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CABLES:WIRES & CABLES:WIRES CABLES:WIRES CABLES: WIRES & & & ON LOWAPPLICATIONS LOWAPPLICATIONS LOW
CABLES:WIRES
& CABLES:WIRES CABLES:WIRES CABLES:
WIRES &
&
&
ON LOWAPPLICATIONS LOWAPPLICATIONS LOW
LOWAPPLICATIONS
APPLICATIONS ON
ON
ON
FEEDERS &VOLTAGE &VOLTAGE &
&VOLTAGE
VOLTAGE FEEDERS
FEEDERS
FEEDERS
BRANCH CIRCUITSBRANCH CIRCUITSBRANCH CIRCUITSBRANCH CIRCUITS
1
1
& &VOLTAGE VOLTAGE FEEDERS FEEDERS FEEDERS BRANCH CIRCUITSBRANCH CIRCUITSBRANCH CIRCUITSBRANCH CIRCUITS 1
& &VOLTAGE VOLTAGE FEEDERS FEEDERS FEEDERS BRANCH CIRCUITSBRANCH CIRCUITSBRANCH CIRCUITSBRANCH CIRCUITS 1
LARGEA TYPICAL LARGEA LARGEA LARGE A TYPICAL TYPICAL TYPICAL OFFICE BUILDINGCORPORATE BUILDINGCORPORATE BUILDING
LARGEA
TYPICAL LARGEA LARGEA LARGE
A TYPICAL
TYPICAL
TYPICAL
OFFICE BUILDINGCORPORATE BUILDINGCORPORATE BUILDING
BUILDINGCORPORATE
CORPORATE OFFICE
OFFICE
OFFICE
& FACTSMYTHS FACTSMYTHS FACTSMYTHS FACTSMYTHS FACTS
FACTSMYTHS
FACTSMYTHS
FACTSMYTHS
MYTHS &
&
&
&
&
&
&
WIRES &IN &IN &IN
CABLESCABLESCABLESCABLESCABLESCABLESCABLESCABLES
APPLICATIONAPPLICATIONAPPLICATIONAPPLICATIONAPPLICATIONAPPLICATIONAPPLICATIONAPPLICATION
WIRES &IN &IN &IN &IN &
IN WIRES
WIRES
WIRES WIRES
WIRES
WIRES
22
THW, THHN)THERMOPLASTIC THHN)THERMOPLASTIC THHN)THERMOPLASTIC THHN)THERMOPLASTIC THHN) THHN)THERMOPLASTIC
THW, THHN)THERMOPLASTIC THHN)THERMOPLASTIC THHN)THERMOPLASTIC THHN)THERMOPLASTIC THHN)
THHN)THERMOPLASTIC
THHN)THERMOPLASTIC
THHN)THERMOPLASTIC
THERMOPLASTIC WIRE
WIRE
WIRE
WIRE
WIRE & & & & & & & & CABLES
WIRE
WIRE
WIRE
CABLES
CABLES
CABLES
CABLES
CABLES
CABLES
CABLES (TW,
(TW,
(TW,
(TW,
(TW,
(TW,
(TW,
(TW, THW,
THW,
THW,
THW,
THW,
THW,
THW,
Stranded600
Stranded600
Stranded600
VOLTS, Stranded600 Stranded600 Stranded600 Stranded600 Stranded
600 VOLTS,
VOLTS,
VOLTS,
VOLTS,
VOLTS,
VOLTS,
VOLTS,
Ampacity
MM Size
Approximate
AWG Size
Ampacity
TW
60 deg C
THW
75 deg C
Ampacity
THHN
90 deg C
15
2.0
mm2
14
15
25
20
3.5
mm2
12
20
30
30
5.5
mm2
10
30
40
40
8.0
mm2
8
45
50
55
14
mm2
6
65
70
70
22
mm2
4
85
90
90
30
mm2
2
110
115
100
38
mm2
1
125
130
120
50
mm2
1/0
145
150
135
60
mm2
2/0
160
170
160
80
mm2
3/0
195
205
185
100 mm2
4/0
220
255
book)AMPACITY
book)AMPACITY
book)AMPACITY
pocket book)AMPACITY book)AMPACITY book)AMPACITY book)AMPACITY book)
AMPACITY TABLE
TABLE
TABLE
TABLE
TABLE
TABLE
TABLE
TABLE (Based
(Based
(Based
(Based
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on
on
on
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Table
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on
on
on
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on
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AVESCO
AVESCO
AVESCO
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AVESCO
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pocket
pocket
pocket
pocket
pocket
pocket
33
cableNot
cableNot
cableNot
or cableNot cableNot cableNot cableNot cable
Not more
more
more
more
more than
more
more
more
than
than
than
than
than 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 conductors
than
than
conductors
conductors
conductors
conductors in in in in in in in in a a a a a a a a raceway
conductors
conductors
conductors
raceway
raceway
raceway
raceway
raceway
raceway or
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or
or
or
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or
or
THW, THHN)THERMOPLASTIC THHN)THERMOPLASTIC THHN)THERMOPLASTIC THHN)THERMOPLASTIC THHN) THHN)THERMOPLASTIC
THW, THHN)THERMOPLASTIC THHN)THERMOPLASTIC THHN)THERMOPLASTIC THHN)THERMOPLASTIC THHN)
THHN)THERMOPLASTIC
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THERMOPLASTIC WIRE
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WIRE & & & & & & & & CABLES
WIRE
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CABLES
CABLES
CABLES
CABLES (TW,
CABLES
CABLES
CABLES
(TW,
(TW,
(TW,
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(TW, THW,
(TW,
(TW,
THW,
THW,
THW,
THW,
THW,
THW,
Stranded600
Stranded600
Stranded600
VOLTS, Stranded600 Stranded600 Stranded600 Stranded600 Stranded
600 VOLTS,
VOLTS,
VOLTS,
VOLTS,
VOLTS,
VOLTS,
VOLTS,
Ampacity
MM Size
Approximate
AWG Size
Ampacity
TW
60 deg C
THW
75 deg C
Ampacity
THHN
90 deg C
210
125
mm2
250 MCM
255
265
240
150
mm2
300 MCM
280
295
280
200
mm2
400 MCM
330
355
315
250
mm2
500 MCM
375
400
370
325
mm2
650 MCM
435
470
750 MCM
400
475
535535
405
515
400
mm2
800 MCM
485
455
580
500
mm2
1000 MCM
540
book)AMPACITY
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AMPACITY TABLE
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AVESCO
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AVESCO
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or cableNot cableNot cableNot cableNot cable
cableNot
cableNot
cableNot
Not more
more
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more
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more
more
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than
than
than
than
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than 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 conductors
conductors
conductors
conductors
conductors
conductors
conductors
conductors in in in in in in in in a a a a a a a a raceway
raceway
raceway
raceway
raceway or
raceway
raceway
raceway
or
or
or
or
or
or
44
AMPACITY TABLEAMPACITY TABLEAMPACITY TABLEAMPACITY TABLEAMPACITY TABLE TABLEAMPACITY TABLEAMPACITY TABLEAMPACITY (Lifted
AMPACITY TABLEAMPACITY TABLEAMPACITY TABLEAMPACITY TABLEAMPACITY TABLE
TABLEAMPACITY TABLEAMPACITY TABLEAMPACITY
(Lifted from(Lifted from(Lifted from(Lifted from(Lifted from from(Lifted from(Lifted from(Lifted
pocketAVESCO pocketAVESCO pocketAVESCO
AVESCO pocketAVESCO pocketAVESCO pocketAVESCO pocketAVESCO pocket
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identicalnot
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not quite
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NEC Tablewith Tablewith Tablewith Tablewith Table
Tablewith
Tablewith
Tablewith
with NEC
NEC
NEC
NEC
NEC
NEC
NEC
310.16310.16310.16310.16310.16310.16310.16310.16
55
REFERENCINGBE REFERENCINGBE IN REFERENCINGBE REFERENCINGBE REFERENCINGBE REFERENCINGBE REFERENCING REFERENCINGBE BE
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CABLETABLES
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WIRE & & & & & & & & CABLETABLES CABLETABLES CABLETABLES CABLETABLES CABLE
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TABLES ON
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ON WIRE
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AMPACITIES.AMPACITIES.AMPACITIES.AMPACITIES.AMPACITIES.AMPACITIES.AMPACITIES.AMPACITIES.
NOT ACTUALLYBECAUSE ACTUALLYBECAUSE ACTUALLYBECAUSE ACTUALLYBECAUSE ACTUALLY
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IDENTICAL…IDENTICAL…IDENTICAL…IDENTICAL…IDENTICAL…IDENTICAL…IDENTICAL…IDENTICAL…
slide…See
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slide…See
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66
PHILIPPINECOMPARISON: AMERICAN, PHILIPPINECOMPARISON: PHILIPPINECOMPARISON: PHILIPPINE COMPARISON: NORTH NORTH NORTH
PHILIPPINECOMPARISON:
AMERICAN, PHILIPPINECOMPARISON: PHILIPPINECOMPARISON: PHILIPPINE
COMPARISON: NORTH
NORTH
NORTH
NORTH AMERICAN,
AMERICAN,
AMERICAN,
MANUFACTURED CABLES& CABLES& CABLES
CABLES&
& EUROPEAN
EUROPEAN
EUROPEAN MANUFACTURED
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MANUFACTURED
MANUFACTURED
77
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TW
THW
THHN
88
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WIRE?WHICH
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WHICH IS
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TW
THW
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Why…?Why…?Why…?Why…?Why…?Why…?Why…?Why…?
99
ININININDO TODAY,DO DO YOU TODAY,DO YOU YOU YOU AGREE AGREE AGREE AGREE THAT THAT THAT
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THE PHILIPPINES:THE PHILIPPINES:THE PHILIPPINES:THE PHILIPPINES:THE PHILIPPINES:
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BUILDINGTHE
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THHN?WIRES
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THE THHN?WIRES THHN?WIRES THHN?WIRES THHN?WIRES THHN?
WIRES ARE
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1010
theIt’s theIt’s theIt’s revisiting theIt’s theIt’s theIt’s theIt’s the It’s worthwhile worthwhile
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1212
NEC TABLE 3.16 (TW,(TW,Q: sizeQ: Q: What What sizeQ: size What What size (TW,(TW, THHN)THHN)THW,THW,
NEC TABLE 3.16
(TW,(TW,Q:
sizeQ:
Q: What
What sizeQ: size
What
What
size
(TW,(TW,
THHN)THHN)THW,THW,
THW,THW, THHN)THHN)
theconductor
does theconductor theconductor the
conductor does
does
does
for aNEC aNEC a aNEC
NEC require
require
require
require for
for
for
50A circuit?50A circuit?50A circuit?
circuit?50A
a)a)a)a) # 10# 10# 10# 10
# 8# 8b)b) 8
b)b) #
8#
c)c) #
# 6# 6c)c) 6
6#
of these?Any these?d)d) these?
d)d) Any
these?Any
Any of
of
of
Note: NEC TABLE
3.16 doesn’t have
mm sizes.
1313
NEC TABLE 3.16 TEST CASETEST CASETEST CASE CASETEST SOLUTIONSOLUTION::SOLUTIONSOLUTION:: 1)1) 50 ARating A1)1)
NEC TABLE 3.16
TEST CASETEST CASETEST CASE
CASETEST
SOLUTIONSOLUTION::SOLUTIONSOLUTION::
1)1)
50 ARating A1)1) ARating A
Rating
Rating of
of
of
of Circuit:
Circuit:
Circuit:
Circuit: 50
50
50
(Given)(Given)(Given)(Given)
Table NEC2) NEC2) NEC
NEC2)
2) Referring
Referring
Referring to
Referring
to
to
to the
the
the
the Table
Table
Table
310.16:310.16:310.16:310.16:
ANSWERS:PROBABLE
PROBABLE ANSWERS:PROBABLE ANSWERS:PROBABLE ANSWERS:
mm2),TW:
(14 mm2),TW: mm2),TW: mm2),
TW: Use,
Use,
Use,
Use, #
#
#
# 6
6
6
6 (14
(14
(14
55AAmpacity:
Ampacity: 55AAmpacity: 55AAmpacity: 55A
mm2),THW:
(8.0 mm2),THW: mm2),THW: mm2),
THW: Use,
Use,
Use, #
Use,
#
# 8
#
8
8
8 (8.0
(8.0
(8.0
50AAmpacity:
Ampacity: 50AAmpacity: 50AAmpacity: 50A
mm2),THHN:
(8.0 mm2),THHN: mm2),THHN: mm2),
THHN: Use,
Use,
Use,
Use, #
#
# 8
#
8
8 (8.0
8
(8.0
(8.0
Ampacity: 55AAmpacity: 55AAmpacity: 55A
55AAmpacity:
1414
? 1515
?
1515
1616
1616
1717
1717
SOLUTIONSOLUTION::SOLUTIONSOLUTION:: ARating 50 ARating ARating A Rating of of of Circuit: of Circuit: Circuit: 50
SOLUTIONSOLUTION::SOLUTIONSOLUTION::
ARating
50 ARating ARating A
Rating of
of
of Circuit:
of
Circuit:
Circuit: 50
Circuit:
50
50
(Given)(Given)(Given)(Given)
ANSWERS ARE:THE ARE:THE ARE:
ARE:THE
THE CORRECT
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CORRECT ANSWERS
ANSWERS
ANSWERS
TW:TW: Use,
(14 mm2),Use, mm2),TW:TW: mm2),
mm2),Use,
Use, #
#
#
# 6
6
6 (14
6
(14
(14
acitAm
Am p : : 55A: 55AAm 55A
acitAm
yp y yp
yp
acit
acit
55A:
(14 mm2),Use, mm2),THW:THW: mm2),
THW:THW: Use,
mm2),Use,
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#
# 6
#
6
6 (14
6
(14
(14
AmpacityAmpacity: 55A
C Column: ColumnAmpacityAmpacity: Column: Column
55A
55A
55A @
@
@
@ 60
60
60
60 deg
deg
deg
deg C
C
C
THHN:THHN: Use,
(14 mm2),Use, mm2),THHN:THHN: mm2),
mm2),Use,
Use, #
#
# 6
#
6
6
6 (14
(14
(14
C Column: ColumnAmpacityAmpacity: Column: Column
AmpacityAmpacity: 55A
55A
55A
55A @
@
@
@ 60
60
60
60 deg
deg
deg
deg C
C
C
1818
?HOW ?HOW ? ?HOW 1919
?HOW
?HOW
?
?HOW
1919
2020
2020
veryA A safe safe electrical electrical system system starts starts from from the the very
veryA
A safe
safe electrical
electrical system
system starts
starts from
from the
the very
fundamentalsbasic
basic wiring
wiring fundamentals
–– the branch
the
circuitthe
circuitthe
circuitthe
branch circuitthe circuitthe circuit
circuitthe
branch
branch
branch
branch
branch
branch
circuit
eitherIn
In general
general terms,
terms, a a branch
branch circuit
circuit could
could either
bebe nonnon--motormotor (as in
outlets,(as
in lighting,
lighting, receptacle
receptacle outlets,
computers)&
& computers)
oror motor loaded
circuit.motor
loaded circuit.
wiring systemis systemis systemis systemAAAA systemis systemis systemis system
AAAA branch
circuitbranch circuitbranch circuitbranch circuit is
branch circuitbranch circuitbranch circuitbranch circuit
is that
that
that
that
that
that
that
that part
part
part
part
part
part
part
part of
of
of
of
of
of
of
of a a a a a a a a wiring
wiring
wiring
wiring
wiring
wiring
wiring
protectiveextending
protectiveextending
protectiveextending
final protectiveextending protectiveextending protectiveextending protectiveextending protective
extending beyond
beyond
beyond
beyond
beyond
beyond
beyond
beyond the
the
the
the
the
the
the
the last
last
last
last
last
last
last
last or
or
or
or
or
or
or
or final
final
final
final
final
final
final
specifically serves.device serves.device serves.device serves.device serves.device serves.device serves.device serves.
device to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to the
the
the
the
the
the
the
the load
load
load
load
load
load
load
load it
it
it
it
it
it
it
it specifically
specifically
specifically
specifically
specifically
specifically
specifically
2121
theThe The branch branch circuit circuit represents represents the the last last step step in
theThe
The branch
branch circuit
circuit represents
represents the
the last
last step
step in
in the
oftransfer
transfer of
of power
power from
from the
the service
service or
or source
source of
devices.energy
energy to
to utilization
utilization devices.
orA
A branch
branch circuit
circuit may
may have
have several
several lighting
lighting or
mayreceptacle
receptacle outlets
outlets connected
connected to
to it
it as
as a a circuit
circuit or
or may
appliance.serve
serve a a single
single load
load as
as in
in motor
motor or
or heavy
heavy appliance.
has a aA
A branch
branch circuit
circuit will
will qualify
qualify as
as such
such when
when it
it has
deviceprotective
protective device
from the
tapping.from
the point
point of
of tapping.
2222
of : :Therefore, Therefore, the the branch branch circuit circuit is is made made up
of : :Therefore,
Therefore, the
the branch
branch circuit
circuit is
is made
made up
up of
1)1) The Over--Current
OverThe
(OCPD)Current
Protective Device
Protective
Device (OCPD)
2)2) The Conductor
Cable)The
Conductor (Wire
(Wire or
or Cable)
3)3) The Load
NonThe
Load (Motor
(Motor or
or Non--Motor
Loads)Motor
Loads)
2323
QUESTIONS:QUESTIONS:QUESTIONS:QUESTIONS:QUESTIONS:QUESTIONS:QUESTIONS:QUESTIONS: From where loads?From where shall
QUESTIONS:QUESTIONS:QUESTIONS:QUESTIONS:QUESTIONS:QUESTIONS:QUESTIONS:QUESTIONS:
From where
loads?From
where shall
shall we
we base
base our
our loads?
From where
ofFrom
where shall
shall we
we base
base our
our sizing
sizing of
conductors?conductors?
From where
OCPD?From
where shall
shall we
we base
base our
our OCPD?
2424
2525
2525
2626
2626
WIRING FUNDAMENTALSWIRING FUNDAMENTALSWIRING FUNDAMENTALSBRANCH FUNDAMENTALSWIRING FUNDAMENTALSWIRING FUNDAMENTALS
WIRING FUNDAMENTALSWIRING FUNDAMENTALSWIRING FUNDAMENTALSBRANCH FUNDAMENTALSWIRING FUNDAMENTALSWIRING FUNDAMENTALS
CIRCUITSBRANCH CIRCUITSBRANCH CIRCUITSBRANCH
BRANCH CIRCUITSBRANCH CIRCUITSBRANCH CIRCUITS
CIRCUITSBRANCH CIRCUITS
––––
–––– WIRING
FUNDAMENTALSWIRING FUNDAMENTALSWIRING
REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT
CODE REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT REQUIREMENTS
REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT
REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT
RELEVANT CODE
CODE
CODE
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circuitThe
circuitThe
branch circuitThe circuitThe circuitThe circuitThe circuit
circuitThe
The ampacity
ampacity
ampacity
ampacity
ampacity
ampacity
ampacity of
ampacity
of
of
of
of
of branch
of
of
branch
branch
branch
branch
branch
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than theconductors theconductors theconductors theconductors the
theconductors
theconductors
theconductors
conductors must
must
must
must
must
must
must
must not
not
not
not
not
not
not
not be
be
be
be
be
be
be
be less
less
less
less
less than
less
less
less
than
than
than
than
than
than
served.maximum
served.maximum
served.maximum
(NEC(NEC(NEC(NECmaximum
be served.maximum served.maximum served.
maximum load
served.maximum
load
load
load
load to
load
load
load
to
to
to
to be
to
to
to
be
be
be
be
be
be
served.
(NEC(NEC(NEC(NEC
210Section 210Section 210Section
Section 210Section 210Section 210----19a).19a).19a).19a).Section 210Section 210----19a).19a).19a).19a).
2727
WIRING FUNDAMENTALSWIRING FUNDAMENTALSWIRING FUNDAMENTALSBRANCH FUNDAMENTALSWIRING FUNDAMENTALSWIRING FUNDAMENTALS
WIRING FUNDAMENTALSWIRING FUNDAMENTALSWIRING FUNDAMENTALSBRANCH FUNDAMENTALSWIRING FUNDAMENTALSWIRING FUNDAMENTALS
CIRCUITSBRANCH CIRCUITSBRANCH CIRCUITSBRANCH
CIRCUITSBRANCH CIRCUITS
BRANCH CIRCUITSBRANCH CIRCUITSBRANCH CIRCUITS
––––
–––– WIRING
FUNDAMENTALSWIRING FUNDAMENTALSWIRING
REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT
REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT
REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT
CODE REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT REQUIREMENTS
RELEVANT CODE
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CODE
CODE
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rcu i i i i t t t t isThe isThe i ii isffff isThe ii ii sThe sThe sThe sThe
The rating
rat
rating
rat
rat
rat
rating
rating
i ng ng ng ng o
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o
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branch
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branch circuit
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c c circuit circuit circuit c c
i i i i rcu rcu
rcu
the ratingestablished ratingestablished ratingestablished ratingestablished rating
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established or
or
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or defined
defined
defined
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defined by
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by
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the
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device.or
protective device.or device.or device.or device.or device.
device.or
device.or
or setting
setting
setting
setting
setting
setting of
setting
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of
of
of
of
of its
of
of
its
its
its
its
its
its
its protective
protective
protective
protective
protective
protective
protective
210(NEC
210(NEC
210(NEC
Section 210(NEC 210(NEC 210----3).3).3).3).(NEC 210(NEC 210----3).3).3).3).
(NEC Section
Section
Section
Section
Section
Section
Section
WIRING FUNDAMENTALSWIRING FUNDAMENTALSWIRING FUNDAMENTALSBRANCH FUNDAMENTALSWIRING FUNDAMENTALSWIRING FUNDAMENTALS
WIRING FUNDAMENTALSWIRING FUNDAMENTALSWIRING FUNDAMENTALSBRANCH FUNDAMENTALSWIRING FUNDAMENTALSWIRING FUNDAMENTALS
CIRCUITSBRANCH CIRCUITSBRANCH CIRCUITSBRANCH
CIRCUITSBRANCH CIRCUITS
BRANCH CIRCUITSBRANCH CIRCUITSBRANCH CIRCUITS
–––– WIRING
––––
FUNDAMENTALSWIRING FUNDAMENTALSWIRING
REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT
REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT
REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT
CODE REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT REQUIREMENTS
RELEVANT CODE
CODE
CODE
CODE
CODE
CODE
CODE
branch circuitThe circuitThe c c circuitffff circuitThe c c i i i i rcu rcu rcu rcu i ii ii ii tThe tThe tThe tThe
The ampacity
ampac
ampac
ampacity
ampacity
ampac
ampacity
ampac i ty ty ty ty o
o o o o
o f f f f branch
o
o
branch
branch
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than theconductors theconductors theconductors theconductors the
theconductors
theconductors
theconductors
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must
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must not
not
not
not
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be less
be
be
less
less
less
less
less
less than
less
than
than
than
than
than
than
circuit.rating
circuit.rating
(NEC(NEC(NEC(NECrating
circuit.rating
branch circuit.rating circuit.rating circuit.
rating of
circuit.rating
of
of
of
of
of
of the
of
the
the
the
the
the
the branch
the
branch
branch
branch
branch
branch
branch
circuit.
(NEC(NEC(NEC(NEC
Section 210Section 210Section 210----19a).19a).19a).19a).Section 210Section 210----19a).19a).19a).19a).
210Section 210Section 210Section
REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT CODE REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT
REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT
CODE REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT REQUIREMENTS
REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT
REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT
RELEVANT CODE
CODE
CODE
CODE
CODE
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CODE
overCircuit
overCircuit
overCircuit
against overCircuit overCircuit over----Circuit overCircuit over----
Circuit conductors
conductors
conductors
conductors
conductors
conductors
conductors
conductors shall
shall
shall
shall
shall
shall
shall
shall be
be
be
be
be
be
be protected
be
protected
protected
protected
protected
protected against
protected
protected
against
against
against
against
against
against
ampacitiesampacitiesampacitiesampacities,, but wherecurrent wherebut
theircurrent
theircurrent
theircurrent
theircurrent
theircurrent
theircurrent
current in
in
in
in
in accordance
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in
accordance
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accordance to
accordance
to
to
to
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to
to their
to
their
ampacitiesampacitiesampacitiesampacities
thethe ampacityampacity of the
correspondof
the conductor
conductor does
does not
not correspond
with the
circuitwith
the standard
standard ampere
ampere rating
rating of
of a a fuse
fuse or
or a a circuit
breaker,breaker, the next
permittedthe
next higher
higher rating
rating shall
shall be
be permitted
only if
amperesonly
if this
this rating
rating does
does not
not exceed
exceed 800
800 amperes.
(NEC.
(NEC
Section 240--3).3).
240Section
THIS MEANS
THETHIS
MEANS A
A MANDATORY
MANDATORY MATCH
MATCH BETWEEN
BETWEEN THE
(OVERCONDUCTOR
CONDUCTOR AMPACITY
AMPACITY WITH
WITH ITS
ITS OCPD
OCPD (OVER--
CURRENT PROTECTIVE
DEVICE).CURRENT
PROTECTIVE DEVICE).
CIRCUITSBRANCH CIRCUITSBRANCH CIRCUITSBRANCH WIRING FUNDAMENTALSWIRING FUNDAMENTALSWIRING FUNDAMENTALSBRANCH
CIRCUITSBRANCH CIRCUITSBRANCH CIRCUITSBRANCH
WIRING FUNDAMENTALSWIRING FUNDAMENTALSWIRING FUNDAMENTALSBRANCH FUNDAMENTALSWIRING FUNDAMENTALSWIRING FUNDAMENTALS
CIRCUITSBRANCH CIRCUITS
BRANCH CIRCUITSBRANCH CIRCUITSBRANCH CIRCUITS
––––
–––– WIRING
FUNDAMENTALSWIRING FUNDAMENTALSWIRING
REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT
CODE REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT REQUIREMENTS
REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT
REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT
RELEVANT CODE
CODE
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load thatThe thatThe thatThe thatThe that
thatThe
thatThe
thatThe
The maximum
maximum
maximum
maximum
maximum
maximum continuous
maximum
maximum
continuous
continuous
continuous
continuous
continuous load
continuous
continuous
load
load
load
load
load
load
circuitcan
circuitcan
branch circuitcan circuitcan circuitcan circuitcan circuit
circuitcan
can be
be
be
be
be
be
be served
be
served
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by
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by
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the branch
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the
branch
branch
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thanconductors
more thanconductors thanconductors thanconductors thanconductors than
thanconductors
thanconductors
conductors must
must
must
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must
not
not
not
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not
not
not
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more
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the80%
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the
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the ampacity
ampacity
ampacity
ampacity
ampacity
ampacity
ampacity
ampacity of
of
of
of
of
of
of
Section 210(NEC 210(NEC 210----19a).19a).19a).19a).conductors.conductors.conductors.conductors. 210(NEC 210----19a).19a).19a).19a).
conductors.conductors.conductors.conductors. (NEC
210(NEC
210(NEC
210(NEC
(NEC Section
Section
Section
Section
Section
Section
Section
3131
WIRING FUNDAMENTALSWIRING FUNDAMENTALSWIRING FUNDAMENTALSBRANCH FUNDAMENTALSWIRING FUNDAMENTALSWIRING FUNDAMENTALS
WIRING FUNDAMENTALSWIRING FUNDAMENTALSWIRING FUNDAMENTALSBRANCH FUNDAMENTALSWIRING FUNDAMENTALSWIRING FUNDAMENTALS
CIRCUITSBRANCH CIRCUITSBRANCH CIRCUITSBRANCH
BRANCH CIRCUITSBRANCH CIRCUITSBRANCH CIRCUITS
CIRCUITSBRANCH CIRCUITS
––––
–––– WIRING
FUNDAMENTALSWIRING FUNDAMENTALSWIRING
REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT
REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT
CODE REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT REQUIREMENTS
REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT
RELEVANT CODE
CODE
CODE
CODE
CODE
CODE
CODE
The current
byThe
carried byThe byThe byThe byThe by
byThe
byThe
current
current
current
current permitted
current
current
current
permitted
permitted
permitted
permitted
permitted
permitted
permitted to
to
to
to
to be
to
to
to
be
be
be
be carried
be
be
be
carried
carried
carried
carried
carried
carried
bethe
bethe
to bethe bethe bethe bethe be
bethe
the branch
branch
branch
branch
branch
branch
branch circuit
branch
circuit
circuit
circuit
circuit conductors
circuit
circuit
circuit
conductors
conductors
conductors
conductors has
conductors
conductors
conductors
has
has
has
has
has to
has
has
to
to
to
to
to
to
This rule80% rule80% rule80% rule80% rule
rule80%
rule80%
rule80%
80% if
if
if
if
if
if
if
if the
the
the
the
the
the load
the
the
load
load
load
load
load
load
load is
is
is
is
is
is
is continuous.
is
continuous.
continuous.
continuous.
continuous. This
continuous.
continuous.
continuous.
This
This
This
This
This
This
berefers
berefers
berefers
to berefers berefers berefers berefers be
refers to
to
to
to
to
to
to a a a a a a a a limit
to
limit
limit
limit
limit of
limit
limit
limit
of
of
of
of
of
of
of the
the
the
the
the
the load
the
the
load
load
load
load to
load
load
load
to
to
to
to
to
to
(NEC 210(NEC 210(NEC 210----carried 210(NEC 210----
conductors.carried
conductors.carried
conductors.carried
carried by
the conductors.carried conductors.carried conductors.
conductors.carried
by
by
by
by the
by
by
by
the
the
the
the
the
the
conductors.
210(NEC 210(NEC 210(NEC
(NEC
22c).22c).22c).22c).22c).22c).22c).22c).
3232
WIRING FUNDAMENTALSWIRING FUNDAMENTALSWIRING FUNDAMENTALSBRANCH FUNDAMENTALSWIRING FUNDAMENTALSWIRING FUNDAMENTALS
WIRING FUNDAMENTALSWIRING FUNDAMENTALSWIRING FUNDAMENTALSBRANCH FUNDAMENTALSWIRING FUNDAMENTALSWIRING FUNDAMENTALS
CIRCUITSBRANCH CIRCUITSBRANCH CIRCUITSBRANCH
BRANCH CIRCUITSBRANCH CIRCUITSBRANCH CIRCUITS
CIRCUITSBRANCH CIRCUITS
–––– WIRING
––––
FUNDAMENTALSWIRING FUNDAMENTALSWIRING
CODE REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT REQUIREMENTS
REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT
REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT
REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT
RELEVANT CODE
CODE
CODE
CODE
CODE
CODE
CODE
Continuous
load
load
load
load
refers
refers
refers
refers
a a a a load
load
load
load
that
that
that
that
as operatesContinuous operatesContinuous operates operatesContinuous
forfor three
storeforfor
hoursthree
hoursthree
hoursthree
hoursthree
three (3)
hoursthree
hoursthree
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
hours
hours
storeor
or
or to to to to
storeor
more,
more,
more,
more,
such
such
such
such
as
as
as
store
loads.lighting,
similar loads.lighting, loads.lighting, loads.
lighting, office
office
office
office lighting
lighting
lighting
lighting and
and
and
and similar
similar
similar
the circuitThis circuitThis circuitThis circuit
This rule
rule
rule
rule limits
limits
limits
limits the
the
the
the load
load
load
load on
on
on
on the
the
the
theconductors;
ampacityampacityconductors;
theconductors;
conductors;
it
it
it does
it
does
does
does
not
not
not
not change
change
change
change
the
the
ampacityampacity
orof
orof
orof
of the
the
the
the circuit
circuit
circuit
circuit
conductors
conductors
conductors
conductors
or
or
or
or the
the
the
the
rating
rating
rating
rating
or
oversetting
protectivecurrent protectivesetting protectivecurrent protective
oversetting
setting of
of
of
of the
the
the
the
circuit
circuit
circuit
circuit
over--current
over--current
210(NEC 210(NEC 210----22c).22c).22c).22c).device.device. 210(NEC 210----22c).22c).22c).22c).
device.device.
(NEC
210(NEC 210(NEC 210(NEC
(NEC
3333
CIRCUITSBRANCH CIRCUITSBRANCH CIRCUITSBRANCH WIRING FUNDAMENTALSWIRING FUNDAMENTALSWIRING FUNDAMENTALSBRANCH
CIRCUITSBRANCH CIRCUITSBRANCH CIRCUITSBRANCH
WIRING FUNDAMENTALSWIRING FUNDAMENTALSWIRING FUNDAMENTALSBRANCH FUNDAMENTALSWIRING FUNDAMENTALSWIRING FUNDAMENTALS
CIRCUITSBRANCH CIRCUITS
BRANCH CIRCUITSBRANCH CIRCUITSBRANCH CIRCUITS
––––
–––– WIRING
FUNDAMENTALSWIRING FUNDAMENTALSWIRING
CODE REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT REQUIREMENTS
REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT
REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT
REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT
RELEVANT CODE
CODE
CODE
CODE
CODE
CODE
CODE
TheThe total load
overtotal
overtotal
any overtotal overtotal over----currentcurrentcurrentcurrenttotal overtotal overtotal over----currentcurrentcurrentcurrent
load
load
load
load
load
load
load on
on
on
on
on
on
on
on any
any
any
any
any
any
any
in a adevice adevice adevice a adevice adevice adevice panelboardpanelboardpanelboardpanelboard
must notmust notmust notdevice notmust not
device in
in
in
in
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in
in
panelboardpanelboardpanelboardpanelboard must
notmust notmust notmust
theexceed
80% 80% 80% of of of of the the the the of of of theexceed
theexceed
80% 80% 80% 80% of of theexceed theexceed theexceed theexceed the
exceed 80%
of
of
of
the
the
the
the rating
rating
rating
rating
rating of
rating
rating
rating
of
of
of
(NEC Sectionoveroveroverover----current Section(NEC
overoveroverover----current devicecurrent devicecurrent device
devicecurrent devicecurrent device
devicecurrent devicecurrent
384384--16c).16c).
3434
CIRCUITSBRANCH CIRCUITSBRANCH CIRCUITSBRANCH WIRING FUNDAMENTALSWIRING FUNDAMENTALSWIRING FUNDAMENTALSBRANCH
CIRCUITSBRANCH CIRCUITSBRANCH CIRCUITSBRANCH
WIRING FUNDAMENTALSWIRING FUNDAMENTALSWIRING FUNDAMENTALSBRANCH FUNDAMENTALSWIRING FUNDAMENTALSWIRING FUNDAMENTALS
BRANCH CIRCUITSBRANCH CIRCUITSBRANCH CIRCUITS
CIRCUITSBRANCH CIRCUITS
––––
–––– WIRING
FUNDAMENTALSWIRING FUNDAMENTALSWIRING
REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT
REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT
REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT
CODE REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT REQUIREMENTS
RELEVANT CODE
CODE
CODE
CODE
CODE
CODE
CODE
3535
3636
3636
3737
3737
3838
3838
3939
3939
4040
4040
4141
4141
DISCUSSED INARE INARE INARE INARE IN INARE INARE INARE ARE THE THE THE THE THE
DISCUSSED INARE INARE INARE INARE IN
INARE
INARE
INARE
ARE THE
THE
THE
THE
THE
THE
THE
THE CIRCUITS
CIRCUITS
CIRCUITS
CIRCUITS
CIRCUITS DISCUSSED
CIRCUITS
CIRCUITS
CIRCUITS
DISCUSSED
DISCUSSED
DISCUSSED
DISCUSSED
DISCUSSED
DISCUSSED
EXAMPLESPRECEDING EXAMPLESPRECEDING EXAMPLESPRECEDING
PRECEDING EXAMPLESPRECEDING EXAMPLESPRECEDING EXAMPLESPRECEDING EXAMPLESPRECEDING EXAMPLES
FROM FIREALREADY FIREALREADY FIREALREADY FIREALREADY FIRE
FIREALREADY
FIREALREADY
FIREALREADY
ALREADY SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE FROM
FROM
FROM
FROM
FROM
FROM
FROM
HAZARDS…?HAZARDS…?HAZARDS…?HAZARDS…?HAZARDS…?HAZARDS…?HAZARDS…?HAZARDS…?
4242
4343
4343
4444
4444
4545
4545
WIRINGWIRINGWIRINGWIRINGBRANCH CIRCUITSBRANCH CIRCUITSBRANCH CIRCUITSBRANCH BRANCH CIRCUITSBRANCH CIRCUITSBRANCH
WIRINGWIRINGWIRINGWIRINGBRANCH
CIRCUITSBRANCH CIRCUITSBRANCH CIRCUITSBRANCH
BRANCH CIRCUITSBRANCH CIRCUITSBRANCH CIRCUITS
CIRCUITSBRANCH CIRCUITS
––––
–––– WIRINGWIRINGWIRINGWIRING
FUNDAMENTALSFUNDAMENTALSFUNDAMENTALSFUNDAMENTALSFUNDAMENTALSFUNDAMENTALSFUNDAMENTALSFUNDAMENTALS
REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT
REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT
CODE REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT REQUIREMENTS
REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT
RELEVANT CODE
CODE
CODE
CODE
CODE
CODE
CODE
The normal
ofThe
ofThe
ofThe
ampacities ofThe ofThe ofThe ofThe of
normal
normal
normal
normal
normal maximum
normal
normal
maximum
maximum
maximum
maximum ampacities
maximum
maximum
maximum
ampacities
ampacities
ampacities
ampacities
ampacities
ampacities
areconductors
raceways areconductors areconductors areconductors areconductors are
areconductors
areconductors
conductors in
in
in
in
in cables
in
in
in
cables
cables
cables
cables
cables
cables
cables or
or
or
or
or raceways
or
or
or
raceways
raceways
raceways
raceways
raceways
raceways
310given
(copper) on16 on16 on----given on16 on
310given
310given
310given
given in
Tables 310given 310given 310----16
in
in
in
in
in
in
in NEC
NEC
NEC
NEC
NEC Tables
NEC
NEC
NEC
Tables
Tables
Tables
Tables
Tables
Tables
310
on16
on16
on16
16 (copper)
(copper)
(copper)
(copper)
(copper)
(copper)
(copper)
temperature.a
temperature.a
ambient temperature.a temperature.a temperature.a temperature.a temperature.
temperature.a
a 30
30
30
30
30 deg
30
30
30
deg
deg
deg
deg
deg
deg
deg C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C ambient
ambient
ambient
ambient
ambient
ambient
ambient
For ambient
overFor
overFor
overFor
or overFor overFor overFor overFor over
ambient
ambient
ambient
ambient
ambient
ambient temperatures
ambient
temperatures
temperatures
temperatures
temperatures
temperatures
temperatures
temperatures under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under or
or
or
or
or
or
or
be30
be30
be30
must be30 be30 be30 be30 be
30 deg
deg
deg
deg
deg
deg C,
deg
deg
C,
C,
C,
C,
C, Correction
C,
C,
Correction
Correction
Correction
Correction Factors
Correction
Correction
Correction
Factors
Factors
Factors
Factors must
Factors
Factors
Factors
must
must
must
must
must
must
considered.considered.considered.considered.considered.considered.considered.considered.
4646
4747
4747
CIRCUITSBRANCH WIRINGWIRINGBRANCH BRANCH CIRCUITSBRANCH CIRCUITS CIRCUITS –– WIRINGWIRING ––
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WIRINGWIRINGBRANCH
BRANCH CIRCUITSBRANCH CIRCUITS
CIRCUITS
–– WIRINGWIRING
––
FUNDAMENTALSFUNDAMENTALSFUNDAMENTALSFUNDAMENTALS
REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT
CODE REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT REQUIREMENTSRELEVANT REQUIREMENTS
RELEVANT CODE
CODE
CODE
These normal
toThese
have toThese toThese to
normal
normal ampacities
normal
ampacities
ampacities may
ampacities
may
may have
may
have
have
more thanbe thanbe than
thanbe
be derated
derated
derated
derated where
where
where there
where
there
there
there are
are
are
are more
more
more
or racewaythree racewaythree raceway
racewaythree
three
conductors
conductors
in
in
in
in
a a a a cable
cable
cable
cable
or
or
or
310(Note
310--(Note
(Note conductors conductors
310(Note
8
8
8
8 to
to
to
to Tables
Tables
Tables
Tables 19).19).19).19).
310--16
310--16
31016
31016
through
through
through
through
310--
This means
ofThis
ampacities ofThis ofThis of
means
means a a a a change
means
change
change
change in
in
in
in ampacities
ampacities
ampacities
conductors.circuit
circuit conductors.circuit conductors.circuit conductors.
4848
TOTHUS THINGS TOTHUS TOTHUS TO THUS THERE THERE THERE THERE ARE ARE ARE ARE TWO
TOTHUS
THINGS TOTHUS TOTHUS TO
THUS THERE
THERE
THERE
THERE ARE
ARE
ARE
ARE TWO
TWO
TWO THINGS
TWO
THINGS
THINGS
REDUCE CONDUCTORCONSIDER CONDUCTORCONSIDER CONDUCTOR
CONDUCTORCONSIDER
CONSIDER THAT
THAT
THAT REDUCE
THAT
REDUCE
REDUCE
AMPACITIES…AMPACITIES…AMPACITIES…AMPACITIES…
FOLLOWING:THESE
THE FOLLOWING:THESE FOLLOWING:THESE FOLLOWING:
THESE ARE
ARE
ARE THE
ARE
THE
THE
AMPACITY DERATING
DERATING DERATING ““MORE ““MORE THANMORE THANAMPACITY THAN
TOAMPACITY
DUE TOAMPACITY TO
DERATING DUE
DUE
DUE
TO
THANMORE
CONDUCTORSTHREE
CARRYING CONDUCTORSTHREE CONDUCTORSTHREE CONDUCTORS
THREE (3)
(3)
(3)
(3) CURRENT
CURRENT
CURRENT CARRYING
CURRENT
CARRYING
CARRYING
CABLEIN
and…and…IN
OR CABLEIN CABLE”,”,
IN A
A
A
A CONDUIT
CONDUIT
CONDUIT
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OR
OR
CABLE”,”,
and…and…
Correction to
conductorCorrection
whenwhenCorrection
the conductorCorrection conductor
to
to
to the
the
the
conductor
ampacitiesampacities whenwhen
ampacitiesampacities
over orinstalled orinstalled or
orinstalled
installed or
or
or
or operated
operated
operated
operated at
at
at
at temperatures
temperatures
temperatures
temperatures over
over
over
C ambient.under ambientunder ambient
ambientunder
under 30
30
30 deg
30
deg
deg C
deg
C
C
4949
THHN)THERMOPLASTIC THHN)THERMOPLASTIC THW, THHN)THERMOPLASTIC THHN)THERMOPLASTIC THHN)THERMOPLASTIC THHN)THERMOPLASTIC
THHN)THERMOPLASTIC
THHN)THERMOPLASTIC
THW, THHN)THERMOPLASTIC THHN)THERMOPLASTIC THHN)THERMOPLASTIC THHN)THERMOPLASTIC THHN)
THHN)THERMOPLASTIC
THERMOPLASTIC WIRE
WIRE
WIRE
WIRE
WIRE & & & & & & & & CABLES
WIRE
WIRE
WIRE
CABLES
CABLES
CABLES
CABLES (TW,
CABLES
CABLES
CABLES
(TW,
(TW,
(TW,
(TW, THW,
(TW,
(TW,
(TW,
THW,
THW,
THW,
THW,
THW,
THW,
Table 310.16)600 310.16)600 310.16)600 310.16)600 310.16)600 310.16)600 310.16)600 310.16)
600 VOLTS,
VOLTS,
VOLTS,
VOLTS,
VOLTS,
VOLTS,
VOLTS,
VOLTS, Stranded
Stranded
Stranded
Stranded
Stranded
Stranded
Stranded
Stranded (NEC
(NEC
(NEC
(NEC
(NEC
(NEC
(NEC
(NEC Table
Table
Table
Table
Table
Table
Table
Approximate
AWG Size
Ampacity
TW
60 deg C
Ampacity
MM Size
THW
75 deg C
Ampacity
THHN
90 deg C
20
2.0
mm2
# 14
20
25
25
3.5
mm2
# 12
25
30
30
5.5
mm2
# 10
35
40
40
8.0
mm2
# 8
50
55
55
14
mm2
# 6
65
75
70
22
mm2
# 4
85
95
95
30
mm2
# 2
115
130
110
38
mm2
# 1
130
150
125
50
mm2
1/0
150
170
145
60
mm2
2/0
175
195
165
80
mm2
3/0
200
225
195
100 mm2
4/0
230
260
5050
5151
5151
ambientGiven: at ambientGiven: ambientGiven: ambient Given: 6 6 6 # 6 # # # 12
ambientGiven:
at ambientGiven: ambientGiven: ambient
Given: 6
6
6 #
6
#
#
# 12
12
12
12 THW
THW
THW
THW in
in
in a a a a conduit
in
conduit
conduit at
conduit
at
at
Ctemperature
deg Ctemperature Ctemperature C
temperature of
of
of
of 40
40
40 deg
40
deg
deg
theQ1:
of theQ1: theQ1: the
Q1: What
What
What is
What
is
is the
is
the
the
the effective
effective
effective ampacity
effective
ampacity
ampacity of
ampacity
of
of
conductor?conductor?conductor?conductor?
permissibleQ2:
maximum permissibleQ2: permissibleQ2: permissible
Q2: What
What
What
What is
is
is the
is
the
the maximum
the
maximum
maximum
circuit?continuous
the circuit?continuous circuit?continuous circuit?
continuous load
load
load for
load
for
for the
for
the
the
maximum permissibleQ3: permissibleQ3: permissible
permissibleQ3:
Q3: What
What
What
What is
is
is the
is
the
the maximum
the
maximum
maximum
the circuit?continuous circuit?nonnon--continuous circuit?continuous circuit?
nonnon--continuous load
load
load
load for
for
for
for the
the
the
5252
310Ampacity: Table 310Ampacity: 310--16)16)Ampacity: 310--16)16) Ampacity: # # # 12 # 12 12 12 THW
310Ampacity:
Table 310Ampacity: 310--16)16)Ampacity: 310--16)16)
Ampacity: #
#
# 12
#
12
12
12 THW
THW
THW =
THW
= =
= 20
20
20 A
20
A
A
A (NEC
(NEC
(NEC Table
(NEC
Table
Table
14.08 AEffective AEffective A
AEffective
Effective Ampacity:
Ampacity:
Ampacity: 20
Ampacity:
20
20
20 A
A
A
A x x x x 0.80
0.80
0.80 x x x x 0.88
0.80
0.88
0.88 =
0.88
= =
= 14.08
14.08
14.08
Notes:Notes:Notes:Notes:
in conduita) conduita) conduita) conduit
a) Derating
Derating
Derating
Derating Factor
Factor
Factor
Factor of
of
of
of 0.80
0.80
0.80
0.80 for
for
for
for six
six
six
six conductors
conductors
conductors
conductors in
in
in
deg Cb) Cb) Cb) C
b) Correction
Correction
Correction
Correction Factor
Factor
Factor
Factor for
for
for
for of
of
of
of 0.88
0.88
0.88
0.88 for
for
for
for ambient
ambient
ambient
ambient temp
temp
temp
temp of
of
of
of 40
40
40
40 deg
deg
deg
Max permissible
11.264 AMax AMax AMax A
permissible
permissible
permissible load
load
load
load (Cont.
(Cont.
(Cont.
(Cont. Load)
Load)
Load)
Load) =
=
=
= 14.08
14.08
14.08
14.08 x x x x 0.80
0.80
0.80
0.80 or
or
or
or 11.264
11.264
11.264
Max permissible
14.08 ACont. AMax A
(NonMax
load (NonMax (Non--Cont.
permissible
permissible load
permissible
load
load
(Non--Cont.
ACont.
Load)
Load)
Load)
Load) =
=
=
= 14.08
14.08
14.08
14.08 x x x x 1
1
1
1 or
or
or
or 14.08
14.08
14.08
5353
Q4:Q4: WHERE THE OCPD?WHERE OCPD?Q4:Q4: OCPD? OCPD?WHERE WHERE SHALL SHALL SHALL SHALL WE WE WE
Q4:Q4: WHERE
THE OCPD?WHERE OCPD?Q4:Q4: OCPD?
OCPD?WHERE
WHERE SHALL
SHALL
SHALL
SHALL WE
WE
WE
WE BASE
BASE
BASE
BASE THE
THE
THE
20 A?of A?a)a) A?of A?
a)a)
PublishedPublished
PublishedPublished AmpacityAmpacity
AmpacityAmpacity of
of #12
#12
#12
#12 AWG
AWG
AWG
AWG which
which
which
which is
is
is
is 20
20
20
‘Effective’b)
is14.08 A?of A?b) A?of A?
‘Effective’b)
b) The
The
The
The ‘Effective’
‘Effective’
AmpacityAmpacity of
AmpacityAmpacity
of #12
#12
#12
#12 AWG
AWG
AWG
AWG which
which
which
which is14.08
is14.08
is14.08
A?c)
is11.264 A?c) A?c) A?
c) The
The
The
The Maximum
Maximum
Maximum Permissible
Maximum
Permissible
Permissible Load
Permissible
Load
Load
Load which
which
which
which is11.264
is11.264
is11.264
THEQ5:
OF THEQ5: THEQ5: THE
Q5: WHAT
WHAT
WHAT WILL
WHAT
WILL
WILL
WILL BE
BE
BE THE
BE
THE
THE
THE SIZE
SIZE
SIZE OF
SIZE
OF
OF
CIRCUIT OCPD?BRANCH OCPD?BRANCH OCPD?
OCPD?BRANCH
BRANCH CIRCUIT
CIRCUIT
CIRCUIT
5454
BRANCHWHAT THE BRANCHWHAT BRANCHWHAT BRANCH WHAT WILL WILL WILL WILL BE BE BE BE THE
BRANCHWHAT
THE BRANCHWHAT BRANCHWHAT BRANCH
WHAT WILL
WILL
WILL
WILL BE
BE
BE
BE THE
THE
THE
THE SIZE
SIZE
SIZE
SIZE OF
OF
OF
OF THE
THE
THE
FUSE?CIRCUIT
OR FUSE?CIRCUIT FUSE?CIRCUIT FUSE?
CIRCUIT BREAKER
BREAKER
BREAKER
BREAKER OR
OR
OR
AAnswer
15 AAnswer AAnswer A
Answer is:
is:
is: 15
is:
15
15
theBecause
of theBecause theBecause the
Because of
of
of the
of
the
the mandatory
the
mandatory
mandatory
mandatory match
match
match
match of
of
of
of theOCPD theOCPD the
theOCPD
OCPD with
with
with respect
with
respect
respect to
respect
to
to the
to
the
the ampacity
the
ampacity
ampacity of
ampacity
of
of
conductor!conductor!conductor!conductor!
ampacityNote
effective ampacityNote ampacityNote ampacity
Note that
that
that
that in
in
in
in this
this
this
this case,
case,
case,
case, the
the
the
the effective
effective
effective
deratedof
be deratedof deratedof derated
of the
the
the
the #
#
#
# 12
12
12 conductor
12
conductor
conductor
conductor happens
happens
happens
happens to
to
to be
to
be
be
only.at
A only.at only.at only.
at 14.08
14.08
14.08
14.08 A
A
A
5555
#12IF A #12IF #12IF #12 IF THE THE THE 20 THE 20 20 20 A
#12IF
A #12IF #12IF #12
IF THE
THE
THE 20
THE
20
20
20 A
A
A OCPD
A
OCPD
OCPD FOR
OCPD
FOR
FOR
FOR A
A
A
CONDUCTOR INAWG INAWG IN
INAWG
AWG CONDUCTOR
CONDUCTOR
CONDUCTOR
TO BEPREVIOUS BEPREVIOUS BE
BEPREVIOUS
PREVIOUS EXERCISE
EXERCISE
EXERCISE IS
EXERCISE
IS
IS
IS TO
TO
TO
RETAINED…RETAINED…RETAINED…RETAINED…
&THE
DERATING &THE &THE &
THE DERATING
DERATING
DERATING
WILLCORRECTION
FACTORS WILLCORRECTION WILLCORRECTION WILL
CORRECTION FACTORS
FACTORS
FACTORS
THE CIRCUITMAKE CIRCUITMAKE CIRCUIT
CIRCUITMAKE
MAKE THE
THE
THE
CONDUCTORS BIGGER…!CONDUCTORS BIGGER…!CONDUCTORS BIGGER…!
BIGGER…!CONDUCTORS
5656
OCPD, thenIf thenIf then thenIf If you you you decide you decide decide decide 20
OCPD, thenIf thenIf then
thenIf
If you
you
you decide
you
decide
decide
decide 20
20
20
20 A
A
A OCPD,
A
OCPD,
OCPD,
shallthe
conductors shallthe shallthe shall
the size
size
size of
size
of
of
of the
the
the conductors
the
conductors
conductors
be:be:be:be:
## 10 10 THW# THW10 THW# THW10
THW!Not
12 THW!Not THW!Not THW!
Not #
#
#
# 12
12
12
5757
THE DERATINGASSUMING DERATINGASSUMING DERATING DERATINGASSUMING ASSUMING THAT THAT THAT THAT THE THE THE HAVE&
THE DERATINGASSUMING DERATINGASSUMING DERATING
DERATINGASSUMING
ASSUMING THAT
THAT
THAT
THAT THE
THE
THE
HAVE&
FACTORS HAVE& HAVE& HAVE
& CORRECTION
CORRECTION
CORRECTION FACTORS
CORRECTION
FACTORS
FACTORS
BEEN CONSIDERED,ALREADY CONSIDERED,ALREADY CONSIDERED,
CONSIDERED,ALREADY
ALREADY BEEN
BEEN
BEEN
5858
5959
5959
BECAUSE,BECAUSE,BECAUSE,BECAUSE, MATCHCONDUCTORS MUST MATCHCONDUCTORS MATCHCONDUCTORS MATCH CONDUCTORS MUST MUST MUST
BECAUSE,BECAUSE,BECAUSE,BECAUSE,
MATCHCONDUCTORS
MUST MATCHCONDUCTORS MATCHCONDUCTORS MATCH
CONDUCTORS MUST
MUST
MUST
TEMPERATURE RATINGSTHE RATINGSTHE RATINGS
RATINGSTHE
THE TEMPERATURE
TEMPERATURE
TEMPERATURE
DEVICES…OF
CIRCUIT DEVICES…OF DEVICES…OF DEVICES…
OF CIRCUIT
CIRCUIT
CIRCUIT
6060
Wiring Conductor Ampacity to Temperature Rating Molded-case circuit breakers are marked with both the size
Wiring Conductor Ampacity to
Temperature Rating
Molded-case circuit breakers are marked with
both the size and insulation temperature rating
(e.g., #2 Cu, 60/75°C) of the conductors
approved for use with the circuit breaker.
Properly sized conductors allow the
circuit breaker thermal-sensing elements to
match the conductor thermal protection
requirements.
6161
SIZING CONDUCTORS BASED ON TEMPERATURE RATING When selecting a conductor for a circuit, one has
SIZING CONDUCTORS BASED
ON TEMPERATURE RATING
When selecting a conductor for a circuit, one has to be
selected to accommodate the temperature termination
rating rules outlined in NEC 110-14(c). This includes
the compatibility of a conductor type as to the OCPD’s
& other devices the conductor terminates inside an
enclosure.
6262
SIZING CONDUCTORS BASED ON TEMPERATURE RATING Underwriter Laboratories Inc. (UL) standards require that molded-case
SIZING CONDUCTORS BASED ON TEMPERATURE RATING
Underwriter Laboratories Inc. (UL) standards
require that molded-case circuit breakers rated
at 125 amperes or less be marked with the
conductor insulation-temperature rating.
The wire temperature rating is determined by
testing the circuit breaker under full-load
current with conductors sized for the
appropriate temperature rating, 60°C or 75°C.
6363
SIZING CONDUCTORS BASED ON TEMPERATURE RATING Conductors with 90°C rated insulation (THHN) can be used
SIZING CONDUCTORS BASED ON TEMPERATURE RATING
Conductors with 90°C rated insulation (THHN)
can be used on circuit breakers rated for 60°C
or 75°C wiring only if their size is based on the
ampacity of the lower temperature-rated wire.
If the 90 C (THHN) wire size were to be
°
selected based on the ampacity allowed in the
90°C column of the Ampacity Table, the smaller
resulting wire size would generate additional
heat at the circuit breaker terminals and
possibly cause nuisance tripping.
SIZING CONDUCTORS BASED ON TEMPERATURE RATING 6565
SIZING CONDUCTORS BASED ON TEMPERATURE RATING
6565
NEC Table 310.16 6666
NEC Table 310.16
6666
NEC Table 310.16 6767
NEC Table 310.16
6767
IMPORTANT!!! SIZING CONDUCTORS BASED ON TEMPERATURE RATING POINT 1: For device or equipment terminals rated
IMPORTANT!!!
SIZING CONDUCTORS
BASED ON
TEMPERATURE RATING
POINT 1: For device or
equipment terminals
rated 100 A or less, wire
sizes shall be based on
the ‘60 de
g
C
temperature rating’
listed in NEC Ampacity
Table 310-16.
6868
NEC Table 310.16 6969
NEC Table 310.16
6969
POINT 2: Circuits over 100A [NEC SIZING CONDUCTORS BASED ON TEMPERATURE RATING Sec. 110-14(c)(2)]: Unless
POINT 2:
Circuits over 100A [NEC
SIZING
CONDUCTORS
BASED ON
TEMPERATURE
RATING
Sec. 110-14(c)(2)]:
Unless the terminals are
marked otherwise,
equipment/ device
terminals rated over 100A
shall be sized according to
the ‘75 deg C temperature
rating’ listed in NEC Table
310-16.
7070
POINT 3: What then is the purpose of 90 deg C wire if we cannot
POINT 3:
What then is the purpose of 90
deg C wire if we cannot use its
higher ampacity?
SIZING CONDUCTORS BASED ON
TEMPERATURE RATING
This is now the catch!
Ninety deg C rated conductor ampacities like the
THHN’s can not be typically used for sizing circuit
conductors. However, its rating only comes into play
when adjusting conductor ampacity for elevated
ambient temperature (correction due to temperature) or
when bundling more than three current-carrying
conductors together (derating).
The advantage of 90 deg C wire (THHN) is that it can
the designer from using a larger wire (whenkeep
ampacity adjustments are needed), which require larger
conduits & raceways, greater labor & increased
material costs.
7171
7272
7272
TO REVIEW: Important in the electrical & thermal relationship for circuit components are the conductor
TO REVIEW:
Important in the electrical & thermal relationship for
circuit components are the conductor size, rated
ampacity, the insulation temperature rating and the
permissible connector device temperature limits.
For instance, the ampacity for a conductor with 90°C
insulation (THHN) is generally greater than of a conductor
of the same size but with 60°C (TW) insulation.
However, the greater ampacity of a THHN conductor with
90°C insulation is not always permitted to be used due to
limitations of the terminal temperature rating and/or the
requirements of the NEC®. (Reference 110.14 in the NEC®
for specific requirements.)
7373
toHowever, rules toHowever, toHowever, to However, there there there are there are are some are
toHowever,
rules toHowever, toHowever, to
However, there
there
there are
there
are
are some
are
some
some simple
some
simple
simple
simple rules
rules
rules
and less.follow less.follow less.
less.follow
follow for
for
for
for circuits
circuits
circuits of
circuits
of
of 100A
of
100A
100A
100A and
and
and
should beThese beThese be
beThese
These simple
simple
simple
simple rules
rules
rules
rules generally
generally
generally
generally should
should
should
for thefollowed thefollowed the
thefollowed
followed because
because
because these
because
these
these are
these
are
are the
are
the
the
the norms
norms
norms
norms for
for
for
comdevice component product
standards anddevice andponent anddevice andponent
device com
component
product
product standards
product
standards
standards
these standardsperformance standardsperformance standards
standardsperformance
performance evaluation
evaluation
evaluation to
evaluation
to
to
to these
these
these
holders, circuitfor circuitfor circuit
circuitfor
for fuses,
fuses,
fuses, blocks,
fuses,
blocks,
blocks, disconnects,
blocks,
disconnects,
disconnects,
disconnects, holders,
holders,
holders,
breakers, etc.breakers, etc.breakers, etc.
etc.breakers,
7474
and lessSimple less::Simple less:: lessSimple Simple rules rules rules for rules for for 100 for
and lessSimple less::Simple less::
lessSimple
Simple rules
rules
rules for
rules
for
for 100
for
100
100
100 amps
amps
amps and
amps
and
and
Use1.
[110.14(C)(1)(a)(1)]. This[110.14(C)(1)(a)(1)]. This1. This
1. Use1. Use
Use
6060°°C
6060°°C rated
conductorsC
rated conductorsC conductors
rated
rated
conductors
[110.14(C)(1)(a)(1)].
This[110.14(C)(1)(a)(1)].
ratedC ratedassumes rated
60assumes
for 60assumes 60°°C
assumes all
all
all terminations
all
terminations
terminations
terminations are
are
are
are rated
rated
rated
rated for
for
for
60°°C
ratedC
conductors.conductors.conductors.conductors.
used,2.
be used,2. used,2. used,
2. Higher
Higher
Higher temperature
Higher
temperature
temperature rated
temperature
rated
rated conductors
rated
conductors
conductors can
conductors
can
can be
can
be
be
as ifbut ifampacity if ifampacity
thebut
but the
thebut the
ampacity
ampacity of
of
of
of these
these
these
these conductors
conductors
conductors
conductors must
must
must
must be
be
be
be as
as
as
they
60they
they are
are 60they 60°°C
are
are
60°°C
conductorsC
rated conductorsC conductors
rated
rated
rated
conductors
conductor isC isIn isC is
90In
even if if if if a a a a 90In 90°°C
In other
other
other words,
other
words,
words, even
words,
even
even
90°°C
THHN
THHN
THHN
THHN conductor
conductor
conductor
were aused, aused, a aused,
used, it it it it has
has
has
has to
to
to
to be
be
be
be rated
rated
rated
rated for
for
for
for ampacity
ampacity
ampacity
ampacity as
as
as if if if if it it it it were
as
were
were
6060°°C conductor
6060°°C C C
conductor
conductor
conductor [110.14(C)(1)(a)(2)]
[110.14(C)(1)(a)(2)]
[110.14(C)(1)(a)(2)]
[110.14(C)(1)(a)(2)]
7575
For instance, assume an ampacity of 60A is needed in a circuit that has terminations
For instance, assume an ampacity of 60A is needed in a circuit
that has terminations that are rated for 60°C conductors. If a
90°C conductor is to be used, what is the minimum conductor
size required?
The answer is 4 AWG, 90°C conductor. A 6 AWG, 90°C conductor
has an ampacity of 75 amps per (NEC® Table 310.16); but this
ampacity can not be used for a 60°C termination.
For this circuit, if a 90°C, 6 AWG conductor is evaluated, the
ampacity of this conductor must be according to the 60°C
conductor ampacity, which is 55A. (Ampacities are from NEC®
Table 310.16.)
7676
3. Conductors with higher temperature ratings can be used at their rated ampacities if the
3. Conductors with higher temperature ratings
can be used at their rated ampacities if the
terminations of the circuit devices are rated
for the higher temperature rated conductor
[110.14(C)(1)(a)(3)].
However, the industry norm is that most
devices rated 100A or less, such as blocks,
disconnects and circuit breakers, have 60°C
or 75°C rated terminations.
7777
4. For motors with design letters B, C or D, conductors with insulation rating of
4.
For motors with design letters B, C or D,
conductors with insulation rating of 75°C of
higher are permitted as long as the ampacity
of the conductors is not greater than the
75°C rating [110.14(C)(1)(a)(4)].
5.
If a conductor is run between two devices
that have terminals rated at two different
temperatures, the rules above must be
observed that correlate to the terminal with
the lowest temperature rating.
7878
7979
7979
conductorSo use a a a a conductorSo conductorSo conductor So why why why why would
conductorSo
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So why
why
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90with
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90°°C
105C
or a a a a 105C 105°°C
or
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105°°C
rating
rating
rating
rating if if if if they
they
they
they can’t
can’t
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be
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those temperatures?at temperatures?at temperatures?
temperatures?at
at their
their
their ampacity
their
ampacity
ampacity ratings
ampacity
ratings
ratings
ratings for
for
for
for those
those
those
fact thatThe thatThe that
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lies
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ratingsthose
ampacity ratingsthose ratingsthose ratings
those higher
higher
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higher ampacity
ampacity
ampacity
derating duecan duecan due
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be
be utilized
be
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utilized
utilized when
when
when derating
when
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to ambient
ambient
ambient
ambient conditions
conditions
conditions
conditions or
or
or due
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than 3 3 3 3 currentexceeding currentexceeding current
currentexceeding
exceeding more
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conductors in in in in acarrying acarrying a acarrying
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conductors
racewayraceway
racewayraceway
8080
45Example: Ambient: 45Example: 45°°CCExample: 45°°CC Example: Circuit Circuit Circuit Circuit ampacity ampacity
45Example:
Ambient: 45Example: 45°°CCExample: 45°°CC
Example: Circuit
Circuit
Circuit
Circuit ampacity
ampacity
ampacity
ampacity required:
required:
required:
required: 60
60
60
60 amps,
amps,
amps,
amps, Ambient:
Ambient:
Ambient:
with aAssume aAssume aAssume a
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that
that
that an
an
an
an ampacity
ampacity
ampacity
ampacity of
of
of
of 60A
60A
60A
60A is is is is needed
needed
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needed in in in in a a a a circuit
circuit
circuit
circuit with
with
with
7575°°C termination
the otherC other7575°°C other
60C
and a a a a 60C 60°°C
termination
termination
termination at at at at one
one
one
one end
end
end
end and
and
and
60°°C
otherC
termination
termination
termination
termination at at at at the
the
the
ambient is is is is 45end, 45°°C.C.end, 45°°C.C.
45end,
end, where
where
where the
where
the
the
the ambient
ambient
ambient
theFirst,
than theFirst, theFirst, the
First, since
since
since
since one
one
one
one termination
termination
termination
termination temperature
temperature
temperature
temperature rating
rating
rating
rating is is is is higher
higher
higher
higher than
than
than
60other,
The firstC. firstother, firstC. first
other, the
which is is is is 60other, 60°°C.
the
the
the lowest
lowest
lowest
lowest one
one
one must
one
must
must
must be
be
be used,
be
used,
used, which
used,
which
which
60°°C.
The
The
The
ampacity ofconductor ofchoice of
be achoice a a achoice 4 4 AWG
choice might
might
might be
might
be
be
TW4
AWG TW4 TW
AWG
AWG
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conductor
ofconductor
conductor with
with
with an
with
an
an
an ampacity
ampacity
ampacity
6070A
70A at at at at 6070A 60°°C.C.70A 60°°C.C.
8181
45Example: Ambient: 45Example: 45°°CCExample: 45°°CC Example: Circuit Circuit Circuit Circuit ampacity ampacity
45Example:
Ambient: 45Example: 45°°CCExample: 45°°CC
Example: Circuit
Circuit
Circuit
Circuit ampacity
ampacity
ampacity
ampacity required:
required:
required:
required: 60
60
60
60 amps,
amps,
amps,
amps, Ambient:
Ambient:
Ambient:
the 70AHowever, 70AHowever, 70AHowever, 70A
However, in in in in the
the
the
the NEC®
NEC®
NEC®
NEC® the
the
the
the Correction
Correction
Correction
Correction Factors
Factors
Factors
Factors reveals
reveals
reveals
reveals that
that
that
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the
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the 45ampacity 45°°C
ampacity must
must
must be
must
be
be
be derated
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due to
due
to
to
to the
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the
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ambient,
ambient,
ambient,
ambient, by
by
by
by a a a a factor
factor
factor
the0.71.
than the0.71. the0.71. the
0.71. This
This
This
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yields
yields
yields a a a a new
new
new
new ampacity
ampacity
ampacity
ampacity of
of
of
of 49.7A,
49.7A,
49.7A,
49.7A, which
which
which
which is is is is less
less
less
less than
than
than
temperaturerequired
higher temperaturerequired temperaturerequired temperature
required 60.
60.
60.
60. This
This
This
This is is is is where
where
where
where a a a a conductor
conductor
conductor
conductor with
with
with
with a a a a higher
higher
higher
has a a a a 90rating 90°°CCrating 90rating 90°°CC
rating becomes
becomes
becomes
becomes useful.
useful.
useful.
useful. A A A A 4 4 4 4 AWG
AWG
AWG
AWG THHN
THHN
THHN
THHN conductor
conductor
conductor
conductor has
has
has
95A.ampacity
of 95A.ampacity 95A.ampacity 95A.
ampacity of
of
of
310.16, a a a a factorAgain, factorAgain, factor
factorAgain,
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looking
looking
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the
the
the table
table
table
table at at at at the
the
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bottom
bottom
bottom of
of
of
of Table
Table
Table
Table 310.16,
310.16,
310.16,
45of
yields a a a a newC newof newC new
of .87
the 45of 45°°C
.87
.87 must
.87
must
must be
must
be
be used,
be
used,
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due
due
due to
to
to the
to
the
the
45°°C
ambient.
ambient.
ambient.
ambient. This
This
This
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yields
yields
required 60Aampacity 60Aampacity 60Aampacity 60A
ampacity of
of
of
of 82.65,
82.65,
82.65,
82.65, which
which
which
which is is is is adequate
adequate
adequate
adequate for
for
for
for the
the
the
the required
required
required
ampacity.ampacity.ampacity.ampacity.
8282
45Example: Ambient: 45Example: 45°°CCExample: 45°°CC Example: Circuit Circuit Circuit Circuit ampacity ampacity
45Example:
Ambient: 45Example: 45°°CCExample: 45°°CC
Example: Circuit
Circuit
Circuit
Circuit ampacity
ampacity
ampacity
ampacity required:
required:
required:
required: 60
60
60
60 amps,
amps,
amps,
amps, Ambient:
Ambient:
Ambient:
ItsItsCould
application?Could
Could a a a a 6 6 6 6 AWG
this application?Could application?
AWG
AWG
AWG THHN
THHN
THHN
THHN conductor
conductor
conductor
conductor be
be
be
be used
used
used
used in in in in this
this
this
application? ItsIts
9090°°C ampacity
the 45C 45°°CC9090°°C 45°°CC
45C
ampacity
ampacity
ampacity is is is is 75A.
75A.
75A.
75A. Using
Using
Using
Using the
the
the
the factor
factor
factor
factor of
of
of
of 0.87
0.87
0.87
0.87 for
for
for
for the
the
the
adequate forambient forambient forambient for
ambient gives
gives
gives
gives a a a a new
new
new
new ampacity
ampacity
ampacity
ampacity of
of
of
of 65.25,
65.25,
65.25,
65.25, which
which
which
which seems
seems
seems
seems adequate
adequate
adequate
60A.a
of 60A.a 60A.a 60A.
a required
required
required ampacity
required
ampacity
ampacity of
ampacity
of
of
could never6 neverHowever, never6 never
However, aHowever, a a aHowever, 6 6 AWG
AWG
AWG
AWG conductor
conductor
conductor
conductor of
of
of
of any
any
any
any insulation
insulation
insulation
insulation rating
rating
rating
rating could
could
could
requires thatC thatbe that
60be
be used
the 60be 60°°C
used
used in in in in this
used
this
this application
this
application
application
application because
because
because the
because
the
the
60°°C
thatC
terminal
terminal
terminal
terminal requires
requires
requires
60A ampacity.the ampacity.the ampacity.the ampacity.
the smallest
smallest
smallest
smallest amount
amount
amount
amount of
of
of
of copper
copper
copper
copper is is is is a a a a 4 4 4 4 AWG
AWG
AWG
AWG for
for
for
for a a a a 60A
60A
60A
isis isisTheThe
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conductoramount
amount of
AWG conductoramount conductor
of
of
of copper
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copper associated
associated
associated with
associated
with
with a a a a 4 4 4 4 AWG
with
AWG
AWG
conductor
requiredrequired
requiredrequired to
terminalto
to bleed
the terminalto terminal
bleed
bleed
bleed the
the
the
the right
right
right
right amount
amount
amount
amount of
of
of
of heat
heat
heat
heat away
away
away
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from the
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the
terminal
and thereforeThe thereforeThe thereforeThe therefore
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use
use
use of
of
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less
less copper
copper
copper
copper won’t
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bleed
bleed
bleed enough
enough
enough
enough heat
heat
heat
heat away,
away,
away,
away, and
and
and
could result.overheating result.overheating result.
result.overheating
overheating problems
problems
problems
problems could
could
could
8383
This is now the catch! The advantage of 90 deg C wire (THHN) is that
This is now the catch!
The advantage of 90 deg C wire
(THHN) is that it can keep the
designer from using a larger wire
(when ampacity adjustments are
needed), which require larger
conduits & raceways, greater labor
& increased material costs.
8484
2008 NEC 110.14(C)(1) 8585
2008 NEC 110.14(C)(1)
8585
2008 NEC 110.14(C)(1)(a)(1…4) 8686
2008 NEC 110.14(C)(1)(a)(1…4)
8686
2008 NEC 110.14(C)(1)(a)(4)(1…2) 8787
2008 NEC 110.14(C)(1)(a)(4)(1…2)
8787
THIS TIME,AT TIME,AT TIME, TIME,AT AT THIS THIS THIS OF CIRCUITSIS CIRCUITSIS CIRCUITS CIRCUITSIS IS
THIS TIME,AT TIME,AT TIME,
TIME,AT
AT THIS
THIS
THIS
OF CIRCUITSIS CIRCUITSIS CIRCUITS
CIRCUITSIS
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FINISHED…?FINISHED…?FINISHED…?FINISHED…?
8888
THE CIRCUITBECAUSE CIRCUITBECAUSE CIRCUIT CIRCUITBECAUSE BECAUSE THE THE THE OVEROVER--CURRENT PROTECTORSCURRENT
THE CIRCUITBECAUSE CIRCUITBECAUSE CIRCUIT
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BECAUSE THE
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TO STARTMAY STARTMAY START
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8989
SIZING OCPD’S BASED ON TEMPERATURE RATINGS 9090
SIZING OCPD’S BASED ON
TEMPERATURE RATINGS
9090
9191
9191
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otherotherFaultFault
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9292
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9393
CALCULATION ISALTHOUGH ISALTHOUGH IS ISALTHOUGH ALTHOUGH FAULT FAULT FAULT FAULT CALCULATION CALCULATION
CALCULATION ISALTHOUGH ISALTHOUGH IS
ISALTHOUGH
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CAPACITIES…!CAPACITIES…!CAPACITIES…!CAPACITIES…!
9494
INTERRUPTING RATINGS FOR OCPD’s What is KAIC all about? Each circuit breaker has three most
INTERRUPTING
RATINGS FOR OCPD’s
What is KAIC all about?
Each circuit breaker has three most
important
ratings
a
continuous
current rating, a voltage rating and an
interrupting capacity (IC) rating.
The IC rating is the maximum amount
of current that the device will open
A 3.6 KV MINIMUM OIL
CRCUIT BREAKER BEFORE A
FAULT
safely
to relieve
a fault
condition -
without injuring itself.
The ‘injury’ means the condition where
after interrupting a fault, the breaker
ceased to be operable - or worse, the
breaker disintegrated because the fault
current is too much for the breaker to
handle.
9595
THE CRCUIT BREAKER
AFTER A FAULT
INTERRUPTING RATINGS FOR OCPD’s What is KAIC all about? The IC rating is the maximum
INTERRUPTING
RATINGS FOR OCPD’s
What is KAIC all about?
The IC rating is the maximum amount of current that the device
will open safely to relieve a fault condition - without injuring
itself. The ‘injury’ means the condition where after interrupting
a fault, the breaker ceased
to
be operable - or worse,
the
breaker disintegrated because the fault current is too much for
the breaker to handle.
9696
INTERRUPTING RATINGSINTERRUPTING RATINGSINTERRUPTING RATINGS RATINGSINTERRUPTING FOR OCPD’sFOR OCPD’sFOR OCPD’s
INTERRUPTING RATINGSINTERRUPTING RATINGSINTERRUPTING RATINGS
RATINGSINTERRUPTING
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OCPD’sFOR
9797
INTERRUPTING RATINGSINTERRUPTING RATINGSINTERRUPTING RATINGS RATINGSINTERRUPTING FOR OCPD’sFOR OCPD’sFOR OCPD’s
INTERRUPTING RATINGSINTERRUPTING RATINGSINTERRUPTING RATINGS
RATINGSINTERRUPTING
FOR OCPD’sFOR OCPD’sFOR OCPD’s
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9898
INTERRUPTING RATINGSINTERRUPTING RATINGSINTERRUPTING RATINGS RATINGSINTERRUPTING FOR OCPD’sFOR OCPD’sFOR OCPD’s
INTERRUPTING RATINGSINTERRUPTING RATINGSINTERRUPTING RATINGS
RATINGSINTERRUPTING
FOR OCPD’sFOR OCPD’sFOR OCPD’s
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9999
INTERRUPTING RATINGSINTERRUPTING RATINGSINTERRUPTING RATINGS RATINGSINTERRUPTING FOR OCPD’sFOR OCPD’sFOR OCPD’s
INTERRUPTING RATINGSINTERRUPTING RATINGSINTERRUPTING RATINGS
RATINGSINTERRUPTING
FOR OCPD’sFOR OCPD’sFOR OCPD’s
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100100
INTERRUPTING RATINGSINTERRUPTING RATINGSINTERRUPTING RATINGS RATINGSINTERRUPTING FOR OCPD’sFOR OCPD’sFOR OCPD’s
INTERRUPTING RATINGSINTERRUPTING RATINGSINTERRUPTING RATINGS
RATINGSINTERRUPTING
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101101
INTERRUPTING RATINGSINTERRUPTING RATINGSINTERRUPTING RATINGS RATINGSINTERRUPTING FOR OCPD’sFOR OCPD’sFOR OCPD’s
INTERRUPTING RATINGSINTERRUPTING RATINGSINTERRUPTING RATINGS
RATINGSINTERRUPTING
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102102
INTERRUPTING RATINGSINTERRUPTING RATINGSINTERRUPTING RATINGS RATINGSINTERRUPTING FOR OCPD’sFOR OCPD’sFOR OCPD’s
INTERRUPTING RATINGSINTERRUPTING RATINGSINTERRUPTING RATINGS
RATINGSINTERRUPTING
FOR OCPD’sFOR OCPD’sFOR OCPD’s
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103103
INTERRUPTING RATINGSINTERRUPTING RATINGSINTERRUPTING RATINGS RATINGSINTERRUPTING FOR OCPD’sFOR OCPD’sFOR OCPD’s
INTERRUPTING RATINGSINTERRUPTING RATINGSINTERRUPTING RATINGS
RATINGSINTERRUPTING
FOR OCPD’sFOR OCPD’sFOR OCPD’s
OCPD’sFOR
104104
INTERRUPTING RATINGS FOR OCPD’s Therefore,Therefore, itit thetheTherefore,Therefore, itit isis isis notnot notnot
INTERRUPTING RATINGS
FOR OCPD’s
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andand
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importantly,importantly,RatingRating
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butbut mostmost
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ofofthethe
thethe engineerengineer
engineerengineer mustmust
mustmust specifyspecify
specifyspecify thethe
thethe KAICKAIC
KAICKAIC ratingsratings
ratingsratings ofof
thesethese
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protectiveprotective devicesdevices
devicesdevices
breakersbreakersThisThis
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toto allall
allall breakersbreakers
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thethe smallestsmallest
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branchbranch circuitscircuits
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atat thethe
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ofof
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105105
INTERRUPTING RATINGS FOR OCPD’s LV Power Circuit Breakers LV PCB’s areLV PCB’s areLV areLV are
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116116
DESIGNING CIRCUITS FROM CONDUCTOR DAMAGE circuitcircuitOvercurrentOvercurrent OvercurrentOvercurrent
DESIGNING CIRCUITS FROM CONDUCTOR DAMAGE
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117117
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118118
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