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Worksheets

Reinforcement and Extension

Science, Geography and History

The Reinforcement and Extension Worksheets for Essential Science, Science,Geography and History for Year 5 of Primary Education are a collective work, conceived, designed and created by the Primary Education department at Santillana, under the supervision of Jos Tomas Henao and Javier Prez rubalcaba Contributing author: Lesley Thompson Editors: Martin Minchom, Sheila Klaiber Illustrations: Jorge Salas Art Director: Jos Crespo Design coordinator: Rosa Marn Cover design: Martn Len Barreto Artwork coordinator: Carlos Aguilera Coordinator design development: Javier Tejeda Design development: Jos Luis Garca and Ral de Andrs Technical director: Angel Garca Encinar Technical coordinators: Fernando Carmona, Marisa Valbuena Layout: Alfonso Garca, Pedro Valencia Research and photographic selection: Amparo Rodriguez Photographs: C. Surez; Carlos Jimnez/photoAlquimia; GARCA-PELAYO/Juancho; I. Rovira; J. C. Muoz; J. I. Medina; J. Jaime; MICROS/J. M. Blanco; J. Lucas; J. M. Escudero; J. V. Resino; Krauel; L. M. Iglesias; Larrin-Pimoulier; M. Blanco; M. San Flix; O. Torres; ORONOZ; P. Esgueva; P. Lpez; Prats i Camps; S. Enrquez; S. Padura; TERRANOVA INTERPRETACIN Y GESTION AMBIENTAL; A. G. E. FOTOSTOCK/Science Source; ARCHIVO SAHATS/Domench - Azpilicueta; DIGITAL BANK; EFE/Dennis M. Sabangan; EFE/SIPA-PRESS/Letterio Pomara, R. L.; GETTY IMAGES SALES SPAIN; HIGHRES PRESS STOCK/AbleStock.com; I. Preysler; J. M. Barres; JOHN FOXX IMAGES; MUSEUM ICONOGRAFA/J. Martin; O. Daidola; PHOTODISC; SEIS X SEIS/D. Lezama; Armand ColinVronse; BIBLIOTECA NACIONAL DE ESPAA/Laboratorio Biblioteca Nacional; I. Nieva; MATTON-BILD; REAL ACADEMIA ESPAOLA DE LA LENGUA, MADRID; SERIDEC PHOTOIMAGENES CD; ARCHIVO SANTILLANA

2009 by Santillana Educacin, S. L. / Richmond Publishing Torrelaguna, 60. 28043 Madrid Richmond Publishing is an imprint of Santillana Educacin, S. L. PRINTED IN SPAIN

Richmond Publishing 26-28 Hammersmith Grove London W6 7BA United Kingdom

CP: 158225 D.L.:

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission in writing of the publisher.

Contents
Page Reinforcement Worksheets 11 Living things ........................................... 12 Plants .................................................... 13 Invertebrates........................................... 14 Vertebrates ............................................. 15 Nutrition ................................................. 16 Matter..................................................... 17 The atmosphere...................................... 18 The landscape ........................................ 19 Rivers ..................................................... 10 Population .............................................. 11 The economy .......................................... 12 Prehistory and Antiquity .......................... 13 The Middle Ages ..................................... Extension Worksheets 11 Living things ........................................... 12 Plants ..................................................... 13 Invertebrates........................................... 14 Vertebrates ............................................. 15 Nutrition ................................................. 16 Matter..................................................... 17 The atmosphere...................................... 18 The landscape ........................................ 19 Rivers ..................................................... 10 Population .............................................. 11 The economy .......................................... 12 Prehistory and Antiquity .......................... 13 The Middle Ages ..................................... Answer Key .................................................. 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28

30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56

1 Living things
1. Name three living and three non-living things. a. Three living things: b. Three non-living things: 2. Match the two columns. a. Nutrition b. Sensitivity c. Reproduction

REINFORCEMENT

1. Living things react to their environments. 2. Living things have offspring. 3. Living things eat food, which contains nutrients.

3. Use these words to complete the sentences. unicellular a. wall multicellular membrane cytoplasm nucleus cells

are the smallest living units in a living thing. . .

b. Living things which are made up of a single cell are c. Living things which are made up of many cells are d. The e. The f. is the covering around the cell. is the part which controls the cell. is between the nucleus and the membrane.

g. Plant cells also have a hard cell 4. Label this cell. cytoplasm nucleus membrane

around the membrane.

ESSENTIAL SCIENCE 5 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educacin, S. L.

REINFORCEMENT
5. Match the characteristics to the kingdom. Animals

1. They make their own food.

2. They have roots in the ground. Plants 3. They have a nervous system and sense organs.

4. They depend on other organisms for food.

Fungi

5. They can move from one place to another.

6. They eat other living things.

6. Answer the questions. a. How are fungi and plants similar?

b. How are fungi and animals similar?

ESSENTIAL SCIENCE 5 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educacin, S. L.

2 Plants
1. Find 12 words and complete the sentences.

REINFORCEMENT

G F G K V P W L G A

Y L E C F R U I T N

M O S S E S A O N G

N W P H R O O T S I

O E N A N L D V L O

S R W D S T E M E S

P I L E O E W C A P

E N K V L G X K V E

R G N G A K V P E R

M O I S T U R E S M

S N U T R I E N T S

a. The b. The c. Water and d. The the plants food. e. group of plants. f. but no g.

of a plant are in the soil. supports the leaves. are transported

from the roots to the leaves inside the stem. breathe and make

plants are the biggest

have small flowers . have flowers and fruit.

h. Non-flowering plants need and i. j.


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are small plants which live on rocks and trees. have big leaves.
ESSENTIAL SCIENCE 5 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educacin, S. L.

REINFORCEMENT
2. Use the words to label the illustration of plant nutrition. elaborated sap carbon dioxide leaf oxygen raw sap roots stem water and dissolved minerals 3. Circle the correct option. a. Flowers are the nutritional / reproductive organs of plants. b. The stamens are the male / female parts which produce pollen. c. Tiny pollen grains form on the stamens / petals. d. Respiration / Pollination is the movement of pollen from the stamens to the ovary. e. The ovary / corolla is the female part which contains ovules. f. Sunlight / Wind can carry pollen to other plants. g. After pollination, the ovary / calyx grows and becomes a fruit with seeds. h. When seeds germinate, they open / close and small roots grow. 4. Label these stems: tubers, bulbs or stolens. a b c

ESSENTIAL SCIENCE 5 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educacin, S. L.

3 Invertebrates
1. Complete the text about invertebrates. Invertebrates are animals which do not have a (a.) (b.) . Most invertebrates are very (c.)

REINFORCEMENT

or a , , but some have

but some are enormous. Most are (d.) irregular bodies. Many invertebrate bodies are protected by (e.) or (f.) a larva hatches from an egg. 2. Identify the invertebrate groups. a b c . Invertebrates are (g.)

3. Name the invertebrates. a. Invertebrates you have seen:

b. Invertebrates you have eaten:

c. Invertebrates which can sting you:

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REINFORCEMENT
4. Which invertebrate group is being described? a. They have soft bodies. Many are covered by shells. b. They are marine animals with jelly-like bodies and tentacles.

c. They are covered by a hard exoskeleton. d. They have irregular bodies and cannot move. e. They have long, soft bodies. Many are parasites. 5. Label the parts of this arthropod.

6. Match the columns. 1. Their bodies are divided into three parts. 2. They have ten or more legs. Arachnids Crustaceans Insects Myriapods 3. They have long bodies with many legs. 4. The thorax has six legs. 5. They are the most numerous arthropod group. 6. They have eight legs. 7. The head has one pair of short antennae. 8. The body is divided into the abdomen and the cephalothorax.

ESSENTIAL SCIENCE 5 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educacin, S. L.

4 Vertebrates
1. Find 8 words in the wordsearch.

REINFORCEMENT

P L L I O N S C C

R V P V E S S A E

I D M L L A P R T

M O N K E Y S N A

A L L S L Z M I C

T P M R E E S V E

E H S L S B R O A

S I L S P R F R N

U N G U L A T E S

A S E V L S M S A

2. Complete the table. Use words from the wordsearch.


Mammal group Example A characteristic

They have no hair.

3. Circle the correct option. a. The bodies of reptiles are covered with fur / scales. b. Reptiles are warm-blooded / cold-blooded animals. c. All reptiles breathe through their lungs / gills. d. Reptiles are oviparous / viviparous. e. Most reptiles are herbivores / carnivores.
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ESSENTIAL SCIENCE 5 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educacin, S. L.

REINFORCEMENT
4. Identify the reptile groups. a b

5. Which reptile group is being described? a. They have a shell to protect their body. b. They have very short legs, and they crawl. c. They have long bodies with no limbs, and they slither. d. They spend a lot of time in water, and they use their large teeth to capture their prey. 6. True or false? Decide and write T or F. a. A fishs body is covered with thin, shiny scales. b. Fish use their gills to swim. c. Fish and amphibians are oviparous. d. Sharks are bony fish. e. Amphibians stay in or near water to keep their skin dry. f. Amphibians without tails have a long body and four similar limbs. g. Amphibians without tails have long, strong back legs and a long tongue they use to catch their prey.
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5 Nutrition
1. Answer the questions. a. What are nutrients?

REINFORCEMENT

b. What are the two types of carbohydrates? What do they give us?

c. Why do we need proteins? d. How does fibre help us? e. What is chyme? 2. Use these words to label the excretory system. bladder kidneys renal artery renal vein ureters urethra

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REINFORCEMENT
3. Match the columns. Then answer the question. a. We breathe b. Air enters through the nose c. From the pharynx, the air d. Next, it goes to the bronchi e. In the lungs, f. At the end of the bronchioles, What happens in the alveoli? 1. and passes through the pharynx. 2. and into each lung. 3. the bronchi divide into bronchioles. 4. are the alveoli. 5. to obtain oxygen from the air. 6. goes to the larynx and the trachea.

4. Use these words to complete the sentences. systemic circulation pulmonary circulation blood vessels arteries capillaries veins

circulation a. b. c. d. e. f. g. is the movement of blood through the circulatory system. are tubes which transport blood. are the blood vessels which carry blood away from the heart. are the blood vessels which carry blood into the heart. are tiny blood vessels which connect arteries to veins. is the movement of blood between the heart and the lungs. is the movement of blood to the rest of the body.
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6 Matter
1. Match the columns. a. Everything in the universe b. Matter is made up of c. An element is matter which d. Mixtures are made up of e. A compound is matter which f. Pure substances are made up of g. All matter has general properties

REINFORCEMENT

1. tiny particles called atoms. 2. is made of matter. 3. like mass and volume. 4. consists of only one type of atom. 5. several pure substances. 6. a single type of element or compound. 7. consists of more than one kind of atom.

2. Name examples of types of matter. a. Two examples of pure substances: b. One example of a mixture: 3. Answer the questions. a. What is mass? b. What is volume? c. What is density? d. How do we calculate density?

e. What is the density of water?

f. What is the density of iron?

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REINFORCEMENT
4. Complete the sentences about changes in matter. Contraction Combustion Expansion Fragmentation Oxidation Putrefaction a. b. c. d. e. f. : one substance changes into another when it reacts with oxygen. : the object is divided into small pieces. : this occurs when a living thing decomposes. : when the temperature of an object increases, it gets bigger. : when the temperature of an object decreases, it gets smaller. : when an object or a substance is burned, it changes into another substance.

5. Tick () the properties of each state of matter.


Fixed volume solids liquids gases No fixed volume Fixed shape No fixed shape

6. Identify these changes in state. Then write the word. 1

a. A solid changes into a gas: b. A solid changes into a liquid: c. A gas changes into a liquid: d. A liquid changes into a gas:
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7 The atmosphere
1. Tick () the true sentences. a. The atmosphere is the wind which surrounds the Earth. b. Air is mainly made up of carbon dioxide and oxygen. c. Ozone filters harmful ultraviolet rays. d. The troposphere is the lowest layer of the atmosphere. e. Plants and animals live in the troposphere. f. The stratosphere is the next layer.

REINFORCEMENT

g. The thin layer of ozone in the upper statosphere is called outer space. 2. Complete the paragraph on the water cycle.

The water cycle is the constant between the sea, the 1. Liquid water in the sea the 2. Water vapour rises and form 3. Water falls from the clouds as to the 5. The
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of water and land. because of heat from . It becomes . . . starts again. . into drops of water which

4. This water filters into the land and also forms rivers and lakes and some returns

ESSENTIAL SCIENCE 5 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educacin, S. L.

REINFORCEMENT
3. Match the columns. a. Waves b. Tides c. Ocean currents What causes tides? 4. Answer the questions. a. What is magma? b. What is lava? c. What do you see in these photographs? 1. are the rise and fall of the sea level. 2. are the movement of large masses of ocean water. 3. are the rise and fall of the waters surface.

5. Look for examples of the damage done by earthquakes or erosion in your area or on the Internet. Describe what you see.

ESSENTIAL SCIENCE 5 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educacin, S. L.

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8 The landscape
1. Circle the correct option.

REINFORCEMENT

a. All the features of the Earths surface make up the geosphere / landscape. b. Hills have a lower / higher altitude than mountains. c. Several mountains grouped together are called a mountain range / chain. d. A plateau is a plain at a low / high altitude. 2. Find 10 words in the wordsearch. Then complete the sentences.

B F P G X M D J A

E U D U V A B K R

A F V L D R Z L C

C L I F F S D B H

H X I G P H W M I

E E S T U A R Y P

S M L E B M N F E

D C A P E G Q B L

P E N I N S U L A

Q D D F X G B F G

C O A S T P X F O

a. The b. Low-lying coasts have sandy c. High coasts have rocky d. A e. An f. An g. A h. An i. A j. A


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is the place where the land meets the sea. . . is almost completely surrounded by water. is completely surrounded by water. is a group of islands. is wet land near the mouth of a river. is the part of a river which opens into the sea. is land which extends into the sea. is a place where the sea extends into the land.
ESSENTIAL SCIENCE 5 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educacin, S. L.

REINFORCEMENT
3. Label these places on the map. Central Plateau Atlantic coast Ebro depression Balearic Islands Pyrenees Cantabrian coast Canary Islands Betic Chain Gualdalquivir depression Mediterranean coast

N W S E

Indicate where you live on the map.


158225P19

Which coast is nearest to your home?


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9 Rivers
1. Match the columns. a. A river is b. The course is c. The flow is d. Reservoirs are e. Watersheds are 1. artificial lakes. 2. a body of moving water. 3. the route a river takes.

REINFORCEMENT

4. areas where all the rivers flow into the same sea. 5. the amount of water a river carries.

2. Label the watersheds and the rivers.

Describe the rivers in each watershed.

158225P20

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REINFORCEMENT
3. Label the illustration. polar zone polar zone temperate zone temperate zone Equator tropical zone

4. Complete the table on climate in Spain.


Climate Atlantic Continental Mediterranean Subtropical Location Rainfall Temperatures mild

5. Answer the questions. a. What is flora? b. What is fauna? c. Investigate one of the National Parks in Europe and write about the climate, the flora and the fauna there.

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10 Population
1. Complete the sentences. a. The population of an area is b. A census measures the size of c. Population can be classified by d. Population density is measured by

REINFORCEMENT

. . .

2. Classify these causes for migration. Add one more cause to each category: wars political problems Natural causes droughts earthquakes floods religious problems Social factors

Are you an immigrant? Do you know any immigrants? Why did you / they come? 3. Answer the questions. a. Why did many emigrants leave Europe in the past?

b. Where did they go?

c. Why do many immigrants come to Europe today?

d. Where do they come from?

e. Why do some young European adults emigrate?

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REINFORCEMENT
4. Write about population density in Spain. The population is not evenly distributed.

Describe the population density where you live.

Population density More than 1,000,000 inhabitants Between 500,000 and 1,000,000 inhabitants Less than 500,000 inhabitants

158225P23
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11 The economy
1. Match the columns. a. The active population includes b. The primary sector includes c. In the secondary sector d. The service sector e. Schools and tourism are f. The inactive population includes 2. Classify these means of transport. a b

REINFORCEMENT

1. people who work but receive no money. 2. is also called the tertiary sector. 3. fishing and forestry. 4. natural resources are transformed. 5. in the service sector. 6. unemployed people who are looking for work.

Private transport

Public transport

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REINFORCEMENT
3. Find 11 words in the wordsearch and classify them.
Primary sector

F B A N K S I M R H

B E G B D F N N E O

F O R E S T R Y S S

I M I N I N G S T P

N N C S H N H C A I

T B U I M S A H U T

F J L N D H N O R A

M E T A L O L O A L

B H U T H P J L N S

C A R N F S M S T P

I T E X T I L E S L

Secondary sector industries

Service sector

4. Answer the questions. a. What percentage of the Spanish active population works in each sector? primary: seconday: service:

b. Which sector is most important where you live? c. What kind of work do most of the people do?

5. Write about one of these two kinds of tourism.

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12 Prehistory and Antiquity


1. Are the sentences true or false? Write T (true) or F (false).

REINFORCEMENT

a. Prehistory is the long period before the invention of the wheel. b. The Stone Age began about five million years ago. c. In the Palaeolithic period, people moved from place to place. d. In the Neolithic period, people made pots and cloth. e. In the Neolithic period, people built the first cities. f. The Metal Ages began about ten thousand years ago. g. The wheel and the plough were invented during the Metal Ages. h. During the Metal Ages, craftsmen made weapons and jewellery. 2. Answer the questions. a. Where did the Phoenicians come from? b. Where did the Greeks come from? c. Where did the Carthaginians come from? Colour the Phoenician colonies green, the Greek colonies red, and the Carthaginian colonies blue. Label them.

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REINFORCEMENT
3. Complete the sentences about Roman times. You can use some of these words. Carthagians Greeks Greek Hadrian Seneca Hispania Trajan Latin Phoenician Visigoth and

a. More than 2,000 years ago, the Romans defeated the conquered the Iberian Peninsula. b. The Romans called it .

c. The Carthaginians adopted Roman customs and spoke d. The emperors e. After about 400 A.D., and

. were from Hispania.

invaders entered the peninsula.

f. Five cities on the Iberian Peninsula which were founded by the Romans were

4. Identify these examples of Roman archuitecture. forum a temple theatre b road aqueduct c circus

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13 The Middle Ages


1. Complete the sentences about the Visigoths. a. The Visigoths settled in b. Toledo c. Later they conquered d. The Visigoths converted to e. They based their laws on f. The Visigoths lived in villages and used the land for

REINFORCEMENT

g. They were expert h. The Visigoth kingdom ended 2. Answer the questions. Then complete the map of the Muslim conquest. a. When did the Muslim army invade Visigothic Spain?

b. What did they call Hispania?

c. What do the arrows represent?

d. Where were the three main battles? Locate them on the map.

e. Where were the independent Christian territories? Shade them on the map.
158225P28

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REINFORCEMENT
3. Circle the correct option. a. The highest authority of the Muslims was the king / caliph. b. The religion of the Muslims was Latin / Islam. c. The Christians lived in the countryside / cities in the north of the peninsula. d. The Muslims built mosques / churches to practise their religion. e. The first Christian kingdom was in Navarre / Asturias. f. After the year 1000, Al Andalus broke up into small caliphs / taifas. g. The Christian kingdoms prospered / weakened. h. The Catholic Monarch conquered Crdoba / Granada in 1492. 4. Answer the questions. a. What characterises Gothic arquitecture?

b. Who are these people? Work with a friend. 1 2 3 4

c. Why is the year 1492 so important?

d. Why are the 16th and 17th centuries called the Golden Age of Spain?

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1 Living things

EXTENSION

Bacteria A bacterium (plural: bacteria) is a member of a large group of organisms which have cell walls, but not an organised nucleus. Bacteria are usually unicellular. They can live in different environments such as water, soil, air or inside other living things. Bacteria are the smallest living things. Most of them are so small that they can only be seen with a microscope. These bacteria are called micro-organisms or microbes. They often feed on decaying matter, such as dead animals or plants. Some bacteria are helpful: for example, they help us to make food. Milk is fermented with special types of bacteria to make cheese. Good bacteria are also used to make yoghurt and bread. They give a unique texture and taste to the food. Other bacteria are harmful and can make you ill. Some diseases, such as measles and mumps, are caused by bad bacteria. Bacteria can cause food to decay. If you eat mouldy bread, you can have stomach problems. Bacteria also cause tooth decay. We can protect ourselves from harmful bacteria by washing our hands, cleaning our teeth, and storing food carefully. We should also be careful how we cook our food. The bacteria which cause the disease salmonella can be killed by careful cooking.
Bacteria en yoghurt

1. Answer the questions. a. How many cells do bacteria usually have? b. Where do bacteria live? c. What do you need if you want to see bacteria? Why?

d. What do we call the smallest type of bacteria?

e. What do bacteria feed on? f. How do we use good bacteria? g. Find examples in the text of illnesses caused by bacteria. h. How can we fight bad bacteria?

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EXTENSION
2. Find words in the text that mean the following: a. with one cell b. places c. going bad d. special or unusual 3. Complete the text about good bacteria. Some bacteria are harmful and others The good bacteria can be found in such as . Bacteria are used in the fermentation of in order to make 4. Write about bad bacteria. Include information about problems caused by bad bacteria and things we can do to protect ourselves. Bad bacteria can cause . . e. bad for you f. illness g. with fungus on it h. conserving

5. Investigate. a. Who was the first person to see bacteria through a microscope and describe them? b. Look up the word bacterium in a dictionary. Which language is it from? Why was it given its original name?

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2 Plants

EXTENSION

The olive tree The olive is an evergreen tree which can live for a very long time. It grows in dry, rocky places and is common in Mediterranean countries. The trunk of the olive tree is thick and twisted. Its bark is silver-grey in colour. Its leaves are narrow and pointed. They are dark green and smooth on top. The flowers of the olive tree are cream coloured and each flower has four petals and four short stamens. The fruit of the olive is like a berry. At first, it is green and then it ripens and becomes black. The fruit has a single brown seed inside. The olive tree has been cultivated since Antiquity. Olives are used to produce olive oil and are also eaten as a snack or in salads.

1. Make notes about the olive tree.

The olive tree Type of tree: evergreen Habitat: Trunk: Bark: Leaves: Flowers: Fruit: Seeds: Uses:

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EXTENSION
2. Investigate. Find out about the stone pine tree, and complete the information. The stone pine tree Type of tree: Habitat: Trunk: straight, widely forked above Bark: grey or red-brown , grey-green Leaves: Flowers: Seeds: like a nut, with a hard coat Uses: often planted to give shade; the seeds are edible

Now write a short description of this tree.

3. Group work: roots. Trees and other plants have roots which are in the soil. They absorb water and other substances from the soil through the roots. However, not all roots are the same. Match the plant or tree with their roots. Discuss the answers with your group.
old oak trees eucalyptus trees mosses strawberry plants tubers water lilies

a. Their stems grow roots underground and leaves above ground. b. They have very tiny roots. c. Their roots grow very fast and spread over large areas. d. Their roots can go down to a depth of nearly two metres. e. Their roots are in the mud under the water. f. Their roots grow from stolons which extend across the ground.
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3 Invertebrates

EXTENSION

20,000 Leagues Under the Sea Jules Verne (1828-1905) was a French writer who wrote about fantastic adventures. In his book 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea, he imagines an enormous submarine which travels round the world. One of the people on the submarine Doctor Aronnax is a famous scientist. His servant Conseil loves classifying all the animals and plants under the sea. One day, the Doctor and Conseil are walking along the sea bed: Conseil: Look, Doctor! White coral and sea anemones members of the cnidarian group of invertebrates! Aronnax: Im sure youre right, Conseil. But theres something different over there its an enormous, long worm! Conseil: Yes, Doctor, there are different worms. That one is a sea worm and then theres the Aronnax: How beautiful those starfish are! Can you see them? Conseil: Oh, yes. They belong to the echinoderms. Be careful, dont put your hand on that! Its in the same group as the starfish, but its covered with spines! Aronnax: Ouch! Too late Conseil: Sorry, Doctor. Hey, look over here. Our eight-legged friend, of the mollusc group, the same as clams and snails Aronnax: And lobsters, like this one here Conseil: No, sir, this lobster is an arthropod. Do you see its hard exoskeleton? Aronnax: So we cant see arthropods on land. Conseil: Oh, yes we can! There are many types of arthropod: insects, centipedes, arachnids Aronnax: I think youre a better scientist than me, Conseil!

1. Answer the questions. a. What type of invertebrates are coral and sea anemones? b. Which type of worm does Conseil see? c. Which group do starfish belong to? d. Which animal do you think Aronnax puts his hand on? e. What is our eight-legged friend? f. Which arthropod does Aronnax see? g. Which other arthropods does Conseil name?
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2. Correct Doctor Aronnaxs classifications. a. Aronnax: Coral and sea anemones are echniderms. Conseil: No, they are cnidarians. b. Aronnax: Starfish and sea urchins are molluscs. Conseil: No, they are

c. Aronnax: Beetles and scorpions are sponges. Conseil: No, d. Aronax Octopi and clams are fish. Conseil: e. Aronax: Lobsters, shrimp and crabs are worms. Conseil: 3. Read the descriptions and write the name of the invertebrate. a. This arthropod has many pairs of legs along its body. b. This worm is a parasite in humans, pigs and other animals. c. This insect has two pairs of colourful wings. d. This insect has long legs and can jump very high. 4. Guess the names. Write short descriptions of three invertebrates. Give them to your partner who guesses the names. Use the descriptions in Activity 3 to help you. 5. Investigate. Arthropod sense organs are well developed: they have antennae and eyes. The eyes can be simple or compound. Compound eyes are made up of many smaller, simpler eyes. Find some examples of insects with compound eyes. How do compound eyes help the insect? (Think about flies. Is it easy to hit them when they are on walls or other surfaces?)
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4 Vertebrates

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Animals at play It is hard to imagine an ant or a worm playing. On the other hand, children and young animals, such as puppies and kittens, often play. In fact, most young mammals spend a lot of time playing. Young chimpanzees chase each other around, young badgers roll around on the ground, and ducklings splash about in the water. Mammals use their intelligence and learn from experience. Children who do not play when they are very young develop more slowly than children who play. Why do animals play? There are many theories. Play makes muscles strong and develops coordination. We can see this when chimpanzees jump from tree to tree and swing from branches. Play is also important for survival. In the wild, carnivores such as lions, must learn how to hunt in order to survive. In their games, the young cubs fight and jump on each other. This is practice for when they must catch their prey in order to eat. We can see this type of behaviour in kittens when they play with a ball of wool: they sometimes jump on it and shake it as if it were a mouse. Herbivores, such as zebras, must learn about danger when they are young in order to survive. In their games, they spend time running after each other; this is practice for when a carnivore is trying to catch them. Play is also important in establishing communication. Sociable mammals such as humans and chimpanzees play in order to decide who is more important in the group and who is less important. When two puppies play, they give out signals to show that they want to play and not to fight. For example, they put the front part of their body on the floor and wag their tails.

1. Match the animals with their description. a. Ant: b. Worm: c. Puppy: d. Kitten: e. Chimpanzee: f. Cub: 1. a young lion. 2. a type of ape. 3. an invertebrate with a long, soft body. 4. a young dog. 5. a young cat. 6. a small busy insect that lives in colonies.

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2. Read the text and tick the correct statements about why animals play. a. They learn to breathe. b. They become stronger. c. They learn to survive. 3. Answer the questions. a. Why do chimpanzees jump from tree to tree? d. They have fun. e. They communicate with their species. f. They keep their skin moist.

b. Why do young cubs fight with each other?

c. Why do young zebras run after each other?

d. How do puppies show that they want to play and not to fight?

4. Complete the sentences with and, but or because. a. Ants and worms probably do not play, b. Children play to learn c. Lion cubs must fight d. Zebras must learn to escape e. Dogs like running after sticks 5. Investigate. Find out more about dolphins. Are they sociable animals? Why do some people want to swim with them? Do you think they follow boats for fun? Write a paragraph about dolphins. we cannot be sure.

improve their coordination. they have to kill in order to survive. other animals want to kill them. playing with other animals.

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5 Nutrition

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The heart Our heart plays an important part in our circulatory system. It works like a pump and moves blood through the body. It never stops beating. When you are resting, your heart beats between 60 and 80 times every minute. When you do exercise, or if you are very anxious, the number of heartbeats can increase up to 200 a minute. The heart is a muscle and, like all muscles, it needs exercise to keep it healthy. That is why it is important to be active and play sports. We also need to eat the right foods to keep our heart in good condition. Substances such as alcohol and tobacco can damage our hearts. The heart is divided into two parts, left and right. In pulmonary circulation, blood leaves the heart and goes to the lungs. In the lungs, the blood absorbs oxygen and releases carbon dioxide. Then the blood goes back to the heart through the pulmonary veins. In systemic circulation, blood with oxygen from the lungs leaves the heart through the aorta. This blood provides the body with nutritive substances and oxygen. Finally, it returns to the heart through the vena cava. We cannot live without a heart. In the past, people with very unhealthy hearts died. Then, in 1967, Doctor Christiaan Barnard carried out the first human heart transplant. In this operation, the healthy heart of someone who has died replaces the unhealthy heart of another person. Since then, thousands of heart transplants have been carried out. The first transplant patients did not live for very long, but techniques and drugs improved and today transplant patients are living for much longer.

1. Are the sentences true or false? Write T (true) or F (false). a. The heart is important in the circulation of the blood. b. When you are worried, your heart goes slower. c. The heart is a gland. d. We should do exercise if we want to keep our heart healthy. e. Smoking and drinking are good for the heart. f. The heart is divided into several parts. g. There are two types of circulation. h. Pulmonary circulation involves the lungs. i. The blood in the lungs absorbs carbon dioxide.
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2. Write three sentences in the correct order using first, next or finally. a. The blood goes back to the heart through the pulmonary veins. Blood leaves the heart and goes to the lungs. The blood absorbs oxygen and releases carbon dioxide. a. Pulmonary circulation: b. Nutritive substances are distributed throughout the body. Blood with oxygen from the lungs leaves the heart through the aorta. Blood returns to the heart through the vena cava.

b. Systemic circulation:

3. Experiment. Does lung capacity vary with breathing movements? We cannot measure our lung capacity directly, so we will use an indirect method. Work in pairs. Measure your chest with a metric measuring tape. a. Measure your chest at three different times: when you inhale normally, when you exhale normally, when you inhale deeply. Record the results in the table. Breathing movement Inhale normally: Exhale normally: Inhale deeply: b. When is your lung capacity greatest? When is it smallest? c. Write a report. Include the answers to these questions: What did you do? What materials did you use? What were the results? Explain the results. Chest size cm cm cm

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6 Matter

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Salt Salt is the common name for sodium chloride. Salt takes the form of transparent cubic crystals. It is most familiar to us as a food supplement, but it has many other uses. For example, salt is used in the chemical industry as a source of chlorine. (Chlorine is a green, gaseous element which you can sometimes smell in the water of a swimming pool.) Salt is also used for removing snow and ice from roads, softening water, preserving food and stabilising soil for construction. Salt is obtained from two sources: rock salt and brine. Rock salt is crystallised salt. It is the result of the evaporation of ancient oceans millions of years ago. Sometimes, pressure from inside the Earth forces up large amounts of rock salt to form salt domes. Brine is water that contains a high concentration of salt. It comes mainly from the sea. Salt is obtained when the water evaporates. The simplest form of evaporation is solar evaporation. This can only take place in hot, dry, sunny places. The brine is collected into shallow ponds and allowed to evaporate in the Sun. The salt which remains is washed and made into huge piles. The piles are left to drain for two or three months. Salt forms an important part of our diet. Salt for human consumption must be very pure.

1. Match the words with their definitions. a. Supplement: b. Remove: c. Soil: d. Dome: e. Mainly: f. Shallow: g. Pond: h. Huge: i. Pile: 1. hard round hills 2. not deep 3. small area of water 4. hill-shaped quantity of something 5. take away 6. very large 7. mostly 8. something that we add 9. rock and mineral particles

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2. Answer the questions. a. What does salt look like?

b. What is the most common use of salt?

c. What other uses does salt have?

d. How do we obtain salt?

e. What role does solar evaporation play in obtaining salt?

3. Complete the text using these words. sun brine Brine is a water by the process of this It is left in small, shallow The The This salt contains some The salt is made into piles which .The water process ponds evaporation dry impurities chemical mixture

of salt and water. The salt is separated from the . In hot countries, the sun is used in is usually collected from the sea. for a period of time. acts on the brine and evaporation takes place. gradually disappears and soon only the salt remains. , and it must be washed several times. in the Sun for two to three

months. Some salt is used in food and other types of salt are used, for example, in the industry.
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7 The atmosphere

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Clouds Clouds are made up of millions of tiny water droplets. The droplets form when water vapour rises into the atmosphere and cools down. If the cloud is extremely cold, it is made up of ice crystals. In 1803, a man called Luke Howard invented a way of classifying clouds. He used Latin words to describe their characteristics, for example: cirrus means a filament or tuft (like a piece of hair) cumulus means a heap or pile stratus means a layer nimbus means carrying rain Today, we usually refer to ten basic types of cloud. We use combinations of the four words above to describe them. We can divide the ten types of cloud into three sections: low clouds, medium clouds and high clouds. Low clouds have their base below 200 metres from the ground. They are usually made up of water droplets. Medium clouds have their base between 2,000 and 7,000 metres. They are mainly water but they can contain ice crystals. High clouds have their base between 5,500 and 14,000 metres. They are normally made up of ice crystals. In our Solar System, any planet or moon with an atmosphere also has clouds. Venuss clouds are made up of sulphuric acid droplets. Mars has high, thin clouds of water ice.

1. Answer the questions. a. What are clouds made of?

b. How do clouds form?

c. What did Luke Howard do? When? d. How many basic types of cloud are there today? e. What do clouds look like from space?
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2. Complete the table.
Type of cloud Low clouds 2,000-7,000 metres High clouds ice crystals Height Composition

3. Draw clouds. a. Which type of cloud do you think this is? b. Can you draw another cloud? Compare your drawing with a partner.

4. Investigate. How clean is the rain in your neighbourhood? To find out, you need: a plastic bottle scissors coffee filter paper a. Cut the bottle in half and reverse the top to make a funnel. b. Put the filter paper in the funnel and put the bottle outside. c. Examine the paper after it rains. What colour is it? How clean is your rain?
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8 The landscape
1. Complete the newspaper article. A new motorway

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A new motorway will be built

the

towns of Oldcastle in the Chevron Hills and the coastal town of Winbay. At the moment, travellers must use the old A47, a dangerous road, and the journey takes three hours. A tunnel will go new bridge will go people the mountains and a the River Wane. Several acres of forest Oldcastle and Winbay are in favour of the new it.

will disappear as well as part of Caster Castle, an historic monument. Many motorway, but local ecology groups are

2. Classify the landscape features. reservoir hill road tunnel forest river motorway valley

Landscape features Man-made Natural

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3. Answer the questions.

a. Do you know any motorways like these? Where are they?

b. Which landscape features are obstacles for a motorway?

c. How can you build a flat motorway if there are hills, valleys and mountains?

d. Do motorways spoil the landscape?

e. Can motorways improve peoples lives?

4. Write a short letter to a newspaper in favour of, or against, a new motorway. Dear Editor,

Yours sincerely,

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9 Rivers

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The Amazon The Amazon River runs 6,400 kilometres from the Andes mountains to the sea. It is the longest river in the world after the Nile. The Amazon is the largest river in terms of its watershed, the number of tributaries (over 200), and the volume of water which it discharges into the sea. The Amazon basin is huge: it covers more than 7,050,000 square kilometres. The mouth of the Amazon is so wide and deep that large, ocean-going ships have navigated its waters and have travelled as far as two-thirds of the way up the river. In the flood season, the Amazon widens and covers its banks and the islands in the middle of the river. The sediment left by the floods enriches the soil. There are no bridges across the Amazon because it flows mostly through tropical rainforest where there are few roads and cities. The tropical rainforests are home to more than a third of all the species in the world. It is home to wonderful animals such as the jaguar, the largest cat outside of Africa and Asia, and the anaconda, an enormous, heavy snake. The rainforests are in danger from overexploitation and pollution.

1. True (T ) or false (F )? Correct the false sentences. a. The Amazon is the longest river in the world. b. The Amazon has the biggest watershed of all rivers. c. The Amazon basin is not very big. d. It is impossible for large ships to sail up the Amazon. e. The Amazon is the same width all year. f. There are no bridges across the Amazon. g. The rainforests contain a great variety of flora and fauna. h. If we are not careful, the rainforests could disappear.

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2. Complete the table about the Amazon. Continent: Countries: Peru, Colombia, Brazil, Venezuela, Ecuador, Bolivia Length: Number of tributaries: Source: Lago Villafro in the Andes Mountains in Peru Mouth: Atlantic Ocean, Brazil Other information:

3. Use the information in Activity 2 to write a paragraph about the Amazon. The Amazon is in It is long. It has . Its mouth It flows through . Its source is .

4. Investigate. Find out about another river and complete information. Add an illustration. River: Continent: Countries: Length: Number of tributaries: Source: Mouth: Other information:

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10 Population

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An interview Juan is 32. He comes from a small village in Spain but now he lives in Madrid. A reporter is interviewing him for a newspaper article about population in Spain. Reporter: How long have you lived in Madrid, Juan? Juan: Just over ten years. Reporter: Why did you leave your village? Juan: All the young people were leaving. There was no work except in agriculture and I didnt want to do that. Reporter: What do you do now? Juan: I work for a telecommunications company. Reporter: Do you miss your village? Juan: Yes, I miss my family. On the other hand, Madrid has a lot of advantages: good entertainment, services, people from different countries. Reporter: Are there any bad things about living in the city? Juan: Of course. Everyones in a hurry, its noisy and its expensive! Reporter: Will you go back to live in your village? Juan: Maybe when Im old Ill go back, but not now. I have a job here, Im learning new things and Im making new friends. Reporter: You say that many young people left your village. Do you think it will disappear? Juan: I hope not. Actually, some city people are beginning to buy houses there now. They say its healthier than the city so maybe things are changing.

1. Answer the questions. a. Where does Juan live now? b. Why did he leave his village? c. Where does he work now? d. What does he miss about his village? e. What are the good and bad things about living in Madrid?

f. Does Juan think his village will disappear in the future? Why? / Why not?

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2. Make full sentences. a. Many villages / Spain / losing population. Many villages in Spain are losing population. b. Young people / moving / cities.

c. Population / villages / getting older.

d. Village life / more peaceful / life in the city.

e. Population density / higher / cities than / country.

3. Write I agree. or I disagree. next to these sentences. If you disagree, explain why. a. Life is more pleasant in a village than in a city. b. In 20 years time, most villages in Spain will not exist. c. Everything is more expensive in a city than in a village. d. There is always more work in a city than in a village. e. It is important to have people of all ages in a village.

4. Investigate. Do people in your class or neighbourhood come from a different country or another region? Prepare questions to ask them and write down their answers. For example: Why did you come here? What was the most difficult thing when you first arrived? Did you have any problems? What were they? What do you miss most about your previous home? Would you like to go back there? Write a paragraph about your interview and read it to the class.
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11 The economy

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Tourism in Spain The tourist industry in Spain is very important. It provides a lot of jobs in the service sector in hotels, restaurants and bars. It also creates work in the area of transport. Most tourists visit Spains coasts. They come to relax on the beaches in the Sun. Some tourists travel inland to the mountains or visit cities such as Barcelona or Salamanca. Many tourists come from abroad, but Spanish people also take holidays in their own country. A good transport system is essential for successful tourism. In Spain, there are airports in most of the major cities and good rail and road systems. In the cities, there is quick, inexpensive underground transport. A lot of people depend on tourism for employment. Today, there is competition from other countries which want to attract tourism. Some of these countries are cheaper than Spain and some are less exploited they have not yet built too many holiday resorts. Some Spanish resorts are half-empty in the winter months, so income from tourism decreases. The decline of agriculture in Spain is also partly connected with tourism. Land previously used in agriculture has been used for building tourist apartments and hotels. This could be a bad thing. If tourist numbers fall, many apartments will stay empty and it will be too late to use the land for agriculture.

1. Match the columns. a. Tourism is b. Success in the tourist industry c. Many Spanish cities d. Not all tourists in Spain e. Spain is facing competition f. Spains agricultural industry 1. come from abroad. 2. is much less important than tourism. 3. one of Spains most important industries. 4. from tourism in other countries. 5. have efficient public transport. 6. depends in part on good transport.

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2. Answer the questions. a. Why is tourism important in Spain? b. Why is good transport important? c. Why are some tourists going to other countries instead of Spain? d. What happens to some Spanish resorts in the winter months?

3. Tick () the jobs which belong to the tourist industry a. waitress b. coach driver c. engineer d. tour guide e. cleaner f. fisherman g. lawyer h. cook i. nurse j. journalist

4. Write descriptions of two jobs. Example: A waitress works in a restaurant and serves food.

5. Investigate. Write about tourism in your area. Use these questions to help you: How important is tourism in your area? What do tourists visit? Where do they stay? Does anyone you know work in the tourist industry? What do they do? Would you like to work in the tourist industry? Why (not)? Tourism is important / not important in to visit Tourists come

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12 Prehistory and Antiquity

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Digging up the past Eva is a student. Last summer, she spent part of her summer holidays working on a dig (or archaeological excavation). Her favourite subject is History and she loves finding things which bring the past to life. The site where Eva worked last summer is near Alicante. The government had started to build a new road. Then, one of the excavating machines uncovered some old stones. These stones were ruins which belonged to a very old building. The government stopped building the road and put up a fence to protect the area. Archaeologists came with helpers such as Eva. Carefully, they began to take away the earth and slowly the remains of ancient civilisations began to emerge. Its very interesting, says Eva. The first layer looks like the remains of a Roman villa or bath house. But under that, we found objects from earlier periods. There are fish hooks and other tools. They are probably from the Phoenician or Carthaginian civilisations. We also found some pots and jewellery which are definitely from Iberian times: some of the decoration is like that on the Lady of Elche. I hope the government doesnt start building the road again. This is a very important site. It can teach us a lot about the people who lived here before us and their way of life. Who knows? If we continue to dig, we could find something from prehistoric times.

1. Match the words and the definitions. a. Dig b. Subject c. Site d. Fence e. Remains f. Tool g. Pot h. Jewellery 1. a barrier around an area 2. we make things with this 3. an archaeological excavation 4. something we study at school 5. an area of land 6. rings and bracelets 7. a container, sometimes used for cooking 8. historical ruins

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2. Answer the questions. a. What did Eva do last summer? b. When was the site discovered? c. What remains are in the first layer? d. What remains are under the first layer? e. What does Eva hope to find in the future? f. What must the government do to preserve the site? 3. Complete the table.
Civilization Iberian Iberian Discoveries

Carthaginian and

Roman

remains of a villa or

4. Write a letter. Imagine that you are working on a dig. Write a short letter to your English pen pal about your experience. Use these questions to help you. Where was the dig? What ruins did you find there? What objects did you find? Which civilisations are they from? How do you feel about your discoveries? Dear ,

I am writing to tell you about the dig where I worked this summer. It was in / near

Best wishes,

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13 The Middle Ages

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Thomas Aquinas Thomas Aquinas was born in his fathers castle in Italy in 1227. His father was Count Landulf, an important nobleman. When he was five years old, Thomas began his education at a monastery. At that time, monasteries were important centres of learning and knowledge. They had schools and libraries. This was before the age of printed books (the printing press was invented in about 1450) so the books which Thomas studied were made by hand. The scribes copied manuscripts onto parchment and decorated them with illustrations and very thin layers of gold. Thomas was an intelligent student and was always asking questions. In 1244, he went to study in Cologne in Germany. After that, he continued his studies at the University in Paris. Classes there consisted of reading and explaining texts. Examinations were oral. Thomas eventually became a university professor. He taught theology in different European cities. He worked very hard and spent a lot of time travelling. On one of his journeys, he became ill. He was taken to a monastery in Italy where he died in 1274. Thomas was a great philosopher and theologian. He wrote many important works. He tried to explain his ideas clearly and simply. In 1323, Pope John XXII made Thomas a saint of the Catholic Church. Today, the Roman Catholic Church celebrates the feast of Saint Thomas Aquinas on January 28th. This is the publication date of his most famous work, Summa Theologica.

1. Find words in the text which mean the following: a. A nobleman: b. A machine for making books: c. Someone who writes books by hand: d. A type of paper made from animal skin: e. A university teacher: f. A subject which is about religion: g. A person who studies the meaning of life: h. Someone who is very special in the eyes of the Church:
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2. True (T ) or false (F )? a. Thomas was born into a poor family. b. He was French. c. His first school was in a monastery. d. The books which Thomas studied were printed in Germany. e. Thomas studied in Germany and England. f. Thomas was a teacher and a writer. g. Thomas wrote his masterpiece in French. h. Thomas died on one of his journeys. i. The feast of Saint Thomas Aquinas is on his birthday. 3. Circle the best answer. a. Thomas studied with: 1 a religious order 2 noblemen 3 soldiers 3 Jewish 3 thinking 3 draw

b. The religion which Thomas studied was: 1 Muslim 2 Christian c. Thomas spent a lot of time: 1 fighting 2 resting d. During his exams, Thomas had to: 1 write 2 talk

e. The main language which Thomas used for studying was: 1 Arabic 2 Latin 3 English f. Thomas is the patron saint of: 1 animals 2 travelling 4. Write a biography. Think of other famous people from the Middle Ages. Choose one and find some information about them. Make notes, and write a short biography. Use the text about Thomas Aquinas to help you.
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Answer key
REINFORCEMENT ACTIVITIES
UNIT 1: LIVING THINGS
1. Name three living and three non-living things. Model answers: Three living things: cows, sheep and trees. Three non-living things: stone, wood and paper. 2. Match the two columns. a. Nutrition: 3. Living things eat food, which contains nutrients. b. Sensitivity: 1. Living things react to their environments. c. Reproduction: 2. Living things have offspring. 3. Use these words to complete the sentences. a. Cells are the smallest living units in a living thing. b. Living things which are made up of a single cell are unicellular. c. Living things which are made up of many cells are multicellular. d. The membrane is the covering around the cell. e. The nucleus is the part which controls the cell. f. Cytoplasm is between the nucleus and the membrane. g. Plant cells also have a hard cell wall around the membrane. 4. Label this cell. Top to bottom: nucleus, cytoplasm, membrane. 5. Match the characteristics to the kingdom. Animals: 3. They have a nervous system and sense organs. 5. They can move from one place to another. 6. They eat other living things. Plants: 1. They make their own food. 2. They have roots in the ground. Fungi: 4. They depend on other organisms for food. 6. Answer the questions. a. How are fungi and plants similar? Plants and most fungi are multicellular. They cannot move. b. How are fungi and animals similar? Animals and most fungi are multicellular. They do not make their own food.

UNIT 2: PLANTS
1. Find 12 words and complete the sentences. Across: gymnosperms, flowering, shade, ferns, leaves, angiosperms. Down: fruit, mosses, roots, stem, moisture, nutrients. a. The roots of a plant are in the soil. b. The stem supports the leaves. c. Water and nutrients are transported from the roots to the leaves inside the stem. d. The leaves breathe and make the plants food. e. Flowering plants are the biggest group of plants. f. Gymnosperms have small flowers but no fruit. g. Angiosperms have flowers and fruit. h. Non-flowering plants need shade and moisture. i. Mosses are small plants which live on rocks and trees. j. Ferns are larger than mosses and have big leaves. 2. Use the words to label the illustration of plant nutrition. Top to bottom: carbon dioxide, oxygen, raw sap, elaborated sap, leaf, stem, roots, water and dissolved minerals. 3. Circle the correct option. a. Flowers are the reproductive organs of plants. b. The stamens are the male parts which produce pollen. c. Tiny pollen grains form on the stamens. d. Pollination is the movement of pollen from the stamens to the ovary. e. The ovary is the female part which contains ovules. f. Wind can carry pollen to other plants. g. After pollination, the ovary grows and becomes a fruit with seeds. h. When seeds germinate, they open and small roots grow. 4. Label these stems: tubers, bulbs or stolens. bulbs, stolens, tubers

UNIT 3: INVERTEBRATES
1. Complete the text about invertebrates. Invertebrates are animals which do not have a (a.) skeleton or a (b.) backbone. Most invertebrates are very (c.) small, but some are enormous. Most are (d.) symmetrical, but some have irregular bodies. Many invertebrate bodies are protected by (e.) shells or (f.) exoskeletons. Invertebrates are (g.) oviparous; a larva hatches from an egg.

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REINFORCEMENT
2. Identify the invertebrate groups. a. sponges; b. cnidarians; c. arthropods; d. echinoderms; e. worms; f. molluscs. 3. Name the invertebrates. Model answers: a. Jellyfish, earthworms, beetles, and snails. b. Clams, river crabs and ocotopuses. c. Jellyfish and scorpions. 4. Which invertebrate group is being described? a. They have soft bodies. Many are covered by shells. molluscs b. They are marine animals with jelly-like bodies and tentacles. cnidarians c. They are covered by a hard exoskeleton. arthropods d. They have irregular bodies and cannot move. sponges e. They have long, soft bodies. Many are parasites. worms 5. Label the parts of this arthropod. Left, top to bottom: wing, abdomen. Right, top to bottom: thorax, antenna, leg. 6. Match the columns. Arachnids: 6. They have eight legs. 8. The body is divided into the abdomen and the cephalothorax. Crustaceans: 2. They have ten or more legs. 8. The body is divided into the abdomen and the cephalothorax. Insects: 1. Their bodies are divided into three parts. 4. The thorax has six legs. 5. They are the most numerous anthropod group. Myriapods: 3. They have long bodies with many legs. 7. The head has one pair of short antennae. 3. Circle the correct option. a. The bodies of reptiles are covered with scales. b. Reptiles are cold-blooded animals. c. All reptiles breathe through their lungs. d. Reptiles are oviparous. e. Most reptiles are carnivores. 4. Identify the reptile groups. a. crocodiles; b. lizards; c. snakes; d. turtles. 5. Which reptile group is being described? a. They have a shell to protect their body. turtles b. They have very short legs, and they crawl. lizards c. They have long bodies with no limbs, and they slither. snakes d. They spend a lot of time in water, and they use their large teeth to capture their prey. crocodiles and alligators 6. True or false? Decide and write T or F. True sentences: a, c, g. Corrected false sentences: b. Fish use their gills to breathe. d. Sharks are cartilaginous fish. e. Amphibians stay in or near water to keep their skin moist. f. Amphibians with tails have a long body and four similar limbs.

UNIT 5: NUTRITION
1. Answer the questions. Model answers: a. They are the substances which our body needs to survive, grow and repair itself. b. The two types are sugars and starches. They give us energy. c. We need proteins for our body to grow and repair itself. d. It helps food to move through our digestive system. e. It is a thick liquid which is produced in the stomach. 2. Use these words to label the excretory system. Left, top to bottom: kidneys, bladder. Right, top to bottom: kidneys, renal vein, bladder, urethra. Far right, top to bottom: renal artery, ureters. 3. Match the columns. a. We breathe (5) to obtain oxygen from the air. b. Air enters through the nose (1) and passes through the pharynx. c. From the pharynx, the air (6) goes to the larynx and the trachea. d. Next, it goes to the bronchi (2) and into each lung. e. In the lungs, (3) the bronchi divide into bronchioles. f. At the end of the bronchioles, (4) are the alveoli. What happens in the alveoli? In the alveoli, oxygen from the air passes into the blood. The blood releases carbon dioxide which passes into the alveoli.

UNIT 4: VERTEBRATES
1. Find 8 words in the wordsearch. Across: primates, dolphins, zebras, carnivores, cetaceans. Down: lions, monkeys, ungulates. 2. Complete the table. Use words from the wordsearch.
Mammal group cetaceans carnivores Example dolphins lions A characteristic They have no hair. Model answer: They hunt for food. Model answer: They have feet with hoves. Model answer: They have five fingers.

ungulates

zebras

primate

monkeys

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REINFORCEMENT
4. Use these words to complete the sentences. a. Circulation is the movement of blood through the circulatory system. b. Blood vessels are tubes which transport blood. c. Arteries are the blood vessels which carry blood away from the heart. d. Veins are the blood vessels which carry blood into the heart. e. Capillaries are tiny blood vessels which connect arteries to veins. f. Pulmonary circulation is the movement of blood between the heart and the lungs. g. Systemic circulation is the movement of blood to the rest of the body.
solids liquids gases

5. Tick () the properties of each state of matter.


Fixed volume No fixed volume Fixed shape No fixed shape

6. Identify these changes in state. Then write the word. a. A solid changes into a gas: b. A solid changes into a liquid: c. A gas changes into a liquid: d. A liquid changes into a gas: 2; sublimation. 1; melting. 3; condensation. 4; evaporation.

UNIT 7: THE ATMOSPHERE UNIT 6: MATTER


1. Match the columns. a. Everything in the universe (2) is made of matter. b. Matter is made up of (1) tiny particles called atoms. c. An element is matter which (4) consists of only one type of atom. d. Mixtures are made up of (5) several pure substances. e. A compound is matter which (7) consists of more than one kind of atom. f. Pure substances are made up of (6) a single type of element or compound. g. All matter has general properties (3) like mass and volume. 2. Name examples of types of matter. Model answers: a. Two examples of pure substances: iron, salt. b. One example of a mixture: sea water. 3. Answer the questions. a. Mass is the amount of matter in an object. b. Volume is the amount of space which an object occupies. c. Density is mass per volume. d. To calculate density, we divide the mass of a substance by its volume. e. The density of water is one kilo per litre of water. f. The density of iron is 7.9 kilos per litre of iron. 4. Complete the sentences about changes in matter. a. Oxidation: one substance changes into another when it reacts with oxygen. b. Fragmentation: the object is divided into small pieces. c. Putrefaction: this occurs when a living thing decomposes. d. Expansion: when the temperature of an object increases, it gets bigger. e. Contraction: when the temperature of an object decreases, it gets smaller. f. Combustion: when an object or a substance is burned, it changes into another substance. 1. Tick () the true sentences. True sentences: c, d, e, f. Corrected false sentences: a. The atmosphere is the air which surrounds the Earth. b. Air is mainly made up of nitrogen and oxygen. g. The thin layer of ozone in the upper stratosphere is called the ozone layer. 2. Complete the paragraph on the water cycle. The water cycle is the constant circulation of water between the sea, the atmosphere and land. 1. Liquid water in the sea evaporates because of heat from the Sun. It becomes water vapour. 2. Water vapour rises and condenses into drops of water which form clouds. 3. Water falls from the clouds as precipitation. 4. This water filters into the land and also forms rivers and lakes and some returns to the sea. 5. The water cycle starts again. 3. Match the columns. a. Waves (3) are the rise and fall of the waters surface. b. Tides (1) are the rise and fall of the sea level. c. Ocean currents (2) are the movement of large masses of ocean water. What causes tides? The gravitational pull of the Moon and Sun causes tides. 4. Answer the questions. a. Magma is red-hot liquid rock. It is just under the surface. b. Lava is magma when it reaches the surface. c. Model answer: Both photographs are of volcanoes. The volcano on the left is not active. We can see a volcanic cone. The volcano on the right is active. We can see the hot lava flowing down the side of the mountain. 5. Look for examples of the damage done by earthquakes or erosion in your area or on the Internet. Describe what you see. Open answer.

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UNIT 8: THE LANDSCAPE
1. Circle the correct option. a. All the features of the Earths surface make up the landscape. b. Hills have a lower altitude than mountains. c. Several mountains grouped together are called a mountain range. d. A plateau is a plain at a high altitude. 2. Find 10 words in the wordsearch. Then complete the sentences. Across: beaches, island, gulf, marsh, archipelago. Down: cliffs, estuary, cape, peninsula, coast. a. The coast is the place where the land meets the sea. b. Low-lying coasts have sandy beaches. c. High coasts have rocky cliffs. d. A peninsula is almost completely surrounded by water. e. An island is completely surrounded by water. f. An archipelago is a group of islands. g. A marsh is wet land near the mouth of a river. h. An estuary is the part of a river which opens into the sea. i. A cape is land which extends into the sea. j. A gulf is a place where the sea extends into the land. 3. Label these places on the map. Students label the map. Open answer. 1. Complete the sentences. a. The population of an area is the number of people who live there. b. A census measures the size of a population. c. Population can be classified by gender and age. d. Population density is measured by dividing the total number of inhabitants by the surface area of the place where they live. 2. Classify these causes for migration. Add one more cause to each category. 5. Answer the questions. a. What is flora? Flora is all the plant life or vegetation in an area. b. What is fauna? Fauna is all the animal life in an area. c. Investigate. Open answer.
Mediterranean

4. Complete the table on climate in Spain.


Climate Atlantic Continental Location Cantabrian coast, Galicia central Spain near the Mediterranean Rainfall abundant irregular light rainfall limited to a few months Temperatures mild hot summers cold winters hot summers mild winters hot all year round

Subtropical

Canary Islands

UNIT 10: POPULATION

UNIT 9: RIVERS
1. Match the columns. a. A river is (2) a body of moving water. b. The course is (3) the route a river takes. c. The flow is (5) the amount of water a river carries. d. Reservoirs are (1) artificial lakes. e. Watersheds are (4) areas where all the rivers flow into the same sea. 2. Label the three watersheds and the two rivers. Students label the map: Cantabrian watershed, Mediterranean watershed, Atlantic watershed, River Ebro, River Duero, River Tagus/Tajo, River Guadalquivir. Descibe the rivers in each watershed. Model answer: Atlantic: the rivers have an abundant and fairly regular flow. Cantabrian: the rivers are short and rapid. Their flow is abundant and regular. Mediterranean: the rivers are short and their flow is irregular, except for the Ebro. 3. Label the illustration. Students label the illustration.

Natural causes: droughts, earthquakes, floods + open answer. Social factors: wars, political problems, religious problems + open answer. Are you an immigrant? Or do you know any immigrants? Open answer. Why did you / they come? Open answer. 3. Answer the questions. Model answers: a. They left to escape from war or to find work. b. They went to the United States and to countries in Latin America. c. They come to find work and to escape from persecution. d. They come from Africa, Latin America and Asia. e. They emigrate to study or work. 4. Write about population density in Spain. Model answer: The population is not evenly distributed. Some areas such as the coast and the Autonomous Community of Madrid are densely populated. Other areas are sparsely populated, for example, the rural areas, especially the provinces surrounding the Autonomous Community of Madrid. Open answer.

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UNIT 11: THE ECONOMY
1. Match the columns. a. The active population includes (6) unemployed people who are looking for work. b. The primary sector includes (3) fishing and forestry. c. In the secondary sector (4) natural resources are transformed. d. The service sector (2) is also called the tertiary sector. e. Schools and tourism are (5) in the service sector. f. The inactive population includes (1) people who work but receive no money. 2. Classify these means of transport. Private transport: a. bicycle, c. car, e. motorcycle. Public transport: b. bus, d. train, f. underground. 3. Find 11 words in the wordsearch and classify them. Across: agriculture, shops, schools, restaurants, hospitals. Down: banks, forestry, mining, metal, car, textiles. Primary sector: agriculture, forestry, mining. Secondary sector / industries: metal, car, textiles. Service sector: shops, banks, schools, restaurants, hospitals. 4. Answer the questions. a. What percentage of the Spanish active population works in each sector? primary: 5% secondary: 30% service: 60% b. Open answer. c. Open answer. 5. Write about one of these two kinds of tourism. Open answer. Colour the Phoenician colonies green, the Greek colonies red, and the Carthaginian colonies blue. Phoenician colonies (green): Cdiz, Almuecar. Greek colonies (red): Denia, Ampurias. Carthaginian colonies (blue): Cartagena, Ibiza. 3. Complete the sentences about Roman times. You can use some of these words. a. More than 2,000 years ago, the Romans defeated the Carthagians and conquered the Iberian Peninsula. b. The Romans called it Hispania. c. The Carthaginians adopted Roman customs and spoke Latin. d. The emperors Trajan and Hadrian were from Hispania. e. After about 400 A.D., Visigoth invaders entered the peninsula. f. Five cities on the Iberian Peninsula which were founded by the Romans were Lugo, Zaragoza, Tarragona, Sagunto, Mrida. 4. Identify these examples of Roman architecture. a. temple; b. theatre; c. circus; d. aqueduct; e. forum; f. road.

UNIT 13: THE MIDDLE AGES


1. Complete the sentences about the Visigoths. a. The Visigoths settled in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula. b. Toledo became their capital. c. Later they conquered the territories occupied by other Germanic tribes. d. The Visigoths converted to Christianity. e. They based their laws on Roman law. f. The Visigoths lived in villages and used the land for agriculture, livestock farming and pastures. g. They were expert metalworkers. h. The Visigoth kingdom ended after the Muslim invasion in 711 A.D. 2. Answer the questions. Then complete the map of the Muslim conquest. a. They invaded in 711 A.D. b. They called Hispania Al Andalus. c. The main Muslim expeditions. d. They were in Covadonga, Roncesvalles and Guadalete. e. They were in the north of Spain. Students complete the map. 3. Circle the correct option. a. The highest authority of the Muslims was the caliph. b. The religion of the Muslims was Islam. c. The Christians lived in the countryside in the north of the peninsula. d. The Muslims built mosques to practise their religion.

UNIT 12: PREHISTORY AND ANTIQUITY


1. Are the sentences true or false? Write T (true) or F (false). True sentences: c, d, g, h. Corrected false sentences: a. Prehistory is the long period before the invention of writing. b. The Stone Age began about two and a half million years ago. e. During the Metal Ages, people built the first cities. f. The Metal Ages began about seven thousand years ago. 2. Answer the questions. a. Where did the Phoenicians come from? They came from Asia. b. Where did the Greeks come from? They came from Greece. c. Where did the Carthaginians come from? They came from North Africa.

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EXTENSION
e. The first Christian kingdom was in Asturias. f. After the year 1000, Al Andalus broke up into small taifas. g. The Christian kingdoms prospered. h. The Catholic Monarch conquered Granada in 1492. 4. Answer the questions. a. What characterises Gothic architecture? Great height, pointed arches and large windows. b. Who are these people? Work with a friend. 1. Coln, 2. Isabella I of Castile, 3. Miguel de Cervantes, 4. Diego Velzquez. c. Why is the year 1492 so important? Model answer: In the year 1492, Columbus expedition reached America. The Catholic Monarchs unified the kingdoms of Spain and began the conquest of America. Spain became the centre of a great empire. The Jews were expelled from Spain. d. Why are the 16th and 17th centuries called the Golden Age of Spain? Model answer: Spain produced many great works of literature and art during this period. 4. Write about bad bacteria. Include information about problems caused by bad bacteria and things we can do to protect ourselves. Model answer: Bad bacteria can cause illnesses, such as mumps, measles and salmonella, and other health problems, such as tooth decay and stomach ache. To protect ourselves, we should wash our hands, clean our teeth and be careful when storing or cooking food. 5. Investigate. a. Who was the first person to see bacteria through a microscope and describe them? Anton van Leeuwenhoek from Holland, 16321723. b. Look up the word bacterium in a dictionary. Which language is it from? Latin, from Greek bakterion little rod. Why was it given its original name? Because the first ones to be discovered were rod-shaped.

UNIT 2: PLANTS

EXTENSION ACTIVITIES
UNIT 1: LIVING THINGS
1. Answer the questions. a. They are usually unicellular. b. Bacteria can live in different environments such as water, soil, air or inside other living things. c. You need a microscope because they are so small. d. We call them micro-organisms or microbes. e. They often feed on decaying matter, such as dead animals or plants. f. We use it to make food: cheese, yoghurt and bread. g. Measles, mumps and salmonella. h. We can fight bad bacteria by washing our hands, cleaning our teeth, and storing and cooking food carefully. 2. Find words in the text that mean the following: a. with one cell b. places c. going bad d. special or unusual e. bad for you f. illness g. with fungus on it h. conserving unicellular environments decaying unique harmful disease mouldy storing

1. Make notes about the olive tree. Type of tree: evergreen Habitat: dry, rocky places Trunk: thick and twisted Bark: silver-grey Leaves: narrow, pointed, dark green Flowers: cream coloured, four petals Fruit: like a berry; green then black Seeds: one per olive, brown Uses: make olive oil, snacks 2. Investigate. Find out about the stone pine tree, and complete the information. Type of tree: conifer, evergreen Habitat: Portugal and the Mediterranean region Leaves: needles, pointed Flowers: cones Now write a short description of this tree. Model answer: The stone pines trunk is straight and widely forked above. Its bark is grey or red-brown. Its leaves are needles. They are pointed and grey-green. 3. Group work: roots. a. tubers; b. mosses; c. eucalyptus trees; d. old oak trees; e. water lilies; f. strawberry plants.

UNIT 3: INVERTEBRATES
1. Answer the questions. a. cnidarians; b. a sea worm; c. echinoderms; d. a sea urchin; e. an octopus; f. a lobster; g. insects, centipedes, and arachnids.

3. Complete the text about good bacteria. Some bacteria are harmful and others are helpful. The good bacteria can be found in food such as cheese, yoghurt and bread. Bacteria are used in the fermentation of milk in order to make cheese.

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2. Correct Doctor Aronnaxs classifications. a. No, they are cnidarians. b. No, they are echinoderms. c. No, they are arthropods. d. No, they are molluscs. e. No, they are arthropods. 3. Read the descriptions and write the name of the invertebrate. a. This arthropod has many pairs of legs along its body. centipede b. This worm is a parasite in humans, pigs and other animals. tapeworm c. This insect has two pairs of colourful wings. butterfly d. This insect has long legs and can jump very high. grasshopper 4. Guess the names. Open answers. Write short descriptions of three invertebrates. Give them to your partner to guess the answers. Use the descriptions in Activity 3 to help you. 5. Investigate. Open answers.

UNIT 5: NUTRITION
1. Are the sentences true or false? Write T (true) or F (false). True sentences: a, d, g, h. Corrected false sentences: b. When you are worried, your heart goes faster. c. The heart is a muscle. e. Smoking and drinking are bad for the heart. f. The heart is divided into two parts. i. The blood in the lungs absorbs oxygen. 2. Write three sentences in the correct order using first, next or finally. a. First, blood leaves the heart and goes to the lungs. Next, the blood absorbs oxygen and releases carbon dioxide. Finally, the blood goes back to the heart through the pulmonary veins. b. First, blood with oxygen from the lungs leaves the heart through the aorta. Next, the blood distributes nutritive substances and oxygen throughout the body. Finally, blood returns to the heart through the vena cava. 3. Experiment. Does lung capacity vary with breathing movements? a. Open answers. b. Model answer: It is biggest when I inhale deeply. It is smallest when I exhale. c. Write a report. Open answers.

UNIT 4: VERTEBRATES
1. Match the animals with their description. a. Ant: (6) a small busy insect that lives in colonies. b. Worm: (3) an invertebrate with a long, soft body. c. Puppy: (4) a young dog. d. Kitten: (5) a young cat. e. Chimpanzee: (2) a type of ape. f. Cub: (1) a young lion. 2. Read the text and tick the correct statements about why animals play. Correct statements: b, c, d, e. 3. Answer the questions. a. To develop strength and coordination. b. To learn how to hunt their prey. c. To develop survival techniques. d. They put the front part of their bodies on the floor and wag their tails. 4. Complete the sentences with and, but or because. a. Ants and worms probably do not play, but we cannot be sure. b. Children play to learn and improve their coordination. c. Lion cubs must fight because they have to kill in order to survive. d. Zebras must learn to escape because other animals want to kill them. e. Dogs like running after sticks and playing with other animals. 5. Investigate. Open answer.

UNIT 6: MATTER
1. Match the words with their definitions. a. 8; b. 5; c. 9; d. 1; e. 7; f. 2; g. 3; h. 6; i. 4. 2. Answer the questions a. Transparent cubic crystals. b. In food. c. Salt is also used to obtain chlorine, to remove snow and ice from roads, to soften water, to preserve food and to stabilise soil. d. Salt is obtained from two sources: rock salt and brine. e. Brine is collected into shallow ponds. Through solar evaporation the water evaporates and the salt remains. 3. Complete the text using these words. Brine is a mixture of salt and water. The salt is separated from the water by the process of evaporation. In hot countries, the Sun is used in this process. The brine is usually collected from the sea. It is left in small, shallow ponds for a period of time. The Sun acts on the brine and evaporation takes place. The water gradually disappears and soon only the salt remains. This salt contains some impurities, and it must be washed several times. The salt is made into piles which dry in the Sun for two to three months. Some salt is used in food, and other types of salt are used, for example, in the chemical industry.

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EXTENSION
UNIT 7: THE ATMOSPHERE
1. Answer the questions. a. They are made up of millions of tiny water droplets. b. Clouds form when water vapour rises into the atmosphere and cools down. c. He invented a way of classifying clouds. In 1803. d. There are ten types. e. Model answer. They look like pieces of cotton. 2. Complete the table.
Type of cloud low clouds medium clouds Distance from the ground 200 metres 2,000 7,000 metres 5,000 14,000 metres Composition water droplets mainly water droplets, can contain ice crystals ice crystals

UNIT 9: RIVERS
1. True (T) or false (F)? Correct the false sentences. True sentences: b, f, g, h. Corrected false sentences: a. The Nile is the longest river in the world. c. The Amazon basin is huge. d. It is possible for large ships to sail two-thirds of the way up the Amazon. e. The Amazon is wider in the flood season. 2. Complete the information about the Amazon. Continent: America Countries: Peru, Colombia, Brazil, Venezuela, Ecuador, Bolivia Length: 6,400 kilometres Number of tributaries: over 200 Source: Lago Villafro in the Andes mountains in Peru Mouth: Atlantic Ocean, Brazil Other information: it runs through rich tropical rainforests 3. Use the information in Activity 2 to write a paragraph about the Amazon. The Amazon is in America. It flows through Peru, Colombia, Brazil, Venezuela, Ecuador and Bolivia. It is 6,400 kilometres long. It has over 200 tributaries. Its source is Lago Villafro in the Andes mountains in Peru. Its mouth is in the Atlantic Ocean in Brazil. The Amazon runs through tropical rainforests which contain many different species. 4. Investigate. Open answers.

high clouds

3. Draw clouds. a. Which type of cloud do you think this is? Model answer: I think these clouds are cumulus clouds. b. Can you draw another cloud? Open answer. 4. Investigate. Open answer.

UNIT 8: THE LANDSCAPE


1. Complete the newspaper article. A new motorway will be built between the towns of Oldcastle in the Chevron Hills and the coastal town of Winbay. At the moment, travellers must use the old A47, a dangerous road, and the journey takes three hours. A tunnel will go through / under the mountains, and a new bridge will go across / over the River Wane. Several acres of forest will disappear as well as part of Caster Castle, an historic monument. Many people from / in Oldcastle and Winbay are in favour of the new motorway, but local ecology groups are against it. 2. Classify the landscape features. Landscape features
Man-made reservoir, road, tunnel, motorway hill, forest, river, valley Natural

UNIT 10: POPULATION


1. Answer the questions. a. In Madrid. b. He did not want to work in agriculture. c. In a telecommunications company. d. He misses his family. e. Good things: entertainment, services, people from different countries. Bad things: people hurry, noisy, expensive. f. He is not sure. Some people are starting to move from the cities to the country. 2. Make full sentences. a. Many villages in Spain are losing population. b. Young people are moving to the cities. c. (The) population in villages is getting older. d. Village life is more peaceful than life in the city. e. Population density is higher in (the) cities than in the country.

3. Answer the questions. Open answers. 4. Write a short letter to a newspaper in favour of or against the new motorway. Open answer.

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3. Write I agree. or I disagree. next to these sentences. If you disagree, explain why. Open answers. 4. Investigate. Open answers. 3. Complete the table.
Civilization Roman Carthaginian and Phoenician Discoveries remains of a villa or bath house fish hook and tools pots and jewellery

UNIT 11: THE ECONOMY


1. Match the columns. a. 3; b. 6; c. 5; d. 1; e. 4; f. 2. 2. Answer the questions. a. It provides a lot of jobs. b. It makes coming to Spain and travelling in Spain easy. c. They are going to cheaper countries with fewer tourists. d. They are half-empty. 3. Tick the jobs which belong to the tourist industry. Jobs which belong to the tourist industry: a. waitress, b. coach driver, d. tour guide, e. cleaner, h. cook. 4. Write descriptions of two jobs. Open answers: 5. Investigate. Open answers.

Iberian

4. Write a letter. Open answers.

UNIT 13: THE MIDDLE AGES


1. Find words in the text which mean the following: a. A nobleman: count. b. A machine for making books: printing press. c. Someone who writes books by hand: scribe. d. A type of paper made from animal skin: parchment. e. A university teacher: professor. f. A subject which is about religion: theology. g. A person who studies the meaning of life: philosopher. h. Someone who is very special in the eyes of the Church: saint. 2. Tick the true sentences. True sentences: c, f, g, i, j. Corrected false sentences: a. Thomas was born into a rich family. b. He was Italian. d. The books which Thomas studied were made by hand. e. Thomas studied in Italy, Germany and France. h. Thomas wrote his masterpiece in Latin. k. The feast of Saint Thomas Aquinas is on the date of publication of Summa Theologica. 3. Circle the best answer. a. 1; b. 2; c. 3; d. 2; e. 2; f. 3. 4. Write a biography. Open answers.

UNIT 12: PREHISTORY AND ANTIQUITY


1. Match the words and the definitions. a. 3; b. 4; c. 5; d. 1; e. 8; f. 2; g. 7; h. 6. 2. Answer the questions. a. She worked on a dig. b. When the government started to build a new road. c. The remains in the first layer are from a Roman villa or bath house. d. They are probably from the Phoenician or Carthaginian or Iberian civilisations. e. More remains of other civilizations. f. The government must protect this area.

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