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Handout

7.28

Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes: A view from the DNA. (or Why you arent a bacterium). Prokaryote General: Site of Transcription Site of DNA Replication Site of RNA Splicing Site of Translation Site of Recombination DNA Replication: Chromosomes Telomeres Circular, One Origin No Linear, Multiple Origins Yes DNA Pol , DNA Pol DNA Pol /Primase MCM proteins PCNA RF-C RF-A ? ORC Function in DSB repair, genetic exchange and chromosome segragation in meiosis. RecA homologs (DMC1, Rad51) Spo11 Protoplasm Protoplasm Rare Protoplasm Protoplasm Nucleus Nucleus Nucleus Cytoplasm Nucleus Eukaryote

Replication Machinery DNA Polymerases DNA Pol III (Replication) Primase dnaG Helicase dnaB Sliding Clamp -protein Clamp Loader -complex Single Stranded DNA Binding Prot. SSB Polymerase Coupling Origin Recognition dnaA Homologous Recombination: function in DSB repair and genetic exchange Strand exchange protein DSB initiator Transcription: RNA Polymerases RecA no specific protein

RNAP (Multiple -subunits)

RNA Pol I RNA Pol II RNA Pol III

(rRNA) (mRNA) (tRNA, snRNA)

Termination Core Promoter Structure Long Distance Activation

Intrinsic Terminators -35 and -10 elements Rare

Poorly Understood TATA and Initiator Common

Handout

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Handout

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Translation: Ribosomes 30S, 50S mRNA Polycistronic Ribosome binding Shine/Delgarno+AUG Transcriptional Attenutation Yes Auxilliary Factors Initiation Elongation Termination RNA Splicing:

40S, 60S Monocistronic 5 Cap+AUG No

IF1, IF2, and IF3 eIF1, EIF2, eIF3, eIF4, eIF5 EF-Tu, EF-G, EF-Ts eEF1a, eEF2, eEF1b RF-1, RF-2, RF-3 eRF-1 (works with all terminators) eRF-3 Rare self-splicing only Common Spliceosome-mediated (+ some self-splicing especially in organelles)