Indian Army. The training at the OTA aims at inculcating in the Gentlemen and the Lady cadets (GCs/LCs) moral values, leadership traits, mental and physical prowess, a spirit of adventure and a will to win.

Army War College:

It is premier All Arms Tactical Training Institution for officers and performs important functions of evaluation of concepts and doctrines in the fields of tactics and operational logistics. The institution was earlier known as College of Combat, Mhow and has been re-designated as 'Army War College, Mhow' from 1 January 2003.

Infantry School:
The Infantry School, Mhow is the largest and the oldest military training centre of the Indian Army. The institution is responsible to develop the complete spectrum of tactical drills and concepts pertaining to infantry operating in varied terrain and environment and introduce them from time to time. This premier institution also trains the National Shooting Team under the aegis of Army Marksmanship Unit (AMU) which is part of Infantry School.

Junior Leaders Wing:

The Junior Leaders Wing, Belgaum is part of Infantry School, Mhow and trains junior officers and junior leaders in sub-unit level in tactical and special mission techniques to enable them to carry out assigned operational missions in varied terrain conditions under severe stress and strain.

Junior Leader's Academy (JLA):

The Junior Leader's Academy (JLA), Bareilly and Ramgarh conduct institutionalised leadership training for Junior Leaders comprising of Junior Commissioned Officers and Non-Commissioned Officers of the Army.

Defense Services Staff College (DSSC):

The Defense Services Staff College, Wellington is a premier tri-service training establishment imparting training to middle level officers (Majors and equivalent) of the three wings of Indian Armed Forces, friendly foreign countries and Indian civil services.

High Altitude Warfare School (HAWS):

The High Altitude Warfare School, Gulmarg is a unique training establishment imparting specialised Mountain Warfare and Winter Warfare Training to Indian Army personnel.

Counter Insurgency and Jungle Warfare (CIJW) School:

Popularly known as CIJW School, Vairengte (Mizoram), this premier institution imparts training as per its motto 'Fight the Gureilla like a Gureilla'. The institution has risen to be nodal agency for imparting counter insurgency training.

College of Defense Management:

Realization of the necessity to set up a institution devoted to imparting modern, scientific management training was felt sometime after the Indo-Pak War of 1965. The size of the Indian Defense Services, their deployment in far flung areas, high cost of equipment, limited resources, socio-economic changes, all necessitated that military commanders be exposed to modern management concepts and techniques to enable them to operate in an effective and optimum manner. Such skills could neither be imparted from within the existing framework of training in the Armed Forces nor could they be borrowed from the civilian management stream. This felt need of the services gave birth to the Institute of Defense Management (IDM) at Secunderabad in June 1970. The IDM was renamed as the College of Defense Management (CDM) in 1980. The College has trained over 5,000 officers of the rank of Major to Major General and equivalents of the three Services through its on-campus programmers. It has also given exposure in defense management to a large number of officers through external capsules. Officers from Para-Military Forces, Ministry of Defense, Research and Development Organizations and friendly foreign countries also attend various on-campus program. The College shifted to its new campus in May 2001. This 53.7 acre sprawling campus is equipped with modern and state-of-art training aids. A well laid out IT center with over 100 computers and an equal number of printers, a three storied library with over 27000 books on management and 25 computer based work stations besides other educational and training support equipment and infrastructure is provided therein.

College of Materials Management (CMM):

The College of Materials Management (CMM), Jabalpur is the hub centre of all logistics courses for Army. It runs courses like advance material management, higher mention course and quarter master courses for officers, JCOs and NCOs. It also imparts basic training to store keepers technical. The college owes its lineage to 'Indian Army Ordnance Corps (IAOC) School of Instruction' established in October, 1925. The School was later re-designated as 'IAOC Training Centre' in 1939. In January, 1950, it became the 'AOC School'. With the changing doctrine of training and advanced concepts introduced, the AOC School was renamed as the College of Materials Management (CMM) in 1987. The College was affiliated to the University of Jabalpur (Rani Durgavati Vishwa Vidyalaya) in 1987 and its proven excellence earned it an Autonomous status in 1990. The college is also registered as a 'Government College' with the University Grants Commission. The approval of All India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) was another achievement of the College.

National Defense College:

The National Defense College (NDC) was inaugurated on April 27, 1960 by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of independent India. NDC is a pioneering institute of its type in Asia. The role of the college has remained largely unchanged since 1959, when the President of India sanctioned "the setting up of a National Defense College for providing instruction to senior service and civil officers in the wider aspects of higher direction and strategy of warfare". Today, NDC continues to provide future decision-makers with the necessary skills and background for filling senior positions in national security and associated fields. It is the only institution in the country that imparts knowledge on all aspects of national security and strategy. Senior Defense and Civil Service Officers participate in a 47-week comprehensive program of national security and strategy. The NDC, located at 6, Tees January Marg, New Delhi has been conducting the courses for our senior officers on National Security and Strategy Studies since its inauguration by our first Prime Minister, Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru on 27th April, 1960. During the last 45 years, the NDC has established a name for itself worldwide as a center of excellence. The College has provided education & training to a large number of senior Defense and Civilian officers. Many of its alumni have reached the top of their professions in India and abroad and some have even become heads of their country The NDC course on National Security and Strategic Studies is of 47 weeks duration. The aim of this course is to equip future policy maker with the background to give them a broad understanding of the multifarious economic, political, military, scientific and organizational aspects, involved in the planning of National Strategy. Defense forces officers of the rank of Brigadier, civil services officers of the rank of Joint Secretary are nominated for training at the College. Some officers from the Defense Public Sector Undertakings also attend this course. The 45th Course commenced in January 2005 at NDC with a strength of 87 officers of the Army (34), Navy (05), Air Force (10), Civil Services (16) and Friendly Foreign Countries (22). The course curriculum consists of study capsules, lectures and panel discussion, field tours, research activities - thesis writing, seminar and politico-strategic gaming exercises. For the 45th NDC Course, three study capsules have already been conducted and fourth one is in progress. 96 eminent experts have so been invited for lectures and panel discussions and 66 more are planned to be invited. Field Tours form an extremely important part of the curriculum. These help in validating the knowledge gained in the classroom by relating it to the ground situation. The Course Members proceed on two tours to foreign countries and six tours within India . Research Activity-Thesis Writing: To enable course members to make an original contribution on a subject of national or international importance that has a bearing on National Security, each course member is required to undertake thesis writing work.

Army Air Defence College:

The Army Air Defence College (AADC), Gopalpur imparts training for provision of effective Air Defence Artillery protection to ground forces against long and medium altitude enemy air attacks and also to preserve specified tactical and strategic vital areas and pivotal points from critical danger and destruction from enemy air attacks. Army Air Defence College erstwhile functioned as a wing of School of Artillery Deolali till October, 1989, when it was moved to Gopalpur as a precusor to bifurcation of Air Defence Artillery from the main branch of Artillery. Located at "Gopalpur-on-Sea" it is a premier Category 'A' training establishment, which trains personnel of Air Defence Artillery, other arms and armed forces personnel of foreign countries in Air Defence related subjects. The aim of the Army Air Defence College is :-

a) To impart technical and tactical training in all aspect of Air Defence Gunnery and radars to Officers, Junior commissioned Officer and Non commissioned Officers. b) to evaluate tactical and technical doctrine related to Army Air Defence, conduct trials on Air Defence equipment and produce suitable notes and pamphlets concerning handling of Army Air Defence Weapons. c) To act as a centre of excellence for all matters concerning Air Defence Artillery. The Army Air Defense College conducts a number of courses of instruction. Some of the important courses are Long Gunnery Staff Course (Officers) - Young Officers Course, Electronic Warfare Course, Senior Command Air Defense Course, Long Gunnery Staff Course Junior Commissioned Officer (JCOs)/Non-commissioned Officers (NCOs), Technical Instructions Fire Control Course, Aircraft Recognition course, Unit Instructors and Crew Based Training and Automated Data Processing Course.

School of Artillery:
School of Artillery, Deolali is a premier institution of the Army and imparts effective training, evaluation of new equipment for induction and development of new concepts/ doctrine for application of artillery fire. The School of Artillery, located in the sylvan surroundings of the Western Ghats of Maharashtra, is the academic centre for various sub-disciplines of the science and methodology of artillery warfare. The charter and functions of School of Artillery is to impart technical training to officers, JCOs and NCOs of the Regiment of Artillery on artillery weapons and systems including training of pilots of Air Observation Post duties. Besides this, review of doctrines, study and trials of artillery equipment, both Indian and foreign is also carried out.

Army Supply Corps (ASC) Centre and College:

The ASC Centre and College, Bangalore imparts training to Officers, personnel below officer rank of Army Service Corps and other arms and services indicating personnel from foreign countries in various disciplines of suppliers, fuel, oil and lubricants, mechanical transport, animal transport and air dispatch. The Centre also trains recruits for induction into service into Army Service Corps. The beginning of the Army Service Corps (ASC) alma mater dates back to 1908 when the Supply and Transport Training School was established at Chaklala now in Pakistan. In 1947, it shifted to Bareilly. In 1999, consequent to the merger of ASC School, Army School of Mechanical Transport (ASMT) and ASC Centre (South), the ASC Centre and College came into existence at Bangalore; thus becoming a premier institution for imparting training in logistics related facets. ASC College is recognized and affiliated to the Rohilkhand University, Bareilly for award of diplomas/degrees in Logistics and Resource management to student officers.

Army Education Corps (AEC) Training College and Centre:

The AEC Training College and Centre, Pachmarhi is a Category 'A' establishment, a Regimental Training Centre for AEC personnel and an Autonomous College affiliated to Barkatullah University, Bhopal. The history of this institution dates back to World War-I when importance of education as an integral part of troops training was realized. The Army School of Education was established in the year 1920 with its Indian Wing at

Belgaum and the British Wing at Wellington (Nilgiris). In 1924, the British Wing also moved to Belgaum. In 1939 Army School of Education moved to Pachmarhi from Belgaum. The aim and role of AEC Training College & Centre is detailed as follows: a) to function as a category 'A' training establishment for the Indian Army and a category 'B' establishment for AEC personnel under Line directorate at Army Headquarters and Headquarters Army Training Command; b) to function as an Autonomous College of the Barkatullah University, under UGC, conducting Post-Graduate, Graduate, Diploma and Certificate Courses and examinations; c) to devise need based educational training courses for the personnel of the Para Military Forces and defense personnel of the friendly foreign countries; d) to function as a teacher's training institute under NCTE norms; e) to create a corpus of resource personnel in the field of education, map reading, foreign languages, computer applications and military music; f) to train Military Bands, Pipes and Drums, Bands and Musicians of Army, Air Force, Navy, Para Military Forces and friendly foreign countries at the Military Music Wing as well as create a corpus of music instructors; g) to function as a nodal agency for ADP training of minor Corps; h) to provide technical training to AEC personnel to develop human resources in the Indian Army and; i) to train and provide interpreters for Border Personnel Meetings (BPMs).

Army Airborne Training School:

The Army Airborne Training School (AATS), Agra imparts training in aerial delivery and air transportation of men and material. It is also responsible for carrying out Research and Trial pertaining to air portability and para dropping of all types of equipment.

Institute of National Integration:

The Institute of National Integration (INI), Pune imparts training to Officers, Personnel Below Officer Rank and Religious Teachers in a phased manner, highlighting rich cultured heritage, spirit of tolerance and national amity.

Institute of Military Law:

The Institute of Military Law (IML), Kamptee imparts training to officers of Judge Advocate General Branch as well as other arms and services in military and allied law.

College of Military Engineering:

The role of College of Military Engineering (CME), Pune encompasses three aspects, i.e., training, advisory, projects research and experimentation.

Military College of Telecommunication Engineering:

The Military College of Telecommunication Engineering (MCTE), Mhow is a premiere training institute of the Corps of Signals. A variety of courses catering for the training needs in Information Technology and Communication for the Indian Army are conducted at MCTE. A number of courses are attended by students from friendly foreign countries and Para-Military Forces also.

Armed Forces Medical College (AFMC):

The AFMC is located in Pune, near Mumbai in Maharashtra State. It is an Inter-Services institution. AFMC has multiple roles to perform. These are primarily training of medical undergraduates and post-graduates, dental postgraduates, nursing cadets and paramedical staff. Patient care forms an integral part of its training curriculum and the attached hospital benefits from the expertise available at AFMC. The institution is responsible for providing the entire pool of specialists and super-specialists to Armed Forces by giving them in service training. The AFMC is well known as one of the premier medical institutions of India, and its entrance test is written by thousands of High School students throughout India (both male and female), who vie for its approximately 130 seats. Selected candidates are also required to pass a medical and fitness test on par with those for Officer Cadets. The 5 year course also includes basic military training, on par with that received by all Officer Cadets at other Academies of the Armed Forces, as well as training in battle-field medicine. After graduation, Cadets are to serve for a minimum of seven years in the Indian Army, after which they are free to leave or continue as Commissioned Medical officers.

Army Medical Corps (AMC) Centre and School:

The AMC Centre and School, Lucknow conducts from basic to advance courses for Army Medical Corps and Military Nursing Service Officers. The Centre also trains recruits for induction into service into Army Medical Corps

Military College of Electronic and Mechanical Engineering:

The Military College of Electronics and Mechanical Engineering (MCEME), Secunderabad (Andhra Pradesh) is a premier institution of technical education in the Army. The College was awarded ISO-9001 for excellence in training and also won the coveted Golden Peacock National Training Award-1997 as well as Golden Peacock National Quality Award.

Remount and Veterinary Corps (RVC) Centre and School:

The RVC Centre and School, Meerut Cant., imparts basic military and technical training to young veterinary graduates on commission and to various technical tradesman of the corps like dressers, riders, furriers, army dog trainers, laboratory attendants and other categories to make them proficient in the singular and noble profession of service to mute animals which are used as war machine.

Corps of Military Police (CMP) Centre and School:

The CMP Centre and School, Bangalore imparts basic military training to all personnel enrolled in Corps of Military Police and also conduct courses for officers on deputation to the corps.

Army School of Physical Training:

The Army School of Physical Training (ASPT), Pune is a class 'A' Establishment running physical and allied Sports Training Course for Army personnel, central police organization, paramilitary forces and friendly foreign countries to train instructors capable of imparting physical training and sports coaching at appropriate level. ASPT is a premier institution imparting systematic and comprehensive instruction to selected all ranks of the Army regarding the conduct of Physical Training in units and Sub units. It also imparts basic training in Sports & Games with a view to improve standard in the Army and complement physical training through recreation in games and sports. The school conducts a total of 36 physical training and sports coaching courses in a training year which are attended by Officers, JCOs, and ORs of the Army, Para Military Forces and from friendly foreign countries like Sri Lanka, Bhutan, Nepal, Ghana, Myanmar, Mauritius and Maldives.

Army Sports Institute:

To restore national pride in the hearts of our fellow countrymen and to project a winning image of the Army, the Government has approved the establishment of an Army Sports Institute (ASI) at Pune and Army Sports Nodes in selected disciplines at various places in the country. Appropriate funds have been earmarked for state-of-the-art infrastructure and equipment coupled with food habitat, foreign exposure and training under foreign coaches.

Military Music Wing (MMW):

The Military Music Wing (MMW), Pachmarhi, was raised in October, 1950. The Wing has not only been prolific with over 200 musical compositions to its credit, but has also excelled in maintaining the standard of Military Music in India through its diverse range of courses designed to take recruit bandsmen, pipers or drummers, form the rudiments of music to a stage of enviable musical proficiency. The MMW has grown extensively from its initial designed capacity of 132 to 264 students, although at times upto a strength of 364 is required to be trained. Accessible to the bands of all the three Services, Para Military Forces, and musicians from friendly foreign countries, the Military Music Wing runs 10 courses, of which four are designed purely for the Military Band, the most advanced of which is the Potential band Master's Course, run over three years, which besides developing practical skills over all musical instruments of a Military Band, imparts effective training in composing, arranging and conducting, culminating in the award of the 'Licentiate in Military Music'. The students are also taught Indian instruments and, by the end of the course, are eligible for the Diploma in Hindustani Sangeet.

Combat Army Aviation Training School (CAATS):

CAATS is the main training course for aviators of the air wing of the Indian army,The Army Aviation Corps,it is located at the Army Aviation Base in Nashik. It replaced the Indian Air Force's premier academy,the Helicopter Training School(HTS),as the main training school for army aviators.CAATS is responsible for the creation some of the best aviators the Indian Army.It mainly operates Cheetahs and Chetaks andd also has Simulators.

Structured training is carried out in the under mentioned faculties:-

Faculty of Higher Ordnance Management (FOHOM): It imparts learning in Advance Managerial skills and techniques related to Materials, Human Resources, Financial management and Operational Logistics. Faculty of Munitions (FOM) : This faculty imparts training in design and functioning of Missiles, Armament, Ammunition and Improvised Explosive Devices. Faculty of Technical Stores (FOTS) : Under this faculty personnel are trained in Warehousing management and Inventory Control of Aviation, Armament, Opto-electronics, Engineering, Telecommunication, Combat Vehicles, Apparel and General Stores Inventory. Faculty of Ordnance Logistics Support (FOLS): This faculty is dedicated to impart training to young officers on Ordnance Functional processes and civilian Personnel management and training of Officer/Junior Commissioned Officers/Other Ranks on Quartermaster Duties. Faculty of Computer Technology (FOCT) : It imparts training in Information Technology Faculty Of Management Studies (FOMS): Keeping in view the inherent advantage of decades of experience in the field of management, this college was called upon to commence Management courses for the wards of Army personnel. Thus, a new chapter was written in history of Indian Army, with the establishment of the Faculty Of Management Studies (FOMS) in 1994.

Talent Attraction
First we look at the factors which encourage and then the factors which discourage young people from seeking a career in the army. Motivating Factors An army career seeks to appeal to the deeply ingrained values of patriotism, service, and a spirit of adventure. For people with these values as Career Anchors the army is the best place to pursue their careers. The army life also brings with it a prestige/status and benefits rarely seen in other professions. In a country with huge unemployment the job security that an army career brings is another motivating factor. Discouraging Factors Fear of the hardships that soldiers have to encounter not to mention death. Long periods of staying away from family/friends. The collapse of the Joint Family system. Officers are unsure of the well-being of their spouses and children, while nuclear family parents are overprotective of their children and do not want them to join the Army. Compensation being poor when compared to the private sector A steep organizational pyramid causing promotions to become rarer A plethora of alternative career choices Negative media publicity regarding alleged harassment by superiors, unfriendly attitudes towards women, and other similar issues. Various social pressures such as difficulty to find brides in certain communities The negligent attitude towards veterans and soldiers Killed In Action

Strategies The Army should remember that in todays societal context it cannot rely purely on emotional pull to excite people to join them. It should be prepared to fight out in the market as any other employer. A multi-pronged approach should be considered in order to market the armed forces as a preferred career option.

Catch Them Young: Interact with students in schools and colleges about the life of an army person. Make extensive use of multimedia to create a lasting impression on the young minds. Use women officers to appeal to prospective female recruits. Use mainstream media to bring army people closer to the rest of the country. Derive mileage from programs like Param Vir Chakra, Jai Jawan and movies like Lakshya and Border. Encourage and support filmmakers to make similar movies. Create a website which disseminates information about the Army and the various career options. The website should contain information about the army life, blogs by officers, simulation games, veterans support, discussion forums etc. There should be extensive audio/video content. It is to be noted that the current website is very staid and user unfriendly. Take advantage of the popularity of computer games. Collaborate with any software company to create a computer game. The game can be modeled after the highly popular US Army designed computer game: Americas Army. The game should incorporate the values that guide the soldiers in the Army. Sell official Army merchandise like caps, slacks, model tanks and planes to increase awareness and create a sense of curiosity. The army cannot and should not compete with the salaries offered by the private sector. Instead, the pot should be sweetened just enough that the discrepancy between private offers and Army pay wont seem so glaring. For comparison, a recent Army recruitment drive for women officers with a degree/PG there was an integrated pay scale of Rs. 8250-300-10050 with gross emoluments a month leading to Rs. 9023. Under such scenario a military job becomes a last option rather than a preferred choice. Inform the general public about the contribution of the army. Highly qualified army engineers and officers can provide part time services to small enterprises as well as teach in colleges and schools. There should be a sustained effort towards changing the mindset and image of the army. Focus on the numerous benefits that an army life provides. Among other things army people live a good, long and healthy life. It instills professional ethics, confidence, decision making qualities and leadership in an individual which are indispensable in any sphere.

Unlike civilians, the pay and pension is index linked. Adding on the facilities of CSD, the purchasing power of an army/ex-army person is actually high. This aspect should be highlighted while discussing benefits. The Army should build schools, hospitals and clubs not just around cantonments but also in villages which have historically sent a large number of people.

Recruitment of Officers in the Army

Recruitment of Commissioned Officers in the Armed Forces is mainly through the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC). For Technical Branches, women special entry scheme, NCC special entry scheme and service entries is made directly through the respective Recruiting Directorates for the Army, the Navy and the Air Force. Recruitment through the UPSC The UPSC holds an all-India competitive examination, known as the Combined Defense Services Examination (CDSE), twice a year. University graduates are eligible to appear in the examination. Successful candidates join the respective training academies, viz., the Indian Military Academy (IMA) for the Army, the Naval Academy for the Navy and the Air Force Academy for the Air Force. The UPSC also holds, twice a year, an examination for entry into the National Defense Academy (NDA). Candidates on completion of the 10+2 Examination or while in the 12th standard, are eligible to compete in this examination. Successful candidates thereafter join the NDA. On completion of the NDA course, they are sent to the respective service academies for their pre-commission training. Recruitment through Selection Boards Recruitment through Service Selection Boards/Air Force Selection Board is made for the following branches of the Army, Navy and Air Force: ARMY : All Arms and Services. NAVY : Electrical Engineering, Engineering (Naval Architects), Logistics, Law, Education, Air Traffic Control. AIR FORCE : Aeronautical Engineering (Electronics), Aeronautical Engineering (Mechanical), Education, Administration, Logistics, Accounts and Meteorology.

University Entry Scheme Final/pre-final year students in engineering disciplines are eligible for induction into the technical branches/services of the Army, as Commissioned Officers under the University Entry Scheme. Short Service Commission (Technical) Entry Scheme The Short Service Commission (Technical) Entry Scheme envisages recruitment of qualified technical graduates through the SSBs, to attend the Officers Training Academy (OTA), Chennai, after medical tests, for a 10 months course. On completion of training at the OTA, successful candidates are inducted as Short Service Commissioned Officers in the technical branches of the Army.

Recruitment of Medical Officers Medical graduates from the Armed Forces Medical College, Pune are directly inducted as permanent

Commissioned Medical Officers in the Armed Forces. For recruitment of Regular Commissioned/Short Service Commissioned Medical Officers from the graduates/Post graduates of Civil Medical Colleges, the Director General of the Armed Forces Medical Services conducts an all India competitive examination. Recruitment of Women Officers Eligible women are recruited as officers on Short Service Commission basis in the following Branches of the Armed Forces. ARMY : EME, Signals, Engineers, Army Education Corps, Army Ordnance Corps, Army Service Corps, Intelligence and Judge Advocate Generals Branch. NAVY : All Branches of the Indian Navy AIR FORCE: Flying, Aeronautical Engineering (Electronics), Aeronautical Engineering (Mechanical) Education, Administration, Logistics, Accounts and Meteorology. Recruitment through NCC University graduates possessing NCC C Certificate with minimum B grading and 50% marks in graduation are inducted in the Navy and Air Force as Regular Commissioned Officers and as Short Service Commission Officers in the Army. These graduates are exempted from appearing in the CDSE conducted by the UPSC and are selected through the SSBs. Induction under Special Commissioned Officers Scheme Government has approved the creation of a 6,000 strong Support Cadre of Special Commissioned Officers. These posts will be filled up by eligible JCOs and OR. Under this entry, serving JCOs/ NCOs/OR in the age group of 30-35 years, with an Army Senior School Certificate Pass (Class XI CBSE Pattern) qualification, will be eligible for commission after screening/selection through Service Selection Board and a Medical Board. They have to undergo a pre-commission training of six months duration. The officers so commissioned earn promotion upto the rank of Colonel. The rules for substantive promotion and acting promotion are the same as for regular officers. These officers are employed in units as sub unit Cadres/QM job/ERE appointments etc. upto the rank of Major. They retire at the age of 57 years after serving about 2025 years as officers. The scheme not only improve the career prospects of the existing JCOs/NCOs/OR but also help in making up the deficiency of officers in the Army to a considerable extent. 10 + 2 Technical Entry Scheme Under this scheme, candidates with 10+2 qualification, after selection through SSB, is sent for military and engineering training at IMA and the College of Military Engineering , Pune. Initial six months military training is followed by Degree Engineering training of 4 years. The objective of this scheme is to help in bringing down the deficiency of officers in technical Arms/Services. Recruitment of Other Ranks (OR) in Army Recruitment of Airmen to the Air Force is done through the Central Airmen Selection Board, located at the

Air Force Station, New Delhi . There are 13 selection centres under this Board. Recruitment of Jawans through Open Recruitment Rallies A new system of recruitment has been introduced with effect from April 01, 1998 . Under the revised system, recruitment of jawans in the Army is carried out through open recruitment rallies only. Recruitment rallies are planned well in advance, keeping in view the geographical, demographical and topographical considerations. At least one such rally is held in each month, combining districts, areas and regions, depending upon the response anticipated, thereby giving every aspirant, irrespective of his place of residence, minimum one opportunity in a year to get himself enrolled in the Army. In the old system of Branch Recruiting Office-oriented recruitment, aspirants had to travel long distances to reach the nearest BRO for enrolment, whereas in the revised system, recruitment has been brought closer to their area of domicile. Advance publicity regarding an ensuing rally in a particular area/district is given by putting up hoardings, advertisement in local newspapers, radio etc. Publicity for Recruitment Measures have been taken to make the youth of our country more aware of the opportunities in the Army, both for officers including women officers and other Rank categories. The means of publicity adopted to attract better talent are as follows: a) Press advertisements : Advertisements are released through the Directorate of Advertising and Visual Publicity (DAVP) in the Employment News/Rozgar Samachar and in newspapers in different languages for various entries viz National Defence Academy, Combined Defence Services Examination, Technical Graduate Course, Short Service Commission (Technical & Non-Technical), University Entry Scheme, Law Graduates, Induction in Medical Services for both men and women, Special Entry Scheme (Officers), Havildar Instructors, Junior Commissioned Officers (Catering and Religious Teachers) etc. A composite advertisement on various entries in the Army is also brought out periodically both in English and Hindi. Concerned Zonal Recruitment Offices (ZROs)/ Branch Recruitment Offices(BROs) also publish advertisements on recruitment of Other Ranks in local regional newspapers. b) Advertisements in Journals/Magazines: These are normally brought out in the journals of educational institutions c) Hoardings are erected at ZRO/BRO premises as well as adjacent to Engineering Colleges all over the country to attract technical talents into the Army. DAVP approves the sites and thereafter, the hoardings giving detailed information are installed and maintained by them. d) Printed Publicity: Information folders, leaflets, brochures, data cards, posters and blow-ups, prepared through DAVP and private professional agencies are widely distributed. e) Exhibition and Fair: Each year, at the Defence pavilion at the India International Trade Fair, New Delhi , a stall is established where recruiting information is provided to visitors. This is also done in other organised fairs, which are career oriented and meant for students. Image Projection Campaign To meet out the shortage of officers and bring out awareness of the opportunities that are available on commissioning in the Army amongst the target group (youths) an advertising campaign was launched in September 1997 with the assistance of a professional advertising agency to project positive aspects of a wholesome career available to Service Officer. The aim of the campaign was to reach out to every corner of

the country through the print, audio, visual and audio-visual media. An evaluation check of the impact of the campaign through independent market research agency MODE revealed that the campaign worked in the desired direction. On this basis the campaign is continuing.


TRAINING OF INDIAN ARMY PERSONNEL The Aim of Training The Indian Military Academy (IMA) transforms young men into courageous, dynamic and erudite young officers of integrity, who are to bear the brunt of battle, or hardship whilst guarding the Nation's frontiers, or take part in peace keeping missions abroad on behalf of the United Nations. The training at the Indian Military Academy aims to inculcate in the gentlemen cadets (trainees, who are commonly called GCs) moral values, leadership qualities interdependent upon honour and duty, mental and physical prowess, a spirit of adventure and the will to win. The objectives are achieved by training in character building, discipline, military and academic subjects, physical exercise, drill, sports and adventure activities. The underlying theme of activity at the Academy is camaraderie and team spirit and a commitment to excellence. Duty, honour, integrity and self esteem are stressed upon during each stage of training; these are important abstract qualities to be imbibed by every gentleman cadet. The curriculum and syllabi keep pace with current doctrines and technological developments, at the same time imbibing the basic principles/tenets of the military profession. Intake/Entry The Indian Military Academy presently has four main entry streams: the National Defence Academy cadets from Pune, the Army Cadet College cadets (for servicemen only), the Graduate Direct Entry Scheme from the technical institutions/colleges. The duration of training is one year except for the Direct Entry Scheme, for which it is one and a half years. Service Training The aim of service training is to prepare a GC for command of an infantry platoon in war and peace. Subjects taught include Tactics and Map Reading, Organization and Administration, Integrated General Leadership Training (IGLT), Weapon Training, Physical Training and Drill. The syllabus for service training enables a GC to::: Assume command of men in battle. :: Obtain standards of physical fitness and drill higher than soldier recruits. :: Acquire basic knowledge of tactics and its application as a platoon commander. :: Achieve standards of weapon training in all platoon weapons, as applicable to trained soldiers. :: Learn basics of administration. Leadership The ethos of the Indian Army is to lead from the front. The art of command and leadership is imbibed by gentleman cadets through lectures, discussions on leadership traits and principles, case studies of leaders, honour code meetings, interaction with officers who act as role models, adventure activity, games and performance of duties as appointments in tactical exercises and during the daily routine within the Academy. The essence of duty and honour is constantly impressed upon a GC to make him a responsive leader and a dignified citizen of the Nation.

Tactical Training The art of war miniaturized is the essence of service training at the Academy. Whilst gaining knowledge of basic tactical training at platoon level, a gentlemen cadet learns the use of ground and fire and movement tactics. Use of supporting arms and services is co-opted to develop the concept of an all arms battle philosophy. The irregular warfare spectrum forms an important segment of the syllabus to prepare officers for quelling and regressing insurgent movements. Low intensity conflict is taught to create awareness and generate responses when faced with such a dilemma. Tactical exercises generate opportunity for leadership development, independent thinking, stress endurance and team building. Physical Training A challenging obstacle course, individual physical proficiency tests, endurance marches, battle efficiency tests, expertise in swimming and equitation training endeavors that a young officer leaving the Academy can outperform his command in physical terms. The large spectrum of games at the Academy teaches gentlemen cadets to learn those played by Indian troops as wellas allows pursuit of individual games. It is a tough man who passes out of the portals of the Academy. Adventure Activity Risk, chance, fortune and luck are the hallmarks of successful leaders. These aspects being inherent in adventure activity, the Academy takes keen interest to encourage and provide opportunity to all GCs to pursue at least one adventure sport. The range of activity spans river rafting, para jumping, rock climbing, trekking, mountaineering and desert safari. Academic Training As all GCS are graduates upon joining the Academy, academic training aims at the overall development of a GC. The main objectives of academic training are to::: Provide a broad educational base, essential for future professional development. :: Enhance power of analysis, reasoning and expression, both verbal and written in Hindi and English. :: Provide scientific orientation to keep abreast with technological advancements in the field of warfare. :: Teach relevant functional skills and develop creative and critical faculties. Reorientation of Existing Knowledge One of the tasks of the Academic department is to identify common knowledge base of GCS and suitably augment and orient this knowledge for use in their professional enhancement. Subjects like Science and Warfare, Military History, Military Geography, Military Psychology and Computer Application are the product of this reorientation. Communication Skills Communication skills break down barriers, lead to better understanding of orders/instructions, reduce execution time in war and improve interpersonal relations. Both Hindi and English are paid attention; Hindi as it is the language of the troops, whereas English as it is the medium for international ideas/government communication.

To improve his English, each GC is required to write book reviews and articles for publication in the IMA Journal. The ultimate aim is to enable a GC to use the language with felicity but simply and effectively. Current Affairs and International Relations India's role in world affairs, cooperation with other armies, participation in UN operations and understanding the tenets behind national security are the raison d'etre for an officer to keep himself abreast of international and national affairs. Topics of professional interest, general awareness and current affairs including international relations with special reference to area studies of our neighbouring countries are studied in all terms. This kind of self-updating is functionally necessary for the potential Army officer. Science and Warfare Technological development have revolutionised methods to wage war. Hence instruction at the Academy includes the basic characteristics of weapons, developments in weapon technology and support equipment. Problems posed by Nuclear, Biological, Chemical and Electronic warfare are evaluated to find solutions. A capsule on computer application enables the GCS to handle computers confidently. Recreational Pursuits The Academy encourages GCS to develop hobbies and interests through various recreational clubs. Outdoor clubs include Riding and Polo, Driving & Maintenance, Yoga, Shooting, Cycle Polo, Weight Lifting & Body Building, Flora & Fauna and Angling. Indoor clubs are Photography, Arts, Science & Technology, Computers, Dramatics, Music and Workshop. A foundation is provided to all GCS to pursue a hobby later in life. Incorporating all facets of life at the IMA, a journal is published each term with contributions from GCS and staff alike. Army Cadet College Wing Army Cadet College Wing (ACC Wing) imparts the first phase of pre-commission training to selected. Other Ranks to meet their aspirations to become officers in the Indian Army. The Wing runs a three years degree course spread over six semesters of six months each. It is affiliated to the Jawahar Lal Nehru University for award of BA/BSc degrees. After graduating from the ACC Wing, the cadets join IMA in the second term and undergo one year training before being commissioned as regular officers in the Army. The aim of training at ACC Wing is to improve upon the following::: Character qualities. :: Leadership traits. :: Basic military knowledge. :: Broad based academic education.

DEVELOPMENT OF PERSONNELS IN INDIAN ARMY Individual Self-Development Learning is a lifelong process. Army civilians must commit to a lifetime of professional and personal growth to stay at the cutting edge of their profession and keep pace with changing Army environment. Every civilian is responsible for his own development. Accurate assessment, by individuals, commanders, and supervisors of individuals is key to determining strengths, weaknesses, and developmental needs. An individual may choose a professional reading and writing program, professional conferences, affiliations with professional organizations, correspondence courses, off duty advanced schooling, or other appropriate self-development activities. Self-development provides a means to acquire knowledge not developed in the schoolhouse or operational experience and follows the Armys lifelong learning philosophy. Supervisors should work with employees to identify training and development needs, and encourage participation in the continuing educational activities of schools and professional associations. Self-development efforts are initiated and usually funded by the employee and are normally completed during non-duty hours. In some cases, however, accommodations may be made if an employee wishes to attend an education, training or development activity on duty time, especially if it has the potential of increasing the employees contributions to the mission. For example, the employees hours of duty, work schedule, or lunch period may be changed temporarily to allow for self-development activities. One of the three domains of leader development is self-development. Self-development is continuous and should be emphasized in both institutional and operational assignments. Successful self-development requires a team effort. Self-development starts with an assessment of individual strengths, weaknesses, potential, and developmental needs. Com-manders and leaders provide feedback to enable subordinates to determine the reasons for their strengths and weaknesses. Together, they prioritize self-development goals and determine courses of action to improve performance. Self-development is a planned process involving the leader and the subordinate being developed. It enhances previously acquired skills, knowledge, behaviors, and experience; contributes to personal development; and highlights the potential for progressively more complex and higher-level assignments. Self-development focuses on maximizing individual strengths, minimizing weaknesses, and achieving individual development goals. Initial self-development is very structured and generally narrow in focus. The focus broadens as individuals understand their strengths and weaknesses, determine their individual needs, and become more experienced. Each individual's knowledge and perspective increases with experience, institutional training, and operational assignments. It is accelerated and broadened by specific, goal-oriented self-development actions. Self-development actions may include self study, reading programs, Advanced Civil Schooling (ACS), or community leadership positions that support development goals. As a major national employer, the Army makes sure that its soldiers are given the best possible opportunity for personal development and to gain qualifications. This is done through accredited military courses, providing all staff with a Personal Development Record, giving advice on personal development and funding towards qualifications. ACCREDITATION The Army works very closely with civilian training and educational institutions, awarding bodies and professional membership organisations to ensure our courses are accredited and meet the highest standards.

This includes vocational and management or leadership based training of respective Arms or Service which means that soldiers and officers can gain civilian awards and skills during their military service that are recognised once they leave the Army. PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT RECORD (PDR) The PDR is issued to all ranks of the Regular and Territorial Army. We use this tool to help our personnel to record their work and learning experiences, to help them plan and achieve their goals during their Army career and beyond. It can also help soldiers map their plans against career and personal goals. Advice and training that support personal development plans are also given in Army Education Centres all around the UK. These centres ensure that all ranks are able to get whatever education they or their families may want. FUNDING Standard learning credits (SLCs) allow service personnel to claim 80% of their fees for certain personal development courses, examinations and support, up to a maximum of 175 per year. For those potentially more expensive courses at A level equivalent or above, there are Enhanced Learning Credits (ELCs) available to our serving personnel and is tiered against the number of years of eligible service. Whichever courses our personnel take, we make sure the best education is available and positively encouraged throughout the soldier's career. The Army is committed to ensuring that soldiers and officers have the knowledge and skills required for their rank. Command, Leadership and Management (CLM) The CLM program provides the training and education to enable Non-Commissioned Officers (NCOs) and Warrant Officers (WOs) to full fill their roles. Officer Career Development (OCD) The OCD program is designed to provide education and training for all officers. This includes leadership and management, military knowledge (MK) and intellectual development.


Why do people want to leave the Army? The wide variety of choices available outside Rigid hierarchies leading to a sense of non-accomplishment and the self-actualization need left unsatisfied. Low individual empowerment. Officers suffering from a sense of potential being wasted High Stress levels leading to burnout Domestic problems: marital discord, aged parents, property disputes Promotions being rejection-based and not selection-based

Strategies Any retention strategy is based on an organization being able to provide competitive compensation, an ability to grow from within, a workplace that offers flexibility and an environment of camaraderie. Our suggestions use the same aspects: Avoid burning out the best talent. The best talent of the Army should be at its motivated best when in Operations. Optempo will be very high in critical zones like J&K. Personnel should be rotated in and out of these zones. For example: A three or four month active duty deployment, followed by rest and retraining, a low intensity assignment and then back to the critical zone. Retaining mid-career and high performing officers Since the promotion hierarchy is quite steep, 20-year service personnel can be given retention bonuses depending on the years of service extension. If a service member is deployed in a combat zone, the bonus could be tax-free. Enhance the Employability of Officers Ironically a key strategy that will help the Army attract good people as well as retain them is to make them highly employable outside. Providing educational opportunities within the service that will make an officer an even more desirable job candidate down the line is one tactic. Therefore ample training and skills development initiatives should be given. Training Methodologies should be innovative.



Resettlement: The primary thrust of the Directorate General of Resettlement, Kendriya Sainik Board, Rajya Sainik Boards and Zila sainik Boards is on dignified resettlement and efforts are made to explore various avenues for employment of ex-servicemen. To resettle/re-employ ex-servicemen, the Central Government arranges the following:(a) (b) Training programs to reorient retiring Defense personnel towards civil employment. Reservation of posts for providing employment opportunities in government/semi government/ public sector organizations and assistance in employment with corporate sector. (c) (d) Schemes for self-employment and Assistance in entrepreneurship and setting up small scale industries

TRAINING PROGRAMMES Training Programmes: Training for preparing both ex-servicemen and retiring service personnel for their resettlement in civil life is one of the major functions entrusted to the Directorate General of Resettlement. This year the Directorate General of Resettlement has introduced some new courses which will provide nationally / internationally accepted certification to facilitate retired persons to get quick employment within / outside the country. The programme includes courses on information technology, managerial science, technical skills and agro based industries. Constant endeavour is made to improve the quality of training by regular monitoring. The courses are reviewed every year to include courses in new fields based on the participation in current requirements of civil market and corporate world and also to delete obsolete courses. Officers Training : The Directorate General of Resettlement organizes employment oriented training programs for officers to enhance their qualifications and enable them to seek suitable employment after retirement. The Resettlement Training Programs range from vocational courses of three months duration to degree /diploma courses, via distant learning

program of one to three years duration. The courses are conducted in multifarious fields like Information Technology, Security Services, Entrepreneurship Development, Business Administration, Personnel Management, Hotel Management, Tourism, Human Resources Development, Law, Insurance and miscellaneous topics. Recently, management courses of six months duration have been introduced at Management Development Institute, Gurgaon and Indian Institute of Management, Lucknow. These courses have received an overwhelming response from officers and resulted in good job placements in the corporate sector. In order to meet the aspirations of retiring officers many more reputed institutes, including IIM Ahmedabad and IIM Indore, have been empanelled to run additional courses. Computer diploma and Engineering courses of six months have also been introduced in various institutions across the country. Besides this, especially designed two week programs in Second Career Transition have also been introduced for officers looking to build successful new careers in the corporate/self entrepreneurial sectors. JCOs / ORs Equivalent Training : Resettlement Training Programs for Junior Commissioned Officers / Other Ranks and their equivalent from the other services are carried out under head Vocational Training. The training courses are conducted in diversified fields for a duration of upto one year in government, semi-government and private institutes spread all over the country. The salient fields covered are Security Services, Management, Information Technology, Travel & Tourism including Adventure Tourism, Entrepreneurship & Small Business Management, technical (including medical) trades, non-technical trades, secretarial support services, agro based industry and many other miscellaneous trades. This year courses offered by the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) under the City and Guilds banner, with internationally accepted certification, have been introduced for Personnel Below Officers Rank (PBOR) to improve their employment avenues. Three day capsules on Second Career Transition/Preparation have also been introduced for retiring PBOR in order to arm them with sufficient information for a smooth transition to a second career in the civil market. The courses are conducted free of cost to the PBOR and the course fee is paid directly to the institutes through the DGR budget allotted by MOD. The course duration is treated as Temporary Duty and PBOR are permitted to avail Free Railway Warrant for the journey to and fro. Details of courses are published each year through a brochure distributed down to each unit and Zila Sainik Board. Ex-Servicemen (ESM) Training : Under this scheme, funds are allotted to RSBs for conducting vocational training for ESM in their States. The scheme is primarily meant for those ESM who could not avail the facility of resettlement training while in service. The scheme has also been extended to the widow / one dependent of an ESM, irrespective of whether his death is attributable to military service or not. The fields/trades in which training is being conducted and the course fees is approved by MOD. The course is free of cost for the ESM and a stipend of Rs. 700/- per month is paid to each trainee.

SCHEMES FOR SELF EMPLOYMENT Introduction: As it is not feasible to provide government jobs to all ex-servicemen after their retirement from the Armed Forces, government has formulated several schemes for encouraging and giving financial support by way of loans to exservicemen entrepreneurs intending to set up small and medium industries. Major self-employment schemes are SEMFEX-II, SEMFEX-III and National Equity Fund Scheme. Applications for sanction of loans are submitted by ex-servicemen directly to concerned Zila Sainik Boards in the states who scrutinise the applications and recommend for sanction of loan through Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI), Central Cooperative Banks, State Land Development Banks and Regional Rural Banks aided by National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) and the State KVIB/Banks aided by the Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC). SEMFEX-II Scheme. The scheme has been promoted with the assistance of NABARD to set up agriculture and allied activities, including State Road Transport Operators (SRTO), and also for setting up of village, cottage, tiny and small scale industries in rural areas. Agro/food processing units can be set up irrespective of location in rural and urban areas. There is no upper age limit for loan in respect of projects under farm sector including agro/food processing units. The financial assistance in case of non-farm sector activities is available up to SSI limit, for setting up industries in rural areas. This scheme is operative from the year 1988-89. Rs.124.87 crore loan has been sanctioned to 20455 ex-servicemen since inception and up to June 2005. SEMFEX-III Scheme. The scheme is operative in collaboration with the Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC). The maximum loan limit for individual entrepreneurs, cooperative societies/institutions and trusts is Rs. 25 lakh per project to establish industries in rural areas. This scheme is operative from the year 1992-93. Rs. 12.65 crore loan has been sanctioned to 1074 ex-servicemen since inception and up to June, 2005 National Equity Fund Scheme (NEF). The scheme has been launched in collaboration with SIDBI. Financial assistance is available to set up projects in tiny/small scale industrial sector, service enterprises and also for undertaking expansion, technology up gradation, modernization and revival of viable sick units in SSI Sector. The maximum loan project. This scheme is operative from the year 2000-01. ex-servicemen since inception and up to June 2005. limit is Rs 50 lakh per Rs.2.30 crore loan has been sanctioned to 44

Allotment of Army Surplus Vehicles. Ex-Servicemen and widows of defence personnel, who died while in service, are eligible to apply for allotment of an Army surplus phased out Class V-B Vehicles. The application forms are routed through Zila/Rajya Sainik Boards in case of retired personnel, and through units for those in their last six months of service, to DGR for registration and onward submission to Army Headquarters for allotment on the basis of depot-wise seniority maintained by them. During the year 2005, 2519 applications were registered with DGR for allotment of army surplus vehicles. Coal Transportation Scheme. DGR sponsors Ex-Servicemen Coal Transport Companies for providing loading and transportation of coal in various coal subsidiaries of Coal India Limited (CIL). The unemployed retired officers and JCOs registered with DGR, are selected to form ESM Coal Transport Companies and are sponsored to respective coal subsidiaries for five years, extendable by another four years. Presently, 94 such companies are operating under the various coal subsidiaries of CIL. The functioning of these companies is monitored by DGR. Coal Tipper Scheme. The widows of Defence personnel, who died while in service due to causes attributable to military service and disabled soldiers also can be sponsored by DGR for attaching one tipper truck in their name with an ESM Coal Transport Company. Eligible widow/disabled soldier is required to make a deposit of Rs.85,000/- with any of the nominated coal transport company. The company pays them Rs. 3000/- per month for a period of five years, after which the deposited amount of Rs.85,000/- is paid back to widow/disabled soldier. The functioning of these companies is monitored by DGR. At present 436 widows/disabled ex-servicemen are availing the benefit of this Scheme. Allotment of Oil Product Agencies. Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas has reserved 8% of the Oil Product Agencies, i.e. LPG Dealership, Petrol Pumps, Kerosene Distributorship etc. for widows and dependants of those who died due to causes attributable to military service and disabled soldiers with disability of 20 percent and above attributable to military service. Eligible persons can apply as and when such a vacancy under Defence Category is advertised in the newspapers. The DGR sponsors eligible candidates by issuing eligibility certificate to them. Interview is conducted by a Dealer Selection Board constituted by the Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas. Final allotment is made by the concerned oil company to the selected candidates. During 2005, 472 eligibility certificates have been issued by DGR . Mother Dairy Milk and Fruit & Vegetables Shops.

Junior Commissioned Officers (JCOs) / Other Ranks (OR) are allotted Mother Dairy Milk shops and fruit & vegetable shops in the National Capital Region. 686 milk shops and 282 fruit & vegetable shops are being operated by ex-servicemen. Dependant sons (where the Ex-Servicemen are not eligible) are also considered for allotment of fruit & vegetable shops in and around Delhi. Management of CNG Stations in National Capital Region (NCR). The scheme for management of CNG stations belonging to Indraprastha Gas Limited was launched as a pilot project in July 2001. On success of the pilot project, the scheme has been extended to retired officers. As on date, there are 60 retired officers managing 84 CNG station Three ex-lady officers have also been allotted CNG stations in Delhi. This scheme is presently available in Delhi only. Reservation in CSD. The Canteen Stores Department of India (CSDI) has reserved 15% of the 30 selected CSD items and the Ministry of Defence has reserved 10% of the 262 selected items manufactured by Ex-Servicemen Entrepreneurs under the Defence Purchase Programme for which Ex-Servicemen manufacturing units alone are eligible. New Initiatives and Thrust Areas PM Scholarship Scheme: To encourage higher technical and professional education for the wards of widows and ex-servicemen of the armed forces, it has been decided to introduce a new scholarship scheme to be known as Prime Ministers Merit Scholarship Scheme from the academic year 2006-07. The scheme would provide a scholarship of Rs. 1250/- p.m. for boys and Rs.1500/- p.m. for girls for the recognised professional and technical courses for a duration ranging from 2 to 5 years. A total number of 5000 scholarships would be available to be funded from National Defence Fund, out of which 4000 scholarships will be for wards of widows/ex-servicemen from armed forces and the remaining 1000 will be available to the wards of central para-military forces being managed by Ministry of Home Affairs and Railway Protection Force (Ministry of Railways). Self Employment Schemes: Intensive interaction with state governments was undertaken to set up pilot projects or suitable schemes in the areas having concentration of ex-servicemen in various sectors, based on local resources and skills, such as food processing, dairy, weaving, etc. Other central government ministries/departments such as Banking, Animal Husbandry, Health, Food Processing and institutions such as banks KVIC, NBARD were invited for discussions.