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# Using Absolute Cell References

## 3. Make the text in A1 bold.

In Excel if you copy a formula Excel automatically changes it for you If we type
=C4*D3 in cell D4 and the copy that into D5 it will automatically change it to
=C5*D4. This is called relative cell referencing. However we want the reference in
the formula to D3 (10) to stay constant. Excel solves this problem by using the
[dollar] symbol \$ to indicate when a particular cell reference is to remain fixed
("absolute") when copied. The column, or the row, or both can be fixed by putting \$
in front of the column letter, or the row number, or both. e.g. \$D7 means that when
copied the column reference will always be D, wherever we copy it to, but the row
will change if we copy into cells up or down from the original row. Similarly, G\$3
(for example) will always copy as row 3) and \$C\$5 will always copy as column C
row 5.

## 4. In cell D4 enter the formula =C4*\$D\$3. A quick way to do this is to type in

the equals sign = then click on cell C4, type in the * and click in cell D3, then
press the F4 key on the keyboard. This will put in the dollar signs in for you.

5. Replicate this formula into cells D5 to D9. Note that in D5 the formula will
become =C5*\$D\$3. Excel has changed the first part of the formula but not
the second.

6. In cell E4 enter the formula =D4*\$E\$2 remember that you can always click
on the cells rather than typing in the references.

## 9. Replicate this formula into cells F5 to F9.

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10. In cell G4 enter the formula =F4*\$G\$2

## Your spreadsheet should now look like this

13. Add your name, the date and the filename in a footer

## 15. Print out a copy of your work.

16. Set the spreadsheet to print formulas, row numbers, and column letters.

## 17. Save this as Inkjet 2.

18. Make sure all data will fit onto one sheet and print out one copy.
Close the file.