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THE PERI PLUS OF THE ERYTHR^^AN SEA

Cornell University Library

The
tine

original of

tiiis

book

is in

Cornell University Library.

There are no known copyright

restrictions in
text.

the United States on the use of the

http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924030139236

THE PERIPLUS OF THE ERYTHR^AN SEA


TRAVEL AND TRADE IN THE INDIAN OCEAN BY A MERCHANT OF THE FIRST CENTURY

TRANSLATED FROM THE GREEK AND ANNOTATED


BY

WILFRED
Secretary of the

H.

SCHOFF,

a. m.

Commercial Museum, Philadelphia

LONGMANS, GREEN, AND


1912

CO,

FOURTH AVENUE & 30TH STREET, NEW YORK LONDON, BOMBAY AND CALCUTTA

'My1

. 1

COPYRIGHT 1912 BY THE COMMERCIAL MUSEUM PHILADELPHIA

'

TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION
3

DATE AND AUTHORSHIP OF THE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE PERIPLUS


NOTES

PERIPLUS

17 22
50

THE PERIPLUS OF THE ERYTHR^^N SEA

ARTICLES OF TRADE MENTIONED IN THE PERIPLUS.

284 289

ARTICLES SUBJECT TO DUTY

AT ALEXANDRIA

DATE OF THE PERIPLUS AS DETERMINED BY VARIOUS COMMENTATORS. RULERS MENTIONED IN THE PERIPLUS
.

.290
294
295

INDEX

MAP TO ILLUbTRATE THE

PERIPLUS

AT END OF BOOK

FOREWORD
The
Philadelphia

Museums came

into

existence

some

fifteen years

ago with the avowed purpose of aiding the manu-

facturer in taking a larger share in the world's

commerce.

They have

lost

no opportunity
all

in

presenting to the in-

quirer the trade conditions of

parts of the world.

More
work
of
of

than four years ago the


a graphic history of

Museums undertook
the

the

making

commerce from
present

the earliest

dawn

trade and barter

down

to

time.

The

author of this translation was entrusted with the study and


preparation of the exhibit, which in
its

early stages of developIt

ment was shown


and

at

the Jamestown exposition.

was

in the

preparation of this exhibit that attention was directed to the


Periplus,
its

interest

in the early history of

commerce
is

appreciated.

The

Periplus of the Erythrjean Sea

the

first

record of organized trading with the nations of the East, in


vessels built

and commanded by subjects

of the

Western world.

The

notes add great interest, giving as they do an exhaustive

survey of the international trade between the great empires of

Rome,
facts

Parthia, India

and China, together with

a collection of

touching the early trade of a number of other countries

of

much interest. The whole trade

of the of

world

is

every day coming more


supply.
to
its

and more under exact laws


history of

demand and
earliest

When

the

commerce from

its

dawn

present tre-

mendous

international proportions shall be carefully written,

the Periplus will furnish a most interesting part of such early


history,

and the Commercial

Museum will

not have to apologize


it

for rescuing this

work from obscurity and presenting

to the

general public.

W.
The
Philadelphia

P.

WILSON,

Sc.D.,
Director.

Museums

September, 1911

INTRODUCTION
The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea is one of those human documents, like the journals of Marco Polo and Columbus and Vespucci,
which express not only individual enterprise, but the awakening of a whole race toward new fields of geographical discovery and commercial

achievement.

It is

the

first

record of organized trading with the

nations of the East, in vessels built and

commanded by
a tide of

subjects of

Western World. which had set in one


the
of

It

marks the turning of

commerce

direction, without interruption,

from the dawn

history. For thousands of years before the emergence of the Greeks from savagery, or before the exploits of the Phoenicians in the Mediterranean and Atlantic, human culture and commerce had

centered in the countries bordering on the Persian Gulf;

in

Elam
is

and Babylonia, and


gold:

in the

whole land of Havilah, where there


is

and the gold of

that land

good;

there

is

bdellium and the

onyx stone." With the spread of culture in both directions, Egypt and the nations of Ancient India came into being, and a commercial
system was developed for the interchange of products within those
limits,

having

its

center of exchanges near the head of the Persian

Gulf.

The

peoples of that region, the various Arab tribes and more

especially those ancestors of the Phoenicians, the mysterious

Red Men,
civilization

were the

active carriers or intermediaries.

The

growth of

in India created

an active merchant marine, trading to the Euphrates and

Africa, and eastward

we know

not whither.

The Arab
Red

merchants,
but
that

apparently, tolerated the presence of Indian traders in Africa,

reserved for themselves the


lucrative

commerce

within the

Sea;

commerce which

supplied precious stones and spices and


service of the gods of Egypt.

incense to the ever-increasing

This
muslins

was

their prerogative, jealously guarded,

and upon

this

they lived and

prospered according to the prosperity of the Pharaohs.

The

and spices of India they fetched themselves or received from the Indian traders in their ports on either side of the Gulf of Aden; carrying them
in

turn over the highlands to the upper Nile, or through the

Red

Sea

and across the desert to Thebes or Memphis.


vals

In the rare inter-

when the eyes of Egypt were turned eastward, and voyages of commerce and conquest were despatched to the Eastern Ocean, the

officers of the
in the

Pharaohs found the treasures of

all its

shores gathered

nearest ports, and sought

no further

to

trace

them

to

their

sources.

As

the current of trade gradually flowed

beyond the Nile and

Euphrates to the peoples of the north, and their curiosity began to


trace the better things

toward their source

in India,

new

trade-routes

were gradually opened.

The

story of the

world for many centuries

was that of the struggles of the nations upon the Nile and Euphrates to win all the territory through which the new routes passed, and so
to prevent the northern barbarians
selves.
It

from trading with others than themthe Persian Gulf

was

early in

this

struggle that one branch of the people

known

as Phoenicians left their to

home on
win

and

settled

on the Mediterranean, there

in the

West commercial

glories

which competition

in

the East was beginning to deny them.

The

Greek

colonies, planted at the terminus of every trade-route, gained

for themselves a
until the

measure of commercial independence;

but never

overthrow of the East by the great Alexander was the control

of the great overland caravan-routes threatened by a western people,

and

his early death led to

no more than a readjustment

of conditions

as they

had always

existed.

Meantime the brethren


Arabia continued
to their

of the Phoenicians and their kinsfolk in

in control of the carrying trade of the East, subject

agreements and alliances with the merchants of India.


trade in gold and ivory, ostrich feathers and oil;

One

Arab kingdom
with
its

after another retained the great eastern coast of Africa,

the shores

of the Arabian Gulf produced an ever-rising value in frankincense

and myrrh;
spices

while the cloths and precious stones, the timbers and

particularly

cinnamon

brought

from India largely by Indian

the Nile and the Mediterranean.

and carried to Gerrha and OboUah, Palmyra and Petra, Sabbatha and Mariaba were all partners in this commercial system. The Egyptian nation in its later struggles made no effort to oppose or control it. The trade came and the price was paid. And
vessels,

were

redistributed at Socotra or Guardafui,

the infusion of

Greek energy

after

Alexander's day,

when

the Ptole-

mies had made Egypt once more mistress of the nations, led to nothing more than the conquest of a few outposts on the Red Sea

and

at

the head of the Gulf of

Aden

while the accounts of Agathar-

chides are sufficient proof of the opulence which

came

to

Southern
topog-

Arabia with the increase of prosperity


trade control

in Egypt.

Here, indeed, the

was more complete than ever;


in

for

changes

in the

raphy of India, the westward shifting of the Indus


ing of the harbors
the

delta, the shoal-

Cutch region, and the disorder incident

to

'

great invasions of Asiatic peoples, had sapped the vigor of the Indian
sea-trade.

But
rose and

in

Arabia

itself

there

were

struggles for the control of

all this

wealth and power, and in the days of the later Ptolemies kingdoms
fell

and passed

into

oblivion with bewildering frequency.

The

African coast was

left to its

own
tribe

people and to the remnants of maintained


itself itself at

the Indian trade, and one

Arab

the Straits,

while

"land of Cush," was building up the kingdom of Abyssinia, whose ambitions were bitterly opposed to the state which possessed its former home in the "Frankincense Country" of Arabia. It was at this juncture that the rule of the Ptolemies came to an end under Cleopatra, and the new ruler of the Western World, the Empire of Rome, came into possession of Egypt, and thus added to
its

defeated adversary, establishing

in

the old

its

control of the caravan-routes previously

won

Syria, that of a direct sea-route to the East,

in Asia Minor and by way of the Ptolemies'

outposts on the

Red

Sea.

The
one.

prize thus within reach of the

Roman
all

people was a rich


the Mediterranean

Successive conquests and spoliation of

peoples had brought to

and a taste was developed almost over-night. The public triumphs of the conquerors of Asia Minor and Syria glittered with new treasures, for which the people clamored. Money was plentiful and merchants flocked thither from all quarters. Within
for the precious things of the East

Rome

treasures as yet unexampled,

was moved But a wise decision of the Emperor from Alexandria to Rome. Augustus, only once departed from and that disastrously, limited the Roman dominion to the bank of the Euphrates; so that all this rich
a generation the center of exchanges of the Mediterranean

trade that flowed to


to

Rome

paid

its tolls

to the

Empire

of Parthia

and

the

Arab kingdoms, unless

Rome
all

could develop and control a

sea-borne trade to India.

Against such an enterprise

the energy and subtlety of the Arab

was

called into action.


in

No

information was allowed to reach the

merchants

Egypt, and every device the imagination could create

was

directed toward discouraging the least disturbance of the channels

of trade that had existed since

human memory

began.

And

in

an

unknown

ocean, with only the vaguest ideas of the sources of the


it

products they sought, and the routes that led to them,

might have
hostile

been many years before a


shores,
tion.
its

Roman
Axum,

vessel,

coasting

along

could reach the goal.

But accidents favored

Roman

ambi-

The new kingdom

at

smarting under the treatment of


alliance.

former neighbors

in Arabia,

was courting the Roman

The now

old trading-posts at Guardafui, formerly under Arab control, were


free,

through the quarrels of their overlords, and their markets


to

were open

who might

seek.

And

then a
to sea

Roman

subject,

perhaps

and carried in an open boat to India, whence he returned in a few months with a favorable wind and much information. Then Hippalus, a venturesome naviin the Abyssinian service,

was driven

whose name deserved as much honor in Roman annals as that Columbus in modern history, observed the periodic change of the Indian monsoon (doubtless long known to Arab and Hindu), and boldly setting sail at the proper season made a successful trading voyage and returned with a cargo of all those things for which Rome was paying so generously: gems and pearls, ebony and sandalwood,
gator
of

balms and

spices, but especially pepper.

The
that

old channels of trade

were paralleled but not conquered;

so strong

was the age-long unwas


still

derstanding between Arab and Hindu,

cinnamon, which had


found

made
their

the fortune of traders to Egypt in earlier times,


at

by the Romans only

Guardafui and was scrupulously kept from


it

knowledge

in the

markets of India, where

was gathered and

distributed;

while the leaf of the same tree producing that precious

bark was freely offered to the

Malabar

coast,

Roman merchants throughout the and as malabathrum formed the basis of one of their
this entry of

most valued ointments.


Great shiftings of national power followed
shipping into the Indian. Ocean.

Roman

One
hands.
its

by one Petra and Gerrha,


sapped by the diversion of

Palmyra and Parthia

itself,

their revenues

accustomed
in

trade, fell into


fell

Roman

The

Homei-ite

Kingdom
and some
old

South Arabia
its

upon hard

times,

capital into ruin,

of

best
to

men

migrated northward and as the Ghassanids


Abyssinia flourished in proportion as
its

neck

Rome.

bowed the enemy

declined.
later events

If this state of things

had continued, the whole course of

might have been changed. Islam might never have appeared, and a greater Rome might have left its system of law and government

from the Thames


strong.

to the

Ganges.

But the logic of history was too


fell to

Gradually the treasure that

the

Roman arms was

exin

pended
civil

in suppressing insurrections in the


at

conquered provinces,

wars

home, and

in a constant drain of specie to the east in

settlement of adverse trade balances;

and menacing
tion

a drain which was very real which made no notable advance in producor industry by means of which new wealth could be created. As
to a nation

the resources of the


to Constantinople.

West diminished The trade-routes

the center of exchange shifted

leading to that center were the


revivified

old routes through Mesopotamia,

where a

power under the

Sassanids

was

able

to

conquer every passage

to the East, including

which had not yielded submission to Hammurabi or Esarhaddon, Nebuchadrezzar or Darius the Great. Egypt, no longer in the highway of commerce, became a mere granary for
even the proud Arab
states

Constantinople,
east of the

and Abyssinia, driven from

its

hard-won footholds
effective

Red

Sea, could offer the Byzantine

emperors no

aid in checking the revival of Eastern power.


activity let loose

And

the whirlwind of

by

Mohammed welded

the Eastern

World as no

force

had yet done, and brought the West for another millennium to its feet. Not until the coming of those vast changes in industry and

which marked the nineteenth century did the Western which the East stood in need, and laying them down in Eastern markets on their own terms, turn back the channels of trade from their ancient direction.
transportation

nations find commodities of

The
endeavor;

records of the pioneers,

who

strove during the ages to stem


in the story of

this irresistible current, are of

enduring interest
all,

human
is

and among them


the

Periplm of

Erythraan Sea

one of the most fascinating


plain

this

this

and painstaking log of a


steered his vessel into the
first

Greek

in Egypt, a

Roman

subject,

who

waters of the great ocean and brought back the


the imports and exports of
its

detailed record of
alli-

markets, and of the conditions and

ances of

its

peoples.

It is

the only record for centuries that speaks


in
its

with authority on
briefly lighted

this trade

entirety,

and the gloom which

it

was not lifted until the wider activities of Islam broke the time-honored custom of Arab secrecy in trading, and by grafting Arab discovery on Greek theory, laid the foundations of modern geNot Strabo or Pliny or Ptolemy, however great the store of ography.
knowledge they gathered together, can equal in human unknown merchant who wrote merely of the things he
the peoples he
so
little

interest this

dealt in
still

and

met

those peoples of whom our


it

civilization

knows

and

to

whom

owes

so

much; who brought

to the restless

West

the surplus from the ordered and industrious East, and in so

doing ruled the waters of the "Erythraean Sea."

THE DATE AND AUTHORSHIP OF THE


The
do not enable us
to fix either date or authorship.

PERIPLUS
London
Heidelberg

manuscript copies of the Periplus at Heidelberg and

The

manuscript attributes the work to Arrian, apparently because in that manuscript this Periplus follows a report of a voyage around the Black

Sea made by the historian Arrian,


about 131 A.

who was

governor of Cappadocia

D.

This

is

manifestly a mistake, and the

London

manuscript does not contain that reference.

'

The
Periplus

only guidance to date or authorship must be found in the

itself.

Hippalus' discovery of the sea-route to India, described in 57,


is

fixed by Vincent at about

47 A. D.

Vincent reasons from Pliny's account (VI, 24) of the accidental


journey of a freedman of Annius Plocamus
the Treasury the revenues arising

who had farmed from


Sea.

from the Red

This freedman

was carried away by a gale and in fifteen days drifted to Ceylon, where he was hospitably received and after a stay of six months returned home; after which the Ceylonese kings sent an embassy to Rome.
Pliny says that this occurred during the reign of

Emperor

Claudius,

which began

in the year 41.


after.

The
first

discovery of Hippalus must have


is,

come very soon

(The

question suggested by this story

what the freedman was doing outside the Straits of Bab-el-Mandeb As to this and from whom Annius Plocamus farmed the revenues. Can it have been the friendly Abyssinians, or were the Pliny is silent.

Greek

colonies in Arabia

still

in existence.?)

The

discovery of Hippalus, described in 57, seems to have oc-

curred not long before the author of the Periplus

made

his voyage.

He

evidently feels a deep respect for the discoverer, and goes


' '

on to

say that

from

that time until

now

' '

voyages could be made directly


Hippalus,
suggesting that

across the ocean by the

monsoon.

Pliny has but a passing reference to

between 73 and 77 A. D. when he was writing, the memory of the discoverer had faded somewhat from view.

Assuming 50 A. D.
side.

as a date earlier than

which

this

Periplus

can not have been written, In 38

we must

look next for a limit on the other

is

mentioned

the sea-coast of Scythia"

around the

mouth was

of the Indus, and the metropoHs of Scythia, Minnagara, subject to Parthian princes at
is

which

war among themselves."


Minnagara, which, as indicated
for
'city of the invaders."

In 41

mentioned another

city

in the notes,

is is

simply the Hindu

name

In 47
Bactrians.
'

mentioned the "very war-like inland nation of the

As
Saka
chi,

explained in the notes, the Scythians of the Periplus are the

who had been driven from Eastern Turkestan by the Yuehand overran Beluchistan, the lower Indus valley, and adjacent
tribe,
itself.

parts of the coast of India

They

submitted to the Parthian

which they formed an important part. Their southern extension under Sandares, the ruler mentioned in 52, indicates a growing pressure from the Kushan kingdom on the north, but prior

Kingdom,

of

to the conquest of this

whole country by the Kushans, which occurred

soon after 95 A. D.
tribe of

The "war-hke

nation of the Bactrians"


to China,

is

the

Yueh-chi or Kushans, formerly subject

who,

after

being driven westward by the Huns, overran the Greek kingdom of


Bactria and set up there a powerful

kingdom which,

early in the second

century A. D.

conquered most of northern India.

The conditions in
its

the text indicate a time before this nation had


in the valleys of the

commenced

conquests

Indus and Ganges, and probably before the great

defeat of

its

king Kadphises by the Chinese general Panchao near

in 90 A. D. A defeat of this magnitude must certainly have been reported throughout India and would not have

Khotan, which occurred

led our author to refer to the nation as


arrive at

very warlike."

Thus we

two

dates,

90 and 95 A. D.,

later

than which

this Periplus

can not have been written.


In 4 and 5 our author mentions the city of the Axumites, and
the territory, coast and inland, ruled over by Zoscales;
Salt identified

whom Henry
in the

with the

name

Za Hakale"

found by him

Tarik Negus/! or Chronicles of the kings of Abyssinia.


of this
years,

The

duration

Za

Hakale' s reign, according to the Chronicle, was thirteen


his dates Salt fixes at

and

76 to 89 A. D.

following a note in

the Chronicle that the birth of Christ took place in the eighth year of

one of
kale.

Za

Hakale' s predecessors, Zabaesi Bazen.

The

date of the

accession of this Zabaesi Bazen was 84 years prior to that of


Salt's identification of the

Za Ha-

name

is

probably correct, but the

dates as they stand in the Chronicles

were written some centuries

after the events, and can hardly be accepted as safe authority in the

absence of other evidence.


given as lasting

The

fact that nearly all the reigns are


else as so

an even number of years, or

many

years and

six months, shows that the chroniclers were only estimating the time. Salt himself was obliged to rearrange their chronology in order to fit
it

to

known

facts,

and

it

is

quite possible that his rearrangement has

slipped in a whole reign before that of

Za

Hakale.

Obviously

Salt's
dis-

names

are worth

more than

his dates.

South Arabian inscriptions

covered by Glaser indicate the separation of Axum from its mother-land, the Habash or Ethiopia of South Arabia, not long before the date of

and the fact that there is no mention of Axum in any work earlier than the Periplus, and not even in Pliny, suggests the same conclusion namely, that the Abyssinian Chronicles are unreliathe Periplus;
;

able, at

any

rate in their earlier portions.

They count as
is

independent

kings a

number
;

of rulers

who must

have been subject to the Arabian


uncertain, and their

mother-land

the order of events they relate

dates are merely approximations.

10

Even

if

the dates in the Chronicle, and

Salt' s identification

of

Zoscales with

Za Hakale were
to

strictly correct,

the date generally ac-

cepted for the birth of Christ, 5 B.


accession

C,

would bring Za Hakale'


is

down
all

Nearly
Pliny'
s

71 A. D. and his death to 84. the commentators think that the Periplus
is

earlier than

Natural History, which

known

to

have been published beis

tween 73 and 77 A. D.
Periplus;
sixth
but,

The

principal indication

their similarity in

the description of Arabia Felix,

where Pliny seems

to

condense the

on the other hand, there are many statements in Pliny's book which describe facts in disagreement with, and probably

Of course Pliny was a compiler and copyand usually not very discriminating, and he may have chosen to follow the Periplus only where it did not contradict the earlier accounts of King Juba II of Mauretania, for whose knowledge he repeatedly exearlier than, the Periplus.
ist,

pressed respect.

Pliny has

much more

information about

appears in the Periplus, but he does not mention


the African coast at the

Meroe than Axum. He ends

Atlantic Sea begins there.

Promontory of Mosyllum and says that the In this he follows King Juba; but had he

known
Felix,
in

the Periplus he ought to have included the African coast as far

as Zanzibar.

He

has an account of Mariaba, the royal city of Arabia


not.

which the Periplus has


,

He

quotes Aelius Gallus, writing

24 B. C.

as stating that the Sabaeans are the richest tribe in south-

ern Arabia.
ites,

The

Periplus,

however, has them subject to the Homer-

who One

receive only passing mention from Aelius Gallus.


is

tempted

to

imagine that Pliny' s account of the voyage to


time,
'

India (VI, 26) in which he refers to "information on which reliance

may be
plus,

placed, here published for the

first

'

refers to the Peri-

then existing merely as a merchant's diary; and Glaser has based


of his

much
age;

argument

as to the authorship of the Periplus

on

that pass-

but Pliny goes on to describe a voyage different in


that of the Periplus,

many ways

from

and giving

quite a different

account of the

coast of India.

At

the time Pliny wrote, the sea-route to India had

been opened for nearly

thirty years, and he might have had this information from any sea-captain, as indeed he might have had the facts

concerning Arabia Felix which seem to be in such close agreement with the Periplus. The argument that Pliny, whose work was dedicated in 77 A. D., borrowed from the Periplus
is,

then, suggestive

and

even plausible, but by no means conclusive.

Returning to 41, the reference to the anarchy in the Indo-Parthian or Saka region does not suggest the consolidated

power

of that

King

of

Kathiawar and Ujjain

who founded

the so-called Saka era

of 78 A.

D.

indicating for the Periplus a date earlier than that era.

s
'

11

Mention of the

land of This'

'

in 64,

is

helpful.

This seems

evidently to be the state of Ts'in in northwest China, at the date of the Periplus the most powerful of the states of China, and actively en-

gaged

in

pushing Chinese boundaries and influence westward across

Turkestan.

The
'

capital city

is

supposed to be the modern Singanfu.

The

text says that


'

"silk

is

brought overland from that country to

Bactria and India,

but that

few

men come from there and

seldom.

'

This suggests a time when the trade-routes across Turkestan were still in turmoil and before the conquests of the Chinese general Panchao. The route north of the desert of Turkestan was finally opened by him
in

94 A. D., while the route south of the desert was opened


73 A. D.
,

as early

as

indicating that the Periplus


is

must be fixed before

that date.

In 19

Fabricius has pointed out, this

mentioned Malichas, king of the Nabataeans. As is one of the most important indica-

tions of date contained in the text. Josephus in his Wars of the Jews mentions a Malchus, king of Arabia, under which name he always refers to the Nabataean kingdom, as having assisted Titus in

which he destroyed in the year 70 and Vogiie in his Syrie Centrale, Semitic Inscriptions, p. 107, confirms that a Nabataean king Aretas (Hareth), contemporary with the Emperors Tiberius and Caligula, had a son Malik, or Malchus III, who reigned about 40 to 70 It was a sister of this Malchus who married Herod Antipas, A. D. tetrarch of Galilee, and was abandoned by Herod for his brother Philip'
his expedition against Jerusalem,

A.

D.

{^Bell.

Jud.,

Ill,

4,

2)

wife, Herodias,

mother of Salome.

(Josephus, Ant. Jud. XVIII, 8).

This

action of

Aretas,

Herod brought him to war with his father-in-law, and doubtless explains to some extent the policy of Malichas

in assisting

Rome

against Judea.

This must have been the same as


It is fair to infer that if

the Malichas of the text, and his action against Jerusalem must have

been near the end of


had been written

his reign.

the Periplus

after that expedition,

Malichas also would have been

23, a 'friend of the Emperor," and therewas written before Titus' campaign of the year 70. In 23 and 27 we have the names of Charibael, king of the two tribes, the Homerites and the Sabaites, and of Eleazus, king of It was the opinion of Glaser, based on the Frankincense Country. inscriptions discovered by him in South Arabia, that both these names were titles rather than personal names, and that they were borne by sevHis incription No. 1619 eral rulers during the first century A. D. mentions a king Eleazus who was ruler in 29 A. D., and a king ChaThe mention of ribael whose reign was from -bout 40 to 70 A. D. Charibael as "a friend of the Emperors" might answer for a date
called, like Charibael in

fore that the Periplus

12

under Vespasian after the succession of short reigns that followed Nero; but the years of turmoil throughout the Roman Empire, for several years after the death of

Nero, were not years of prosperous trade

such as the Periplus describes.


in the reign of

This reference

indicates

a date early

Nero, before the

memory

of his predecessor Claudius

had faded; roughly, any time between 54 and 60 A. D.


In 23
is

a reference to the recent destruction of Arabia

Ludae-

mon.

Our

present knowledge of Arabian history does not give us


to the destruction of this

any positive date for the war leading


port, but the

Sabaean

inscriptions discovered

and commented on by Glaser


first

point to a time after the middle of the

century.

In 2 our author mentions the city of A-Ieroe.

This

capital

of

the Nubian

kingdom was

severely treated by the

Romans soon

after

their occupation of Egypt.

The Nubian queen Candace had

attacked

Egj'pt;
lated

and an expedition sent out against her under Petronius annihiher army and destroyed many of her cities, including that of

This was in B. C. 22. Nubia retained considerable power


Napata.
A.

That another queen Candace


in the first half of the first

of

century

D.

is

shown
left

in

Acts VIII,

27.

After

this,

Pliny relates, the

savage tribes of the neighboring deserts

came down and plundered


that an expedition of in-

what was
quiry

of the

Nubian Kingdom, so

sent by

the emperor

Nero

(Pliny,

VI,

35)

contemplating a campaign in the South, ventured as far as

when he was Meroe

and reported that they had met with nothing but deserts on their routes;
that the buildings in
still

ruled over by a queen


to

from queen
Periplus.

Meroe itself were but few in number and were named Candace, that name having passed queen for many years. This state of things can be
D.
It
is

fixed at about 67 A.

obviously later than the account in the

Very soon
as the

after Pliny' s time

Meroe must have been

destroyed,

name does not appear


suggestive fact
is

again for several centuries.

A
in trade

that the Periplus tells only of the great increase

with India, and has no mention of a cessation or decline of that trade consequent upon the burning of Rome, July 19-25 in the year
64.

Ten
loss

out of the

fourteen districts of the city were destroyed.


fire

The

was not equalized;

insurance did not

exist.

It is

true

that this great calamity hardly receives mention in Pliny's work.


refers to the baseless story of

He
in

Nero's having started the


of buildings, temples

fire,

and

and the like, always with some reticence. In many places, however, once in so many words, he mentions the crisis through which Rome passed in the later years of Nero and his short-lived successors, and of the "rest

several passages to the destruction

13

brought

by the strong hand of Vespasian. commercial nature, written far from Rome but relating to a commerce whose sudden expansion was due entirely to Roman demand, some mention of the trade depression that must have
t"'

an exhausted empire
distinctly of a

'

But in a work

followed such a destruction of capital and the ensuing political disorder,


tion
c.

would have been most probable. The facts of this conflagraits effects upon trade are thought to be stated in Revelation, XVIII, and, notwithstanding the different point of view of the
and of

writer of that book, the circumstances he describes are of importance


here.

for her,

And the kings of when they shall

the earth
see the

shall

bewail her, and lament

the merchants of the earth shall

smoke of her burning, weep and mourn over her;


and of
all

and
for

no

man
and

buyeth their merchandise any more: the merchandise of gold,


silver,

and precious
silk,

stones,

pearls,

and

line

linen,
all

and

purple, and

and and

scarlet,
all

and

sweet wood, and

vessels of ivory,

manner

vessels of

manner most precious wood, and


oil,

of brass, and iron, and marble, and cinnamon, and odours, and oint-

ments,

and frankincense, and wine, and

and

fine

flour,

and

wheat, and beasts, and sheep, and horses, and chariots, and slaves,

The merchants of these things, which and souls of men were made rich by her, shall stand afar off for the fear of her torment, weeping and wailing, and saying, Alas, alas, that great city, that was clothed in fine linen, and purple, and scarlet, and decked For in one hour so great with gold, and precious stones, and pearls
!

....

riches

is

come

to nought.

And
and
as

every shipmaster, and

all

the

com-

pany

in ships,

and

sailors,

many

as trade

by

sea, stood afar off,

and cried when they saw the smoke of her burning, saying. What And they cast dust on their heads city is like unto this great city! and cried, weeping and wailing, saying, Alas, alas, that great city, wherein were made rich all that had ships in the sea by reason of her
costliness!

....

For thy merchants were the great men of the

earth."

Now

our author was one of those same shipmasters trading by


is no suggestion of standing afar off, would probably have appeared if he were

sea; but in his account there

weeping and wailing, such

as

writing after that great disaster.

Following the discovery of Hippalus there seems to have been a

sudden and enormous increase


ticularly
in

in the

the

importation of Indian products.


larger ships
'
'

10, refers

to the

Roman trade with India, and parThe Periplus, in now needed for the cinnamon trade.
of
luxuries,

This

increase,

particularly in

the importation

can be

14

ascribed to the fashion of extravagance set by Nero's court, during the

ascendancy of his favorite Sabina Poppasa,

whose influence

lasted

from 58

until

her death in 65 A. D.

Pliny's reference to the enor-

mous

quantity of spices used at Poppaea's funeral (XII, 41) indicates


stat-

such an increased trade; which he further confirms (VI, 26) by


ing that specie amounting to about i>22, 000, 000 per year
to
vi'as

required
at

balance the trade, and that these Indian imports sold in


their cost.
little

Rome

one hundred times


in

Pliny's figures are untrustworthy, as

XII, 41, he estimates a

over

^$4,

000, 000 as the balance of

specie required for the entire trade with India,

Arabia and China;


less evident.

but a sudden increase in

commerce

is

none the

The
coasts of

absence of any description in the Periplus of trade with the


the Persian Gulf, then subject to Parthia, suggests that
at a
it

was written
at the

time

when Rome and


even
of

Parthia

were

at

war.

Our
stop

author's descriptions,

the
its

southern coast of Arabia,

Frankincense Country and

dependency, the island of Masira;


him.

and he explains that the coast beyond the islands of Kuria Muria was
"subject to Persia"

and thus closed


i^Sixth

to

According to the

account given by Rawlinson,


as to the

Monarchy-,

Armenian succession
civil

led

Rome
the

to

XVI,) conflicting claims make war on Parthia in

55 A. D., the second year of Nero's reign.

The

Parthians, at the
in their

time occupied with

war

in

South (possibly even

newly-acquired South Arabian possessions), gave hostages and aband-

oned
58,

their

Armenian pretensions; which, however, they

reasserted in

when war broke out anew. Hostilities continued in a desultory way until 62, when the two powers agreed upon a mutual evacuation of
Armenia and a settlement of the dispute by a Parthian embassy which was to visit Rome. This truce occurred in the summer of 62. The embassy made its visit in the autumn and returned without a treaty. The truce was broken the same winter by a Roman invasion of Armenia, which was repulsed and the truce renewed. A second
Parthian embassy to

Rome

in the spring of

63

settled the

matter by

placing a Parthian prince on the


to

receive investiture

Armenian throne and requiring him from the Roman Emperor. This ceremony
in

occurred in 65 A. D.
Hostilities

between the two countries certainly ceased

the

winter of 62 and probably, as far as commercial interests were concerned,


in

the

summer
at

of

that

year.

Therefore, the date of the


it

Periplus, or at

any

rate the date of the

voyage on which

was based,

can probably be fixed


than the

not later than the

summer

of 62 and not earlier

summer

of 58.

The

possibilities are rather in favor of the

second or third year of

"

15

the renewed Roman-Parthian war,

when

the Parthian

power had

fully

recovered from the disorders in the South.

The
Periplus

nearest single year that suggests


therefore, 60 A.

itself

as the date of tiie

is,

D.

As

to the authorship,
first

it

is

best to admit that nothing


it

is

known.

Fabricius in his

edition of the Periplus attributed

to

an Alex-

andrian merchant

named

Arrian, but other editions,

and Fabricius'

own

second edition, remove the name altogether.


Glaser, in an article published in Aiisland, 1891, pp. 45-46, pre-

that seems too tempting to be true. He assumes book of Pliny quotes from the Periplus; that the heretofore unpublished account," which Pliny mentions, was that of our author; that his work could have been quoted in no other book of Pliny, and therefore that by comparison of the indices of authorities

sents an

argument

that the sixth

sixth

which Pliny puts at the end of each book, any name appearing in the book only would be the name of our author. By such means Glaser arrives at the name Basilis, and in all his references to the
Periplus after the date of that article, he
is

careful to cite

Basilis,

author of the Periplus, 56 to 67 A.

D."

But Pliny himself

in that

same book (VI, 35) refers to Basilis as the author of an account of Meroe and the upper Nile, apparently considerably earlier than the expedition of Petronius against Nubia in 24 to 22 B. C. and a work on India, alsb by Basilis, is quoted by Agatharchides {Jp. Phot. p. 454 b. 34, ed. Bekker), whose work on the Erythraean Sea was written about 113 B. C. a century and a half before the Periplus. It
; ,

seems whose

to be this

same

Basilis, rather

than a

later writer of like

name,

Indica

is

quoted by Athenaeus

(^Deipnos.

IX, 390, b),

who

wrote about 230 A. D.


Basilis of Pliny's text
is

Unless, therefore, Glaser assumes that the


a different

man from

the Basilis of his index,

his

argument

falls.

refrain

too, a man of Pliny's standing would have been apt to from mentioning by name a writer with no literary reputation in Roman society. His index would omit an obscure sea-captain, just

Then,

as his text omits him, referring

merely to

information on which
letters

reli-

ance can be placed."


imperial

For the aristocracy of


the writer of the

was very

real in

Rome, and

Periplus

did not

"belo^^.

The

possibility that Pliny

may have

used his account does not imply


s

^he use of his name.

Altogether, Glaser'

argument
a

is

more

ingeni-

ous than probable.

That the author was an Egyptian Greek, and

merchant

in active

16

trade
itself;

who
that

personally

made

the voyage to India,

is

e\ident by the text


is

he

lived in Berenice rather than Alexandria

indicated by

the absence of

any account of the journey up the Nile and across

the desert from Coptos, v\hich Strabo and Pliny describe at length.
It is

possible that he
is

made

the voyage from

Cape Guardafui

to

Zanto

zibar, but the text

so vague and uncertain that he


else, unless

seems rather

be quoting from someone

indeed

much

of this part of the

work has been


and Beluchistan
to

lost in

copying.

The

coast of

Arabia east of the

Frankincense Country, the entire Persian Gulf and the coasts of Persia
as far as the

Indus

river,

seem

to

have been

him only by

hearsay.

They were

subject to Parthia, an

known enemy of

Rome. That he was not a highly educated man is evident from his frequent confusion of Greek and Latin words and his clumsy and sometimes ungrammatical constructions. The value of his work consists,
not in
its

literary merits,

but in

its

trustworthy account of the trade of


its

the Indian
ing

Ocean and

of the settlements around

shores;

concernan
intel-

which,

until his time,

we

possess almost nothing of

ligent

and comprehensive nature.

17

BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE PERIPLUS


CoDKX
Pal. Gr-c.
,

398.

parchment of the Tenth Century,


It

in

the Library of

the

Uni\'ersity of Heidelberg.

Rome

during the Thirty Years

War, and
in

to

was taken to Paris under Na-

poleon; and was restored to Heidelberg

1816.
titles,

This manuscript contains twenty


first six
I.

different

of

which the

are as follows;

Argumentum

a Leone AUatio. (Allazi, who packed and shipped the Heidelberg Library to Rome.)

II.

Fragmentum
Euxino.

dc

Palude

Maeotide et

de

Ponto

III.

Arrianus de ver.atione.

IV
V.
VI.

Ejusdem

epistola ad

Trajanum qua

periplus

Ponti

Euxini continetu.".

Ejusdem Periplus Maris Rubri. Hannonis periplus.

Manuscript
of
it

19,391.

parchment, supposed to be of the Four-

teenth or Fifteenth Century, in the British


is

Museum.

portion

supposed to have come from the monastery of

Mount

Such matter as it contains in common with the Heidelberg manuscript seems to have been copied therefrom, or from a
Athos.

common

original.
is

In this the Periplus

anonymous.

Arriani et Hannonis Periplus; Plutarchus de fluminibus et MONTiBUs: Strabonis epitome. Froben. Basilea Anno AIDXXXIII. Sigismundus Geknius Amelmo Ephorino Medico S.
of

This first printed text, corrupt and full of errors due to lack knowledge of the subject, served nevertheless for three cen.

turies as the basis of later editions,

because of the disappearance

of the Heidelberg manuscript.

Oelle Navigationi et Viagci raccolta da Gio. Batt. Ramusio.


In
J nctia, nella

Stamperia dc Giunti,

MDLXXXFIII.
di
Gio.

Vol.

1,

pp.

281-283a has

Discorso

Battista

Ramar

musio., sopra

la navigatione del

Alar
283a

Rosio, jino all' India

Orientalt

scritta

per

Arriano and
lie

p.

begins

Navigatione

del

Rosso Jino

Indie Orientali scritta per Arriano in

Lingua Greca, 5'

di quclla poi Trade tta nella Italiana.

There were

editions of

Ramusio' s Collection

at

Venice

in

1550, 1554, 1563 and 1588.

18

ArRIANI HISTORICI ET PHILOSOPHI PoNTI EUXINI & MaRIS ErYTHRjII Periplus, ad Adrianum C^SARE.m. Nunc primum e Graco
sermone in Latinum versus, plurimusque mendis rcpurgatus.
lielmo
Jo.

Gvi-

Stvckio Tigvrino avthore.

Genevce,

apvd Evstathivm

I'lgnon,

1577.

This

text

is

based on that of Gelenius, with few material

emendations.

Arriam Ars Tactica,


etc.
,

Acies contra Alanos, Peripu s Ponti EixiM, Periplus Maris Erythr^ei, Liber de Venatione,
etc.

Cum
text
is

Interpretihus Latinis, is

Kotis.

Ex

Recensions

tif

illiiserj.

Kicolai Blancardi, Amstelodami, Janssonio-Jl acsbcrirn, 1683.

This

professedly based on that of Stuck.

Geographic Veteris Scriptores GRiECi


pretatione

AIixores.

Cu7n InterOxonia:.

Latina, Dissertationibus , ac Annotationibus.


Sheldoniano,

Theatro
sonus.

MDCXCVIll.
as
its fifth title,
.

Praestitit
)

Joannes Hud-

Dissertationes Henrici Dodwelli.

This contains

Periplus Alaris Erythnei eidcni


Stuckio

Interpi-ete Jo. Gutlielmo { A mono ) vulgo adscriptus The text is based on Gelenius and Stuck.

Ttgunno.

Syiloges ion ex Epitomei tois palai Geographethenton


ckdothenton philotimoi dapanei ton ex
ph'on

typois

loannmbn philogenestaion adel-

Hcilenon.

ZosiMlADON charin ton t'es HelUnikh paideias cphiemcnon En Btennet tes Austrias ek tes Schraimblikes Typographias,
contains,
pp.

1807.
It

295-333

Arrianou

Periplous

tes

Erythras

Thalassh, with notes translated from Hudson.

Flavii

Arriam

Nicomediensis

Opera Greece ad

optimas cditiones

collata.

Studio August! Christiani Borheck.

Lcmgovicc, Ahycr, 1809.


t'es

This contains, pp.


Thalasscs.

91-121, Arrianou Periplous

Erythras

The

text

is

from Hudson.
Sea.
Part the
first,

The

Periplus OF THE

Erythrean
With

containing:

An
to

Account of the Navigation of the Ancients, from the Sea of Suez

the Coast

of Zanguebar.

Dissertations.

By

AX'illiam

Vin-

cent.

London:

Cadell, Jun., Is Davies, 1800-

The Commerce and Navigation


Ocean.
I

By William

I incent,

of the Axcjen'is in the Indian D.D., Dean of IVestminster. In

two volumes.
Part the
Ancients
first

London:
Vol.

Cadell
II,

Davies, 1807.
rjf

NoX.

I,

The
Sea.
ihe

oyage of Nearchus.

The Periplus

the

Ery threat}

containing,
the Sea

A/i Account of the


to

Navigation
'/.angucbar.
,/;;

of

from

of Suez

the coast

oj

With
the

Dissertations.

Part the second

containing,

Account oJ

19

Navigation of the Ancients from the Gulph of Elana, in


Sea, to the Island

the

Red
and

of Ceylon.
beautiful volumes, presenting the

These two

Greek

text

English translation in parallel columns, preceded by dissertations


that denote exhaustive geographical

and

historical research, are

still

of deep interest and importance to the student of the Periplus.

The
II,

text

is

that of Blancard

His edition

was obliged

to adopt, because I could obtain

no other

to use as copy.

"

(Vol.

part II, preface, p. xi).

Vincent's textual emendations are

generally less useful than his geographical and commercial notes,

which are
were,
ject.

still,

in large part, illuminating


first

and trustworthy, and

when

written, the

intelligent presentation of the sub-

The Voyage
1809.

of Nearchus and the Periplus of the Erythrean Sea (ascribed to Arrian), translated by W. Vincent, Oxford,

Untersuchungex ueber
Altona,

einzeln'e

Gegenstaende der alten GeG.

schichte, Geographie, und Chronologie.

G.

Bredow,

Hammerkh, 1S02.
Periplus, translated into

This includes Vincent's


pp. 715-797.

German,

SaMMLUNG KLEINER SCHRIFTEN


Reichard, 1836.

AUS IJEM GeBIETE DER

MATHEMAGiins,

tischen und altex Geographie.

C. G. Reichard.

This includes \'incent's work,

pp. .374-425 and 438-496.

Arriano Opuscoli, tradotti da


S.

\ari.

Milano, Sonxogm, 1826-7,

Blandi.

Des Pseudo-Arrians Umschiffung des Erythraeischen Meeres


die Ersten

neun Kapitel vollstHndig,

die iibrigen
iiber die

im Auszugc.

Vcbcr-

set%t

von Streubel in Jahres-Bericht


fiir

Stralauer hohere Biirgcr-

Schule

das Schuljahr von Michaelis 1860 bis Michaelis 1861,

womit
1861.

einladet C.

Hartung.

Berlin,

Druck von

Hickethier,

This

partial translation
is

is

based on the texts of Stuck, Hudvalue.

son and Borheck, and

of

little

Arriani Alexandrini Periplus Maris Erythr^ei.


brevi annotatione instruxit B. Fabricius.
schalcki,

Recensuit

et

Dresda:, in commissts Gott-

MDCCCXLIX.

20

Geographi
tatione,

GR-ffiCl

MiNORES.

codicihus recognovit, prolegomenis,


incisis

anno-

mdicibusque instruxit, tabulis ari


Parisiis, Didot,

illustravit

Carolus

Mullerus. Vol.
I,

MDCCCLV.

pp.

Erythnci^ and pp.

xcvCXI has Prolegomena Anonymi Periplus Mark 257305 Anonymi ( Arriani, ut fertur) Periplus
being the eighth
title

Maris
the
titles

Erythrcci,

included in that volume.

Vol. Ill contains four maps, xi-xiv, especially


Periplus,

drawn to illustrate and four more, vi viii and xv, drawn for other
is

but presenting details that further elucidate this work.

This edition
cation only in

a vast

improvement over

all its

predecessors,

presenting a text which

is still

the standard, admitting of modifi-

minor

details.

The Greek text,

carefully corrected

from the Heidelberg manuscript, and


proved,
notes,
is

critically revised

and im7'he

presented side by side with a Latin translation.

which

are in Latin, reflect almost everything of importance

to the subject

which had been written up


of the

to that time.

The Commerce and Navigation


J.

Erythr^an

Sea.

By

IF. McCrindle,

M.A., LL.D.,

Calcutta, 1879.

This volume

contains

R/Ei

Maris,

a translation (with commentary) of the Periplus by an unknoivn writer of the first Christian

Erythcentury,

and of

Indika of Arrian. The translation of the Periplus was also printed in the Indian Antiquary of Bombay, \o\. VIII, pp. 108-15L This excellent translation, while based professedly on Miilthe second part

of

the

ler's

text,

is

often reminiscent rather of

X^incent's,

and thus

repeats various errors

which

Miiller'

notes had corrected.

The notes are valuable for the original material they contain concerning Hindu names, places and commodities, but show
lack of acquaintance with

German

writers.

Der

Periplus des Eryi hraeischen Meeres von Einem


'I'EN.

UnbekannFabricius.

Griechisch

und

deutsch mit kritischen

und

erktdrenden Anntn--

kungen nebst vollstdndigem


Leipzig,
I'erlag

1Forterver%eichnisse

von

B.

von Feit

Comp., J8Sj.

A
The
leaves
call

translation

most scholarly presentation of Greek text and German on opposite pages, with clear and exhaustive notes. Cjreek text, which has been revised with extreme care,

contains

many

verbal corrections of Mullet's standard text, and

desired. The historical and commercial notes where they omit conclusions previously reached by English writers, and in so far as they are affected by later
little

to be

for revision

research.

21

The

present translation

is

based on Miiller' s

text,

adopting
far as

most of Fabricius' verbal emendations, but conforming as


possible with the results of later research.
translation .have also

Vincent's text and

been consulted frequently.

References in
with modern

the text to articles of

commerce have been

carefully collated with


as

Pliny and other contemporary writers,


authorities.

as well

22

The Voyage around


1.

the Erythraean Sea

Of the designated

ports

on the Erythraean
the
first is

Sea,

and the market-towns around


tian

it,

the Egyp-

port of

Mussel Harbor.

To
The

those saiHng
after

down

from
dred
at the

that place,

on the right hand,


Berenice.
of Egypt,

eighteen hun-

stadia, there is

harbors of both are

boundary

and are bays opening from

the Erythrzean Sea.


2.

On

the

right-hand coast next below Berenice

is

Along the shore are the Fish-Eaters, living in scattered caves in the narrow valFurther inland are the Berbers, and beyond them leys.
the country of the Berbers.
its

the Wild-flesh-Eaters and Calf-Eaters, each tribe gov-

erned by

chief;

and behind them, further inland,


lies a city

in the country toward the west, there

called

Meroe.
3.

Below the

Calf- Eaters there

is

a little

market-

to^^'n on the shore after sailing about four thousand

stadia

from Berenice,

called Ptolemais of the


started for the interior

Hunts,

from which the hunters

under

the dynasty of the Ptolemies.

This market-town has


;

the true land-tortoise in small quantity


smaller in the
shells.

it is

white and
a little

And

here also

is

found

ivory, like that of Adulis.

But the place has no harbor


Hunts,
is

and

is

reached

tjnl}' b\'

small boats.
of the
at a distance of

4.

Below Ptolemais

about three thousand

stadia, there

Adulis, a port esof a bay that


lies

tablished by law, lying at the inner

end

runs in toward the south.

Before the harbor

the

23

so-called

Mountain

Island, about

two hundred
Ships

stadia sea-

ward from the very head


the mainland close to
this port
it

of the bay,
sides.

with the shores of

on both

now anchor

here because of

bound for attacks from the


at

land.

They

used formerly to anchor

the very head


to the
;

of the bay,

by an island called Diodorus, close

shore,

which could be reached on foot from the land

by

which means the barbarous


from shore,
there
is

natives attacked the island.

Opposite Mountain Island, on the mainland twenty stadia


lies

Adulis, a fair-sized village,

from which

a three-days' journey to Coloe, an inland


first

town

and the

market for

ivory.

From

that place to the


is

city of the

people called Auxumites there

a five days'
is

journey more;

to that place all the ivory

brought

from the country beyond the Nile through the district Practically the called Cyeneum, and thence to Adulis.

whole number
vals

of elephants

and rhinoceros that are


although
at rare inter-

killed live in the places inland,

they are hunted on the seacoast even near Adulis.


at sea

Before the harbor of that market-town, out


the right hand, there
lie a

on

great

many little sandy islands


which
is

called Alalaei, yielding tortoise-shell,


to

brought

market there by the Fish-Eaters.


5.

And
up
at

about eight hundred stadia beyond there

is

another very deep bay, with a great


piled
of

mound
at

of sand

the right of the entrance;

the bottom

which the opsian stone is found, and this is the only These places, from the place where it is produced.
Calf-Eaters to the other Berber country, are governed

by Zoscales;
striving for

who

is

miserly in his ways and always

more, but otherwise upright, and acquainted


literature.

with Greek

24

6.

There

are imported into these places, undressed

cloth
sinoe;

made

in

Egypt

for the Berbers;

robes from Ar-

cloaks of poor quality dyed in colors;

double-

many articles of flint glass, and others of murrhine, made in Diospolis and brass, which
fringed linen mantles;
;

is

used for ornament and in cut pieces instead of coin;

sheets of soft copper, used for cooking-utensils

and cut

up
is

for bracelets

and anklets for the

women

iron,

which

made

into spears used against the elephants

and other

wild beasts, and in their wars.

Besides these, small axes

are imported, and adzes and swords;


cups, round and large;
to the market;
olive
oil,

copper drinking-

a little

coin for those


Italy,

wine
;

of

Laodicea and

coming not much;


silver plate

not

much

for the king, gold

and

made

after the fashion of the country,

and

for clothing,
\alue.

military cloaks, and thin coats of skin, of

no great
sea,

Likewise from the

district of

Ariaca across this

there

are imported Indian iron, and steel, and Indian cotton


cloth; the broad cloth called monache and that called

sagmatogene, and

girdles,

and

coats of skin

and mallac.

low-colored cloth, and a few muslins, and colored

There are exported from these


shell

places ivory,

and

tortoiseis

and rhinoceros-horn.
to this

The most from Egypt


of
;

brought

market from the month


is,

January

to

September, that

from Tybi

ably they put to sea about the


7.

Thoth but seasonmonth of September.


to

From

this place the

Arabian Gulf trends toward

the east and becomes narrowest just before the Gulf of


Avalites.

After about four thousand stadia, for those

sailing eastward along the

same
as

coast,

there are other

Berber market-towns,

known

the "far-side" ports;

lying at intervals one after the other, without harbors

25

but having roadsteads where ships can anchor and he


in

good
the

\veather.

The

first is

called Avalites; to this


to

place the voyage from Arabia


is

the far-side coast

shortest.

town
and

called

Here there is a small marketAvalites, which must be reached by boats

rafts.

assorted;

There are imported into this place, flint glass, juice of sour grapes from Diospolis; dressed

cloth, assorted,
a little tin.

made

for the Berbers; wheat, wine,

and

There

are exported

from the same

place,

and sometimes by the Berbers themselves crossing on rafts to Ocelis and Muza on the opposite shore, spices, a
little

ivory,

tortoise-shell,
rest.

and

very

little

myrrh, but
live in

better than the

And

the Berbers

who

the

place are very unruly.


8.

After Avalites there

is

another market-town,

better than this, called Malao, distant a sail of about

eight hundred stadia.


stead, sheltered

The anchorage
more
peaceable.

is

an open roadeast.

by

a spit

running out from the

Here the

natives are

There

are im-

ported into this place the things already mentioned, and

many
iron,

tunics, cloaks

from Arsinoe, dressed and dyed;


not much.
little

drinking-cups, sheets of soft copper in small quantity,

and gold and

silver coin,

There

are

exported from these places myrrh, a


(that

frankincense,

known as far-side),
but rarely.
days'
sail,

the harder cinnamon, duaca,

Indian copal and macir, which are imported into Arabia;

and

slaves,
9.

Two

or three, beyond

Malao

is

the

market-town of Mundus, where the ships lie at anchor more safely behind a projecting island close to the shore.

There

are imported into this place the things previously

set forth,

and from

it

likewise are exported the mer-

26

chandise already stated, and the incense called mocrotu.

And

the traders li\'ing here are


10.

more quarrelsome.
toward the
east, after

Beyond Mundus,
sail,

sailing

another two days'

or three,

you reach Mosyllum,

on

a beach,

with a bad anchorage.

There
There

are imported

here the same things already mentioned, also silver


plate, a very little iron,

and

glass.

are shipped
(so that

from the place


this

a great quantity of

cinnamon,

mtirket-town

requires
little

ships of

larger size),

and

fragrant gums, spices, a

tortoise shell,

and mocrotu,

Mundus), frankincense, (the far-side), ivory and myrrh in small quantities. 11. Sailing along the coast bej^ond Mosyllum, after a two days' course you come to the so-called Little Nile
(poorer

than

that

of

River, and a fine spring, and a small laurel-grove, and

Cape Elephant.
and has
a river,

Then
called
;

the shore recedes into a bay,

Elephant, and a large laurelis

grove called Acanna;

where alone

produced the

far-

side frankincense, in great quantity


12.

and

of the best grade.

Beyond

this place, the coast


is

trending toward
of Spices,

the south, there

the
at

Market and Cape

an

abrupt promontory,

the very end of the Berber coast


is

toward the

east.

The anchorage

dangerous
is

at

times

from the ground-swell, because the place


the north.

exposed to

sign of an approaching storm


is

which

is

peculiar to the place,

that the deep water


its

becomes

more
they

turbid and changes


all

color.

When this happens


called Tabas,

which There are imported into this markettown the things already mentioned and there are produced in it cinnamon and its different varieties, gizir,
to a large
ofTers safe shelter.
;

run

promontory

asypha, arebo, mag/a,

and moto) and frankincense.

27

13.
is

Beyond
stadia

Tabae, after four

hundred

stadia,

there

the village of Pano.

And

then, after sailing four

hundred

along a promontory, toward which place


is

the current also draws you, there

another market-

town

called
as

ported

Opone, into which the same things are imthose already mentioned, and in it the greatest

quantity of

cinnamon

is

produced, (the arebo and moto),

and

slaves of the better sort,

which are brought to Egypt


a great quantity of tortoise-

in increasing
shell, better

numbers and
;

than that found elsewhere.


to all these far-side

14.
is

The voyage

market-towns
that
is

made from Egypt about

the

month

of July,

Epiphi.

And

ships are also customarily fitted out

from

the places across this sea,

from Ariaca and Barygaza,


rice, clarified butter,

bringing to these far-side market-towns the products of


their
oil,

own

places

wheat,

sesame

cotton cloth, (the monache and the sagmatogene)


girdles,

and

and honey from the reed

called sacchari.

Some make
the coast.

the voyage especially to these market-towns,


sailing

and others exchange their cargoes while


This country
is

along

is

not subject to a King, but


its

each market-town
15.

ruled by

separate chief.
to-

Beyond Opone, the shore trending more


first

ward the south,


of

there are the small and great bluffs


is

Azania

this coast

destitute of harbors,

but there

are places

where

ships can lie at anchor, the shore being


is

abrupt; and this course


south-west.

of six days, the direction being

Then come

the small and great beach for


after that in

another six days' course and Courses of Azania, the


first

order,

the

being called Sarapion and

the next Nicon; and after that several rivers and other

anchorages, one after the other, separately a

rest

and a

28

run for each day, seven in

all,

until the Pyralaae islands


;

and what

is

called the channel

beyond which, two courses


coast,
is

little

to the south of south-west, after

of a day

and night along the Ausanitic

the island

Menuthias, about three hundred stadia from the mainland,

low and and wooded,

in

which there

are

rivers

and many kinds of birds and the mountain-tortoise.

There are no wild


boats,

beasts except the crocodiles

but there

they do not attack men.

In

this place there are

sewed

and canoes hollowed from single

logs,

which
In
this

they use for fishing and catching


island they also catch

tortoise.

them

in a peculiar way, in wicker

baskets, 'which they fasten across the

channel-opening

between the breakers.


16.
last

Two

days'

sail

beyond, there

lies

the very

market-town

of the continent of Azania,


its

which
in

is

called Rhapta;

which has
great

name from
and

the

sewed

boats {rhaptbn ploiarion) already mentioned;

which

there

is

ivory in

quantity,

tortoise-shell.

Along

this coast live

men

of piratical habits, ver\^ great


place.

in stature,

and under separate chiefs for each


chief governs
it

The Mapharitic
is

it

under some ancient


the people of

right that subjects

to the sovereignty of the state that

Muza now hold it under his authority, and send thither many large ships; using Arab captains and agents, who are
first

become

in Arabia.

And

famiHar with the natives and intermarry with them, and

who know the whole coast and understand the language.


17.

There are imported into these markets the lances

made
at

at

Muza

especially for this trade,

and hatchets
of glass;

and daggers and awls, and various kinds

and

some places a

little

wine, and wheat, not for trade, but

29

to serve for getting the good-will of the savages.

There

are exported

from these

places a great quantity of ivory,

but inferior to that of Adulis, and rhinoceros-horn

and

tortoise-shell

(which
little

is

in best

demand

after that

from

India), and a

palm-oil.
last

18.

And

these markets of Azania are the very

of the continent that stretches

down on

the right hand

from Berenice
by the regions
Africa,
19.
it

for

beyond these places the unexplored


Aethiopia and Libya and
sea.

ocean curves around toward the west, and running along


to the south of

mingles with the western

Now

to the left of Berenice, sailing for

two

or three days from Mussel Harbor eastward across the


adjacent gulf, there
is

another harbor and fortified place,

which

is

called

road to Petra,
the Nabataeans.

White Village, from which there is a which is subject to Malichas, King of


It

holds the position of a market-town

for the small vessels sent there

from Arabia;

and so

centurion
of

is

stationed there as a collector of one-fourth

the merchandise imported, with an armed force, as

a garrison.
20.

Directly below this place


its

is

the adjoining

country of Arabia, in

length bordering a great disDifferent tribes inhabit

tance on the Erythraean Sea.

the country, differing in their speech,

some
is

partially,

and some altogether.


the country inland

The

land next the sea

similarly

dotted here and there with caves of the Fish-Eaters, but


is

peopled by rascally

men

speaking

two languages, who


by

live in villages

and nomadic camps,

whom

those sailing off the middle course are plun-

dered, and those surviving shipwrecks are taken for


slaves.

And so

they too are continually taken prisoners

30

by the

chiefs

and kings

of Arabia;
is

and they are called


this

Carnaites.

Navigation

dangerous along

whole

coast of Arabia,

which

is

without harbors, with bad an-

chorages, foul, inaccessible because of breakers and


rocks,

and

terrible in every

way.

Therefore

we hold
we come

our course

down

the middle of the gulf and pass on as


of

fast as possible

by the country

Arabia until

to the

Burnt Island; directly below which there are

regions of peaceful people, nomadic, pasturers of cattle,

sheep and camels.


21.

Beyond
a

these places, in a bay at the foot of the

left side of this gulf,

there

is

a place

by the shore called


distant alto-

Muza,
tA^elve

market-town established by law,

gether from Berenice for those sailing southward, about

thousand stadia.

And the whole place is crowded


is

with Arab shipowners and seafaring men, and


with the
affairs of

busy

commerce;

for they carry

on

a trade

with the far-side coast and with Bar'gaza, sending their

own

ships there.
22.

Three days inland from


and there

this

port there

is

a city called Sana,

in the midst of the region called


is

Mapharitis;

a vassal-chief

named Cholsis

bus

who
23.

lives in that city.

And

after

nine days more there


lives Charibael,

Saphar, the

metropolis, in

which

lawful king of

two and

tribes,

the Homerites and those living next to

them, called the Sabaites; through continual embassies


gifts,

he

is

a friend of the of

Emperors.

24.

The market-town

Muza

is

without a har-

good roadstead and anchorage because of the sandy bottom thereabouts, where the anchors hold safely. The merchandise imported there consists
bor, but has a

31

of purple cloths, both fine

and coarse

clothing in the

Arabian

style,

with sleeves; plain, ordinary, embroisaffron,

dered, or interwoven with gold;

sweet rush,
plain

muslins, cloaks, blankets (not many),


others

some

and

made

in the local fashion;

sashes of different

colors, fragrant ointments in

moderate quantity, wine

and wheat, not much.


to the

For the country produces grain

in moderate amount, and a great deal of wine.

And
finely

King and the Chief


vessels of

are given horses

and sump-

ter-mules,

gold and polished

silver,

woven clothing and copper vessels.


try

There

are exported in the counstacte,

from the same place the things produced


:

selected

myrrh, and the Gebanite-Minaean


all

alabaster

and

the things already mentioned from


far-side
coast.

Avalites

and the

place
is

is

made
;

best about the


is

The voyage to month of September,


to prevent
this
it

this

that

Thoth

but there

nothing

even

earlier.

25. After

sailing

beyond

place about three

hundred

stadia,

the coast of Arabia and the Berber

country about the Avalitic gulf no\v


gether, there
is

coming

close to-

a channel, not

long in extent, which


it

forces the sea together

and shuts

into a

narrow

strait,

the passage through which, sixty stadia in length, the


island
it is

Diodorus

divides.

Therefore the course through

beset with rushing currents and with strong winds


of mountains.
is

blowing down from the adjacent ridge


Directly on this
strait

by the shore there

a village of

Arabs, subject to the same chief, called Ocelis;


is

which

not so

much

a market-town as
first

it is

an anchorage and

watering-place and the


into the gulf.
26.

landing for those sailing

Beyond

Ocelis, the sea

widening again

to\\

ard

32

the east and soon giving a view of the open ocean, after

about twelve hundred stadia there


a village
bael,

is

Eudasmon Arabia,
of Chari-

by the shore,

also of the

Kingdom

and having convenient anchorages, and watering-

places, sweeter

and better than those

at Ocelis; it lies at
it.

the entrance of a bay, and the land recedes from


It

was called Eudaemon, because in the early days of

the city

when

the vo3rage was not yet

made from
to sail
all

India

to Egypt,

and when they did not dare


but
received

from

Egypt

to the ports across this ocean,


it

gether at this place,

came tothe cargoes from both


receives the things
Eg3^pt.

countries, just as Alexandria

now

brought both from abroad and from


long before
place.
27.

But not

our

own

time Charibae' destro3xd the

After

Eudaemon Arabia

there

is

continuous

length of coast, and a bay extending two thousand stadia


or more, along which there are
living in villages;
this

Nomads and

Fish-Eaters

bay there

is

beyond the cape projecting from another market-town by the shore,


just

Cana, of the

Kingdom
it

of Eleazus, the

Frankincense

Ccnmtry;

and facing

there are two desert islands,

one called Island


this place

of Birds, the other


stadia

Dome

Island,

one

hundred and twenty


lies

from Cana.

Inland from

the metropolis Sabbatha, in which the


All

King
and
to

lives.
is

the frankincense produced


to that place to

in

tlie

country

brought by camels

be stored,

Cana on rafts held up by manner of the country, and in

inflated skins after the


boats.

And

this place

has a trade also with the far-side ports, with Barygaza

and Scythia and


of Persia.

Ommana

and the neighboring

coast

33

28.
a httle

There

are imported into this place


as at

from Egypt
of spuri-

wheat and wine,


style, plain

Muza;

clothing in the
it

Arabian
ous;

and
tin

common

and most
for the

and copper and

and coral and storax and other

things such as go to

Muza; and

King

usually

wrought gold and


from

silver plate, also horses,

images, and

thin clothing of fine quality.


this place, native
rest of

And

there are exported

produce, frankincense and aloes,

and the

the things that enter into the trade of

the other ports.


at

The voyage

to this place

is

best

made

the same time as that to


29.

Muza, or

rather earlier.
greatly, there

Beyond Cana, the land receding


called Sachalites

follows a very deep bay stretching a great

way

across,

which
try,

is

and the Frankincense Coun-

mountainous and forbidding, wrapped in thick

clouds and fog, and yielding frankincense from the


trees.

These incense-bearing

trees

are not of great

height or thickness;

they bear the frankincense stickas

ing in drops on the bark, just

the trees

among

us in

gum. The frankincense is gathered by the King's slaves and those who are sent to this serFor these places are very unvice for punishment.
Egypt weep
their

healthy, and pestilential even to those sailing along the


coast;

but almost always

fatal to

those

working

there,

who

also perish often 30.

from want
is
;

of food.

On

this

bay there

a very great

promontory
is

facing the

east, called

Syagrus

on which

a fort for

the defence of the country, and a harbor and storehouse


for the frankincense that
is

collected
is

and opposite

this

cape, well out at sea, there


it

an

island, lying

between

and the Cape

of Spices opposite, but nearer Syagrus

it is

called Dioscorida,

and

is

very large but desert and

34

marshy, having rivers in

it

and crocodiles and many


is

snakes and great lizards, of which the flesh


the
fat

eaten and
island

melted and used instead of olive

oil.

The

yields

no

fruit,

neither vine nor grain.


live

The inhabitants
They
are

are

few and they

on the

coast toward the north,

which from

this side faces the continent.

foreigners, a mixture of Arabs

and Indians and Greeks,


trade there.

who have emigrated to carry on


the white tortoise red for
is its

The island

produces the true sea-tortoise, and the land-tortoise, and

which

is

very numerous and prefer-

large shells;

and the mountain-tortoise, which


shell
;

largest of all

and has the thickest

of

which the
\'alue

worthless specimens cannot be cut apart on the under


side,

because they are even too hard; but those of

are cut apart

and the

shells

made

\\'hole into caskets

and small

plates
also

and cake-dishes and that


this island

sort of \^'are.

There
called
trees.
."^l.

is

produced in

cinnabar, that

Indian,

which

is

collected in drops

from the
subject to
is

It

happens that

just as

Azania

is

Charibael and the Chief of Mapharitis, this island


subject to the

King

of

the Frankincense Country.

Trade

is

also carried

on there by some people from


chance
to call there

Muza and by
rice

those

who

on the

voyage from Damirica and Barygaza;

they bring in
a

and wheat and Indian and they take

cloth,

and

few female
a
is

slaves;

for their

exchange cargoes,

great

quantity of tortoise-shell.
is

Now

the island

farmed out under the Kings and


32.

garrisoned.
of

Immediately beyond Syagrus the bay


width of
it

Omana

cuts deep into the coast-line, the

being six

hundred

stadia;

and beyond

this there are

mountains.

35

high and rocky and


for five

steep, inhabited

by cave-dwellers
this
is

hundred

stadia

more

and beyond

a port

established for receiving the Sachalitic frankincense;

the harbor

is

called

Moscha, and ships from Cana

call

there regularly;

and ships returning from Damirica


the season
is

and Barygaza,
trade
^^'ith

if

late,

winter there, and

the King's officers, exchanging their cloth


oil for

and wheat and sesame


in heaps
all

frankincense,

which

lies

over the Sachalitic country, open and unif

guarded, as
the gods;

the place were under the protection of

for neither openly

nor by

stealth

can

it

be

loaded on board ship without the King's permission;


if

a single grain

were loaded without


of

this,

the ship could

not clear from the harbor.


33.

Beyond the harbor


at

Moscha

for about fifteen

hundred

stadia as far as Asich, a

mountain range runs


lie
is

along the shore;

the end of which, in a row,

seven islands, called Zenobian.


a

Beyond
no longer

these there
of the

barbarous region which

is

same
from

Kingdom, but now

belongs to Persia.

Sailing along
stadia

this coast well out at sea for

two thousand

the Zenobian Islands, there meets you an island called


Sarapis, about

one hundred and twenty

stadia

from the
of Fish-

mainland.

It is

about two hundred stadia wide and six

hundred long, inhabited by three settlements


Eaters, a villainous lot,

who

use the Arabian language

and wear
boats

girdles of palm-leaves.

The

island produces
sail-

considerable tortoise-shell of fine quality, and small

and cargo-ships are sent there regularly from


Sailing along the coast,

Cana.
34.

which trends north-

ward toward the entrance

of the Persian Sea, there are

36

many

islands

known

as

the Calsi, after about two

thousand

stadia,

extending along the shore.


lot,

The

in-

habitants are a treacherous


35.

very

little civilized.
is

At the upper end

of these Calsi islands

range of mountains called Calon, and there follows not


far
is

beyond, the mouth of the Persian Gulf, where there

much
straits

diving for the pearl-mussel.

To

the

left of

the

are great mountains called Asabon,


rises

and

to

the right there

in full view another round

and
be-

high mountain called Semiramis;


passage across the strait
is

between them the


;

about six hundred stadia

yond which
of this

that very great

and broad

sea,

the Persian

Gulf, reaches far into the interior.

At the upper end

Gulf there

is

market-town designated by law,

called Apologus, situated near

Charax Spasini and the


after

River Euphrates.
36.

Sailing

through the mouth of the Gulf,


is

a six-days' course there


called

another market-town of Persia

Ommana.

To

both of these market-towns large

from Barygaza, loaded with copper and sandalwood and timbers of teakwood and logs
vessels are regularly sent

of

blackwood and ebony.

To Ommana frankincense

is

also

brought from Cana, and from

Ommana

to

Arabia

boats sewed together these are

after the fashion

of the place;

known

as

madarata.

From

each of these

market-towns, there are exported to Barygaza and also


to Arabia,

many

pearls,

but inferior to those of India

purple, clothing after the fashion of the place, wine, a


great quantity of dates, gold
37.

and

slaves.

Beyond the Ommanitic region there is

coun-

try also of the Parsidae, of another

bay of Gedrosia,

Kingdom, and the from the middle of which a cape juts

37

out into the bay.

Here there

is

a river affording
at

an

entrance for ships, with a Httle market-town

the
in-

mouth,
land

called Ortea;

and back from the place an

cit}',

distant a seven days' journey


is

from the

sea, in

which
ine,

also

the King's court;

it is

called

(prob\\

ably Rhambacia).
\\

This country yields

much

heat,
is

rice

and

dates;

but along the coast there

nothing but bdellium.

Beyond this region, the continent making a wide curv^e from the east across the depths of the bays, there follows the coast district of Scythia, which lies above toward the north; the whole marshy; from
38.
\\

hich flows

down

the

ri\'er

Sinthus, the greatest of

all

the rivers that flow into the Erythraean Sea, bringing

down an enormous volume of wav out at sea, before reaching


of the ocean
is

water;

so that a

long

this country, the

water
apsea,

fresh

from

it.

Now

as a sign of

proach to

this

country to those coming from the

there are serpents

coming forth from the depths


This

to

meet

you;

and

a sign of

the places just mentioned and in


river has seven

Persia,

are those called grace.

mouths, very shallow and marshy, so that they are not


navigable, except the one in the middle;
at

which by
Before
the
it

the shore,
there
lie* a

is

the market-town, Barbaricum.

small island, and inland behind

it is

me-

tropolis of Scythia,

Minnagara;

it is

subject to Parthian

princes

who are constantly driving 39. The ships lie at anchor at


up
the King.

each other out.

Barbaricum, but

all

their cargoes are carried


river, to

to the metropolis

by the

There

are imported into this


little

mar-

ket a great deal of thin clothing, and a

spurious;

figured linens, topaz, coral, storax, frankincense, vessels

38

of glass, silver

and gold

plate,

and a

little

wine.

On

the other hand there are exported costus, bdellium,

lycium, nard, turquoise, lapis


cloth, silk yarn,

lazuli, Seric skins,

cotton

and indigo.

And

sailors set

out thither

with the Indian Etesian winds, about the month of


July, that
is

Epiphi:

through these
40.

more dangerous then, but winds the voyage is more direct, and
it
is

sooner completed.

Beyond the
its

river Sinthus there

is

another gulf,
;

not navigable, running in toward the north


Eirinon;

it is

called

parts are called separately the small gulf

and the

great;

in both parts the water

is

shallow, with

shifting sandbanks occurring continually

and

great
is

way from shore


tempt
to

so that very often

when

the shore
if

not even in sight, ships run aground, and

they

at-

hold their course they are wrecked.

ontor\ stands out from this gulf, curving around

promfrom

Eirinon toward the East, then South, then West, and


enclosing the gulf called Baraca,
islands.
..

\\

hich contains seven

Those who come


it

to the entrance of this

bay

escape

by putting about
but those

a little

and standing further


inside into the

out to sea;

who
is

are

drawn

gulf of Baraca are lost; for the waves are high and very
violent,

and the

sea

tumultuous and

foul,
is

and has
in

eddies and rushing whirlpools.

The bottom

some

places abrupt, and in others rocky and sharp, so that

the anchors lying there are parted, some being quickly


cut
off,

and others chafing on the bottom.

As

a sign

of these places to those

approaching from the sea there


for at the other
tliey

are serpents, very large and black;


places

on

this

coast

and around Barygaza,

are

smaller, and in color bright green, running into gold.

39

41.

Beyond the

gulf of Baraca

is

that of Barygaza

and the

coast of the country of Ariaca,

which

is

the be-

ginning of the

Kingdom of Nambanus and


is

of all India.
is

That

part of

it

lying inland and adjoining Scythia


called Syrastrene.
rice

called Abiria, but the coast


a fertile country, yielding
oil

It is

wheat and

and sesame

and

clarified butter, cotton

and the Indian cloths


sorts.

made therefrom,

of

the coarser

Very many
of great stat-

cattle are pastured there,

and the

men are

ure and black in color.


is

Minnagara, from
to Barygaza.

x^'hich

The metropolis of this country much cotton cloth is brought

down
such

In these places there remain e\'en

to the present
as

time signs of the expedition of Alexander,

ancient shrines, walls of forts and great wells.

The

sailing course along this coast,

from Barbaricum
stadia.

to the

promontory

called
is

Papica, opposite Barygaza,


of three
is

and before Astacampra,


42.

thousand

Beyond
of

this there

another gulf exposed to

the sea-waves, running up toward the north, at the

mouth
its

which there

is

an island called Bseones;


is

at

innermost part there


sailing to

a great river called Mais.


this gulf,

Those
is

Barygaza pass across

which

three hundred stadia in width, leaving behind to their

left

the island just visible from their tops toward the the very
called
is

east, straight to

and

this river

is

mouth of the Nammadus.

river of Barygaza;

43.

This gulf

very narrow to Barygaza and very


;

hard to navigate for those coming from the ocean


is

this

the case with both the right


is

and

left
left.

passages, but

there

a better passage through the

For on the
lies a

right at the very

mouth

of the gulf there


full of

shoal,

long and narrow, and

rocks, called

Herone,

40

facing the village of the


left

Cammoni; and
promontory
and
is

opposite this

on

projects the
is

that lies before Astaa

campra, \vhich

called Papica,

bad anchorage
it

because of the strong current setting in around because the anchors are cut
of?,

and

the bottom being rough


is

and rocky.

And
the

even

if

the entrance to the gulf

made
with

safely,

mouth

of the river at
is

Barygaza

is

found

difficulty,

because the shore

\er\

low and cannot


it.

be

made

out until you are close upon


it

And when

you have found


shoals at the
44.

the passage

is

difficult

because of the

mouth

of the rixer.
this, native

Because of

fishermen in the King's

service, stationed at the very entrance in

well-manned
go up the

large boats called trappaga


coast as far as Syrastrene,
to Barygaza.

and cotymha,
^\'hich

from

they pilot vessels

And

they steer

them

straight

from the
cre\\"s

mouth

of the

bay between the shoals with their


to fixed stations,

and they tow them


beginning of the

going up with the


at

flood,

and lying through the ebb


Bar}'gaza;

anchorages and in basins.


places
in the
river
as

These basins are deeper


as

far

which

lies

bv the river, about three hundred stadia up from the

mouth.
45.
rivers,

Now the whole country of


\'ery great
at

India has very

many
in-

and

ebb and flow of the


at

tides;

creasing

the

new moon, and

the

full

moon

for

three days, and falling off during the intervening days


of the

moon.

But about Barygaza


is

it is

so that the

bottom
sea,

suddenly seen,
it is

much greater, and now parts of

the dr} land are

and now and the

dry where ships were

sailing just before;

rivers,

under the inrush


is

of the flood tide,

when

the whole force of the sea

41

directed against them, are driven upwards


against their natural current, for
46.
sels is

more strongly

many

stadia.

For

this reason

entrance and departure of ves-

very dangerous to those


to this

who

are inexperienced or
first
is

who come

market-town
at

for the

time.

For

the rush of waters

the incoming tide


it;

irresistible,

and the anchors cannot hold against


ships are caught

so that large

up by the force

of

it,

turned broadside

on through the speed of the current, and so driven on the shoals and wrecked; and smaller boats are overturned
;

and those that have been turned aside among


left

the channels by the receding waters at the ebb, are

on
the

their sides,

and

if

not held on an even keel by props,

the flood tide comes


first

upon them suddenly and under


with water.

liead of the current they are filled

For there is new moon,


that
if

so great force in the rush of the sea at the


especially during the flood tide at night,

you begin the entrance at the moment when the waters are still, on the instant there is borne to you at
the

mouth

of the river, a noise like the cries of


itself

an army

heard from afar; and very soon the sea


ing in over the shoals with
47.
a

comes rushinhabited

hoarse roar.
is

The

country inland from Barygaza


tribes,

by numerous

such

as

the Arattii, the Arachosii,

the Gandarjei and the people of Poclais, in

which

is

Bucephalus Alexandria.

Above

these
are

is

the very war-

like nation of the Bactrians,

who

under their

own

king.

And

Alexander, setting out from these

parts,

penetrated to the Ganges, leaving aside Damirica and


the southern part of India;

and

to the present

day an-

cient drachmae are current in Barygaza,


this country,

bearing inscriptions in

coming from Greek letters, and

42

the devices

of

those

\\ho reigned after Alexander,

Apollodotus and Menander.


48.

Inland from this place and to the

east, is

the
this

city called

Ozene, formerly

a royal capital;

from

place are brought


fare of the

down

all

things needed for the wel-

country about Barygaza, and


:

many

things

for our trade

agate and carnelian, Indian muslins

and

mallow
this

cloth,

and

much

ordinary cloth.

Through
that
is,

same region and from the upper country is brought


the

the spikenard that comes through Poclais;

Caspapyrene and Paropanisene and Cabolitic and that

brought through the adjoining country of Scythia;


also costus

and bdellium.
are

49.

There
tin,

imported into

this

market-town,

wine, Italian preferred, also Laodicean and Arabian;


copper,

and lead;

coral

and topaz;
;

thin clothing

and

inferior sorts of all kinds

bright-colored girdles a

cubit wide;

storax, sweet clover, flint glass, realgar, ansilver coin,

timony, gold and

on which there

is

a profit

when exchanged
the

for the

money

of the country;

and
for

ointment, but not very costly and not much.

And

King

there are brought into those places very costly

vessels of silver, singing boys, beautiful

maidens for the

harem,
these

fine A\'ines, thin clothing of the finest weaves,

and the choicest ointments.

There

are exported

from

places spikenard, costus,

bdelUum,

ivory, agate

and carnelian, lycium, cotton cloth


cloth,

of all kinds, silk

mallow

cloth, yarn,

long pepper and such other

things as are brought here from the various market-

towns.

Those bound
Epiphi.

for this

market-town from Egypt

make
that
is

the voyage favorably about the

month

of July,

43

in a

Beyond Barygaza the adjoining coast extends straight hne from north to south; and so this re50.
is

gion

called Dachinabades, for dachanos in the lan-

guage of the natives means "south."


country back from the coast toward the

The
;

inland

east comprises

many

desert regions

and great mountains


tigers,

and

all

kinds

of wild beasts

leopards,
as far as

elephants,

enormous
and many

serpents, hyenas,

and baboons

of

many sorts

populous nations,
51.

the Ganges.

Among

the market-towns of

Dachinabades

there are two of special importance;

Psethana, distant

about twenty days' journey south from Barygaza;

beis

yond which, about


another very great

ten
city,

days'

journey

east,

there

Tagara.

There

are

brought

down

to

Barygaza from these places by wagons and


tracts

through great

without roads, from Paethana car-

nelian in great quantity, and

mon

cloth, all kinds of

from Tagara much commuslins and mallow cloth, and

other merchandise brought there locally from the regions along the sea-coast.
the end of Damirica
distance
52.
after
is

And

the whole course to


;

is

seven thousand stadia

but the

greater to the Coast Country.


of this region are, in order,

The market-towns
:

Barygaza

Suppara, and the city of Calliena, which

in the time of the elder Saraganus

became

a lawful

market-town;

but since
is

it

came
to

into the possession of

Sandares the port

much

obstructed,

and Greek ships

landing there

may chance

be taken to Barygaza

under guard.
53.

of this

Beyond Calliena there are other market-towns region Semylla, Mandagora, Palaepatms, Meli;

zigara,

Byzantium, Togarum and Aurannoboas.

Then

44

there are the islands called Sesecrienae and that of the


Aegidii,

and

that of the

Caenitas,

opposite the place

called Chersonesus (and in these places there are pirates)

and

after this the

White
first

Island.

Then come Naura


no\\' of

and Tyndis, the


portance.
54.
is

markets of Damirica, and then


leading im-

Muziris and Nelcynda, which are

Tyndis

is

of the

Kingdom
by the

of

Cerobothra

it

a village in plain sight

sea.

Muziris, of the

same Kingdom, abounds in


a

ships sent there with carit is

goes from Arabia, and by the Greeks;


river,

located
sea

on
five

distant
stadia,

from Tyndis by
and up the
is

river

and

hundred
stadia.

river

from the shore twenty


river

Nelcynda

distant

from Muziris by
and
is

and

sea about five

hundred

stadia,

of

another King-

dom, the Pandian. This place also is situated on a river, about one hundred and twenty stadia from the
sea.

55.
river,

There

is

another place
to

at

the

mouth

of this

the village of Bacare;

which

ships drop

down

on the outward voyage from Nelcynda, and anchor in


the roadstead to take on their cargoes;
river
is full

because the
clear.

of shoals

and the channels are not

The
from

kings of both these market-towns live in the in-

terior.

And as a sign to
color,

those approaching these places

the sea there are serpents

coming

forth to

meet

you, black in

but shorter, like snakes in the

head, and \vith blood-red eyes.


56.

They send

large ships to these market-towns


of

on account of the great quantity and bulk


malabathrum.

pepper and
first

There

are imported here, in the


;

place, a great quantity of coin

topaz, thin clothing, not

45

much;
copper,

figured linens,
tin, lead;

antimony,

coral,

crude
as

glass,

wine, not much, but

much

as at

Barygaza;

realgar

and orpiment; and wheat enough


is

for the sailors, for this there.

not dealt in by the merchants


is

There

is

exported pepper, which

produced
a

in quantity in only
district called

one region near these markets,

Cottonara.

Besides this there are ex-

ported great quantities of fine pearls, ivory, silk cloth,

spikenard from the Ganges, malabathrum from the


places in the interior, transparent stones of
all

kinds,

diamonds and sapphires, and


the coast of Damirica.
place in a favorable

tortoise-shell

that

from

Chryse Island, and that taken among the islands along

They make the voyage to this season who set out from Egypt
is

about the month of July, that


S7.

Epiphi.

This whole voyage

as

above described, from


to

Cana and Eudsmon Arabia, they used


vessels, sailing close

make

in small
;

around the shores

of the gulfs

and

Hippalus was the pilot


of the ports

who by

observing the location


of the sea, first discov-

and the conditions

ered

how
at

to lay his course straight across the ocean.

For

the same time

when with

us the Etesian winds

are blowing,

on the shores
this

of India the

wind
is

sets in

from the ocean, and


palus,

southwest wind

called

Hip-

from the name

of

him who

first

discovered the

passage across.
start,

From

that time to the present day ships

some

direct

from Cana, and some from the Cape


for

of Spices;

and those bound


off

Damirica throw the


while those

ship's

head considerably

the wind;

bound for Barygaza and Scythia keep along shore not more than three days and for the rest of the time hold the same course straight out to sea from that region,

46

with a favorable wind, quite away from the land, and


so
sail

outside past the aforesaid gulfs.

58.

Beyond Bacare there is the Dark Red Mountain,


district stretching

and another

along the coast toward


place
is

the south, called Paralia.


it

The

first

called Balita

has a fine harbor and a village by the shore.


there
is

this

another place called


of

Beyond Comari, at which


hither

are the

Cape

Comari and

a harbor;

come
and

those

men

Vv'ho

wish to consecrate themselves for the

rest of their lives,

and bathe and dwell in celibacy


;

women
once
59.

also

do the same

for

it is

told that a goddess

d\\'elt

here and bathed.


the south this region

From Comari toward

extends to Colchi, where the pearl-fisheries are;


are
to
;

(they

worked by condemned criminals) and it belongs Beyond Colchi there folthe Pandian Kingdom.
district called

lows another
lies

the Coast Country, w^hich

on

a bay,

and has

a region inland called


else,

Argaru.

At

this place,

and nowhere

are

bought the pearls


and from there are

gathered on the coast thereabouts;

exported muslins, those called Argaritic.


60.

Among the

market-towns of these countries,


in

and the harbors where the ships put


they

from Damirica
are, in

and from the north, the most important


as
lie, first

order

Camara, then Poduca, then Sopatma;

in

which there

are ships of the country coasting along

the shore as far as Damirica; and other very large vessels

made

of single logs

bound

together, called sangara;

but those which

make

the voyage to Chryse and to the

Ganges
are

are called colandia,

and are

\'ery large.

There
in
at

imported into these places everything made

Daany

mirica, and the greatest part of

what

is

brought

47

time from Egypt comes here, together with most kinds


of all the things that are of those that are carried
61.

brought from Damirica and

through

Paralia.

About the following


east,

region, the course trendis

ing toward the

lying out at sea toward the west

the island Palassimundu, called by the ancients Tapro-

bane.

The northern

part

is

a day's

journey

distant,

and the southern part trends gradually toward the west,

and almost touches the opposite shore


produces
pearls,

of Azania.

It

transparent stones, muslins, and tor-

toise-shell.

62.

About

these places

is

the region of Masalia


coast before the inland
is

stretching a great

way along the

country;

a great quantity of muslins

made

there.

Beyond

this region, sailing


is

toward the

east

and crossing
the
bar-

the adjacent bay, there ing the ivory

the region of Dosarene, yield-

known

as

Dosarenic.

Beyond

this,

course trending toward the north, there are

many

barous
of

tribes,

among whom

are the Cirrhada;, a race

men

with flattened noses,

ver}^ savage;

another

tribe,

the Bargysi;

and the Horse-faces and the Long-faces,


toward the

who

are said to be cannibals.


63. After these, the course turns
east

again,

and

sailing

with the ocean to the right and the


left,

shore remaining beyond to the


view, and near
it

Ganges comes

into
east,

the very

last

land toward the


it

Chryse.

There
and
a

is

a river near

called the Ganges,


as

and
its

it

rises
is

falls

in the

same way

the Nile.

On
as

bank

market-town which has the same name

the river, Ganges.

Through
sorts,

this place are

brought

malabathrum and Gangetic spikenard and pearls, and


muslins of the finest

which

are called Gangetic,

48

It is said that

there are gold-mines near these places,

and there
the

is

gold coin which


is

is

called caltis.

And

just opposite this river there


last

an island in the ocean,

part of the inhabited world toward the east,


rising

under the

sun

itself;

it is

called Chryse;

and

it

has the best tortoise-shell of


thragan Sea.
64.

all

the places on the Ery-

After this region under the very north, the sea


is

outside ending in a land called This, there


great inland city called

a \'ery
silk

Thins, from which raw

and

silk

yarn and

silk cloth are

brought on foot through

Bactria to Barygaza, and are also exported to


rica

Damiof

by way
is

of

the river Ganges.

But the land

This

not easy of access;

few
lies

men come from


parts of

there,

and seldom. and


is

The

country

under the Lesser Bear,


Pontus and
;

said to border

on the farthest

the Caspian Sea, next to


of

which

lies

Lake Maeotis

all

which empt}"
65.

into the ocean.

Every year on the borders of the land of This

there comes together a tribe of

men

with short bodies


thej^

and broad,

flat

faces,

and by nature peaceable;

are called Besataa,

and are almost entirely uncivilized.


their wives

They come with


great packs

and children, carrying

and

plaited baskets of

grape-leaves.

They meet

in a place

what looks like green between their own


a feast

countrj^

and the land

of This.

There they hold


to their

for several days, spreading out the baskets


selves as mats,

under themplaces in

and then return

own

the interior.

And

then the natives watching them

come
petri.

into that place

and gather up their

mats;

and
call

they pick out from the braids the fibers which they

They

lay the leaves closely together in several

49

layers

and make them into


fibers

balls,

which they pierce

with the
sorts;

from the mats.

And

there are three

those

made

of the largest leaves are called the


;

large-ball

malabathrum
and those

those of the smaller, the

meit is

dium-ball;

of the smallest, the small-ball.

Thus

there exist three sorts of malabathrum, and

brought into India by those


66.
difficult

who

prepare

it.

The
of

regions beyond these places are either


their excessive winters

access because of
else

and great cold, or


of

cannot be sought out because

some

divine influence of the gods.

50

NOTES
(Numerals
Title.
refer to paragraphs similarly

numbered

in the text.)

Periplus was

the

name

applied to a

numerous

class of

writings in
eler's

Roman

times,

hand-book.

which answered for sailing-chart and travThe title might be rendered as Guide-Book to
the term applied by
its

the Erj'thrasan Sea."


Title.

Erythraean Sea was

Greek and Ro-

man

geographers to the Indian Ocean, including

adjuncts, the

Red

Sea and the Persian Gulf.

Erythra means Red, so that the modern


but

name
that
it

perpetuates the ancient;

we

are assured

by Agatharchides
a

means, not
following

Red
is

Sea,

but Sea of

King Erythras, following

Persian legend.

The
of the

the account gi\en by Agatharchides of the origin


5.)

name:

iDe Marl Erythrao, S


is

The
famous for

Persian account
his valor

after this

manner.

There was

man

and wealth, by name Erythras, a Persian by His home was by the sea, facing toward birth, son of Myozaeus. islands which are not now desert, but were so at the time of the empire of the iMedes,

when

Erythras lived.

In the winter-time he used


at his

to go to Pasargadae,

making the journey

own

cost;

and he
for

in-

dulged

in

these changes of scene

now

for profit,

and

now

some

pleasure of his

own

life.

On

a time the lions charged into a large

and same were slain; while the rest, unharmed but terror-stricken at what they had seen, fled to the sea. A strong wind was blowing from the land, and as they plunged into the waves in their terror, they were carried beyond their footing; and their fear continuing, they swam through the sea and came out on the shore of With them went one of the herdsmen, a youth the island opposite. of marked braver^', who thus reached the shore by clinging to the
flock of his mares,

shoulders of a mare.
seeing them,
strength of
first
its

Now

Erythras looked for his mares, and not


raft of

put together a

small size, but secure in the


a favorable

building;

pushed

off into the strait,

and happening on across which he was

wind,

he

swiftly carried
also.

by the

waves, and so found his mares and found their keeper

And

then, being pleased with the island, he built a stronghold at a place

well chosen by the shore, and brought hither from the main-land opposite such as v\ere dissatisfied
v\'ith

their life there,

and subsequently

51

settled all the other uninhabited islands with

numerous population;

and such was the glory ascribed


of these his deeds, that even

to

him by
to

the popular voice because

down

our

that sea, infinite in extent, Erythraan.


set forth,
it is

own time they have called And so, for the reason here
erythra,

to be well distinguished

for to say Er'ythra thdlatta, Sea

of Erythras,
for the

is

a very different thing

from Thalatta

Red

Sea)

one commemorates the most

illustrious ?rian of that sea,

while

the other refers to the color of the water.


of the

Now

the ohe explanation


is

name,

as

due to the color,


it

is

false (for the sea

not red), but


the true one,

the other, ascribing

to the

man who

ruled there,

is

as the Persian story testifies."

Here

is

manifestly a kernel of truth,

referring,

however,

to a

much

earlier

time than the Empire of the


It

Medes and

their capital

Pasargadae.

suggests the theory of


set forth

a Cushite-Elamite migration

around Arabia, as
people from Elam,

by Glaser and Hommel:

the story of a

who

settled in the

Bahrein Islands and then spread

along South Arabia, leaving their epithet of

Red"
or, 4,

or

"ruddy"
and

in

many

places, including the sea that

washed

their shores

floated

their vessels:

Sea of the

Red People,"

according to Agathar-

chides,
1.

"of the Red King."

See under

23 and 27.
to ports of entry

Designated ports.
government

Trade
it,

was limited

established, or, as the text has

designated"

by law, and super-

vised by

such ports on the

officials who levied duties. There were many Red Sea under the Ptolemies. There were also

ports of entry maintained by the Nabataean Kingdom, by the

Homerite
of the

Kingdom
Axumites;

in

Yemen, and by

the newly-established

Kingdom

the latter, possibly, farmed to Egyptian Greeks,

now Ro-

man

subjects.

Fabricius objects to

'designated," and translates "frequented,"


its

thereby straining the meaning of the word and losing


scription of historical facts.

obvious de-

Under the early Ptolemies, who succeeded Alexander the Great, Egypt went far toward recovering her former wealth and glory. Under Ptolemy II, called Philadelphus (B. C. 285-246) the canal between the Nile and the Red Sea (originally dug by one of the Sesostrises, about the 20th century B. C. reopened under the Empire in the 15th
,

century, and partly reopened by the Persians under Darius in the 5th

century), was once

more open

to

commerce;

various caravan-routes,

carefully provided with wells

tween the river and the sea, Egyptian shipping on the Red Sea were established and colonized. was encouraged, and regular trade was opened with the Sabaeans of

and stopping-places, were opened beand where they terminated ports of entry

52

South Arabia, and the tribes of the Somali


these ports, and a

coast.

The names

of

all

description

of this newly-created

terms of romantic enthusiasm, are

commerce, in given by Agatharchides in his work

on the Erythraean Sea.


ing settlements

and Adulis.

At the time of this Periplus, the remainseem to be Arsinoe, IVIyos-hormus, Berenice, Ptolemais The other places mentioned by Agatharchides had
that fringed the

probably lost their importance as the Egyptian ships ventured farther

beyond the straits and frequented the richer markets Gulf of Aden.
1.
(

within the headland


,^5

Mussel Harbor Myos-hormus), is identified now known as Ras Abu Somer,


E.
It
it

with the bay

27
B.

12

N.,

55'

was founded by Ptolemy Philadelphus

C. 274.

He

selected

as the principal port of Eirjptian trade with India, in

preference to Arsinoe (near the

modern Suez), which was

closer to

the Egyptian capital, but difficult of access because of the bad passage

through the upper waters of the Red Sea.


six

Alyos-hormus was
Strabo (XVII,

distant

or seven days from Coptos on the Nile, along a road opened


I,

through the desert by Ptolemy Philadelphus.


says
at

45)

present Coptos and Alyos-hormus are in repute, and they

are frequented.

Formerly the camel-merchants traxeled


a supply of water.
also obtained

in the night,

directing their course by obser\'ing the stars, and, like mariners, carried with

them

But

now

watering-places are pro-

vided;

water
is

is

water

found although rain rarely Coptos


is

reservoirs."

and rainwhich is also collected in the modern Koft, in the bend of the Nile.
to a great depth,
falls,

by digging

Vessels bound for Africa and Southern Arabia

left

Alyos-hormus

about the autumnal equinox,


carried

when

the

them quickly down


if

the gulf.

N. W. wind then prevailing Those bound for India or Cey-

lon left in July, and

they cleared the


to

Red Sea
assist their

before the

first

of

September they had the monsoon


ocean.
1.

passage across the

Sailing.

The

ship used by the author of the Periplus prob-

ably did not differ \ery materially

from the types created

in

Egypt long

before, as depicted in the reliefs of the Punt Expedition in the Der-el-

Bahri temple at Thebes, and elsewhere.


the single square
sail,

By

the

first

century A. D.

with two yards, each

much

longer than the

height of the
B.

sail,

which distinguished the shipping of the 15th century

had been modified by omitting the lower yard and by increasing the height of the mast; while a triangular topsail had come into The artlmon or sloping foremast, later developed into a general use.
bowsprit, was not generally used, even in the Mediterranean, until
the 2d century.

C,

The accompanying

illustration of a

modern Burmah

53

(From a

sketch by R. T. Pritchett.

trader,

which perpetuates

in

many ways

the shipbuilding ideas of ans

cient Egypt, probably gives a better idea of our author'

ship than any

of the

Greek or Roman

coins or reliefs,

ranean shipping,

built for different

which were all of Mediterconditions and purposes.


in

In the Indian

Ocean

navigation depended on the trade-winds,

and voyages were timed so that the ship could run before the wind
either direction, without calling the rudder into
at the quarter, the

much

use.

This was

steersman plying the

tiller

from

his station high in

stern,

overlooking the whole vessel.

Hippalus' discovery of the periodicity of the trade-winds, described


in
i?

57, carried with

it

knowledge of steering the boat somewhat


This was done
partly

off the

wind, to reach a destination farther south than the straight

course would

make

possible.

by the rudder,

but largely by shifting the yard.

54

The
Jiotia,

lateen

sail,

as exemplified

in the

Arab dhow, the Bombay

and so on, came into use about the 4th century B. used by Arab and Hindu, rather than Egyptian or Greek.
See Chat'terton:
Sailing Ships
Ships;

C,

but was

and

their Story:

Torr: Ancient Ships; Holmes:

Ancient

of Shipping and Craft; Lindsay: History of Merchant Shipping and Ancient Commerce; Chamock: History oj MaPritchett:
Sketches
Jal: Archeologie Nanjale.

and Modern

rine Architecture;

1.

Stadia.

this time,

Three

stadia

were

in

use in the

Roman

world

at

the Phileterian of 525 to the degree, the

Olympic

of 600,

and that of P^ratosthenes, of 700. Reduced to English measure this would make the Phileterian stadium equivalent to about 650 feet, the Olympic about 600 feet, and that of Eratosthenes about 520 feet.

The

stadium of the Periplus seems to be that of Eratosthenes.

Genthat
all

erally speaking, ten stadia of the Periplus to the English statute mile

would be a
distances

fair calculation.

But

it

must not be forgotten

named
\

in this text are

approximations, based principally on

the lent^th of time consumed in going from place to place, which


naturally
aried according to
direction of the
as well.

wind and
distance

current, of
is

sailing-course,

and other factors

The

generally

at an exact calculation, the figures in the text can be considered only as approximations.

given in round numbers;

and without any means of arriving

According

to the system of

measurement

laid

down by Ptolemy,
stadia,

the circumference of the earth was estimated

at

180,000

with

500

stadia to the degree.

The true length of the degree is 600 stadia. The Olympic or standard Greek stadium
the race-course at Olympia), was 600 Greek
mile.

(being the length of


or 8 to the

feet,

Roman

There was a later stadium of which 7/2 went to the Roman mile (1000 paces, 4854 English feet) This, the Phileterian stadium,
.

sur\'ived in Arabic science,

and thence in the calculations of mediaeval

Jsurope;

being very nearly the English furlong.


to Col.

According
1

Leake' s calculations,

Olympic stadium 606. 75 English " " " =6067.50 10


1

feet.

Nautical mile

Admiralty knot

=6075.50 =6086.50
6087.11

" "

or,

by Clarke's measurement,
Therefore,
10 Olympic stadia

m)

"

"

minute of the equator.


degree

=1

"

, ,

ss

1 1
1

Roman

mile
mile

Old English

Modem Statute
Roman
Roman
miles

"

75

= = =

= 1000 passus= 4854 English 1000 paces = 5090


5280
1 degree.

feet.

The

= 19,416 English = 1 = 21,600 = 24,874 25,020 A degree on the equator = 69.1 69.5
4
miles
ft.,

(or 75.09 to be exact).

marine league.

earth's circumference

nautical miles, or
statute miles.

to

to

statute miles.

The
who made
or 24,000

Tordesillas geographers, in 1494, gave 21.625 leagues to

the equatorial degree.

They were wrong,


it

but followed Eratosthenes,


is.

the globe l-16th larger than

really

Vespucci, following Ptolemy and Alfragan, figured 6000 leagues,

Roman

miles, as the

measure of the earth's circumference;

so that dividing by 360, 16/' leagues

made

a degree.

Columbus,

following

various

Arabian geographers,

made

the

degree 56^3 miles, or 14}i leagues.

to

some deduction based on Ptolemy. By 1517, according to Navarrete, the valuation of 17;^ leagues At the treaty of Zaragoza, in the degree had become general.
All this confusion goes back to
sides.

1529, that ratio was admitted on both

The

correct figure

is

very close to 17/^ leagues.

All ancient calculations were based on dead reckoning.


log-line did

The

come

into use until 1521.


et

See Vivien de Saint-Martin, Le Nord de fAfrigue dans rAntiguite grecgue


romaine.
Paris, 1863:
.

p.

197.
:

Samuel

Edward Dawson
Vol. V.
2,

and

that of the Treaty of Tordesillas, in Transactions of the Royal


pp. 467
flf.

The Line of Demarcation of Pope Alexander VI Society of

Canada, 1899;

1.
is

Berenice (named
It
is

for the

mother of Ptolemy Philadelphus)


55'

identified with

Umm-el-Ketef Bay, below Ras Benas, 23


258

and about 35 34' E.

Roman

miles,

or

11 days,

N. from

There are ruins still visible, even Coptos, by a road across the desert. arrangement of streets being clear; in the center is a small the
ship.
at

Egyptian temple with hieroglyphics and bas-reliefs of Greek workmanThere is a fine natural harbor, but the bar is now impassable

low water; and Strabo (XVI, IV, 6) mentions dangerous rocks and violent winds from the sea. At the time of this Perlplus, Berenice seems to have been the
leading port of Egypt for the Eastern trade, and

was probably the

home

of the author.

56
2.

Berber Country.

This word means more than the "land


modern
Barbary States," to
to be foreign to the people,

of the barbarians," and seems, like our


refer to the

Berber race, as representing the ancient Hamitic stock of

North

Africa.
itself

The name

seems

and

is

prob-

North Africa recalls that ancient race-opposition about the Gulf of Aden, when the Red Aim, or ruddy people, overcame the children of the desert' who spread over all North Africa and carried the name with
ably related to the Arabic bar, a desert;

and

its

application to

'

them, submitting time

after

time to similar Semitic conquests, Phoe-

nician, Carthaginian or Saracen.

The
markable.

occurrence

of the

name throughout North


its

Africa

is

re-

We

have the modern Somali port of Berbera, the Nile

town and

district of

Berber (and
appear

inhabitants, the Barbara, Barbe-

rins or Barbarins,

who

in the ancient

Theban

inscriptions as

Beraberata)

the

Barbary States, the modern Berbers or Kabyles;

and

at

the western extremity, on the Atlantic coast of

Morocco,

still

another tribe calling themselves Berabra.

The

ancient Egyptians extended the

word

to include the

of savage and outlander, or public enemies in general;


the Greeks took the
ings.

meanings and from them

word

into their

own

language, with like

mean-

The
Upper
Gallas.
2.

Berbers of the Periplus probably included the ancestors of

the Bejas between the Nile and

Red

Sea, the Danakils

Nile, Abyssinia and the Gulf of

between the Aden, and the Somals and

Cave -Dwelling Fish -Eaters, Wild -Flesh -Eaters,

Calf-Eaters.

The

original

names,

Ichthyophagi

(Troglodytas

Agriophagi, Moichophagi, add nothing to our ethnic knowledge, being

merely appellations given by the Greeks;


translated.

and they are therefore

These

tribes

are represented by the

modern

Bisharins.
i.

Calf-Eaters" seems to

mean

eaters after the style, of calves,

e.

of

green things, rather than eaters of calves.

Some commentators would

replace Agriophagi by Acridophagi, locust-eaters.


2.

Meroe

was the

final capital of the

Kingdom

of Nubia.

It

became

the royal seat about 560 B. C. and continued as such until a


after this

few years

Periplus,

when

the kingdom,

worn out by concataract,

tinued attacks by the tribes of the desert and the negroes of the Sudan,
fell

to pieces.

It

was located on the Nile, below the 6th


fertile
is

but just within the


the Atbara;

region that begins above the confluence of

and

identified with the

modern Begerawiyeh, about

16

55'

N.

57

The

early

Kingdom

of Egypt comprised the Nile delta


]

and the

fertile valley

of the river as far as the

st

cataract, the

modern Assuan.

Here a narrow gorge made the stream impassable for boats, and formed a natural barrier. Above Assuan the desert hugs the river close until above the 5th cataract, when it gives place to open fertile country. Between the island of Elephantine and Assuan, and the site of Meroe, the distance is about 480 miles in a direct line, and by the river about 1000 miles. This narrow strip of river-bed was Nubia
proper.

The
rises in

Atbara, flowing into the Nile

Meroe,

northern Abyssinia or Tigre;

at

some 40 miles below Khartum, about 150


the Blue Nile flowing

miles above Meroe, the river branches again;

down from

the mountains of Central Abyssinia or


the

White Nile from


less subject to

Nyanza

lakes.

These

regions were

Amhara, and the more or

Nubia

at different periods,

but their population varied

greatly.

The

Abyssinian highlands were peopled by a Hamitic stock


still

originally related to the Egyptians as well as to the


tribes of the eastern

uncivilized

and western

desert, but with a

mixture of negro

blood and a strong strain of Arabian origin.

The

upper reaches of
there

the Nile were peopled by various negro tribes, entirely distinct from

Egyptian or Berber.
so to the Nile;

From

the

mouth

of the

Red Sea

was a

regular trade-route across the Tigre highlands to the Atbara River and

Uganda.

Thence

and other routes reached Meroe from the Sudan and the products of trade found their way down-stream

to Elephantine,

was the market


its

history,

came gold, the Nubian


all

beyond which no negro was permitted to go. Here and the modern town, Assuan, repeats market. From the Sudan as the very name means ebony and ivory, panther skins and ostrich feathers; from
for all Egypt,
'
'

desert east of the Nile, gold;

the Tigre, myrrh, frankincense, and various fragrant


of

which were

in constant

demand

for

from the Red Sea across woods and resins the Egyptian treasury and

the service of the temples, and provided a constant reason for Egyptian control of this important

avenue of commerce.

In the early period of the Egyptian nation the power centered in


the Delta, but a loose control seems to have been maintained between

the 1st and 2d cataracts over tribes appearing in the inscriptions as

"Wa-wat," probably negroes. During the prosperous period of the Old Kingdom, between the 30th and 25th centuries B. C. the riverroutes were kept in order, and Egyptian ships sailed the Red Sea as Then came a period of disorder and the far as the myrrh-country.
,

fall

of the Delta dynasties, followed in the

22d century by the

rise of

the

Theban

or Middle

Kingdom, the
fully

dynasties of the

Amenemhets

and

Sesostrises.

These kings

conquered the

river tribes to the

'

58

cataract, as well as the "Nubian troglodytes" of the eastern desert, where they developed the gold-mines that added so much to their In this period, from the 22d to the 18th cenwealth and power.

2d

turies B.

C,

the

name "Cash"

first

appears in the inscriptions, indi-

cating, as Glaser thought, a migration o\erland to the Nile

by the wan-

dering Cushite-Elamite tribes


the Persian Gulf
in the

who had

left their

home

at the

head of

some 300 years

previously,

and who,

after settling

incense-producing regions of Southern Arabia and Somaliland,

whence they had opened trade with .Mesopotamia, had now traced The name Cush' the same trade to its other great market in Egypt.
seems
ently a
to

have included not only the Nile valley between the 3d and

and 6th

cataracts, but

much

of the highlands.
in great

These people, apparas

mongrel

race,

were held

contempt by the Egyptians,


the following:
slaves,

whose annals contain numerous references such "Impost of the wretched Cush: gold, negro
female;
all

male

and

oxen, and calves;

bulls;

vessels laden with ivory, ebony,

the good products of this country, together with the harvests of

this

country."
After the
fall

of the Xllth dynasty,

1788 B.

C, came

a period

of feudal disorder, followed by an invasion from Arabia and a foreign


dynasty, the Hyksos,

probably Minaean Beduins.

This was ended

by the expulsion of the Arabs and the establishment of the Empire

under the XVIIIth dynasty (1580-1350 B.


to the 4th cataract

C).

These

great

Pha-

raohs carried the Egyptian arms to their widest extent, from Asia

Minor
still

and possibly even farther south.


death of

The
) left

collapse of

the

Empire

at the

Rameses

III

(1167 B. C.

Nubia

Egyptian.
dynasties,

Invasions from the west resulted in a series of Libyan

which began, under Sheshonk or Shishak

I,

by reasserting

sovereignty over Syria and by plundering the temple of


the treasures of the newly-established
latter part of this

Solomon and
but the

Kingdom

of

Israel;

established in

was so inefHcient that Theban princes Nubia separated from Egypt and formed a new kingadministration

dom, now

called Ethiopia (indicating a


at

growing Arabian settlement),

with capital

Napata, below the 4th cataract (the modern Gebel

Barkal), subsequently invading Egypt and establishing their

power
the As-

over the whole valley, from 722 to 663 B. C.


syrian invasions,
first

Then came
ruin of

by Esarhaddon and then the definite conquest of


in

Egypt proper by Assurbanipal


vividly described by the

661 B. C.

The

Thebes

is

prophet

Nahum
II,

(III, 8-10).

The Nubians
restored
transto

withdrew

to

Napata.

There they were attacked by the


Psammetichus
and about 560 B.

power

of Egypt under

C,

ferred their capital to

Meroe;

much

better location, less

open

59

attack

the desert,

from the north, and in the

in a fertile region instead of a

narrow gorge

in

direct path of the rapidly-growing immigration

and trade from the south and east. Here they checked the army of Cambyses, which made Egypt a Persian province in 525 B. C. The
capital
fell

into

his

hands for a time, but the country was not sub-

dued.
left

The

conquest of Egypt by Alexander the Great, 332 B.

C,

them undisturbed; and with his successors, the Ptolemies, they maintained an increasing commerce, notwithstanding the active policy
then pursued to assert Egyptian supremacy in the
(See Breasted
:

Red

Sea.

J History of Egypt.

N. Y., 1905.)

In 30 B. C. Egypt became a Roman province and the Nubians met a different foe. Their queen, Candace, attacked the Egyptians, and a punitive expedition by Petronius destroyed their power. (Strabo, XVII, 1, 54. ) Gradually the enfeebled kingdom was engulfed by
the
tribes of

the

desert;

and

Pliny,

whose Natural
list

History

completed
above

in

77 A. D., notes that of a long

of cities and

was towns

Philae, described a

century before, Nero's embassy in 67 A. D.

itself, Meroe, was but a few wretched huts. National decay had done its work; and the few remnants left from the attacks of the Berbers had joined the new Kingdom of the Axumites" in the highlands to the south-

could find hardly a trace, and that the capital

collection of a

east.

In later times, under the Byzantine Empire, Nubia again became


a center of culture

and

prosperity.

Its

new

capital, the

modern Kharits

tum, became a leader

in Christian thought,

and maintained
only

influ-

ence

even

after

the

Saracens

had overrun Egypt;

finally to

new irruption from the under the spur of Islam, and to leave again to the Abyssinian highlands the defence of what remained of its Monophysite Christianity.
repeat history by being utterly destroyed by a
desert,

Josephus {Antiquities of the

Je-ws, II,

9) has an account of a war

of the Egyptians against the Ethiopians, under the

command

of Moses.

The

Ethiopians were finally driven back into their capital, Saba,

"to

which city Cambyses afterwards gave the name of Meroe, in compliit being situated at the conflux of the rivers ment to his sister The city was finally delivered Astaphus and Astabora with the Nile.
.
.

'

'

up

to the Egyptians as the

condition of Moses'

marriage with the

Ethiopian King's daughter Tharbis,

who had
Saba,

fallen in love

with him.
fact
is

Aside from the obvious anachronisms


interest:

in this story,

one

of

the

name

of

the capital,

indicates that

Nubia was

ruled,

if

not mainly peopled, by Arabs,

who had

followed the ancient

trade-routes from the

mouth of the Red Sea. Glaser {Punt und die siidarabischen Reiche, 42-3) notes

that

Napata

'

60 also rian
is

a Semitic

name, probably Nabat,


to

allied to

Nabatu of the Assyand


to

inscriptions,

Nebaioth (son of Ishmael),

the later

Nabataeans of 19.

Herodotus

(II, 8) refers to the

mountain of Arabia" extending


up
to the Erythraean
it is

from north
Sea,

to south along the Nile, stretching

and says

that at

its

greatest

width from east to west


its

two-

months' journey;
cense. "

and that
is

eastward

confines produce frankin-

Here

also

an indication of the connection of Nubia with

Somaliland, confirmed by the


in

pompous

titles

of the later Cushite kings

Meroe (Ed. Meyer:


3.

Geschichte Aegyptens,

359):

Kings of the
'

four quarters of the world and of the nine distant peoples.

Ptolemais.

This

is

identified with Er-rih island,


delta.
It

18

9'

N.,

38 27' E., the southern portion of the Tokar

was

fortified

by Ptolemy Philadelphus (B. C. 285-246), and became the center of Being situated near the Nubian forest, where elethe elephant-trade.
phants abounded,
its

location

was very

favorable.

The

Egyptians had

formerly imported their elephants from Asia;

but the cost

was high

and the supply uncertain, and iPtolemy sent

his

own

hunters to Nubia,

against the will of the inhabitants, to obtain a nearer supply.

From
to

very early times there was a trade-route from the

Red Sea

the Nile at this point, terminating near Meroe, and corresponding

closely to the railway recently built

between Berber on the Nile and

Port Sudan on the


3.

Red

Sea.

Adulis.

The

present

port
lies

is

Massowa,

center

of

the

Italian

colony of Eritrea, which

near the mouth of the bay of

Adulis.

Zula.

The ancient name is preserved in the modern village of The location has been described by J. Theodore Bent, (&-

London, 1896: pp. 228-230). It is on numerous black basalt ruins are Adulis was one of the colonies of Ptolemy Philastill visible there. delphus, and was always of commercial importance because it was the It seems to have been natural port for Abyssinia and the Sudan. Here was the famous inscription reciting the built by Syrian Greeks. conquests of Ptolemy Euergetes (B. C. 247-223) with an addition by Aizanas, or El Abreha, King of Abyssinia about 330 A. D., for a copy of which we are indebted to the Christian Topography of Cosmas
cred City of the Ethiopians,

the west side of Annesley Bay, and

Indicopleustes.
4.

Coloe.

The

ruins of

Coloe were found by Bent


It is

at

Kohaito,
plateau

{Sacred City of the Ethiopians, Chap. XII).

a large

flat

many

miles in extent, high above the surrounding country (7000 feet)


It

and thus cool and comfortable.

seems

tlement, and Adulis the trading-post,

to have been the main setwhich was inhabited no more

61

than necessary because of


feet long,

its

hot climate.
feet

There

is

a fine

dam, 219

and

in

one place 74

4 inches above bed-rock, with

sluice-gates 5 feet 3 inches wide;

the

whole

built of large cut stones

without mortar.

When

in

use a large lake would

have formed.
the ar-

There

are

numerous
covered

ruins of stone temples and dwellings;


at

chitecture

resembling that

Adulis,

apparently Ptolemaic Greek.

The town

many

acres.
is

Glaser thinks Kohaito

too near Adulis to be the ancient Coloe;


stiff

but he seems to overlook the

climb up the mountain, which would

naturally take longer in proportion than the subsequent road over the
table-land.

The name
23}
is

the

inscription

Coloe, Glaser notes {Punt und die sudarabischen Reiche, same as the Arabic Kala'a, (which appears in the Aduhs of King Aizanas), and is deriyed from the same source as

the Calsi Islands and Calon mountains in southeastern Arabia (in

S 34-5).
tribal

He

derives the Alalaei Islands in this 4


via Halahila.

from the same

name, Kalhat,
4.

Ivory.

In

the

inscriptions of

Harkhuf, an Assuan noble


Egypt.

under King Mernere of the Vlth Dynasty (B. C. 2600) occurs the
first definite

record of ivory as a commercial

article in

"I descended (from the country of Yam, southern Nubia) with 300 asses laden with incense, ebony, grain, panthers, ivory, throwI was more vigilant than any and every good product. sticks,
caravan-conductor

who had been


I,

sent to

Yam

before."

(Breasted:

Ancient Records of Egypt,

336.

There
and
(Libya, but

are

numerous records

of the receipt of ivory, in cornmerce

as tribute,
cf.

under the XVIIIth Dynasty;


the Tenessis of Strabo);

coming from Tehenu

Punt (Somaliland), God's

Land

(S.

W.

Arabia), Gnbti (vicinity of Kuria Muria Islands),

Cush

(Nubia), the South Countries, Retenu (Syria) and Isy (Cyprus). Also articles made of ivory: chairs, tables, chests, statues, and whips.
Similar records occur under the
latter, in

XlXth and XXth


list

dynasties; the

the Papyrus Harris, being an item in a

of gifts of

Ra-

meses

III to the

god Ptah.

King Solomon's throne was of ivory, overlaid with gold; and "navy of Tharshish" brought him the ivory every three years, his together with gold and silver, apes and peacocks (I Kings X, 18-22).
4.

Cyeneum

is

the

modern Sennaar

first

City of the people called Auxumites. This is the known reference to the city of Axum, and serves very nearly to
4.
its

Eastern Sudan.

fix

the date of

foundation.

Pliny and other writers of this period

mention the Asachae

living south of

Meroe and known

as elephant-

62

hunters;

and

their

stronghold,

settlement as

Axum.

Bion speaks of Asachae

Oppidum Saca, probably the same five days from the sea,
Sacae'' in the

and Ptolemy locates a "city of the


has no knowledge of

Tigre highlands, but


rafts

Axum.

Pliny (VI, 34) also speaks of the Ascitae

who
astos,

brought myrrh and frankincense to South Arabia on their


bladder; but both

supported on inflated skins, and suggests a derivation of the

name from
in

names reproduce

rather the
called

mountainous

coast of South Arabia, east of Hadramaut,

Hasik (Asich

33 of the Periplus), and there is evidently an ethnic and geographic connection between Hasik, the Asachae or Ascitae, and Axum.

Axum,
Abyssinia,
is

the ancient capital and sacred city of the


still

kingdom we
themselves

call
is

the place of coronation for


its

its

kings.
call

Abyssinia

the Latinized

form of Habash, while

people
is

Itio-

pyavan, Hellenized into Aethiopians.

Habash

translated

by modern
land

Arabs

as

"mixture," while Herodotus explained Aethiopia as

of the sunburned faces;"

each explanation being, probably, incorrect.


for several cen-

The

Habashat appear likewise along the eastern terraces of South


(

Arabia

Mahra) where they were the dominant race

turies before the Christian era.

Pau^anias ide Situ Griscice, VI, 26-9),

speaks of a "deep bay of the Erythraean Sea, having islands, Abasa

and Sacaea" (probably Kuria Aluria,


writers

.Masira,

and Socotra)

the

Roman

mention an Abissa Polis

in this region,

zantium says
that

beyond the Sabasans

are

and Stephanus of Bythe Chatramotitas (Hadra-

maut) and the Abaseni."


one of the Punt-people

From

the Egyptian inscriptions

we

learn

visited in their trading

voyages was called


also in Socotra

Hbsti, and dwelt, apparently, not only in

Mahra, but

and Eastern Somaliland.


Glaser derives the
"gatherers."

name Habash from a Mahri word, meaning Synonymous with this is Aethiopian or Itiopyavan,
atyob,

which he derives from


in the

incense;" and

it

is

significant that

even
the

time of the Periplus their ancient

home

in

Mahra was

still

"Frankincense Country."
cessors

As

gatherers of incense," then,

we

have

the mission of the Asachae or Axumites.

This people,

like their

prede-

from the same region, the Cushites who traded with Babylon intermarrying with the natives" and Thebes, a branch of whom,
(Periplus, 16), helped found the Nubian Kingdom, and like the Punt or Poen-people of the Theban inscriptions, left their settle-

ments
lands,

in

Mahra, Socotra and Somaliland


for the

(the
in

true

frankincense

country) and migrated westward, settling finally

the Tigre high-

where

first

time they established an enduring power.


in that
it

But their migration was different from the others,


to warfare

was due

and oppression rather than

trade.

63

In the

3d century B.

C. the Habashat or "gatherers" were


allies

supreme
tives,

in their

incense-lands," and their

and, perhaps, rela-

the Sabaeans,

to Egypt, then at

worked with them in the spice and incense trade the height of its power under the Ptolemies. The
is

prosperity of the trade

attested

by Agatharchides.

The

Habashat

held Socotra and


coast.

Cape Guardafui, and much of the East African But the succeeding centuries were turbulent. In order along
coast,

the

south Arabian

from west

to

east,

were the Homerites


and the Habashat.
the establishment

(Himyar), the Sabaeans, Hadramaut,

Kataban,

Beyond were

tribes

under Persian influence.

With

of the Parthian, or Arsacid, empire,

came

Parthians throughout eastern


the African

Arabia.

wave of conquest by the Almost simultaneously came


a
said to

campaigns of Ptolemy Euergetes,

have reached

Mosyllum on the Somali coast (Periplus, 10). The two incenseThen came the conquest of Kataban by lands were hard hit. Hadramaut and a threatening policy by Himyar against the Sabaeans.
Glaser has edited an inscription telling of an alliance of Djadarot,

King

of the Habashat, with three successive kings of Saba, for mutual

protection against

Hadramaut and Himyar. This dates from about Charax Spasini, writing in the time of Augustus, mentions a chief of the Omanites in the Incense-Country, named Goaisos {,cf. the language of the Habashat, Gee'z.) who was apparently But very soon afterward the Parthians renewed of the same race. their attack from the East; Himyar overthrew Saba and demolished Egypt was in a bad way, its port, and Hadramaut moved on Habash. Romans who were taking over its government were encourand the
75 B. C.
Isidorus of

aging a direct sea-trade from India, receiving Indian embassies, and

breaking up the system which had so long closed the Arabian gulf to

Indian shipping.
their

Despoiled of their incense-terraces in Arabia and of


activities at

commercial
and
in

Guardafui, the Habashat sought a


built their stronghold, the

new
Op-

home;

the

Tigre highlands

It lay across pidum Saca, which soon became the city of Axum. the natural trade-route from India to Egypt; from Adulis, the sea-

port, to the

Atbara River, was no great journey, and through a

fertile

country instead of the desert to the north.


the

Here, then, so long as


a
state
5,

"Berbers" of the lowlands could be dominated, and hence the picture of


its

could

flourish;

centuries the new in his ways and always striving for kingdom of Abyssinia kept up its alliance with Rome and Constanti-

King Zoscales more." For six

in

"miserly

nople against

its

ancient enemies the Homerites, and their

allies
it

the

Parthians and Persians.


ran southern Arabia;

The kingdom grew


until the later

apace, and twice

over-

and not

Mohammedan

conquests

64

was
to

its

power broken and


for

its

people shut up in their mountains, there


to the outside world,

preserve,

their

hundreds of years unknown Monophysite Christianity.


Abyssinian Chronicles

The
that

Periplus, the successor of a long line of kings at

make Zoscales at the time of the Axum. It is probable


as the

Habashat had frequented the country for a century before,

power
were

of Egypt receded, but as colonists rather than state-builders,

until driven

from Arabia;
and not

and

that

most of Zoscales' predecessors

local chiefs

tribal kings.

The

final

migration Glaser

places not far from the Christian era.

The Abyssinians were


Buddhism.

converted to Christianity about 330 A. D.

Before that time their strongest outside influence

may have been


I,

James Fergusson {History of Architecture,

142-3 j notes

Monoliths

at

Axum
"the idea

that the

great monolith at

Axum
Indian.
first

is

of Indian inspiration;

Egyptian,

but the

details

An

Indian nine-storied pagoda,

translated in Egyptian in the

century of the Christian era!"

He
says
it

notes

its

likeness to such Indian temples as

Bodh-Gaya, and

represents

that curious marriage of Indian with Egyptian art

which
in

we would

expect to find in the spot where the two people

came

contact,

union."

The

and enlisted architecture to symbolize their commercial Such an alliance was to the advantage of the Hindu traders. Homerites stopped their vessels at Ocelis on the Arabian shore
cargoes thence to Egypt by caravan;

(Periplus, 25), taking their

here was a

new power

that

allowed them to trade to Avalites and


take their wares to Egypt

Adulis, and even to

march overland and


first

themselves.

Ujjeni and Bharukacha,

close connection during the

and Alexandria were in and second Christian centuries, and

Axum

66 See
Glaser:

Die Abessinier

in
in

masterly marshaling of inscriptions


Geograp/iie Arabiens,Qer\m, 1890;

Arabten und Afrika, Munich, 1895. (A support of his thesis, above summarized.
Berlin,

Punt und die sudarabischen Keiche^

1899;

Skix-x.e

der

GeSchichte

und

Dillmann:

Geschic/ite des

Axumitischen Reiches,

in Kon. Preuss. Akad. d. Wissenchaften, Berlin, 1880. For the interrelation between Buddhism and early Christianity, and the hist<5rical causes leading thereto, see Edmunds: Buddhist and Christian Gospels noiv first compared from the

originals, Philadelphia (4th edition), 1908.

4.

Alalaei Islands.

These

preserve the name, being called

Dahalak.

They

lie at

the entrance to Annesley Bay.

5. Bay of the Opsian stone. This is HauakilBay, north of Ras Hanfilah, 14 44' N. 40 49' is Amphila, the Antiphili Portus of Artemidorus.
,

identified

with

"Hanfilah"
spells

Pliny
itj

{/jp.

cit.

XXXVI,

67) says the obsian stone (as he

was \ery dark, sometimes transparent, but dull to the It was used in sight, and reflected the shadow rather than the image. his day for jewelr\' and for statues and votive offerings. It was used by the Emperor Domitian to face a portico, so that from the reflections on the polished surface he might detect any one
of Aethiopia

approaching from behind.


It

seems

to

have been a

olcanic glass, feldspar in a

more

or less

pure

state,
It

and the same as our obsidian.


also,

was found

according to Pliny,

in

India, at

Samnium

in

Italy,

and

in Portugal;

and

it

was extensively imitated

in glass.

to the

Henry Salt {A J'oyage into Jhyssin'ta, pp. 190-4 J, describes his visit Bay of the Opsian stone, which was marked by a hill, near which he 'was delighted with the sight of a great many pieces of a

black substance, bearing a \ery high polish,


that lay scattered about

much
it,

resembling

glass,

on the ground
in

at a short

distance

from the

sea;

and

collected nearl\' a

hundred specimens
diameter.

of

most of which were

two, three, or four inches


that a

One

of the natives told

me

few miles farther in the interior, pieces are found of much larger This substance has been analyzed since my return to dimensions.
P2ngland and found to be true obsidian."
5.

Coast subject to Zoscales.


II,

Col.

Henry

^"ule

in

his

Marcrj Polo,

434, sa\s

"To
Sea,

the

0th century at

least,

the

whole

coast-country of the

Red

from near Berbera probably

to Suakin,

was

still

subject to Abyssinia.

At

this

time

we

hear only of 'Alusalto the

man

families' residing in Zeila

and the other ports and tributary


III,

Christians."
5.

(See also Mas' udi.

34.)

Zoscales.

Salt {op.
in

cit.

460-5.) identifies this

name with Za

Hakale, which appears

the Abyssinian Chronicles.

The

reign

i'^

said to ha\e lasted 13 years,

and

Salt fixes the dates as

76 to 89 A. D.

67

But he admits (p. 460) upon the Chronicles.


years;

that

"no

great

dependence can be placed"

The list begins with Arwe, the serpent," who reigned 400 Za Beesi Angaba, 200; Zagdur, 100; Zazebass Besedo, 50; Zakawasya b'Axum,l; Za Makeda, 50; in her 4th year she went to Jerusalem, and after her return reigned 25 years." Then comes Menilek, 29; followed by 15 others, 91 years 2 months; then Za
Baesi Bazen, 16 years, and in the eighth year of his reign Christ was born." Then follow 7 names, 68 years, and Za Hakale, 13; then 15 more names, 227 years 4 months, and Aizanas (el Abreha), and Saizanas (el Atzbeha), 26 years 6 months, and in the 13th year of this reign Christianity was introduced," and so on. If Za Makeda was the Queen of Sheba who visited King

Solomon
B. C.

in the

10th century B.

C,

there are evidently great omis-

is said to have begun in 8 was obliged to move Aizanas and Saizanas from their places in the Chronicle, and to advance them 130 years, in order to make them tally with their Axum and Adulis inscriptions, and the correspondence known to have been carried on between them and the Roman Emperors Constantine and Constantius. Therefore Za Hakale'

sions before

Za

Baesi Bazen, vvhose reign

And

Salt

place in the
fix

list,

in

the absence of confirming evidence, can hardly

the date of the Periplus, as proposed by JMiiller.


that, like Salt's
facts.

More

probable

is it

Aizanas, he must be advanced

in

the Chronicle to

meet known
accession
is

By moving him up

three places in the line his


date.

brought to 59 A. D., a very probable

The
therefore,

Abyssinian Chronicle was composed some time after the


Its

conversion of the people to Christianity.

earlier portions are,

mere

tradition;

during his

visit to that

and two versions of it which Salt examined country were found to differ materially.
first

The
follows

reigns in the

Christian century, as given by

Salt,

are as

Za Za

Baesi Bazen, 16 years,

months

Senatu,

68

The
gives

Zfl prefix, recalling the

Dja

of Glaser'
list

Arabian inscriptions,

way

in the

3d century to a long

beginning with El, indicating

perhaps a change of dynasty from the Habash stock to the Sabaean.


6.

Egyptian cloth.
Arsinoe was
to the

This was

linen,

made from

flax.

6.

at the

head of the Heroopolite Gulf, corre-

modern Suez, but now some distance inland owing to the recedence of the Gulf. It was named for the favorite wife of Ptolemy Philadelphus. At one time it was important commercially,
sponding
as

an entrepot for the Eastern trade;


it

and while

it

soon

lost that posi-

tion,

continued for centuries to be a leading industrial center, par-

ticularly in textiles.
6.

Glass.

Pliny {op.

cit.

XXXVI,

65) says that glass-making

originated in Phcenicia, and that the sand of the river Belus

was long

the only

known

material suitable for the industry.

He

attributes the

discovery for the process to the wreck of a ship laden with nitre on
this shore,

and the accidental subjection of

nitre

and sand

to heat as

the merchants set caldrons on the beach to cook their food. the Phoenicians applied themselves to the industry;

Later

and

their experito an

ments led

to the use

of

manganese and other substances, and


in the product.
at

advanced stage of perfection

In Pliny's time a white sand

the
It

mouth

of the river Volturnus

was much used nitre and fused

was mixed with three parts of into a mass called hammo-nitrum which was subjected to fusion a second time, and then became pure white glass. Throughout Gaul and Spain a similar process was used, and this was
in

glass-making.

doubtless the process used in Egypt, as mentioned in the Periplus.

The
was
6.

color

was added

in the

second fusion, after which the

glass

either blown, turned or engraved.

Murrhine.

See

the note to 49.

It

was probably

agate

and carnelian from the Gulf of Cambay; but was extensively imitated in glass by the Phoenicians and Egyptians. The murrhine mentioned
here was evidently a cheap trading product, probably colored
6.

glass.

GodJ was probably Thebes, the metropolis of the Egyptian Empire the modern Karnak. This was its name under the Ptolemies and Romans. There was another Diospolis in Egypt, mentioned by Strabo; it was in the Nile delta, above the Sebennytic mouth; but it was not of great importance. Still
(City of

Diospolis

another,

known

as

Diospolis Parva, was on the Nile


greater

below Coptos.
center of

The

Diospolis

Diospolis

some

distance

Magna

was

commerce and

industry, being

no great way above Coptos,

from which the caravans

started for Berenice.

69

As

illustrating the

fame of

that city, Strabo quotes

Homer

{Iliad

IX, 383)

with her hundred gates, through each of which issues

two

hundred men with horses and chariots."


8-10) draws another picture of the
ians:

The
its

prophet

Nahum
was

(III,

city after

capture by the Assyrthat


situate

populous

No

(or

No-Ambn,

City of

God)
it

among
'

the rivers, that had the waters round about

Ethiopia

and Egypt were her strength, and it was infinite; Put and Lubim Cyrene and Libya) were thy helpers. Yet was she carried away,
she went into captivity;
at

her young children also were dashed in pieces

the top of
all

all

the streets;

and they

cast lots for


in chains."

her honourable

men, and
6.

her great

men were bound

Brass.

The
cit.

Gv&ek.-wor6.\soreichalcos,

"mountain-copper,"

which Pliny
or the

{op.

XXXIV,

2) makes into a hybrid, as aurichalcum,

golden copper; brass, a yellow alloy, as distinguished from pure copper


darker alloys.
Pliny describes
it

as

an ore of copper long in


sestertium and double
as.

high request, but says none had been found for a long time, the earth

having been quite exhausted.


as,

It

was used for the

the Cyprian copper being thought good enough for the

Oreichalch seems to have been a native brass obtained by smeltingores abundant in zinc;
as a separate metal.

the

Roman

metallurgy did not distinguish zinc

Alines yielding such ores were held in the highest estimation, and
their exhaustion

thian brass.

was deeply regretted, as in the case of the Corinlater it was found by accident that the native earth, calamine, an impure oxide of zinc, added to molten copper, would imitate the true oreichalch; and this the Romans did without under'

'

But

standing what the earth was, just as they used native oxide of cobalt
in coloring glass

without knowing the metal cobalt.

(See
II,

Pliny

XXXVII,

44, and

Beckmann,

History of Inventions

32-3.)
Philostratus of

Lemnos, about 230 A. D., mentions

a shrine in

Taxila in which were hung pictures on copper


feats of
in a

tablets representing the

Alexander and Porus.


in iron.

The

various figures

were portrayed

mosaic of orichalcum,

silver, gold,

and oxidized copper, but the

weapons

The

metals were so ingeniously worked into one

another that the pictures which they formed were comparable to the
productions of the most famous Greek artists" (McCrindle:
India, 192).

Ancient

The Greek word


The Sphinx:

is

effectively

used by Oscar Wilde

in his

poem

the

God

of the Assyrian,
talc,

Whose

wings, like strange transparent

rose high above his hawk-faced head.

Painted with silver and with red and ribbed with rods of oreichalch.

70
6.

Sheets of soft copper.

The

text

is

"honey-copper."

That

the metallurgy of

Roman

days included a fusion with honey or

other organic substances, such as cow's blood, to produce greater


ductility,

has been asserted, but not proven.

Miiller

makes a more
like

plausible suggestion, that this

was

ductile

copper in thin sheets, and

was

called

honey-copper

'
'

because the sheets

were shaped

honey-cakes.

Ductile copper in

Roman

times generally meant an

alloy with 5 to 10 per cent of lead.


6.

Iron.

Pliny {op.

c'lt.

XXXIV,

39-46) speaks of iron as "the

most useful and most fatal instrument he says, is found almost everywhere;
is

in the

hand of man."
Isle of

The
Elba."

ore,
It

even in the

worked like copper, and its quality depends somewhat on the water into which the red-hot metal is plunged. Bilbilis and Turiasso in Spain, and Comum in Italy, are distinguished for the use of their
waters
in smelting.

The
In

best iron

is

that

send
is

it

to us with their tissues


all

and skins."

made by the Next to


is

Seres,

who
is,

this in quality

the Parthian iron.


is

other kinds the metal

alloyed, that

apparently, the ore


6.

impure.

Coats of skin.

The

text
left

is

kaunakai.
later

Originally

these

were of rough skins with the hair


overcoat,

on;

they were imitated in

Mesopotamia by a heavy woolen fabric, suggesting the modern frieze which was largely exported. It is not known which is meant here.
6.

Ariaca.

This
name

is

the

northwest coast of India, especially


the

around the Gulf of Cambay;


Gujarat.

modern Cutch, Kathiawar and was at the time of the Periplus one of the strongholds of the Indo-Aryan races, and incidentally of Buddhism, the religion then dominant among them.

As

the

indicates,

it

6.

Indian iron and


Yule

steel.

Marco
steel
' '

Polo (Yule ed.

I,

93)

Book

I,

chap. X\^II, mentions iron and ondamque in the markets of


interprets this as the

Kerman.
visiting

Venice, an especially fine


it

andank of Persian merchants for swords and mirrors, and


19,

derives

from hundwdniy

Indian

steel.

Kenrick suggests that the "bright iron" of Ezekiel XXVII,

must have been the same. Ctesias mentions two wonderful swords of such material which he had from the King of Persia. Probably this was also the ferrum candidum of which the Malli and Oxydracae sent 100 talents' weight as a present to Alexander.
Ferrum indicum also appears
in the lists of dutiable articles

under

Marcus Aurelius and Commodus.

71

Salmasius notes a
of Indian steel."
Edrisi says

Greek chemical

treatise

"On

the tempering

They
that

The Hindus excel in the manufacture of iron. have also workshops wherein are forged the most famous sabres
It is

in the world.

impossible to find anything to surpass the edge


steel.''

you get from Indian


6.

Cotton.

Sanscrit,

pasos; Latin, carbasui

karpasa;

Hebrew,

carpas;

Greek, karinto cloth

the seed-fibers of Gossypium herbaceum and G.

arboreum (order, Malvacea) native in India, and


the natives of
that country before the

woven

by

dawn

of history.

The

facts

concerning
1896.

it

have been admirably stated by Mr. R. B. Handy in The

Cotton Plant, a report of the


in

U.

S.

Department

of Agriculture, issued
in the

Cotton thread and cloth are repeatedly mentioned

laws of

Manu, 800

B. C.

Professor A.
it

H. Sayce

in

his

Hibbert

Lectures shows ground for the belief that

head of the Persian Gulf


its

in the 4th

millennium B. C.
it

was exported by sea to the and it found


;

way

very early to Egypt.


fruit

Herodotus describes
cotton cloth was at

as a wool, better

than that of sheep, the

of trees growing wild in India.


its

The

manufacture of

best in India until

very recent times, and the fine Indian muslins were in great

demand
in

and commanded high


Mediasval Europe.

prices,

both in the

Roman Empire and

The

industry

was one of the main

factors in the

wealth of ancient India, and the transfer of that industry to England

and the United


in the

States,

cal ginning, spinning

and the cheapening of the process by mechaniand weaving, is perhaps the greatest single factor

economic

history of our

own

time.

Pliny and Pollux state that cotton was

grown

in

Egypt
is

in their

time (1st and 2nd centuries A. D.),


It

how

extensively
in the

unknown.
this

was

also

grown
it

in the island of

Tylos

Persian Gulf, and

according to Theophrastus, in Arabia; and the Periplus confirms

by mentioning
Palestine;

as

an

article of

export from

Ommana.
in

Cotton seems

also

to

have been grown


to

Syria,

Cilicia

and

and the

fiber

known

Josephus as

c^iv/w/,

Hebrew,

kctonci;

Arabic,

kttf n,

(the

Chaldee), was perhaps cotton.


Palestine before the

same sound appears in Phoenician, Syrian and Movers states that the inhabitants of
migration

Hebrew

made

use of cotton, and that

the Phoenicians exported Syrian cotton cloth to Sabaea.

Pausanias describes cotton as growing in Elis, in Achaea, and


says that
it

was made

into cloth

by the

women
It

of Patra;;

but this

could not have been an extensive industry.

was

quite certainly not

produced or woven

in Ilaly

during

Roman

days.

Any

generalizations based

on the Arabic kufn or the Greek

'

72

karpasos are uncertain, because those

words were applied

also to flax,

which was
It is

in very general use in all the

Mediterranean countries.
in

noteworthy that the word used

the Periplus

is

uniformly

othonion,

meaning simply

cloth," but usually cotton cloth; while the


'

Mmatismos, translated as
lengths to be

clothing,

'

was very

likely cloth in suitable

worn

as tobe or toga.

6.

Monache cloth. Vincent says cloth


would read
But these
sagma, a saddle) being the

"singularly fine," and

for sagmatogene
to stuff;

the sort used for stuffing"

(from

sasso,

ium arboreum.
particulars of

down from the tree -cotton, Gossypwords may be Greek corruptions of some

Indian trade-names for different grades or dyes of cloth, as to the

which we cannot determine.


the occurrence
similar alteration

Fabricius alters monache to mohchine because of

of the same word in the following

line,

and makes a
it

wherever the word appears

in the text, but

is

difficult to

see just

what

is

gained.
'

This
29)
It is

broad cloth

'

was no doubt used

for

garments such

as

the modern Somali


:

'tobe," described by Burton (First

Footsteps, p.

a cotton sheet eight cubits long, and two breadths


is

sewn
is

together.

It

worn
fall

in

many ways;
waist.

sometimes the right arm


is

bared; in cold weather the whole person

muffled up, and in sumit is

mer

it is

allowed to

below the
left

Generally
is

passed behind

the back, rests upon the

shoulder,

carried

forward over the


left

breast, surrounds the body,

and ends hanging on the

shoulder,

where it displays a gaudy silk fringe of red and yellow. This is the man's Tobe. The woman's dress is of similar material, but differently worn; the edges are knotted generally over the right, sometimes over the left shoulder; it is girdled round the waist, below which hangs a lappet, which in cold weather can be brought like a hood Though highly becoming and picturesque as the over the head. Roman toga, the Somali Tobe is by no means the most decorous of dresses; women in the towns often prefer the Arab costume a short-

sleeved robe extending to the knee, and a Futah or loin-cloth underneath.


'

McCrindle, Ancient
tree-cotton.
yields

India, p. 26, notes that

tinct species of cotton, Gossypium herbaceum,

India has two disand Gossypium arboreum or


cloth, while

The
and

former only
silky texture,

is

made
is

into

the latter

a soft

which

used for padding cushions,

pillows, etc.

Pliny says

(XIX,

1) that

Upper Egypt

also
is

produces
got,

"a

shrub bearing a nut from the inside of which wool

white

and soft."

73

6.

Molochine,

or

mallow

cloth, was a coarse cotton cloth


India.

dyed with

a preparation of a variety of the hibiscus native in

This purplish cloth must have corresponded drills still in demand on this coast.

closely to the coarse blue

6. Lac. McCrindle notes that the Sanscrit is laksha, a later form of raksha, connected with the root ranj, to dye. The Prakrit form is lakkha. It was used by women for dyeing the nails and feet,

also as a dye for cloth.

The
still

lac

insect {Tachardia Lacca,

Kerr)

is

native in India

and

practically confined to that country.

According
it

to

Watt ^Commercial
:

Products of India, pp. 1053

ff.

),

yields

two

distinct products

a dye

and a

resin.

The
until

dye competed

on favorable terms with the Mexican cochineal


placed by manufactured aniline,

both were dis-

when

the resin shellac again

became

more

important.
resin
is

The
the trees;

formed around the young swarms


up by a proboscis.

as they

adhere to

the lac being a minute hemipterous insect living on the

plant-juices sucked

The

dye

is

taken from the bodies of the females, which assume

a bright red color during the process of reproduction.


plete account of the product

For a com-

and

its

uses see Watt.


'

was the kermes-berry" produced on the Mediterranean holm-oak; whence the dye known as
similar nature to lac

Of somewhat

carmesin, cramoisi, crimson or carmine;


scarlet;
or, referring to the

or,

by another derivation,

pupa-stage of the insect, vermiculum or

vermilion.

These

insect dyes

were used

separately, or, associated with

murex,

as an element in the so-called


6.

Tyrian purple."

Tortoise-shell.

This

was

a great article of

commerce

in

the

Roman

world, being used for small receptacles, ornaments, and

for inlaying furniture

and woodwork.
in

It

is

one of the most

fre-

quently-mentioned commodities
the trade
the
is

the Periplus.

The

antiquity of

uncertain, but this seems to be the

shell"

brought from

Land

of Punt by

Queen

Hatshepsut's expedition in the 15th cen-

tury B. C.

Rhinoceros. The horns and the teeth, and probably the were exported from the coast of Abyssinia, where Bruce found the hunting of this animal still a trade and described it ( Travels, Vol. IV)
6.

skin,

7.

Avalites
It
is is

is

identified with the

modern

Zeila, 11 20' N.,

43

28' E.

79 miles from the

.straits

of Bab-el-Mandeb.

The

ancient

name

preserved by the village Abalit, on the north shore of

74

the bay.
ating the

The

Somali tribes

call the

place Ausal, apparently perpetu-

Ausan of

the South Arabian coast;

which

also at

one time

possessed

much

of the coast of East Africa (called the "Ausanitic

coast" in 15 of the Periplus).


torical

Avalites

is

thought by Forster {His-

Geography of Arabia,

Vol. I) to perpetuate the

son of Joktan (Gen. IV) whose

name

is

almost

name of Obal, unknown in Arabia;


mouth on

thus indicating a very early migration of this tribe to the Somali coast.

This name seems


the Persian Gulf;

also to survive in

Obollah

at

the Euphrates

which was the Ubulu of the Assyrian


35.

inscriptions,

and the Apologus of

"I then went from Aden by sea, and after four days came to the city of Zeila. This is a settlement of the Berbers, a people of Sudan, of the Shafia Their country is a desert of two months' extent; the first part sect. The greatest number of the inis termed Zeila, the last Makdashu. Their food is mostly habitants, however, are of the Rafizah sect.
camel'
also
s

Of

Zeila, Ibn Batuta, writing in the 14th century, said:

flesh

its filth,

The stench of the country is extreme, as is and fish. from the stink of the fish and the blood of the camels
in
its

which are slaughtered


Zeila
as
'

streets.

is

described by Burton {First Footsteps in East Africa, p. 14)

'the

normal African port

strip

of sulphur-yellow sand, with a

deep blue dome above, and a foreground of the darkest indigo.


buildings,

The

and apparently from the No craft larger than a canoe can ride near bosom of the deep. After bumping once or twice against the coral reefs, it was Zeila. considered advisable for our ship to anchor. My companions put me into a cockboat, and wading through the water, shoved it to shore.
raised by refraction,
. .

rise

high,

which high tides 250 tons cannot approach within a mile of the landing-place; the open roadstead is exposed to the terrible north wind, and when gales blow from Every ebb leaves a the west and south it is almost unapproachable. sandy flat, extending half a mile seaward from the town; the reefy
situation
is

The

low and

level spit of
is

sand,

make almost an

island.

There

no harbor;

a vessel of

anchorage

is

difficult

of entrance after sunset, and the coraline bottom

renders wading painful."


Zeila, the nearest port to Harrar in the interior, had,

when Bur-

ton wrote, lost the caravan trade to Berbera, owing to the feuds of
its

rulers;

so that the characteristics of


in

its

people had not changed

from the account given

7 of the Periplus.

At
in

that

time the

exports from Zeila were slaves, ivory, hides,


clarified butter,

honey, antelope horns,

and gums.

The coast abounded

sponge, coral, and small pearls.

In the harbor were about twenty

'

75

native

craft, large

and small;

they traded with Berbera, Arabia, and


pilots.

Western
I

India,

and were navigated by "Rajput" or Hindu


pp. 330-1) says again;

Burton
the far

{op. cit.,

repeatedly heard at Zeila and at Harrar that traders had visited

West, traversing
till

for seven

months

a country of pagans wear-

ing golden bracelets,


sail in

they reached the Salt Sea upon which Franks

ships.

once saw a traveler descending the Nile with a store

of nuggets, bracelets and gold rings similar to those used as

money

by the ancient Egyptians.


sinia,

namely that Guineh (the Guinea


:

Mr. Krapf relates a there is a remnant of the


coast) and Shoa.

tale

current in Abys-

and west formerly existed; in on the river Zaire in Congo learned the existence of the Abyssinian
church.

slave trade between Connection between the east the time of Joao I, the Portuguese

Travelers in Western Africa assert that Fakihs or


the
pilgrimage,

priests,

when performing
through Abyssinia

pass

from the Fellatah country


'

Red Sea. And it has lately been open from the Zanzibar coast to Benguela. The foregoing, written before modern discovery had altered the trade of Africa, indicates the same condition as that existing in ancient
to the coast of the

proved that a caravan

line

is

history:

a well-established trade to

Egypt and South Arabia, coming

from
\^'est

tribe to tribe

through the heart of Africa, from great distances

and South.

7.

The

"Far-side" coast.
barbarian land, "
just

According

to

Burton
el

{op.

cit.

p.

12

the Somali tribes called their country the

translates as
all

nations not Arab,


all

as

which he but goes on to explain \}s\zx. Ajam means among Egyptians and Greeks 'bar'

Barr

Ajam,

barian" meant

nations not of their country.


trade
at

The name seems to apply to the migration and Arabia, the tribes who had crossed the gulf at Aden
farther side,"
{pera,
7.

from South
"of the

various periods

of history being referred to by their countrymen as those

which our author has rendered

into

Greek

2& peratikos

beyond).

says
olive
still

XII, 60)

Juice of sour grapes. The 'Omphacium is a kind


:

text

is

omphakion.

Pliny

of

oil

obtained

from the
olive while

and the vine

the former

is

produced by pressing the

white;

the latter from the Aminasan grape,

chick-pea, just before the rising of the

when the size of Dog-star. The verjuice

a
is

put into earthen vessels, and then stored in vessels of Cyprian copper.

The
is

best

is

reddish, acrid, and dry to the taste.


in a mortar,

Also the unripe grape


divided
into

pounded

dried in

the sun, and then

lozenges."

The Aminaean

grape he describes

in

XIV, 4

also a lanata or

'

76

woolly grape

so that

we

not be surprised

at the

wool-bearing trees

of the Seres or the Indians."

were mulberry

trees

were cotton; the former with silkworm cocoons bred on them. cf. Virgil,
latter
f oliis

These

{Georgks, II, 121.)

Velleraque ut
Pliny

depectant tenuia Seres.


'

'

(XXIII, 4) says again:


parts of the body,

Omphacium
is

heals ulcerations of
etc.

the

humid

such as the mouth, tonsillary glands,

The
of

powerful action of omphacium


raisin wine.
It is

modified by the admixture

honey or

very useful, too, for dysentery, spitting

of blood,

and quinsy."
in

And

than olive)

is

XXIII, 39; "The most useful of all kinds of oil (other omphacium. It is good for the gums, and if kept from
is

time to time in the mouth, there


of the whiteness of the teeth.
7.

nothing better as a preservative

It

checks profuse perspiration."


Villars, order
is

Wheat.

Tritkum
says

vulgare,

Graminece.
It is

The
older

cultivation

of wheat,

De

Candolle,

prehistoric.

than the most ancient languages, each of which has independent and
definite names for the grain. The Chinese grew it 2700 B. C. It was grown by the Swiss lake-dwellers about 1500 B. C, and has been found in a brick of one of the Egyptian pyramids dating from about 3350 B. C. Originally it was doubtless a wild grass which under cultivation

assumed varying forms. In the early Roman Empire vast quantities of wheat were raised in Sicily, Gaul, North Africa, and particularly Later a great wheat area was opened Egypt, for shipment to Rome. up in what is now Southern Russia, which finally supplanted Egypt
in the

markets of Constantinople, after Alexandria and Antioch

fell

into Saracen hands.


is

The

trade in

wheat
also

as described in the Periplus

interesting.

It

shows

that South Arabia, Socotra

and East Africa

had wheat not only from Egypt but


usually
(.op.
cit.

from

India,
at

which has not

been considered
p.

as

wheat country

that time.

1082) thinks wild

rice

{_Ory%a coarctata)

Watt may have been

intended, but the Periplus distinguishes between wheat and rice as coming from India. The Hindus might certainly have had the seed from Egypt and cultivated it, but Watt notes the complete absence, so far as known, of wild wheat in modern India.
7.

I itacea.

Wine. The fermented The culture of the vine


It

juice of

J'itis

vinifera, Linn., order

seems

to

have begun in Asia Minor


it

and

Syria, but within the period

of written history
to the gods:

is

almost uni-

versal.

introduction

was ascribed
to

by the Greeks to
or in

Dionysos, the
the case of the

Romans

Bacchus, the P.gyptians to Osiris;


to the patriarch

Hebrews,

Noah.

The

vine and the

77
olive, requiring

continued cultivation from year to year, almost

dis-

tinguish settled civilization

of both industries

from nomadic conditions, and the product appears in commerce from the earliest times.

The wine
from the

time of Ezekiel

Damacus valley was an important export in the (XXVII, 18); of the Greek wines the best were Aegean islands and the Asiatic coast near Ephesus (Strabo,
of the

XIV,

1,

15).

The

Phoenicians carried the vine to Spain, and the


It

was unknown in early Italy, but was which restricted imports of foreign growths, and stimulated exports by restricting viticulture in the provGreeks
to southern Gaul.

fostered by the

Roman

republic,

inces.

In

the

valleys

of

the

Seine

produced

until the later days of the

Roman

and Moselle wine was not Empire.

At

the time of the Periplus, the popular taste

demanded

wine

highly flavored with extraneous substances, such as myrrh and other

gums, cinnamon and

salt.

The
and India.

Periplus

tells

us that Italian and Laodicean wines were im-

ported into Abyssinia, the Somali Coast, East Africa, South Arabia,

Arabian wine was

also carried to India;

this

may have

included grape-wine from

Yemen

( 24) but was principally date-

Italian wine was preferred to wine from the Persian Gulf (36). others ( 49). This was from the plain of Campania, in the vicinity of the modern Naples, whence Strabo tells us (V, VI, 13),
all

"the

Romans procured

their finest wines, the Falernian, the Statanian,

and the Calenian. That of Surrentum is now esteemed equal to these, it having been lately discovered that it can be kept to ripen." Petronius ( Cena Trimakhionis) mentions a Falernian wine which had
been ripened 100 years. The Laodicean wine was from Laodicea on the Syrian
coast,

some 60 miles south


II,

of Antioch, the

modern

Latakia.

Strabo

(XVI,
ter-

9) says:

"it

is

a very well-built city, with a


fertility in
is

good harbor; the

ritory,

besides

its

other respects,

abounds with wine, of

which the
tain

greater part

exported to Alexandria.
is

overhanging the
7.

city

planted almost to

its

The whole mounsummit with vines."


Sanscrit, kasthira;

Tin.

Hebrew,
gold,

bedil;

Greek,

kassiteros;

Latin,

stannum.

This metal, the product of Gahcia and Cornwall,


a comparatively late period, having

was

utilized

industrially at
after

been
It

introduced

silver,

copper, iron, lead, and mercury.

made
found
tribe
;

its

appearance in the Mediterranean world soon after the migra-

tion of the Phoenicians to Syria.


it

The

Phoenician traders

may have
tribe to
it

first

on the Black Sea

coast,

coming overland from


tin

very soon they discovered the Spanish


finally that of

and traced

to

its

source, and

Cornwall.

The

value of tin in hardening

'

78

copper was soon understood, and the trade was monopolized for centuries

by the Phoenicians and their descendants, the Carthaginians.


carefully they guarded

How

the secret of

its

production appears in

V, 11) of the Phcenician captain who, finding himself followed by a Roman vessel on the Atlantic coast of Spain, ran his ship ashore rather than divulge his destination, and collected
Strabo's story (III,
the

damage from

his

government on returning home.


early references
to
this

There
because the

is

much confusion in the Hebrew iedi/ ( meaning

metal,

the departed")

was

also applied

to the metallic residue

from silver-smelting
Pliny, for

a mixture of silver, lead, applies

and occasionally copper and mercury.


to kassiteros

The same comparison


Without any

and stannum.

example, distinguishes plumbum


definite

nigrum, lead, anA


basis for

plumbum candidum, stannum.

determining metals, appearance was often the only guide.


(Fitell.

Suetonius

VI, 192 J says that the Emperor Vitellius took

away
pure

all

the gold and silver from the temples, (69 A.

D.) and

sub-

stituted aurichalcum
tin,

and stannum.

This stannum could not have been

but rather an alloy of lead, like pewter.


letters

The
Amarna

from the King of Alashia

Cyprus), in the Tell-eluse of tin there in the


to

tablets, indicate the possibility of the

15th centun,' B.

C,

and of the shipment of the resultant bronze


separate metal,
III
f

Egypt; and

tin, as a

is

thrice

mentioned

in the

Papyrus

Harris, under

Rameses
in

1198-1167 B.

C).

This confirms the

Numbers XXXI, 22. By the time of Ezekiel (.X'XVII, 12) it was, of course, well known; here it appears with silver, iron, and lead, as coming from Spain. The stela of Tanutamon describes a hall for the god Amon, build by the Pharaoh Taharka at
mention of
tin

Xapata (688-663 B. C.
of cedar incensed with

),

of stqne

ornamented with gold, with a

tablet

myrrh of Punt, and double doors of electrum


vv-as

with bolts of

tin.

(Breasted, Ancient Records of Egypt, Vol. IV).

B\ the Greeks the true tin

understood and extensively used,


to the

and the establishment of

their

colony of Alassilia was largely due

discovery of the British metal

coming overland

to the

mouth

of the

Rhone.
wall,

The Romans

ultimately conquered both Galicia

and Corn-

and then controlled the trade;


it

but to judge from Pliny's ac-

count, their understanding of

was vague.

According
Lassen

to the

Periplus, tin

was shipped from Egypt


1,

to both

Somaliland and India.


(

Indische Alterthuinskundc,

249)

from the
teros,
it v\

similarity

between the Sanscrit


tin

kasthira

and Oppert, arguing and the Greek kassibut


a late addition to the

ould transfer the earliest

trade to India and Malacca;

seems probable

that the' Sanscrit

word was

79

language, borrowed from the


stated by the Periplus in

Greek with
Vol.

the metal

itself;

which,

as

49 and 56, came


Phinizier,
Ill;

to India

from the west.


op. cit.,

See also Movers,


200-230.
8.

Beckmann,

II,

Malao

is

the

modern Berbera, 10

25'

N., 45

5'

E.

It

is

now

the leading port of this coast, the capital of British Somaliland,


interior.

and the center of the caravan trade to the

Glaser iShzze,

BEHBJEHAH
{ SaunSmgs in ^hihonhs.}

From

Burton: First Footsteps in East Africa.

80
p.

196)

would

identify

it

with Bulbar, about 30 miles farther west;


sheltering spit running out
at Berbera,

but the description of the


in

from the east"


just

8,

places

it

beyond doubt

which has

such a

spit,

while Bulbar

is

on the open beach.

the
it,

Burton i^op. at., pp. 407-418) gives a detailed description of town and harbor, of the stream of sweet water flowing into and of the interior trade and the great periodical fair, frequented
interior

by caravans from the

and by

sailing vessels

from Yemen, the


far

South Arabian coast, Muscat, Bahrein and Bassora, and beyond as


as

Bombay;
8.

the

same

trade as that described in 14.

"Far-side" frankincense.

Concerning

frankincense in

general, see under 29-32. of Egypt at the


earlier.
It is,
It

Somali frankincense figures in the trade

time of the Punt expeditions, and probably


different

much

was

from, and often superior

to,

the Arabian.

indeed, possible that the true frankincense


native here,

{Boswellia neglecta)
)

was

and that the Arabian

\arieties (^Boswellia serrata, etc.

were a

later cultivation.

of the text, thinks the


8.

Yet Fabricius (p. 124) in curious disregard Malao frankincense was imported from Arabia!
by Glaser (Skizze, 197) w\th.duakh, which

Duaca
is

is

identified

appears

in several

Arabic inscriptions as a variety of frankincense;


a

duka, he says,

trade-name

in

modern Aden

for a certain quality

of frankincense.

Burton

i_op.

cit.

ning parallel with

this coast,

"4000

to

6000
wild

feet,
fig

416) describes the range of mountains runsome 30 miles inland from Berbera, thickly covered with gum-arabic and frankincense
p.

trees, the
8.

and the Somali pine."

Indian copal.

The

text

is

kankmnon, which

is

mentioned by

Pliny as a dye (probably in confusion with lac);

by Dioscorides as

the exudation of a

(XII, 44) says that

it

wood like myrrh, and used for incense. from the country that produces came
is

PHny
cinna-

mon, through
Glaser iSki%%e,

the Nabataean Troglodyta:', a colony of the Nabataei."

196)

positive that

it

is

no Arabian product.

Col.

Henry Yule identifies it with Indian copal, Alalabar tallow, or white dammar, the gum exuded from Vateria Indica, Linn., order Dipterocarpea; which is described by Watt iop. cit., p. 1105,) as a "large evergreen of the forests at the foot of the Western Ghats from Kanara
to
in

Travancore, ascending to 4000


turpentine or drying
oils,
is

feet.

"

This gum or
is

resin dissolves

and, like copal,

chiefly used for


in

making
and
is

varnishes.

The
is

bark

also very astringent, rich

tannin,

used to control fermentation.


8.

Macir

mentioned by Dioscorides
it

as

an aromatic bark.

Pliny (XII, 16) says that

was brought from

India, being a red bark

'

81

growing upon a large root, bearing the name of the tree that produced it. He was ignorant of the tree itself. A decoction of this bark,

mixed with honey, was used in medicine as a specific for dysentery. Lassen (o/). cit.. Ill, 31) identifies it with makara, a remedy for dysentery, consisting of the root-bark of a tree native on the Malabar
coast;

but he does not identify the tree. This macir was doubtless the root-bark

of Holarrhena antidysen(op.
cit.

terica,

Wall., or Aer ApocynacecE, described by Watt


a small deciduous tree,

p.

640)

as

found throughout India and Burma,


feet,

ascending the lower Himalaya to 3500

and

to a similar altitude
this plant

on the
are

hills

of Southern India.

Both bark and seed of

among

the most important medicines in the

By

the Portuguese this was called

Hindu materia medica. herba malabarica, owing to its great


it

merit in the

treatment of dysentery, they having found

on the

Malabar
liquid

coast.

The

preparation, generally in the form of a solid or


is

extract,

or of a decoction,

astringent,
oil,

antidysenteric and
is

anthelmintic.
in

dyeing.
'

The seeds The wood

yield a fixed
is

and the wood-ash


carving,

used

much

used

for

furniture

and

turnery.
9.

Mundus
text

N., 46 50' E.

modern Bandar Glaser {Shzze, 197) would identify


is

probably the

Hais,
it

10

52'

with Berbera.

But the

gives

'two or three days'

sail'

Mundus,

altogether too

Bulbar and Berbera.

much for And just

the 30 miles,
as

between Malao and more or less, between


'

the

"sheltering spit"

identifies

Berbera as Malao, so does the


as

"island close to shore"

identify Hais
I'

Mundus.

Vivien

de

Saint-Martin

{Le Nord

de

Afrique dans

I'antiquite grecque et romairie, p. 285) describes a small island protecting

this little harbor,


tribes.

and says

it

was much frequented by Arab and Somali


with Burnt Island (11 15' N., 47 15'
is

Miiller's identification

E.

is

less

probable because that island

too far from shore to afford

protection to small vessels.


9.

Mocrotu

was probably a high grade of frankincense.

Glaser
is

199-201) notes that the Arabic name for the best variety mghairot, or in Mahri, mghdr; and that the same word appears
(Skizzc,

in

Somaliland as mokhr.
is

From

this to the

Greek

of the text the change

negligible.

10. Mosyllum is placed by most commentators at Ras Hantara, (11 28' N., 49 35' E.) Glaser prefers Ras Khamzir (10 55'N., 45 50' E. ) many miles farther west. The text gives no help in the

way of local description. It is noteworthy Ocean begins here; ignoring not only

that Pliny says the Atlantic

the

coast

of

Azania,

as

82

described in 15, but the


bly, therefore, rather a

Cape

of Spices

itself.

Mosyllum was probacoast, altogether

prominent headland on the

such as Ras Hantara.


This, by the way, was reputed to have been the eastward limit of
the

conquests

of

Ptolemy Euergetes,

King of Egypt,

in

the

3d

century B. C.
10.

Cinnamon. The
XXVII,
19,

text

is

kasia,

from Hebrew

kma

fPs.

XLV,
meant

8; Ezek.

XXX,
the

24), the

modern
which

cassia.

This
up into
2i

usually, in

Roman

times,

wood

split

lengthwise, as disrolled

tinguished from the flower-tips and tender bark,


small pipes and

was

called kinnamomon,

khinemon

(Exod.

XXX,

23,

Prov.

iromWchrcw kheneh, \\\ 17, Cant. IV, 14);

pi^e^;

Latin

canna, French cannelle.

Cinnamon and

cassia

are

the flower-tips, bark,

several varieties of laurel native in India, Tibet,

and wood of Burma and China.


classify

Engler and Prantl, Die Naiiirlichen Pflanzenfamilien,


follows

them

as

Lauracae
Persoideae

Cinnamomeas:
1.

Cinnamomum
Sect.
1.

Malabathrum
including C. javaneum

C. cassia C. zeylanicum
C. culilawan

C. tamala C. iners
Sect. 2.

Camphora
including C.

camphora

C. parthenoxylon

Cinnamon
anointing
oil

is

mentioned

as

one of the ingredients of the sacred

Hebrew priests (Exod. XXX). The Egyptian inscriptions of Queen Hatshepsut's expedition, in the 15th century B. C. mention cinnamon wood as one of the "marvels of the
of the
,

country of Punt" which were brought back to Egypt.

Cinnamon was
was used

familiar to both the

as an incense,

and

as a flavor in oils

Greeks and Romans, and and salves. It is menDioscorides gives


the best sort
in

tioned by Hippocrates, Theophrastus, and Pliny. a long description of


is
it
it.

He

says

it

"grows

Arabia;

red, of a fine color, almost like coral;


bites

straight, long,

and pipy, and


best sort
is

on the palate with a

slight sensation of heat.

The

'

that called %igir, with a scent like a rose.

many names, from


sort
is

the different places


like the casta

that

which

is

The cinnamon has where it grows. But the best of Mosyllum, and this cinnamon is
. .

called Mosyllitic, as well as the cassia.

' '

And this cinnamon, he


is

says,

when
full

fresh, in

its

greatest perfection,

of a dark color, something

between the color of wine and


of knots, and very fragrant.
'

a dark ash, like a small twig or spray

Roman
latter at

writers

distinguish
at

between true cinnamon and

cassia;

the former was valued

50 denarii.

1500 denarii (about $325) the pound; the The Periplus makes no distinction; cassia" it

at Mosyllum and Opone, and the "harder cassia" at Malao. Cinnamon, under the Empire, probably meant the tender shoots and flower-tips of the tree, which were reserved for the emperors and paCassia was tricians, and distributed by them on solemn occasions. the commercial article, and included the bark, the split wood, and the The Romans could not distinguish between species, and their root. classification was according to the appearance of the product as it came

mentions

to them.

As
thence.

to

the country of origin,

Herodotus (book III)

states that
it

cassia was from Arabia;

naturally so, as the Phoenicians brought

He

distinguishes cinnamon,

and gives a fabulous

story of

its

recovery from the nests of great birds

in those countries in

which

The Bacchus was nursed," which in Greek legend meant India. Periplus says that it was produced in Somaliland, to which Strabo and other Roman writers refer as the regio cinnamomifera in the same belief.
But there
is

no sign of a cinnamon
it

tree in that region at present,

where

the requisite conditions of soil and climate do not exist.

Pliny

(VI, 29) indicates that

(XVI, IV, 14) (XXI, 42)


in

says that

was merely trans-shipped there. Strabo came from the "far interior" of this it
Pliny

region, and that nearer the coast only the "false cassia" grew.
says that
it

came from Aethiopia and was brought


by the Troglodytes,

over

vast tracts of sea"

to Ocelis

who

took

five years

Here are indications that the true cinnamaking the round trip. brought from India and the Far East to the Somali coast, and there mixed with bark from the laurel-groves mentioned in 11 The Periplus and by Strabo, and taken thence to Arabia and Egypt. notes also (10) the "larger ships" required at Mosyllum for the cinnamon trade. This was probably the very midst of the Land of Punt" whence the Egyptian fleet brought cinnamon 15 centuries

mon was

before.

In India various barks and twigs are sold as cassia and cinnamon,

and according to

Watt

(/>.

cit., p.

313)

it is

still

almost impossible to

84

distinguish them.
torically the first to

Cassia bark iC.

cassia,

or Cassia lignea) was his-

be known, and the best qualities came from China,


first

where
Chini,

it

is

recorded

about 2700 B. C.

The Malabar

bark was

less valuable.

Persian

records invariably refer to cinnamon as

Dar

"Chinese bark;"

there

was an

acti\e

and between the 3d and 6th centuries A. D. sea-trade in this article, in Chinese ships, from

China

to Persia.

Marco Polo
and Tibet.

describes

cinnamon

as

growing

in

Malabar, Ceylon,

The

British East India

Company's

records

show
II,

that

it

came usually from China; and Millburn (Or. Comm. 1813, describes both bark and buds, and warns traders against the
dark and badly packed" product of Malabar.

500)

coarse,

Since the later years of the 18th century the variety C. %eylanicum

has been extensively culti\ated in Ceylon; but the best quality is still shipped from Canton, being from C. Cassia, native throughout Assam,

Burma, and Southern China. It seems altogether probable that the true cinnamon of the ancient Egyptian and Hebrew records, of
Herodotus and Pliny, reached the Mediterranean nations from no
nearer place than Burma, and perhaps through the Straits of Malacca

Many, indeed, must have been the hands through long journey to Rome. The malabathriini of the Romans, which they bought in India while still unable to obtain cinnamon there, was the leaves of three
from China itself. which it passed on
its

varieties:

that of the

Malabar mountains from C. %eylanicum, and


C. tamala, with a
all

that

of the Himalayas

from

little

from

C. iners.

These
in April,

trees are

of fairly large growth, evergreen, rising to

about 6000 feet

altitude.

The

tree flowers in January, the fruit ripens

and the bark is full of sap in May and June, when it is The strippings stripped off and forms the best grade of cinnamon. of later months are not so delicate and are less valued.
See Watt,
II,
op.

at.,

pp.
II,

310-313;
130,

Lassen,

op. cit.,

I,

279-285,

555-561;

\'incent,

701-16;
Polo,

Fluckiger and
II,

Hanbury,
56, 315,

Pharmacographia, 519-527;

Marco

Yule Ed.,
Roy.
Ir.

49,

389;
Coll.,
I,

and for malabathrum or folium

indicuin,

see Garcia de Orta,

XXIIl;

also

comment by

Ball in

Acad., 3d
II,

ser.

409;
11.

also Linschoten,

Voy. E. Ind.

(Ed. Hakl. Soc),


is

131.

Little Nile River.

The

text

Neilopotamion

perhaps a
is

reflection of
ptolemaion,

Egyptian Greek settlement.


also suggest a

Another reading

Neilo-

which might
But
in
east.

connection with one of the


is

Ptolemies.

Egyptian records there

no mention of settlement
30'

or conquest sn far

Miiller identifies this river with the

Tokwina (11

N.

49

'

85

55' E. )

which empties below

a mountain,

Jebel Haima,

3800

feet

high;

there are ancient ruins here.

The

"small laurel grove" he

places at Bandar

Muriyeh (11

40' N., 50 25' E.),

below the Jebel

Muriyeh, 4000
11.

feet high.

Cape Elephant

seems
It is

to be the

modern Ras
fil
is

el

Fil,

or

Filuk, 12 0' N., 50 32' E.

promontory 800

feet high,

about

40 miles west of Cape Guardafui.

The word
thfe

said

also to

mean

elephant,

'

'

and the shape of


just this

headland suggests the name.


the promontory.

A -river
(Siizze,

empties into the gulf

east of
far
east,

Glaser

and prefers Ras Hadadeh (48 45' E. ). Elephant River he identifies with the Dagaan (49 E. ) or the Tokwina (49 55' E. ), from which the modern fiusus frank199) thinks
is

too

incense
zir,

is

brought to Aden.
is

But by placing Mosyllum


11.

at

Ras Khamthe "south{^

Glaser

entirely too far west to

admit of covering the remainder


{>

of this coast in two days' journey, as stated in


erly

And

trend" of the coast


at

just

before Guardafui, mentioned in

12, fixes

Cape Elephant

Ras

el Fil.

Glaser objects to the relatively short two days'

sail

between Ras

Hantara and Guardafui

but he

fails to

take into account the prevailing


justify a shorter day's sail in

calms north of the cape, which would


that vicinity than farther west,
Salt (op.
cit.,

where the winds are


Scarcely had

steadier.

97-8) says:

we

got round the cape

(Guardafui) when the wind deadened.

we had made

scarcely any progress.


us.

At daylight we found that The same marks on the shore

remained the whole day abreast of


11.

Acannae

is

identified

with Bandar Ululah,


Saris,

12

0'

N.,

50 42' E.

McCrindle notes

that Captain

an English navia bay,

gator, called here in 1611,

and reported a

river,

emptying into

offering safe anchorage for three ships abreast.

Several sorts of gums,

very sweet in burning, were

still

purchased by Indian ships from the

Gulf of Cambay, which touched here for that purpose on their voyage
to

Mocha.
12.

The Cape
or
'

of Spices
2500

is,

of course,

the

Guardafui,
scribes
it

Ras

Asir,

11 50' N., 51
feet high,

16' E.

modern Cape McCrindle deif


it

as

a bluff point,

as perpendicular as
it

were scarped.

The

current

comes round
it is

out

of the

Gulf (of

Aden) with such


Cape

violence that
S.

wind, and during the

not to be stemmed without a brisk

monsoon

to the north there

is

a stark

the moment you are past the calm with insufferable heat."

i6

Ka Frlnk

}PtS.

4 Imujum Jiftant.

Cx^eGaxihifai(3}an//Wig^LaaAbnASaaSh^JS2ar^/utaa^.

From

Salt:

Voyage

into Abyssinia.

This
14)

is

the

Southern

Horn"

of Strabo,

after doubling this

cape toward the south,

scriptions of harbors or places, because

who says (,X\'I, IV, we have no more denothing is known of the sea-

coast

beyond

this

point."

Pliny prefers the account of

from
at

earlier information, in

King Juba of Mauretania, compiled which the end of the continent is placed
this Periplus,

Mosyllum;

so that

if
it

he had before him


gives of this coast.
is

he ignored

completely the account

The Market of Spices


Strabo 's description
is

identified

by Glaser {Skizze,
Cape.
:

II,

20)
the

with the modern Olok, on the N.

W.
(

side of the

as follows

XVI, IV, 14)


it

"Next

is

country which produces frankincense;

has a promontory and a


is

temple with a grove of poplars.


Nilus, both of
filled

In the inland parts

a tract along

the banks of a river bearing the

name

of

Isis,

and another that of


Also a lagoon

which produce myrrh and frankincense.

with water from the mountains;

next the watchpost of the Lion, next tract bears the false cassia.

and the port of Pythangelus.

The

There

are

many

tracts in succession

on the

sides of rivers
to the

frankincense grows,

and

rivers

extending

on which cinnamon country.

The river which bounds this tract produces rushes in abundance. Then follows another river, and the port of Daphnus, and a valley
called Apollo's,,

which
is

bears, besides frankincense,

myrrh and cinnaand a creek;

mon. Next

The
is

latter

more abundant

in

places far in the interior.

the mountain Elephas projecting into the sea,

then the large harbor of Psygmus, a watering-place called that of the Cynocephali, and the
last

promontory of

this coast,

Notu Ceras (the


5'

Southern Horn)."
12.

Tabae
Siizze,

is
)

placed by iVIuUer at the Ras Chenarif, 11


thinks the distance from

N.

Glaser

201

Olok

too great, and

places Tabae just behind the eastern point of the cape.

87

13.
is

Pano

is

probably Ras Binna, 11 12' N., 51

7'

E.

modern

village

afFords shelter

on the north side, a little west of the from the S. W. monsoon.

point,

There which

1.?. Opone is the remarkable headland now known as Ras Hafun, 10 25' N., 51 25' E., about 90 miles below Cape Guardafui.

Glaser finds a connection between these names, Pano and Opone,


the Egyptian

"Land

of

Punt" or

Poen-at, the island Pa-anch of the


II,

Egyptians (Socotra), the incense-land Panchaia of Virgil {Georgics,

"Totaque turiferis Panchaia pinguis arenis,") and the Puni or Phoenicians; who, he thinks, divided as they left their home in the Persian Gulf (the islands of King Erythras in the story quoted by
139;

Agatharchides)

one branch going

to the coasts of Syria, the other to

those of South Arabia and East Africa.


13.

Cinnamon produced. A
S.
,

letter

from Mr. R. E. Drake-

Brockman, F. Z. maliland, and now


1910, says:

F.

R. G.

S.

(author of The

Mammals of

So-

at

work on Somali

Flora) dated Berbera, January 7,

"The Horn
aromatifera

of Africa'

was known

to the

Romans

as

the
that

regio

on account of the

large quantities of

myrrh

were

exported.

The
resins.

country abounds in the various species of the acacias,


of varying

which produce gums


producing
nor have

commercial value,

also certain trees

"I have so
I

far not

come

across any trees of the

cinnamon group,
is

heard of their existence.


tree

The
Somalis,
is

producing myrrh, or malmal as


to penetrate the
it

it

known

to the
I

called garron;

but owing to the activities of the Mullah

have never been able


tain countries

southern Dholbanta and Mijer-

where

grows.
3
:

And

again,

March

"I have never heard of the exportation of

It is just possible that there cinnamon from this part of Africa. might be some species of laurels in the Dholbanta country and south of it, but it is not possible to venture so far owing to the hostility of

the Mullah."

was any aromatic bark produced near Cape Guardafui it seems almost certain that it was adulterant added there to the true cinnamon, that came from India. an
If there

and not merely trans-shipped there,

14.
in

Ships
I,

from Ariaca. The


is

antiquity

of

Hindu

trade

East Africa

asserted by Speke

{Discovery of the Source

of

the

Nik, Chaps.
the

V, X).

The

Puranas described the Mountains of

Moon

and the Nyanza

lakes,

and mentioned
is

as

the source of

the Nile the "country of


district

Amara," which

the native

name

of the

north of Victoria Nyanza.

A map

based on this description,

'

drawn by
Ill,

Lieut. W'ilford,

was printed

in the Asiatic Researches, Vol.

1801.

'Nothing was ever written concerning their Country of the

Moon,
slaves

as far as

we know,

until

the

Hindus,

who

traded with the


its

east coast of Africa,

opened commercial dealings with

people

in

and

ivory, possibly

some time

prior to the birth of our Saviour,

when, associated with their name. Men of the A4oon, sprang into existence the Mountains of the Moon. These Men of the Moon
are hereditarily the greatest traders in Africa,

and are the only people,

who,

for love of barter

and change,

will leave their

porters and go to the coast, and they do so with as

own country as much zest as our


done
their

country-folk go to a
this,

fair.
it

As

far

back as

we can

trace they have

and they

still

do

as heretofore.

The Hindu
intercourse

traders had a firm basis to stand upon,

from

with the Abyssinians

through
of the

whom

they must have

heard of the country of Amara, which they applied to the Nyanza

and with the If'anyamuezi or


missionaries,

Men

Moon, from whom


mountains.

they

heard of the Tanganyika and

Karague

Two

church

Rebmann and

Erhardt, without the smallest knowledge


their

of the Hindus'

map, constructed a map of

own, deduced from


whilst to their

the Zanzibar traders, something on the same scale, by blending the


Victoria Nyanza, Tanganyika, and Nyassa into one;

triuned lake they gave the

name

of

Moon, because

the

Men

of the

Moon happened to
less

live in front of the central lake.'


first

This trading-voyage of the

century by Indian vessels, although

extended, was in other respects similar to that of the Arab traders


cit.,

of a century ago as described by Salt (op.

p.

103)
traders
is
it

The common
they depart from the

track pursued by the

Arab

as follows:

Red Sea
In

in

August (before which

is

dangerous

to \enture out of the gulf), then

proceed to Muscat, and thence to


they cross over to the coast of

the coast of Malabar.


Africa,
visit

December
direct

Alogdishu,
Islands;

Merka,

Barawa, Lamu,
their course

Malindi, and the


to

Querimbo
Islands,

they then

the

Comoro

and the northern ports of Madagascar, or sometimes stretch down southward as far as Sofala this occupies them until after April,
;

when

they run up into the

Red

Sea,

where they

arrive in time to refit

and prepare a fresh cargo


14.

for the following year."

The products
The

of their

own

places.

For
is

a discussion

of the products of

India imported into the Somali ports, see later,

under 41.

important thing to be noted here

that these ag-

ricultural products

were regularly shipped,


that these vessels

in Indian vessels,

from the

Gulf of Cambay;

exchanged

their cargoes at

Cape

Guardafui and proceeded along the coast, some southward, but most

westward

Red

Sea,

beyond.

and that, according to 25, Ocelis, at the entrance to the was their terminus, the Arabs forbidding them to trade Between India and Cape Guardafui they apparently enjoyed

the bulk of the trade, shared to


quite recently

some

extent by Arabian shipping and

by Greek ships from Egypt;

on the Somali coast they

shared the trade in an incidental way;

and they received their return

cargoes at Ocelis and shared none of the

Red Sea

trade,

which

in

former times the Arabs of

Yemen

had monopolized, but

in the days

of the Ptolemies the Egyptians had largely taken over.

the

At the time of the Periplus, owing to the conquest of Egypt by Romans, the establishment of the Axumite Kingdom, and a settled

policy in

Rome

of cultivating direct

commercial understanding, or

alliance,

(which had existed


longer),
strong
is

certainly

for

communication with India, this between Arabia and India 2000 years and probably much

shown to be at the point of extinction; but still to be enough for the Romans to know the cinnamon-bark only as a
commerce, they knew (
56, 65)

product of the Arabian tributary, Somaliland, while the cinnamon-leaf,


a later article of

under the name

of malabathrum, as a product of India and Tibet.


14.

Clarified butter.
to the
in his

The

text

is

boutyron.

Some

of

the

commentators object
and Fabricius,
to

word (Lassen and Fabricius especially) notes (p. 130) thinks it would be very wrong
this

suppose that butter could have been brought from India, in

hot

chmate, to the eastern coast of Africa."


substitutes, as

Therefore they propose

The
will

noted under 41. voyage from India to Africa by the N. E. monsoon


to

may

have averaged 30

40

days.

As shown under
Footsteps, pp.

41, clarified butter

keep

in the tropics

not only for years, but for centuries; but the

account given by Burton (First

modern caravans

take

it

for trips of six

136 and 247) shows that weeks or more, under the same
in his

hot climate of Somaliland;


of the Berbera Fair,
in jars,
tells

and Lieut. Cruttenden,


of

description

modern Cambay

ships laden with

ghee

bought

in

Somaliland for trade elsewhere;


is,

probably along the

Arabian coast.
butter,

That
it

the Somali had learned the art of clarifying

that

of

century by the same class of ships them from India in the 1st century. A'lungo Park found the same product entering into the commerce the much more humid Senegal coast of West Africa:

and exported
it

in the 19th

had brought

to

"The
not until

Foulahs use the milk chiefly as an


sour.

article of
is

diet,

and

that
is

it is

The cream which


stirring
it

it

affords

very thick, and

converted into butter by

violently in a large calabash.

This

90

butter,

when melted
it

over a gentle

fire,

and freed from impurities,

is

preserved in small earthen pots, and forms a part in most of their


dishes;
liberally

serves likewise to anoint their heads,


their faces

and

is

bestowed very
Park,

on

and arms."
^

{^Travels of

Mungo

Lon-

don:

1799.
14.

Chap. IV

Honey from
It

the reed called sacchari


European world of sugar
to

is

the

first

menof
is

tion in the history of the

as

an

article

commerce. Prakrit form

was known

Pliny as a medicine.

Sacchari

the

of the Sanscrit sarkara,

Arabic sukkar, Latin saccharum.

Grinding sugar in Western India

The modern
sugar
It
is

languages reflect the Arabic form


suc?-c,

Portuguese,

assucar,

Spanish azucar, French

German

zucker,

English sugar.

The

derived from Saccharum officinarum, Linn., order Graminea.


in India,

was produced
it

Burma,

Anam

and Southern China, long


to

before

found

its

way

to

Rome, and seems

have been cultivated

and crushed
14.

first

in India.

Exchange
Opone and

their cargoes.
elsewhere,
is

This

trade

of

the Indian

ships at

so like that described on the

same

91

coast by Lieut. Cruttenden in 1848, that his account deserves to be

quoted

in full:

"From

April to early October," (the quotation

is

from Burton,
the coast,

First Footsteps,

408-10), "the place

is

deserted.

No

sooner does the


Small craft from

season change than the inland tribes

move down toward

and prepare
the ports of

their huts for their expected visitors.

Yemen,

anxious to have an opportunity of purchasing

before \essels from the gulf could arrive, hastened across, followed two

weeks later by their larger brethren from Muscat, Sur, and Ras the valuably freighted hagalas from Bahrein, Bassora, and Graen. Lastly, the fat and wealthy Banian traders from Porebandar, Mandavi and Bombay, rolled across in their clumsy kotias, and with a formidable row of empty ghee-jars slung over the quarters of their vessels, elbowed themselves into a permanent position in the front tier of craft in the harbor, and by their superior capital, cunning, and influence soon distanced all competitors.
or three
el

Khyma, and

During the height of the


fusion as in languages;

fair
is

no chief

there is a perfect Babel, in conacknowledged, and the customs

of bygone days are the laws of the place.

Disputes between the in-

land tribes daily arise, and are settled by the spear and dagger, the

combatants retiring to the beach


order that they
arriving

at a short distance

from the town,

in

may

not disturb the trade.

Long

strings of

camels are

alone, until at a distance

and departing day and night, escorted generally by women from town; and an occasional group of
interior.

dusty and travel-worn children marks the arrival of the slave-caravan

from the

"Here

the Somali or Galla

slave

merchant meets

his

corre-

spondent from Bassora, Bagdad or Bandar Abbas;


skin in lieu of a wig,

and the savage

Gudabirsi, with his head tastefully ornamented with a scarlet sheepis

seen peacefully bartering his ostrich feathers

and gums with the smooth-spoken Banian from Porebandar, who,


prudently living on board his ark, and locking up his puggaree, which

would

infallibly

be knocked off the instant he was seen wearing

it,

exhibits but a small portion of his wares at a time,

under a miserable

mat spread on the beach.

"By
all

the end of

March
and

the fair
sailing

is

nearly at an end, and craft of


of three or

kinds, deeply laden,

generally in parties

four,

commence
is

their

homeward

journey.
is

By

the

first

the place

again deserted, and nothing

left to

week in April mark the site of a

town

lately

containing 20,000 inhabitants, beyond bones of slaughtered

"
92

camels and sheep, and the framework of a few huts, which


piled

is

carefully

on the beach
15.

in readiness for the

ensuing year."

The Bluffs of Azania


at

Hazin, ending
15.

Ras

el

are the rugged coast Kyi, 7 44' N., 49 40' E.

known

as El

The Small and great beach


ending
at

coast,"

Ras Aswad, 4
than the

30'

is the Sif el Tauil or "low but this is N., 47 55' E.


;

actually a longer course

bluffs,

whereas the Periplus

rates

them both
15.

as six days' journey.

tending below the equator.


sections, the
first

The Courses of Azania are the strips of The Arabs divide this
called
'coast of harbors."

desert coastex-

coast into

two

Barr Ajjan (preserving the ancient namej,


Sarapion

the

second Benadir, or

may

be the

modern Mogdishu, 2 5' N., 45 25' E. Nicon is, perhaps, the modern Barawa, \ 10' N., 44 5' E. The "rivers and anchorages" are along the modern / Z);a/r or coast of islands.
Concerning the name Azania, R. N. Lyne,
Contemporary
Polo, have
Times,
in his Zan-zihar in

and Col. Henry Yule,


interest.

much of

The name

zibar (the Portuguese

form of

Marco modern ZanZanghibar), which Marco Polo applied


in
his edition of

survives in the

not only to the island, but to the whole coast;


derived from bar, coast, and zang, black:
the

and

it

is

popularly

land of the blacks."

But

name seems

to

be older, and to refer to the ancient Arabic and

Persian division of the world into three sections. Hind, Sind and Zinj, wherefrom even European geographers in mediaeval times classified East Africa as one of the Indies, and Marco Polo located Abyssinia in Middle India. Cosmas Indicopleustes, writing in the 6th century A. D., indicates that the whole Zingi" coast, to a point certainly below Mogdishu, was subject to the Abyssinian Kingdom. Yule notes that the Japanese Encyclopaedia describes a 'country of the Tsengu in the S. ocean, where there is a bird called pheng, which in its flight eclipses the sun. It can swallow a camel, and its quills are used for water casks." This is doubtless the Zanghibar coast, the name and legend reaching Japan through the Arabs.
'
'

The

lack of distinction in ancient geography between Asia and

Africa goes back to the


B. C. divided the

dawn
into

of

letters.

Hecataeus in the 6th century

world

two equal continents


it.

Europe, north
it

of

the Mediterranean;

Asia, south of
is

Around them ran the ocean


to ancient

stream.
ature.

The

distinction
(

supposed to have been based on temper-

T oxer
a(^u

History of Ancient Geography, p. 69) refers

Assyria,

(sunrisej and irih (darkness' frequently occurring in in-

scriptions there.

93

94

15.

The Pyralaae Islands


of which there
coast.
is is

are

evidently Patta,

Manda, and

Lamu, back
empty
into
it,

a thoroughfare, the only protected

waterway on the whole


and Lamu,
2 18'
with
S.

This

is

the "channel;" several rivers

and there
,

a passage to the ocean between

Manda
to

40 50' E.

Vincent's identification of the


of a canal

"channel"

Mombasa, on account

now known

have been dug there


15.

much

later,

is

impossible.

Ausanitic Coast.
Periplus,
;

Ausan

was a

district

of Kataban in

South Arabia, which had been absorbed by Himyar shortly before the
time of the

hence the natural

result, that a

dependency of

the conquered

state

should be exploited for the advantage of the

Homerite
15.

port,

Muza.

Menuthias.
material
(at about 5 S.

This whole passage


The
first
).

is

corrupt,

and there are

probably

omissions.

island

south of

Manda
is

is

Pemba
the

But the topographic description

perhaps
in

truer to Zanzibar (about 6 S. j,

and the name seems perpetuated


S. ).

modern Monfiyeh (about 8

Our

author was possibly un-

acquainted with this coast, and included in his work hearsay reports

from some seafaring acquaintance,


three
islands
is

in
is

which he may have lumped the


describing places he has visited

into

one;

or

if

he

(which

suggested by the mention of the local fishing-baskets and

the like),
16.

some

scribe

may have

omitted a whole section of the

text.

Rhapta.
text

This

location depends on the condition of the

preceding

If that be Pemba, Rhapta would be the modern Pangani (5 25' S., 38 59' E. ), at the mouth of the river of the same name if Zanzibar, it would be at or near Bagamoyo (6 31' S., 38 50' E. ); if Monfiyeh, the modern

regarding the island Alenuthias.

Kilwa (8
that
exist
is,
if

57'

S.

39 38' E.

).

\^incent's insistence

very likely well grounded, from the suggestion of the ancient


the text
close
is

upon Kilwa is name;

a mutilated description of three islands


last

known

to

market-town of the continent" would naturally be below the southernmost island, Monfiyeh. But
in

proximity, the

the distances given by Ptolemy between Rhapta and


for the

Prasum suggest

former a location near Bagamoyo, perhaps Dar-es-Salaam, (6 42' S., 39 5' E. ). The Prasum of Ptolemy, the farthest point

in 'Africa

known
to

to him,

is

evidently

Cape Delgado (10

30'

S.

40

30' E.).

was due

Menuthias with Madagascar the discoveries of the Saracens, and is impossible for Rolater identification of
its

The

man

times.

Rhapta, Glaser notes, has


to bind.

name from an Arabian word

rahta,

95

^HlPI^'t

96

16.

Great in stature.
in Africa,

"The
Arab

whole system of slaveholding


at

by the Arabs

or rather on the coast or

Zanzibar,

is

ex-

ceedingly strange;

for the slaves, both in individual strength and in


to the

numbers, are so superior

foreigners, that

if

they chose to
It

rebel, they might send the Arabs flying out of the land.

happens,

however, that they are spell-bound, not knowing their strength any

more than domestic animals, and they seem to consider that they would be dishonest if they ran away after being purchased, and so
brought pecuniary loss on their owners."
duction.
16.
)

(Speke,

op.

cit.,

intro-

Sovereignty of the state that

is

become

first in

Arabia.
Arabs.

vivdd picture

is

here given us of the early policies of the

Prevented by superior force from expanding northward, but


their stronger neighbors, they

useful commercially to
exploit Africa.
activities in the

were

free to

The

early Egyptian records bear testimony to their

second millennium B.
in

C,

if

not

earlier.

The

Au-

sanitic

Coast" mentioned
that state

15 was probably a possession of Ausan

was independent, which was not later than the 7th Later the coast became Katabanic, then Sabaean, then From the 3d to the 6th centuries A. D. according to Homerite. the Adulis inscription and Cosmas Indicopleustes, it was Abyssinian.

when

century B. C.

In

Mohammedan

times

it

returned to the Arab allegiance, and until

Zanzibar and the adjacent coast accepted the English protectorate they

were dependencies of the Sultan of Muscat. Glaser has well expressed this undoubted fact of Arab dominion We must finally abandon the idea that Moham{Skizze, II, 209)
'
;

med was
history.

the

first

to bring Arabia into a leading position in the world's

So long as

Rome

and Persia (and Egypt and Babylon before

them) retained their power, the Arabs could expand in Africa only. But as soon as these states became exhausted, then Arabia burst forth (See also Punt und irresistibly and overflowed the northern world."
die Siidarabischen Reiche,

20-23.

Previous translators of the Periplus have

much misunderstood

the

meaning
16.

of this passage in the text.

Arab captains
Mauch
in

who know

the whole coast.

The
in

discovery by Carl

1871, of strange temple-like structures

northern Rhodesia, led to a great deal of wild assumption as to their


history.

The

ruins are loosely-built stone enclosures,

some

of

them

irregularly elliptical in form,

having conical

pillars

within,

and ap-

parently facing North, East and West.


situated

The

largest of

them were

somewhat South

of the present Salisbury-Beira railway line,

near the upper waters of the Sabi River and within reach of the trade

97

of Sofala,

known
It

to

a;val times.

was

have been frequented by Arab traders in mediat once assumed that they were of Sabasan or

Phoenician origin and of great antiquity.


ously but uncritically written up.
Rhodesia,

The

subject

was volumin-

by Hall

and Neal,

See for instance Ancient Ruins of London, 1894; Monomotapa, by A.


Cities

W'ilmot, London, 1896, and The Ruined


J.

of Mashonaland, by

T. Bent, London, 1902.

The
ubiquitous

appearance of the structures suggested the form of ancient


locality

Arabian temples, and the


land of

Ophir"

of

was at once identified with the King Solomon's voyages. Professor


31 10' E.
)

Miiller {Burgen und Schlosser, II, 20), noted a resemblance between

the
at

Zimbabwe
iMarib,

enclosure (20 30' S

and the temple


of Southern

the capital of the ancient Sabaean

kingdom

Arabia.
there
is

The whole argument was


no reference
si.x

of course

pure assumption, as

in ancient literature to

any knowledge of the


Sofala.

African coast within

hundred miles of the port of

Dr.

Da\id Randall-Maciver made a careful investigation of the ruins in 1905, and proved conclusively in his account of that work, Mediceval Rhodesia, London, 1906, that the structures were the work of negroes,
probably Kaffirs, of the so-called kingdom of Monomotapa.
of

A piece
cement
at

Nankin china

of the late mediaeval period, found in the

the bottom of one of the structures,


earlier

showed

that they could not date

than the 14th or 15th century.

They were

enclosures for de-

fence, rudely built of loose stone, and their supposed orientation

was

found

to be inexact

and probably accidental.

this

done by Dr. Maciver in disproving the antiquity of Kaffir kraal did not, however, need to be supplemented by his
service

The

denial (pp. 1-2) of the probability of Arabian trade far


at a very early age.

down this coast


some
distance

The

Periplus mentions Rhapta,

south of the Zanzibar

islands, as the last settlement

on the coast; and

Dr. Maciver may have known the Ptolemy describes Cape Delgado. only through the account given by Guillain in 1856 {DocuPeriplus
mcnts sur
at all
I'histoire,

la g'eographie et le

commerce de

l' Afrique

Orientale), but

events he ignores the detailed account given in both those works,


the Periplus the statement
S. )

is definitely made that this whole was "subject under some ancient right to the sovereignty of the power which held the primacy in Arabia; " that is, in the 1st century A. D. the right was still so ancient as to be beyond

and

in

coast (to about 10

the explanation of the merchant

who

described

it.

The

coast

was

frequented by Arab ships in command of Arab captains who knew the harbors, spoke the language of the natives and intermarried with

them.

98

This condition
the

is

corroborated by the

known Arab
is

infusion in the

negro peoples on the whole coast, which

of far earlier origin than

Mohammedan

colonization.

\\'ho were the natives and what was their language, as


tioned in the
Periplus?

men-

Rev.

J.

Torrend,

S.

J.,

in

a
its

paper read
Proceedings

before the Rhodesia Scientific Association, included in


(\', 2,

Buluwayo, 1905), analyzes the languages of the coast and

finds a striking similarity

empties below the island of

between the speech of the Tana Ri\ er, which Lamu about 2 4U' S., and that of the
S. ).

lower Zambesi C18-19

He

gives

a long comparative

list

of

words

in

these so-called

identical.

saying that
that the that

Pokomo and Cizimba tongues, evidently He quotes Dr. Krapf and other German philologists as the Pokomo is the aboriginal language of the coast, and
is

modern Swahili
is

derived from

it;

and he himself believes

the Cizimba
to

e\en

more

primiti\

e,

and that

it

gives

the

key

most of the modern


full

dialects

of the southern

coast.

Father

Torrend,

of the Sofala-Ophir theory, argues that the language

was

brought from the

Tana River

to the

Zambesi, not by land because the


by
sea,

modern
ticularly

tribes are of peaceful disposition, but rather

and parArabia.

by sea-traders, assuming such


is

to

have
it is

come from

The

assumption

certainly far-fetched, as

hardly likely that any

traffic,

ho\ve\er busy, would have brought


it

this

negro language and


different tribe.

transplanted

1500 miles down the coast

to a

The

suggestion

is

rather that this branch of the Bantu race migrated south-

ward within

historical times,

through the African

rift-\alley,

and that the

modern

tribes

of

the lower Zambesi, said to be speaking to-day the

most primitive language, are their descendants, while those who remained on the Tana have had their speech modified more notably by
later contact

with the outside world.


Cizimba, borne by the

The name
Agisymha of the

Roman

geographers;

modern dialect, suggests the which was known to them

through the report of an adventurous youth, Julius Alaternus,

who

months southward from the Garamantes (Fezzan), and brought back word of a region abounding in rhinoceros, inhabited by negroes and bearing that name Ptolemy, I, 8, 5 J. It seems not

marched

for four

an unreasonable assumption that he did reach the head-waters of the Nile and found somewhere
this in that great

rift-valley the

ancestors of

Bantu

tribe

which

later

migrated southward and formed,

among

other confederations, the so-called A'lonomotapa of the medi;val geographers.

This

rift-valley of

East Africa

is

a striking feature of
its

its

topog-

raphy, and must have had a great bearing on

early trade.

good

99

description

is

given by Prof.
It
is

J.

M.

Gregory, {The Great Rift


the

Valley,

London, 1896).
shore of the

a natural depression beginning at the lower

Red

Sea between

Massowa and

straits,

taking a south-

westerly direction through Abyssinia to the British and

German
it

East

African possessions, including lakes Rudolf, Nyanza, Tanganyika and


Nyassa, and running almost to the Zambesi.
that this valley

While
it

is

unKkely

was ever

at

one time under the control of any Arabian

power,

it is

probable that the tribes inhabiting

were
and

in

less j;egular

commercial

relations with the North,

that
its

more or it was a

more important avenue


healthy swamps.
gold,
It
is

of trade than the sea-coast with

broad un-

indeed quite possible that the Mashonaland

which

lay at

no

great distance south of the valley, might to

some

extent have found

its

way along

this natural trade-route

by exchantxe

antiquity of the

and it is entirely unnecessary, in disproving the Mashonaland ruins, to attempt to disprove the manifest fact of early Arab influence and infusion along the East African coast. Neither is it necessary to deny the general infiltration of early Arabian culture in two directions from the head-waters of the Nile, southward down the rift-valley, and westward through the Sudan toward the Gulf
from
tribe to tribe;

of Guinea.
beliefs

In fact

this general
is

spread of culture, folk-lore and religious

and

practices,

too well attested to admit of denial.

The word in the text, nauplios, is corrected to which appears in modified forms in other Greek nargilios, a word This is the Sanscrit narikela, narikera, Prakrit nargil, geographers. and the appearance of the word on the Zanzibar coast "cocoariut,"
17.

Palm

oil.

is

of
I,

course a confirmation of Indian trade there.


267.
)

(See Lassen,

op.

cit.,

The Greek word was koix, whence


from which the
Periplus,

the adjective koukio-

phoros, Latin cucifera,

19, coins the Greek


Linn., order Palmea;

adjective koukinos.

This palm

oil

was from

Cocos nucifera,

probably native in the Indian archipelago,


causes as well as
is

and

carried

by natural
It

Hindu

activity to

most of the

tropical world.

one of the most useful plants known, providing timber for houses and ships, leaves for thatch and fiber for binding and weaving, aside As a from the food value of the nut, fresh and dried, and the oil.
medicine also
it

ripe fruit being

moms,

etc., to

was of importance to the Hindus, the pulp of the mixed with clarified butter, coriander, cumin, cardaform their narikela-khanda, a specific for dyspepsia and

consumption.

The
236,

nut was described by

Cosmas

Indicopleustes in

the 6th century as argellion:


(I,

and by Marco Polo


nut.

in the 13th century


op.
cit.,

102;

II,

248) as Indian

(See also Watt,

349-363.)

100

.V

-S

V S

-1

'

101

18.

Unexplored ocean.

This

reflects the

settled belief of

the Greeks that Africa was surrounded by the ocean and could be

circumnavigated.
ble (IV, 42
)

Herodotus gives an account, by no means impossi-

of a Phoenician expedition, under the Pharaoh

Necho,

which
their

did so about

600 B.

C,

returning to Egypt

in

the third year of

journey.

Eratosthenes and Strabo placed the southern ocean


;

immediately below Cape Guardafui

Pliny thought
shifts

it it

began even
to the

at

Mossylum'

'

west of Guardafui
it

our author
as
far as

Zanzibar

Channel, and Ptolemy carried

The

actual southern extension of Africa

the Madagascar Channel. was not known to Europeans

until the

Portuguese discoveries in the 15th century.

The

Saracens

seem to have discovered it in the 9th or 10th century, but their knowledge did not reach Europe. The Guinea coast was known in part to the Carthaginians and Romans, and they supposed that it continued due eastward and thus joined the "Indian Ocean, or 'Erythraean Sea.
'

The current ideas of geography at this time are reflected by the accompanying map according to Pomponius Mela, about 44 A. D. The contribution of the author of the Periplus was to establish the southern extension of both Africa and India, to a distance never before
understood by his
19.
civilization.

To

the

left.

This

section begins the account of a second

voyage, from Berenice to India.


19.

W^hite Village {Leuke Kome)


7'

is

placed by most commentain a

tors at

El Haura, 25
island.
itself

by Hasani

which lies The name Haura also means


,

N., 37 13' E.

bay protected

white," and the


place
is

Arab name
terranean.

appears as Juara, in Ptolemy.


still

The

regular caravan route that led, and

leads,

from Aden
the text,

to the

on the Medi-

The words "from Mussel


are

Harbor, "

in

are probably

there only through an error in copying.

The

distance and direction


is

more nearly right from named at the beginning of this


19.

Berenice,
paragraph.

which

the starting-point

Petra (30

19'

N., 35 31' E.) lay

in the

Wady

Musa,

Wady-el-Araba, the great valley connecting the Dead Sea It was the great trading center of the with the Gulf of Akaba. northern Arabs, and the junction of numerous important caravaneast of the

routes,

running from

Yemen

northward, and from the Persian Gulf

eastward.

Thus
its

it

controlled the Eastern trade from both directions,


until the

and held
ferred

advantage

results of

Trajan's conquests transthe sea-trade having been

the overland

trade

to

Palmyra;

already diverted to Alexandria.

102

The
native

district of

Arabia Petraea has


to

its

name from
IV,

this city.

The
IVIusa.

name, according

Josephus

{.Ant. Jud.

7,

1) was Rekem,

referring to the variegated color of the

rocks in the

Wady

The

Bibhcal

name was
Judges,

Sela,
I,

a city of
Sela
3,

Edom"

(2 Kings, XI\', 7;
'hollow
that "

Isaiah, X\'I, 1;

36).

(Arabic Sal) means a

between rocks," and Obadiah,


Strabo (X\'I, IV, 21 j says

apostrophizes

Edom

as
is

"thou

dwellest in the clefts of the rocks,

whose
is

habitation

on high.
is

Petra

situated

on a spot which

suris

rounded and

fortified

by a smooth and level rock, which externally

abrupt and precipitous, but within there are abundant springs of water

both for domestic purposes and for watering gardens.


enclosure the country
Judaea.
is

Beyond
at Petra,

the

for the

most part a
friend,

desert, particularly

toward
used

Athenodorus,

my

who had been

to relate with surprise, that

he found many Romans and

also

many

other strangers residing there."

Ammianus
forts

Alarcellinus

(XIV,

8,

13) describes the place as "full


solicitude of

of the most plenteous variety of merchandise, and studded with strong

and

castles,

which the watchful

its

ancient inhabi-

tants has erected in suitable defiles, in order to repress the inroads cf

the neighboring nations."

The

topography of Petra

is

well

known through

the descriptions

was a fertile bit of valley surrounded by precipitous cliffs, with a long, narrow and winding entrance, and It seems to have been, first, a place of refuge almost impregnable.
of Flinders Petrie and others.
It

and a
hold;

safe storehouse for the myrrh, frankincense, silver, etc.

from Yemen.
but,

The

Biblical references

show

it

as an

coming Edomite strong,

being abandoned

when
it

after the Babylonian captivity,

the Edomites entered Palestine was taken by the Nabatasans; whom

Josephus makes the descendants of Nebaioth, son of Ishmael, while Glaser and others see rather Nabatu, an Aramaic tribe noted in an inscription of Tiglathpdeser III (745-727 B. C), who migrated to
the \alley of

Edom

probably

in the

6th centuiy B. C.

Here the Nabatairans were at first nomadic and predatory, inviting attack by land from Antigonus, and by sea on the Gulf of Akaba, from the Ptolemies (Agatharchides, 88; Strabo, X\'I, IV, 18). Soon, hf)vve\er, they settled down to orderly commerce and prospered
exceedingly, as
tlie

ruins of Petra testify.

One may

suppose that a

part, at least, of their trouble

with Syria and Egypt was due to their

commercial agirressi\eness rather than their predatory habits. They fought hard to maintain and control the caravan trade against the
competition of Egyptian shipping.
tried to carry

In their dealings with

Rome they

water on both shoulders;

helping Titus against Jeru-

'

103

salem, but supporting the Parthians against

Rome

as occasion offered.

This

conflict of interests

reduced them to
of the sea;

was terminated in 105 A. D., when Trajan subjection (Dio Cassius, LXVIII, 14). After that

the ship of the desert was blanketed by the ship and when the overland trade revived, toward the end of the 2d century, it was Palmyra which reaped the advantage.
19.

time Petra declined;

Malichas.

The mention of
text.

this

king of the Nabataeans

is

name might be accepted as a transcription of the Arabic word malik Hebrew melech, king, which appears in such Hebrew names as Abimelech"
important in fixing the date of the
Ordinarily the

and
as a

Melchizedek;" but according

to the writings of Josephus,

who

Jew would have been


title,

likely to distinguish

the

there were kings having that

between the name and name in what he called the


as that of the

"country of Arabia," which was certainly the same


Nabataeans.
tions

In his Antiquities of

the

Jews (XIV, 14, 1) he menbefriended

Malchus, King of Arabia,


just

who had

Herod and
of

who had loaned him money Mark Antony, and the Roman
the Jews.

before his case was taken up by

Senate agreed to
B. C.

make him King

This occurred
Bell.

in the year 38

This same MalAlexandria (Aulus


sent
auxiliaries

chus loaned cavalry to Julius Caesar for


Hirtius,

his siege of

J lex.,

I,

i)

and

subsequently

to

Pacorus, the Parthian emperor, for which

Mark Antony compelled

pay an indemnity. This Malchus can not, of course, be the one mentioned in the But Josephus {Jewish War, III, 4, 2) mentions a King Periplus. of Arabia, Malchus, who sent a thousand horsemen and five thousand footmen to the assistance of Titus in his attack upon Jerusalem. These events were in the year 70 A. D., and this King Malchus can hardly

him

to

See also Vogiie, be other than the Malichas mentioned in the text. who quotes inscriptions of this Malichas or Malik, and Syrie Centrale,
of his father Aretas Philodemus, or Hareth, a contemporary of Tiberius

and Caligula.
19.

Small vessels from Arabia. Strabo (XVI, IV, 24)


is

has

the following account of this trade

"Merchandise
to

Rhinocolura

in Phoenicia near Egypt,


is

conveyed from Leuce Come to Petra, thence and thence to other nations.
transported by the Nile to Alexandria.

But
It is

at present the greater part

brought from Arabia and India to Myos Hormus, and is then conveyed on camels to Coptus of the Thebais, situated on a canal of
the Nile, and to Alexandria.
"

The

policy of the Ptolemies, in seeking to free Egypt from


to

com-

mercial dependence on Yemen, and

encourage direct communica-

: '

104

tion with India, had been continued by

Arabs.

The

small vessels" of 19 from

Rome at the expense of the Muza to the Nabataean

port are to be contrasted with the

large vessels" of 10 that traded

from Mosyllum
in the

to Egypt.

The

caravan trade could not be reached

same way, and along the Red Sea the camel could always comThis remained in Arabian hands for another halfcentury, when the Emperor Trajan reduced the Nabatasans to subpete with the ship.
jection to
19.

Rome.

Centurion.

Vincent

assumes that
it.

this

was a

Roman
as
it

officer, but the text does not indicate

At

this

time the kingdom

of the Nabataeans

was independent, powerful and prosperous;


between Arabia and Rome.
meanings are attached
it

might well have been, from the 25 per cent duty our author
it

tells

us

levied
20.

on the

rich trade

Arabia.
it

Two

to this

word
in

in the

text;

in this

20 and in 49

refers to the entire peninsula;

every

other instance
distinguished
peninsula.
20.

means Yemen, the Homerite-Sabaite kingdom as from the other kingdoms and political divisions of the

Differing in their speech.


Aramaic
;

In

the

north the NabaCarnaites'

taeans spoke a dialect of the

along the coast the

spoke various Ishmaelite


Arabic;
guage,
at

dialects, out of

which has grown the modern

the trading-posts of the true Minaeans, their


to

own

lan-

allied

Hadramitic, was spoken;

on reaching Yemen, the


below Berenice,
of

speech was Himyaritic.


20.

Similarly,

that

is,

to the opposite coast


first

described at the beginning of the


20.

Rascally men.

Compare

voyage, in
the

2.

observations

other

writers concerning these

same Beduin robbers:

The oxen were


and the Sabeans
have
fell

plowing, and the asses feeding beside them upon them, and took them away; yea, they

slain the servants

with the edge of the sword."

(Job

I,

14-15.

These

are not the Sabaeans of

Yemen,

but

men
in
all

of Saba in Central

Arabia, the

nation

tall

and smooth" of Isaiah XVIII.)


its

The

Beduins have reduced robbery

branches to a

complete and regular system, which offers many interesting details."


TBurckhardt.

Before
need.

we

lightly
to

condemn

the robber

we must

realize his sore

According

Doughty and other


pastures
fail

travelers three-fourths of the

Beduins of northwest Arabia suffer continual famine.

In the long

summer drought when


no milk

and the gaunt camel-herds give


then
it

the\ are in a very sorry plight;


rice

is

that the housewife

cooks her slender mess of

secretly, lest

some would-be guest

105

The hungry gnawing of the Arab' s stomach is lessened by the cofFee-cup and the ceaseless 'tobacco-drinking' from the nomad's precious pipe." (Zwemer, Arabia the Cradle of Islam,
should smell the pot.
p.

157.)

Thou
thy affliction.

shalt call his

name

Ishmael;

because
his

And he
all

will

be a wild man;

e\ery man, and every man's hand against him;


the presence of
20.
his brethren."

the Lord hath heard hand will be against and he shall dwell in

(Gen. XVI, 11-12.)

Garnaites. These wild tribes are called in the text Canwhich cannot be identified with any other contemporary record. Some commentators would change the name to Cassanites; and Fabriraiti-s,

cius,

following Sprenger, substitutes Cananites.


preferable
{Siizze,

Glaser's suggestion

is

certainly

165-6).

He

thinks that the n and

should be reversed, making Camattes;


ern settlements of the ancient
the neighboring Beduin tribes

Kama

being one of the north-

kingdom

of the Minaeans, to
subject.

which

were nominally

Pliny (VI,

32) and Ptolemy both mention

this place as a city of the

Minaeans;

whom

Pliny describes as the oldest commercial people in Arabia,

having a monopoly in the trade in myrrh and frankincense, through


their control of the caravan-routes

from the producing regions.


his

He

refers doubtfully to their legend of the relationship of

Minaeans and
this

Rhadamaeans

to

Minos

of

Crete and
is

brother Rhadamanthus.

Pliny need not have doubted, and

to be

thanked for preserving Arabian trade,

evidence of early Arabian trade


his testimony to the

in the

Mediterranean.
this early

Ptolemy adds

wide extent of
Purali,

when

he describes the
east near the

people called Rhamnae


'

who

dwelt in the extreme

banks of the
'

place called Rhambacia.

no mean sphere of merchants of Sheba and Raamah, they were thy merchants: they occupied in thy fairs with chief of all spices, and with all precious
:

and who planted their capital at a From Crete to the borders of India was The activity. Compare Ezekiel XXVII, 22

stones,

and

gold.

"

Strabo also

(XVI,

III,

1)

describes
is

"the Minaei in the part


to

toward the Red Sea, whose


Sabaeans,

largest city

Carna; next

them

are the

whose

chief city

is

Mariaba.

At the time of the Periplus the term

Minaean" was no longer

limited to the southern traders, but had been extended to include the

nomadic Ishmaelites over whom their settlements along the caravanroutes exerted a varying measure of authority. The Minasan kingdom had long since lost its identity, having When Saba fell before Himyar its been conquered by the Sabaeans. transferred likewise; but we may assume that at the allegiance was

106
it was almost independent. When the Homerite became powerful, it asserted its authority over most of the Hejaz; when the Abyssinians conquered Yemen their rule was not acknowledged so far north. The insurgence of the Ishmaelites under the spur of Islam was a logical consequence of centuries of civil war

date of the Periplus

dynasty

among

their

former overlords
is

in

Yemen.
by Ritter and Miiller with Jebel
a volcanic island in the direct course

20.

Burnt Island
to Aluza.

identified
;

Tair, 15 35' N., 41 50' E.

from Berenice

Fabricius prefers Disan, the most northerly

of the Farsan group, 16 45' N.,

41 40' E.

but this location

is

improbable, as being out of the course

straight

down

the middle of

the gulf," and in the midst of "foul waters."


20.

Chiefs and Kings of Arabia.

The

turmoil in South
a

Arabia

at this

time has already been mentioned.

Within

few years

the Habashat had been driven to Africa, Kataban and Saba had suc-

cumbed, and

Hadramaut and Himyar remained.

The Homerite

dynasty was not yet firmly established, and the condition of the country

was feudal, each tribe enjoying a large measure of independence. Such is the condition here described, where Mapharitis, nominally Homerite, le\ied its own taxes on commerce, and maintained its own
colonial enterprise in Azania.
21.

N. 43 20' E. ). According to Pliny and Ptolemy, the market-town was some miles inland, probably and Pliny distinguishes the seaport at the modern village of JVlauza; Both names still exist (Glaser, Skizze, 138-40; 168j. as Masala.
with the modern
19'
,

Muza, mentioned by Mocha (13

our author as a seaport,

is

identified

In the Periplus the


the port.
21.

name

of the city

is,

apparently, extended to include

Twelve thousand
stadia.
It

stadia.

The

actual distance

is

about

800 miles or 8000


easy matter with

may be

a mistake in the text

(a very

Greek numerals),
II,

or, as

Bunbury suggests

(History

of Ancient Geography,
tance as so

many

days'

455) our author may have calculated the dissail of 500 stadia each. No calls being made
in cal-

on the

coast, contrary

winds might readily cause such an error

culation.

Where no
would

instruments existed for measuring distances,

estimates
21.

necessarily be rather general.

Sending their
own

own

ships,

to

the

Somali coast and


the east Afri-

India in competition with the Egyptian Greeks;

down

can coast to their

possessions ( 16) where they doubtless en-

joyed special privileges.

Foreign shipping was unwelcome

at

Muza,

which preferred

to supply the

north-bound caravans.
in

Roman

subjects,

such as our author, had to pay dearly,

the form of gifts to the rulers,

107

for permission to trade there;

Hindu shipping was stopped

at

Ocelis

(25).
22.

Saua

is

identified

by Sprenger with the Sa'b of Ibn Mogawir,


following Niebuhr, prefer

(13 N., 44 E.).


the

Ritter and Miiller,


35'

modern Ta'is,(13 40 miles above Mocha.


11.

N., 43

55' E. ), in the

mountains about

Mapharitis
from
his

is

the country of the Ma'afir, a tribe belonging


chief or sheikh had, evidently, especial

to the Himyaritic stock, privileges

whose

"lawful king" ( 23) Charibael.

Their location

was

in the

southern

Tehama.
is

22.

Cholaebus

the Arabic Kula'

ib.

23. Saphar, mentioned by Arabian geographers as Zafar, is located by Niebuhr about 100 miles N. E. of Mocha on the road to Sanaa, near the modern town of Yerim, some miles southeast of Zafar which, on the summit of a circular hill, its ruins still exist.

was the
Sabaean,
in the

capital of the

Homerite dynasty, displacing Marib,


D., a Christian church was
built,

that of the

Timna

of the Gebanite, and Carna of the Minaean.

Here,

4th century A.

following

negotiations

between the

merite King
6th century
St.

Tubba
it

ibn Hassan,

Roman Emperor Constantius and the Howho had embraced Judaism. In the
one incumbent of which,

was the

seat of a bishopric,

Gregentius, resenting a profanation of the church at Sanaa by certain of the Koreish, inspired the Abyssinian government, then ruling
to undertake a disastrous expedition against Mecca. This is the Arabic Kariba-il, and means Charibael. "God blessed (him)." (Hommel, The Ancient Hebrew Tradition, Glaser has shown this to be a royal title, rather than a name, p. 84. ) and has edited numerous inscriptions of a king named Kariba-il Watar
in

Yemen,
23.

Juhan'im who ruled about 40-70 A. D., and whom he identifies with (Die Jbessinier in Arabien und Afrika, pp. 37-8.) this Charibael.
23.

Homerites and

Sabaites.

Both

were

of the Joktanite

In the race of South Arabia, the former being the younger branch. Genesis X, we are shown their relation to the tribal genealogy in
Semites of the North.

Three

of the children of

Shem

are given as
his

Elam, Asshur, and Arphaxad.

Arphaxad's son was Salah, and

These names are associated with Babylonia and grandson Eber. Eber's second son was Joktan, of which the Arabic form Chaldsea.
Kahtan, which appears farther south along the Persian Gulf, in the Of the sons of Joktan, most are identified peninsula of El Katan. southern coast; two of them being Hazarmaveth (Hadrawith the
is

maut), and Jerah (cf. the Jerakon Kome o[ Ptolemy, north of Dhofar). The last-named the Arabs call Yarab: his son was Yashhab {cf.

108

the Asabi in

Oman,
its

35), and his grandson "Saba the Great" (suris

named Abd-es-Shems)
to

have begun

great

said to have founded the city of Marib, and dam, on which the irrigation of the vicinity

depended.

The

Sabaeans are thus connected with this Saba, a de-

scendant of Jerah, and not with Sheba, son of Joktan,


rather to Central Arabia;

who

is

referred

whom

Glaser and

Hommel would make

colony from

Yemen, while Weber would

reverse the process, having

the Sabaeans migrate southward for the conquest of the Minaeans.

tain

According to Arab accounts the dam at Marib was finished by a cerKing Zul Karnain, suggesting the primacy of the Minaean dynasty
but from about the 7th century B. C. the Sabaeans were
all

at that time;

supreme
stations

in

southern Arabia, controlling the caravan-routes, and

forcing the wild tribes into caravan service.

Colonies and resting-

were

established at intervals along the routes.

the

Koran (Chap.
and

XXXIV)

that the journey

We learn from was easy between these


the distances being so

cities,

travel secure

by night or by day;

short that the heat of the day might be passed in one, and the night
in the next, so that provisions

need not be

carried.

The number
and
and
all

of

such settlements

may be

inferred

from

Strabo' s statement that the cara;

vans took seventy days between Minaea and Aelana

the

Greek

and

Roman

writers,

from Eratosthenes

to

Pliny, testify to the value


it,

of the trade, the wealth of those

who

controlled

their jealous

hindrance of

all

competition.

The
their

entry of the fleets of the Ptolemies into the


its

Red

Sea, and

estabhshment of colonies along


If

shores, dealt a hard


in the

the caravan-trade.
of the
of the

we

sift

fact

from homily

Koran, we find that the


caravan-stations,

result

blow to same chapter was abandonment of many


in

and a consequent increase

the cost of
carried;

camel-hire and of the provisions which

now had

to be

im-

poverishment, dispersion and rebellion of the dwellers in the


so that finally

stations,

most of the

cities

which were between Saba and


its

Syria

were ruined and abandoned," and a few years later than the Marib itself, stripped of its revenues and unable to maintain
works, was visited with an inundation which carried away

Periplus,

public

its

famous

reservoir-dam, making the city uninhabitable and forcing the dispersion of


its

people.

Many

of

them seem
which was

to

have migrated northward

and
the

to

have

settled in the

country southeast of Judaea, founding the


for generations a

kingdom

of the Ghassanids,

bulwark of

Roman Empire at its eastern boundary. The great expedition against Sabaea by
rStrabo,

the

Romans under

Aelius

Gallus,

XVI, IV, 22-4;

Pliny,

VI, 32) never got beyond

the valley of the Minaeans;

turning back thence, as

Mncent surmised

'

109
(II,

306-311), and as Glaser proves (Skizze, 56-9), without reaching


It

along their route.

inflicting any lasting injury on the tribes was the merchant-shipping of the Romans, and not their soldiery, that undermined the power of the Sabaeans. As the wealth of Marib declined, its power was resolved into its elements, and was reorganized by a neighbor of the same blood. The oldest son of Saba the Great, founder of Marib, was Himyar, whose descendants included most of the town-folk of the southwest corner of Arabia. Two sons of Himyar, Malik and Arib, had carried the Joktanite arms back toward the east again, subduing the earlier

Marib, and probably without

inhabitants of the frankincense region north of Dhofar. of the tribe

The

center

some days' journey nearer the sea. Allied with the sheikh at Zafar was he of the Ma'afir, This combination was able to overcontrolling the port of Muza.
was
at

Zafar, southwest of Marib, and

throw the old order, Zafar supplanting Marib, and


of
its

Muza stripping Aden


Thereafter the
the
title

trade and

its

privileges along the African coast.

Himyarite dynasty
of Saba

the

Homerite kings

assumed
first

"Kings

and Raidan."
east, to

This was during the

century B. C.

The

subsequent policy of the Kariba-ils of Zafar was to expand


regain the old supremacy over the
'

both north and

'Carnaites'
east.

along the caravan-routes, and to control the shipping from the


(See
Prof.

D.

H.

Miiller's

article,

Yemen,

in

the

Encyclo;

paedia Britannica, 9th Edition;

Glaser, Ski%-ze znA Die Abessinier, etc.

Weber, Arabien vor dem


Prof.

Islam in

Der
in

alte Orient, III,

Leipzig, 1901;

Hommel's
Phila.,

chapter, Arabia,

Hilprecht, Explorations in Bible

Lands,

1903;

Hogarth,

The Penetration of Arabia, N. Y.,

1904;
23.

and the reports of the Austrian South-Arabian Expedition.)

Embassies and
It

gifts.

This wooing of Yemen by Rome


Arab
policy,

was soon ended.

was no

part of the
let

whether Ho-

merite, Minaean, or Nabataean, to

Rome

cultivate

direct relations

with India, and as the empire


necessary.
Petra,

expanded stronger measures were


to attack

Fifty years later than the Periplus, Trajan had captured

and Abyssinia was being subsidized

Yemen.

of the Emperors. Some commentators supwhen two Roman emperors ruled together, thus dating the Periplus well into the 2d century A. D. but The Homerite king, who there is nothing in the text to require it. began to rule, probably, in the last days of Claudius, was simply,
23.

A friend

pose that this refers to a time

(in the

mind

of our author, writing early in the reign of

Nero), the

friend of both those

Roman

Emperors,
this

as he

was
list

also of several others

whose
the 1st

short reigns coincided with his.

of the

Emperors of

and 2d centuries confirms

110

Roman
B.C.

Parthian

A.D.

Ill
plant,

and it entered into the composition of many spirituous which retained the same scent. (See Pliny, XIII, 2. )

extracts,

Lucan

(Pkarsa/ia, IX, 809) refers to the

sweet-smelling essence

of saffron that issues

from the limbs of a statue."

Saffron also entered into


It

many

of the scented salves or balsams. of other plants, such as

was much adulterated by adding the stigmata


tinctorius,
officinalis,

the safflower {Carthamus

order Composita), and the marigold

(Calendula
Pliny

order Composita).
says.
in
it it

(XXI, 81)

Saffron

is

blended with wine or water


It is

and

is

extremely useful

medicine.
disperses
is

generally kept in horn

boxes.

Applied with egg

all

kinds of inflammations, those


also for hysterical suffoca-

of the eyes in particular;


tions,

employed

and

for ulcerations of the stomach, chest, kidneys, liver, lungs,


It is particularly useful in

and bladder.
parts,

cases of inflammation of those

and for cough and pleurisy with Cimolian chalk for erysipelas."
I,

The

flower

is

used locally
op. ctt.,

(See also Beckmann,

175-7.)
24.

fusion
rush,

among
some

Sweet rush. The text is kypens. There is much conthe Roman writers between various species of aromatic
including the calamus of the

Hebrew

anointing

oil

(Exodus
a

XXX), which was

probably Acorus calamus, Linn., order Aroidea;

semi-aquatic sub-tropical herb,

useful medicinally and as a flavor.

But Pliny (XIII, 2) distinguishes between "Syrian calamus" and


"Syrian sweet-rush," both components of the Parthian "regal oint-

ment;"
thus,

so that sweet-rush
,

may

rather have been Andropogon schcenan-

Linn.

order Graminea.

An

account of

its

production

is

given

70). That by Pliny (XII, 48), and of its from near the temple of Jupiter most highly esteemed, he says, came Ammon in Egypt; the next best from Rhodes. It had an odor re-

medicinal properties

(XXI,

sembling that of nard;


ments,
it

and aside from


as a diuretic,

its

use in perfumes and oint-

was employed

and with wine and vinegar for

throat ulcers, or in liniments for ulcerous sores generally.


It is possible, also, that

the kyperos of the text

may have been

the

Egyptian papyrus (Cyperus papyrus, Linn., order Cyperacea); used, according to Pliny (XIII, 21-2) for boat-building, sails and mats,
cloths, coverlets

and ropes, and the roots for

fuel.

He

notes

it

as a

product of Syria, growing in conjunction with the sweet calamus, and much favored by King Antiochus for cordage for his navy, instead of

Again (XXXIII, spartum, which was preferred by the Romans. 30) he says papyrus was used for smelting copper and iron, being
favored next to pine wood.

112

The

suggestion in the text

is,

however, for an aromatic rather


is

than cordage or fuel,


able identification.

so that Andropogon schoenanthus

the

more prob-

Zingiheracea) and galangal {Alpinia officinarum,


beraceic) are not

McCrindle's suggestions of turmeric (^Curcuma longa, Linn., order Hance, order Zingiborne out by Pliny's descriptions; and these are both

products of the Far East, while the text indicates an Egyptian or

Mediterranean product.
24.

ury thought

Fragrant ointments. fit to mingle all known


them
extensively,

Pliny (XIII, 1) says that "luxfragrant odors,

and

to

make one

single odor of the whole;

hence the invention of ointments.


and they quite soak themselves

The
in
it,

Persians use

and

so,

by an adventitious recommendation, counteract the bad odors


are

which

produced by

dirt."

His account of the manufacture of ointments (XIII, 2) throws


light

on numerous

articles

of trade in his time.

There were two

principal components.

They

consisted of oils or juices, and solids:

the former

known

as stymmata, the latter as hedysmata.

third ele-

Resin and ment was the coloring matter, usually cinnabar or alkanet. gum were added to fix the odor. Among the stymmata were oil of
roses,

sweet-rush,

sweet calamus, xylo-balsamum, myrtle, cypress,


oil, lilies,

mastich, pomegranate-rind, saffron


nard, and cinnamon.

fenugreek, myrrh, cassia,

The

hedysmata included

amomum,

nard, myrrh,

balsam, costus, and marjoram.

Myrrh used by
stacte

itself,

without

oil,

formed an ointment, but


it

it

was

only that must be used, for otherwise

would be too

bitter.

The

formula of the

regal ointment,"

made

for the Parthian

Kings, included myrobalanus, costus,

amomum, cinnamon, comacum,


cassia, storax,

cardamom, spikenard, marum, myrrh,

ladanum, opo-

balsamum, Syrian calamus and Syrian sweet-rush, cenanthe, malabathrum, serichatum, cypress, aspralathus, panax, saffron, cypirus, sweet

marjoram,
nus,

lotus,

honey and wine.


ointment included resin and myrrh,
oil
oil

The Mendesian
mom,
and

of bala-

metopion (Egyptian
resin of terebinth.

of bitter almonds),

omphacium, carda-

sweet-rush, honey, wine, myrrh, seed of balsamum, galbanum,

Another included
24.
in

oils

(the

common

kinds),

sampsuchum,

lilies,

fenugreek, myrrh, cassia, nard, sweet-rush, and cinnamon.

Myrrh,

a gum exuded from the bark of a small


Oman, and
It

tree, native

South Arabia, and to some extent in


order Burseracea.

the Somali coast

of Africa; classified as Bahamodendron


Ahyssinica

Myrrha (Nees),

or Commiphora

(Engl.

),

forms the underwood of

113

forests of acacia, moringa,

and euphorbia.

From

earliest

times

it

has

been, together with frankincense, a constituent of incense, perfumes,

and ointments.
(Exod.

It

was an ingredient of the Hebrew anointing

oil

XXX),

and was also one of the numerous components of the


It

celebrated kyphi of the Egyptians, a preparation used in fumigations,

medicine, and embalming.

was the object of numerous trading

expeditions of the Egyptian kings to the

Land
,

of Punt. "

monu80,000
f

ment

of

Sahure,

28th century B.

C.

records receipts of

measures of myrrh from Punt.


century B. C.
list
)

The

expedition of Hatshepsut

15th
its

again records myrrh as the most important cargo;

of the

marvels of the country of Punt"


ebony, pure ivory, green gold of

was

as follows:

All

goodly fragrant woods of God's Land, heaps of myrrh-resin, fresh

myrrh

trees,

Emu, cinnamon wood,


eye cosmetic,
apes,

khesyt wood,

ihmut incense,

sonter incense,

monkeys, dogs, skins of southern panther, natives and their children. The inscription adds: "Never was brought the like of this for any (Breasted, Ancient Records king who has been since the beginning. "
of Egypt,
II,

109;

Flilckiger

and Hanbury,

op. cit.,

140-6.)

Pliny (XII,

gum

'
:

'Incisions are

35) gives a clear account of the gathering of the made in the myrrh-tree twice a year, and at the
but in the case of the myrrh-tree
the root as far as the branches the

same season
they are

as in the incense-tree;
all

made

way up from

which are
incision
is

able to bear

it.

The

tree spontaneously exudes, before the

made, a liquid which bears the name of stacte {stazo, to Second only drop) and to which there is no myrrh that is superior. of the wild or forest kind, in quality to this is the cultivated myrrh;
the best
is

that

which

is

gathered

in

summer."
40 denarii the pound;
cultivated

Stacte,

he

says, sold as high as

myrrh,
at 14.

at a

maximum of 11 denarii; Erythraean at 16, and And he continues: "They give no tithes of myrrh to
it

odoraria

the god,

because

is

the produce of other countries as well;


it

but the growers

pay the fourth part of

to the

king of the Gebanitae.

Myrrh

is

bought up indiscriminately by the common people and then packed into bags; but our perfumers separate it without any diiBculty, the principal tests of its goodness being its unctuousness and its aromatic
smell.

"There

are several kinds of myrrh:


;

the

first

among

the wild

and the next are the Minaean, which inmyrrhs is the aromatic, and that of Ausaritis, in the kingdom of the cludes A third kind is the Dianitic, and a fourth is the mixed Gebanita.
the Troglodytic

myrrh or collatitia brought from a city

a fifth again
in the

is

the Sambracenian, which

is

kingdom

of the Sabaei, near the sea;

and a

114

sixth

also
city

There is is known by the name of Ausaritic. which is produced in only one spot, and is carried (This is the same as the port of Messalum."
See Glaser, Ski%z, 138.
,)

a white

myrrh

for sale to the of

Masala or

Muza.
'
'

'bitter.

The name The


'

myrrh

is

ancient Egyptian

from the Hebrew and Arabic mur, meaning word was bola or hal, and the SanPersian and Indian call
it

scrit

was
24.

vola.

The modern
Miiller and
in

bol or bola.

Gebanite-Minaean stacte.
Fab ricius
Sprenger's

The

text

is

corrupt, having

gabeirminaia :

alter this to

"Abiraea and Minaea,

"

which appear
trict.

map

of Arabia, but not in the

myrrh

dis-

Stacte

has already been described as the

gum

yielded by natural

exudation from wild trees, as distinguished from that coming from


incisions
jective

on

trees either wild or cultivated;

while the qualifying ad-

can hardly be other than Gebanite-Minaean, which was

among

the best varieties in Pliny's classification.

(See also Glaser, Ski%ze,

88-9.
24.
in

Alabaster.
the

Pliny

(XIII, 3), says, "Ointments keep best

boxes of alabaster, and perfumes


all

when mixed with


it is,

oil,

which conoil

duces

more

to their durability the thicker

such as the

of almonds,

for instance.

Ointments, too, improve with age;

but

the sun

is

apt to spoil them, for

which reason they


3.

are usually

stowed

away in a shady place


12;

in vessels of lead."

(See also Pliny,

XXXVI,
is

Mark, XIV,
24.

7;

John, XII,

Avalites and the far-side coast.


Fabricius translates

The
its

text

corrupt,

having Adulh;
Adulis.
' '

aus

dem

gegeniiber gelegenen
exports were quite

But Adulis was not opposite Muza,

different,

and

it is

not mentioned that they went to Muza.

The

rela-

Habash and Himyar, at the date of the Periplus, were not those of friendly commerce, and Adulis was distinctly an Egyptian
tions of

trading-station.
articles carried sale

On

the other hand, the text describes, in


to Ocelis

7,

the
for

by the Berbers from Avalites

and

Muza

there;

to

which

this

passage refers as
that

already mentioned."

We

must conclude,

therefore,

the

scribe

copied

"Adulis"

instead of

Avalites," which

was what our author wrote.

narrow strait. This is, of course, the strait of Bab25. el-Mandeb, or "Gate of Tears" (12 35' N., 43 12' E. j, so called
because of
25.
its

treacherous winds and currents.

The

island

Diodorus

is

the

modern Perim (12

38' N.,

43

18' E.).

25.

Ocelis

is

the Acila of Strabo, Artemidorus and Pliny;

the the

name

surviving in the

modern

Cella.

Forster traces in this

name


115
tribe of

Uzal, son of Joktan (Genesis X, 27) with

whom

he also

connects Ausar (Ausal or Ausan) in the Frankincense Country

which survives in the modern Ras el Sair. This is the district which at onetime held the 'Ausanitic coast" near Zanzibar, as stated in The ancient city of Uzal is the modern Sanaa. 15. Ocelis is identified by Glaser with a bay on the northern side of the promontory of Sheikh Sa'id (12 48' N., 43 28' E. ), a volcanic
formation which
juts

out from the Arabian shore and

is

separated by

a narrow channel from the island of Perim.


that Indian

He

notes the probability


this place,

ships

whence
that
it

their cargoes

were permitted went by land

to

go no further than

to

Muza.
first

The

text says

merely

was

not a market-town, but the

landing for those sailing

into the gulf;"


critus, that

but Pliny (VI, 104) states on the authority of Onesi-

Ocelis was the most convenient port for those coming

from

India.

He

mentions two other ports,

Muza

(Masala) and

Cana, which were not frequented by Indian


for the

travellers, but

were only

merchants dealing

in

frankincense and Arabian spices.


is

26.

Eudaemon Arabia
),

the

modem Aden

(12 48' N.,

45

0'

E.

from very

early times an important trade center,

where

goods from the east were trans-shipped for the Mediterranean markets.
It

was, probably, the

Eden

of Ezekiel
dynasties.

XXVII,
its

3,

and the chief port


in eclipse

of the

Minaean and Sabaean


it

While temporarily

under the Homerite kings,


tury A.

had regained

position by the 4th cen-

D. when Constantius negotiated for a church to be built there; and the Arabian geographers and Marco Polo refer to its activities in terms almost as glowing as those of Agatharchides.

The
Eudamon
to the right

Periplus gives the port the


like Felix,

name
;

of the entire district;

being an attempt
(as

at translating

Yemen,

the country

hand'

'

one faces the

east)

the Arabic, hke the


to the fight hand.

Greek
Eden

and Latin, attaching the idea of good fortune had the same significance, of good fortune.
26.

Charibael destroyed the place.


It is

having Casar.
this

quite certain that


1st

no

The text is Roman emperor


title is

corrupt,

attacked

place during the

century, and the

equally suspicious,

our author having more correctly referred


as autokrator.

to

his sovereign, in
Elisor,

2,^,

Miiller and

Fabricius substitute
to

retaining the

second

syllable of the

word, and suppose him

have been a king of

the Frankincense

Country.

But Schwanbeck {Rheinischen Museum

fur

Philologie,

ports

him by proving

VII. Jahrgang, 1850) prefers Charibael, and Glaser supthat Eleazus, and not EUsar, was the name of

the king mentioned in 27.

The

indications are against a westward

movement by

the

mon-

116

arch

at

Sabbatha;

his outlook

was

in the other direction.

The

Peri-

plus indicates his control of the

fertile

frankincense valleys far beyond

the account of Strabo,


only;
this

who knew Chatramotitis as a producer of myrrh movement followed the Habash migration. The Chatrait

motitae had,
sians

is

true, to

cope with an alliance of Homerites and Per-

them on either side and engulfed them; which Saphar and Sabbatha were not yet was in a later century. but this beyond the period of expansion within their respective spheres. From the Red Sea to the summits of the Arabian Alps was that of the
ultimately pressed

former;

the
the

Wadi Hadramaut, on
two
an attack upon

the eastern slope, that of the

latter.

Between
But

lay precipitous mountains.

Topography and

history

alike discredit

Aden by

the Chatramotitas.

in the alliance of

the destruction of Aden.

Muza The

with Saphar

we

have the motive for


at the

foreign trade

was centered

and Cholaebus gained for his merchants the rights which those of Aden had enjoyed under the Sabasan kings. The loss was not great; Ibn Khaldun (Kay's edition, p. 158) tells us that the
Homerite
port,
city

was

built

mostly of reeds, so that conflagrations by night were


It

common

there.
fair,

involved hardly

more than the discontinuance


account by Lieut. Cruttenden

of
at

an annual

as described in the

Berbera, quoted under 14.

11 Cana may be identified with Hisn Ghorab ( 14 10' N., 48 20' E. ), a fine harbor, protected from all winds by projecting capes on either side and by islands in the offing, as described in the
.

text.

tion, of

Here are numerous ruins and one famous Himyaritic inscripwhich a version is given by Forster. The "Island of Birds" is described by Miiller as 450 feet high, covered with guano, and thus has its name from the same cause as the promontory Hisn Ghorab (Raven Castle). The modern town is called Bir AH.
Fabricius (pp.

141-2), following Sprenger and Ritter, locates

This seems not to accord was "just beyond the cape projecting from this bay," while Ba-I-Haf would be "just before." The identification depends too literally on the stated distance of the islands
slightly
text,

Cana

farther west, at Ba-l-Haf.

with the

which

says the port

and

fails

to take into

port."

This

is

true of

account that they are described as "facing the Hisn Ghorab and not of Ba-l-Haf.

MiiUer (p. 278) and Glaser {Ski%%e, pp. 174-5) support the Hisn Ghorab location by comparison of the distances given by Ptolemy (VI, 7, 10) between his Kane emporion and the neighboring ports.

From Hisn Ghorab

the

way

to the interior leads

up the

Wadi

Maifa, which empties into the ocean a short distance to the east.

117

The Cana
Ezekiel

of the Periplus
23.

is

probably the same as the

Canneh of

XXYU,
trade

The

of Makalla,

has shifted
27.
is

which it formerly enjoyed passes now through the port some distance to the east, and the capital of the country in like manner eastward to the modern city of Shibam.

Eleazus,

the Arabic Ili-azzu,


to

King of the Frankincense CountryThis "my God is mighty," a name which Glaser
and
this
Jalit,

shows

have belonged to several kings of the Hadramaut;


of

Eleazus he identifies with Ili-azzu

whose

reign, dating about

25-65 A. D., he gives an inscription (Die

Jbessinier, 34, etc.).

"Frankincense Country," is notable, being a translation of the "Incense-Land" of the Habashat,


or Aethiopians, already mentioned.

The name

given the kingdom,

among
and
its

This ancient object of contention Hadramaut and Parthia, name was, apparently, assumed by the king of the Hadramaut;
the nations was

now

divided between

perhaps

officially,

but certainly by the popular voice, and by merchants


in

such as the author of the Periplus, interested


country and not in
its politics.

the product of the

glance at the topography of this Incense-Land will help toward


its

an understanding of

dealings with
el

its

neighbors.

The

southern

coast of Arabia from

Bab

Mandeb

to

Ras

el

Hadd

has a length of

about 1200 miles, divided almost equally in climatic conditions.

The
cut,

western half

is

largely sandstone bluff, sun-scorched

and

arid;

however, by occasional ravines which bring down scanty rains during


the

monsoon
rainfall

to fertilize a

broad

strip of coast plain.

On the western
feet,

edge the mountains of Yemen,

rising

above 10,000

attract

good

which waters the western slope toward the Red

Sea.

On

the eastern slope the water-courses are soon lost in the sand,

but on the upper levels the valleys are protected and

fertile. Such were the Nejran, the Minaean Jauf, and the valley of the Sabaeans, which last was made rich by the great dam that stored its waters for irrigation; and these three valleys, the centers of caravan-trade bound

north toward the Nile and Euphrates, owed their prosperity mainly to
their position

above the greatest of

all

the east-flowing courses, the

Valley of Hadramaut.
ally.

This great
highest

cleft in the

sandstone rock, (originup), which gathers

Bent believes an arm of the


the
miles, fertile

sea,

now

silted

the streams from


for

peaks,

runs parallel with the coast


for nearly the entire
lost,

more than 200


then
it

and productive
its

distance;

turns to the south and


cliffs

waters are
its

the

mouth

of the valley being desert like the

that line

course.

This was

one of the best frankincense

districts.

Beyond

the

mouth

of the

Wadi Hadramaut

\i

Ras

laitak, nearly

118

Here the climate changes; the monsoon, north of Cape Guardafui. no longer checked by the African coast, leaves its effect on the coastal hills, which gradually rise above 4000 feet, clothed with tropical
vegetation; while the coast plains are narrowr and broken.

The

north-

ern slopes of these mountains


feed the water-course
long,

(known
as the

to our author as Asich,

now known
Ras

Wadi

33) Rekot, about 100 miles

Muria Bay; beyond which are Hadd. These mountains, and the Dhofar and Jenaba districts, facing which lie the Kuria Muria islands, were the oldest and perhaps the most productive of the frankincense districts of Arabia; and it was always the ambition of the various powers of that region to extend their rule so as to include the Dhofar mountains, the Hadramaut valley, and the opposite Somali coast of Africa thus controlling the production and commanding the
which
enipties into the Kuria
el

fertile

coast plains as far as

price;

in short,

forming a

frankincense trust."

The

restricted area

were by the steppe and the 'desert, made them constantly subject to attack and control by different wandering tribes; while at the same time their local conof the Arabian incense-lands, bordered as they
ditions, of

intensive cultivation of a controlled product of great

and
cul-

constant value,

made

for a peculiarly ordered state of society


in Semitic lands, slave,

for a

development of caste unusual


tivator, the warrior,

and
had

in

which the
in

and the privileged

their place

the

order given.

Of the age-long struggle for control of know today little more than the Greek writers
ago.

these sacred lands


of

we

two thousand years


its

The modern
Arab

world takes
it

its little

supply of frankincense from


or

the

vessels that carry

to

Bombay

Aden;

armies are sent

to the

conquest or defence of lands in other lines of productivity

of

But to the ancient a Kimberley, a Witwatersrand, a Manchuria. world the Incense-Land was a true Eldorado, sought by the great
empires and fought for by every Arab tribe that managed to enrich
itself

by trading incense for temple-service on the Nile or Euphrates,


in Persia, India, or

on Mount Zion, or

China.

The

archaeological

expedition that shall finally succeed in penetrating these forbidden


regions, and recovering the records of their past, cannot
greatly to our store of
fail

to

add

knowledge of the surrounding civilizations, by showing the complement to such records as those of Hatshepsut in
Egypt and Tiglath-Pileser III
phrastus,
in Assyria,

and by giving the groundwork by Herodotus, TheoPliny,

for the treasured scraps of information preserved

Eratosthenes,

Agatharchides, Strabo,

and Pto!em\

At present we must be satisfied with such knowledge of the IncenseLand as may be had from these, and from inscriptions found by

119

Halevy and Glaser


Sabaeans.

in the

homes

of

its

neighbors, the Alinaans and

During the 2d and 1st centuries B. C, the greater part of the Incense-Land was held by the Incense-People, the Aethiopians or Habashat. Pressure by the Parthians on the East forced an alliance, of w hich Glaser found the record at Marib, between the Habashat,
other.

Hadramaut and Saba on one hand, against Himyar and Raidan on the This was not far from 50 B. C. Soon afterwards we find

Marib ruled by Kings of Saba and Raidan;" while after a couple of generations more the Periplus shows us a Homerite king who rules also over Saba and Raidan and the East African coast; and a king of the Hadramaut whose title is expanded to "King of the Frankincense Country," and

the Habashat gone into their African outposts, and

whose
Masira,

rule extends over the islands


all

of Kuria Muria, former dependencies of the Habashat.

Socotra and

By

the 4th century A. D. the kings at Zafar had absorbed the

whole, being

known

as

"Kings

of Saba, Raidan,

Hadramaut and Yem-

en;" while

the Abyssinian kings,

who
as

regained a foothold in Arabia


of

during that century, were


dan, Habashat, Saba,
' '

known

"Kings

Axum, Himyar,
of Genesis

Rai-

etc.

The name

Hadramaut," the Hazarmaveth

X, means

Enclosure of Death," referring probably

to the crater of Bir Barhut,

whose rumblings were held


ertson Smith
:

to be the groans of lost souls (^V.

Robcl

Religion of the Semites, p. 134,

and

authorities there qjoted).


to

(See Wellsted:

Narrative

of

a Journey

the

Ruins

of

Nakeb

Hajar, Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, VII, 20; H. von Maltzan: Reisen in Arabien, Braunschweig, 1873; L. W. C. \"an den

Berg
tavia,

Le Hadramaut
1886;
J.

et les Colonies

Arabes dans

I' Archipel

Indien,

Ba-

Theodore Bent: The Hadramaut,


1894;
Expedition
to

u Journey,

Nine-

teenth

Century,

Journal,

IV, 313;

L. Hirsch:
;

Reisen in Sild-Arabien,

und Had/iramut, Leiden, 1897 Hommel, Weber, Hogarth, and Zwemer; and the Austrian Expedition Reports.

Hadramaut, Geographical AInhra-lMnd the works already cited of Glaser,


the

27.

Sabbatha.

The

native

name

of this capital of the Chatra-

was Shabwa. It lies in the Wadi Rakhiya, some distance above the Wadi Hadramaut, and about 60 miles west of the present According to Bent {Geographical Journal, IV, 413: capital, Shibam. 1894) it is now deserted, save for a few Beduins, who work the salt
motitae

mines

in the vicinity;
valley.

while the natives are

now

all

in

the lower

Hadramaut

120

This
its

is

the Sabota of Pliny (VI, 32) "with sixty temples within

walls.

27

Frankincense, one
commerce,
is

of

the

most ancient and precious

articles of
wellia,

exuded from various species of Bosorder Burseracea, native in Somaliland and South Arabia.
a resin
,

larly
terii,

Birdwood (Trans. Linn. Soc. XXVII, 1871), distinguishes particuB. Frereana, B. Bhau-Dajiana (the mocrotu of 9), and B. Carthe last-named yielding the best incense.

B.

thur'tfera, native in

India, yields a resin of less fragrance,

much

used as an adulterant.

Irankincense

is

thus closely allied to myrrh, bdellium, and benzoin.


is

The Greek word


meaning
perfume,
always
'"

libanos,

from Hebrew

lebonah,

Arabic luban,

white";

cf.

laben,

the Somali

word

for cream,

and "milk-

which
it

is

the Chinese term for frankincense.

Marco Polo
which

calls

white incense."
shekheleth,
'

Another Hebrew name was Hommel would connect with the

Ethiopic sekhin,
29.

Bay of Sachalites" of

Frankincense trees, frnm the Punt Reliefs in the Deir


dating-

el

Bahri temple at Thebes;

from the 15th century B. C.

After Naville.

The

inscriptions of the

early Egyptian dynasties contain, as


to

we

which was brought overland to the upper Nile by the "people of Punt and God's Land' and not sought out by the Pharaohs. That incense was in use is sufficiently clear from the early ritual. The expedition to the
the trade
in

might expect, few references

incense,

'

121

Incense-Land under Sahure, in the Vth dynasty (28th century B. C.) was a notable exception. In the Vlth dynasty, under Pepi II (26th
century B.
records

C), a royal officer Sebni, sent to the Tigre highlands, how he "descended to Wawat and Uthek, and sent on the
Iri,

royal attendant

with tWo others, bearing incense, clothing (probably

cotton), one tusk, and one hide"


nasty,

(as specimens). In the XItu dyunder Mentuhotep IV (21st century B. C), a record of the completion of a royal sarcophagus states that "Cattle were slaughtered, goats were slain, incense was put on the fire. Behold, an army

of

3000

sailors of the
it

nomes

of the Northland (Delta of the Nile)

followed

in safety to
I

Egypt."

And
),

in the

Xllth dynasty, under

Amenemhet
was sent
Periplus,
for
it

(20th century B. C.

another royal officer

named

Intef

for stone to

Hammamat

along what was,

in the

time of the

the

caravan-route from Coptos to Berenice.

He

sought
to

eight days without success, then prostrated himself "to

Min,

Great-in-Magic, and-all the gods of this highland, giving Mut, to to them incense upon the fire. Then all scattered in search, and I found it, and the entire army was praising, it rejoiced with obei.

sance;

gave praise to Montu." followed a period of disorder and Arabian domination


in

Then

Egypt, during which Arab merchants controlled the trade.


the condition described in Genesis

This was
traveling

XXXVII,

25,

when "a

company

of Ishmaelites

came from

Gilead, with their camels bearing

It spicery and balm and myrrh, going to carry it down to Egypt.'' was ended by a native reaction under the great Pharaohs of the X\'IIIth or Theban dynasty, under whom the land increased in power in These monarchs were not content to remain in comall directions.

mercial dependence upon Arabia, but organized great


to the

"Land

of

fleets which went Punt" each season and brought back unprecedented

treasure.
reliefs,

This land

in

former times, according


it

to the

Deir

el

Bahri

"the people knevy not;

was heard of from mouth

to

mouth

by hearsay of the ancestors.


fathers, the kings of

The

marvels brought thence under thy

Lower

Egypt, were brought from one to another,

and since the time of the ancestors of the kings of Upper Egypt, who were of old, as a return for many payments; none reaching them
except thy carriers. "
led the Egyptian

But Amon-Re, so the inscription continues,


sea, until
it

army by land and

came

to the Incense-

Lan^. and brought back great store of myrrh, ebony and ivory, gold, cinnamon, incense, eye-paint, apes, monkeys, dogs, panther-skins, "Never was brought the like of this for natives and their children. Incense -trees were king who has been since the beginning." any "heaven and earth are flooded in the court of the temple; planted

'

122

with incense;

odors are in the Great House," and the heart of Anion

was made

glad.

Then

followed a series of campaigns in Syria, resulting

in the

submission of that country,

and annual remittances of great


incense,
oil,

quantities

of Arabian and Eastern treasure


silver,

precious stones
lapis

while even

grain, wine, gold


at

and

the

Chief of Shinar"

Babylon

sent gifts of

lazuli,

and the "Genabti" of the Incense-Land

came Theban

direct,

offering their tribute.

The

sudden opulence of the


in the

dynast\'

made
annual
(

possible a great

enrichment

worship of

Amon, and
XlXth

the setting aside of


gifts

ples, as well as

of

dynasty

1292-1225 B.
incense,

forhisi-a

wine,

enormous endowments for the temprincely value. So Rameses II, of the C. j, "founded for his father offerings
cultivated trees,

all fruit,

growing

for

him;"
all

while the court responded that Rameses himself was "the god of
people, that they

may awake,

to give to thee incense."

His successor

set free multitudes who Merneptah was bidden by the AU^Lord to bound in every district, to give offerings to the temples, to send And in the XXth dynasty, under Rain incense before the god."

are

(1198-1167 B. C. ), it seemed as if the resources of the The god opened were poured bodily into the lap of Amon. the ways of Punt, with myrrh and incense for thy for the Pharaoh the Sand-Dwellers came bowing down to thy serpent diadem;"
meses
III

nation

name"

endowments
copper,

And in the Pa/ijrz/j ii/<7rr/,f, to Amon, compiled for


'

that great record of his gifts


his

and

tomb, there are such entries


malachite,

every year as

gold, silver,

lapis

lazuli,
jars,

precious stones,
deben,

garments oT royal linen,


jars,

fowl;

myrrh, 21,140

white incense 2,159

cinnamon 246 measures, incense 304,093


Incense House.'

various measures;" stored of necessity, in a special

(The
At

quotations are from Breasted, Ancient Records of Egypt.)

this

time the Hebrews ended their servitude


;

in

Egypt and

migrated to Palestine

and naturally among them also frankincense


sacred incense of the priests (Exod.

was counted

holy.

The

XXX,
pure

34-5) was composed of


pure frankincense;

sweet spices,

stacte,

onycha, galbanum, with


a

of each a like weight

perfume

and holy.
1-3)
it

'

And

when any
flavor,

will

offer a
shall

shall

be of fine

and he

meat offering (Levit. II, pour oil upon it, and put
shall

frankincense thereon

and the
special

priest

burn the memorial

upon the the Lord."


for storing

altar, to

be an offering

made by
rooms

fire,

of a sweet savour unto

There were
it

in

the temple at Jerusalem

under

priestly

guard 'I Chron. IX, 26-30);


as a dwelling,

and
it

later,

when one

of these

sidered a sacrilege

rooms was occupied (Nehemiah XIII, 4-9j.

was con-

The

trade in the days of

123

Israel's

prosperity

the wilderness like pillars of smoke,

incense, with

all

Who is this that cometh out of perfumed with myrrh and frankpowders of the merchant?" (Song of Solomon III,
was important:
:

6.)

"The

multitude of camels shall cover thee, the dromedaries of


all

Midian and Ephah


gold and incense;
(Isaiah

they from Sheba shall


shall

come

they shall bring

and they

shew

forth the praises of the

Lord."
and

LX,

6.)

And
there

the

Queen

of Sheba

"gave the king an hunstore,

dred and twenty talents of gold, and of spices a very great


precious stones;
these

which the

came no more such abundance of Queen of Sheba gave to King Solomon."

spices as

(1 Kings

X, 10.)

Pileser III, tells

The Nimrud Inscription of the great Assyrian monarch Tiglathhow 'fear of the brilliance of Ashur, my lord, over' '

came Merodach-baladan, of Yakin, King of the Sea-Country," and how he came and made submission, bringing as tribute gold the
dust of his land

in

abundance, vessels of gold, necklaces of gold,


kinds."

precious stones, the product of the sea (pearls.'), beams of ushu-wooA,


ellutu-vfoo6., party-colored clothing, spices of all

In the Persian empire frankincense was equally treasured.


dotus
tells

Hero-

us that the Arabs brought a tribute of 1000 talents' weight

every year to Darius (III, 97), and that a similar quantity was burnt every year by the Chaldaeans on their great
(I,

altar

to

Bel

at

Babylon
weight of

183).

From

the spoils of

Gaza

in Syria,

500

talents'

frankincense was sent by Alexander the Great to his tutor Leonidas


(Plutarch, Lives')
altars too lavishly,

who had rebuked him

for loading the

Macedonian
until

remarking that he must be more economical

he

had conquered the countries that produced the frankincense The temple of Apollo in Miletus was presented (Pliny XII, 32.)
talents'

with 10

weight

in

243 B. C.

by Seleucus
Cilicia.

II,

King

of Syria,

and

his brother
af

Antiochus Hierax, King of

The

temple of

Venus

Paphos was fragrant with frankincense


"Ipsa

Paphum

sublimis abit, sedesque revisit

Laeta suas ubi

templum

illi,

centumque Sabseo

Ture

calent arae sertisque recentibus halant."

And
from the
to the infant Saviour in
east,

Virgil, Jeneid,

I,

416.

with

gifts,

gold, frankincense,

Bethlehem came "three wise men and myrrh" (Matt. II,


"the

11), signifying, according to a Persian legend quoted by Yule,

gold the kingship, the frankincense the divinity, the

myrrh the healing

powers of the Child."

"

124

Likewise
of

in

funerals

were

its

virtues

required.

The
to

priests

Amon

under the XVIIIth dynasty were instructed

be

vigi-

lant

concerning your duty,

be ye not careless concerning

any of
.

your rules; be ye pure, be ye clean concerning divine things


bring ye up for

me

that

which came
of linen
fill

forth before, put


;

on the
of

gar-

ments of
give ye

my statues, consisting me shoulders of beef,


"
in his

offer ye to

me

all fruit,

ye for

me
op.

the altar with milk,


II,

let

incense be heaped thereon.

(Breasted,

cit.,

571.)
in the

They

buried

him

own

sepulchres

and

laid

him

bed which

was
(II

filled

with sweet odours and divers kinds of spices prepared by the


art;

apothecaries'

and they made a very great burning for him."

Chron. XVI, 14j.


the

At the time

of the Periplus this

was par-

ticularly

(VII, 42):
"It
is

fashion in

Rome,
is

as

Pliny observes with disapproval

the luxury

which

displayed by

man, even

in the para-

phernalia of death,

that has rendered Arabia thus

'happy;" and

which prompts him to bury with the dead what was originally underThose who stood to have been produced for the service of the gods.
are likely to be the best acquainted with

the

matter, assert that this

country does not produce, in a whole year, so large a quantity of per-

fumes

as

was burnt by the Emperor Nero

at

the funeral obsequies of

his wife Poppaea.

And

then

let

us only take into account the vast

number

of

funerals that are celebrated throughout the


in

whole world

each year, and the heaps of odors that are piled up


bodies of the dead;

honor of the

the vast quantities, too, that are offered to the

gods in single grains;


ing up to

and

yet,

them the

salted cake, they did not

when men were in the habit of offershow themselves any the


were
than they are now.
all

less propitious;

nay, rather, as the facts themselves prove, they


to us then

even more favorable


portion, too,
to the
I

How

large a

should like to know, of

these perfumes really

comes

gods of heaven, and the

deities of the

shades below.?

The

customs ruling the gathering and shipment of frankincense

are carefully described by Pliny (XII, 30), as follows:

"There

is

no country

in

the world,"

(forgetting,

however,

the Somali peninsula),

"that produces frankincense except Arabia,


that.

and indeed not the whole of


that region are the Atramitae, a

Almost community of
this
is

in

the very center of

the Sabsi, the capital

of

whose kingdom
the

is

Sabota, a place situate on a lofty mountain.

At

a distance of eight stations

from
side,

the incense-bearing region,

known by

name

of

Saba {.Abasa'O.
while

This
it is

district

is

inaccessible
right

because of rocks on every


the sea, from which
it

bounded on the
cliffs.

by

is

shut out by tremendously high

125

The forests extend 20 schoeni in length and (A schcenus 40 stadia 4 English miles.

10 schoeni

in

breadth.

Adjoining are

the
is

Minaei, a people of

another community,
people

through whose country


single

the sole transit for the frankincense, along a

narrow road.

The

Minaei were the


It is

first

who

carried

on

any

traffic in

frankincense.

the Sabaei alone, and no other


all

people

among

the Arabians, that behold the incense- tree;* and not

of them, for not over 3000 families have a right to that privilege by hereditary succession;
for this reason these persons are called sacred,
trees or gathering the harvest,

and are not allowed, while pruning the


to receive
in contact

any pollution, either by intercourse with


with the dead;

women

or

coming
that the

by these religious observances


so enhanced.

it is

price of the

commodity

is

"The
a period

natural vintage takes place about the rising of the Dog-star,

when the heat is most intense; on which occasion they cut where the bark appears to be the fullest of juice, and exThe intremely thin, from being distended to the greatest extent. cision thus made is gradually extended, but nothing is removed; the consequence of which is, that an unctuous foam oozes forth, which
the tree

gradually coagulates and thickens.


requires
it,

When
is

the nature of the locality

this juice

is

received upon mats of palm-leaves, though in


the tree

some places the space around

made hard by being


is

well

rammed down
after the

for the purpose.


is

The

frankincense that

gathered
falls

former method
is is

in the purest state,

though that which

upon

the ground

the heaviest in weight.


allotted in certain portions,
it is

"The
there
yet
at
is

forest

and such

is

the mutual

probity of the owners, that

quite safe

from

all

depredation; indeed,

no one
is

left to

watch the
to

tree after the incisions are

made, and

no one

ever

known

plunder his neighbor.


is

But, by Hercules!

Alexandria, where the incense

dressed for sale, the workshops


a seal
is

can never be guarded with


the

sufficient care;

even placed upon

workmen's aprons and

mask put upon

the head, or else a net

they are allowed to leave work.


less

with very close meshes, while the people are stripped naked before So true it is that punishments afford
security

among

us than

is

to

be found by these Arabians amid

their

woods and

forests!

"The

incense which has accumulated during the

summer

is

gath-

*Cf. Virgil, Georf(ia II, 116-117: Divisae arboribus patriae.

Sola India nigrum

Fert ebenum,

.solis

est turea virga Sabseis.

And

again,

I,

57:

India mittit ebur, molles sua tura Sabaei.


126

'

ered in the autumn;

it

is

the purest of

all,

and

is

of a white color.

The

second gathering takes place in the spring, incisions being made


bark for that purpose during the winter;
this,

in the

however,

is

of a

red color, and not to be

compared with the other


all
i

incense.'

And

of the storage of

the incense of the country in the capital,

Pliny gives a further account

XII, 32)

"The

incense after being collected,

is

carried on camels' backs

to Sabota, of

which place a

single gate

is left

open for
it,

its

admission.

To

de\ iate

from the high road while carrying

the laws have

made
Sabis;

a capital offense.

At

this place the priests take

by measure, and not


they
call

by weight, a tenth part in honor of their god,


indeed,
it

whom

is

not allowable to dispose of

it

before this has been done;

out of this tenth the public expenses are defrayed, for the divinity

generously entertains

all

those strangers

who

have made a certain

number
it is

of days' journey in

coming

thither.

The

incense can only


this

be exported through the country of the Gebanitae, and for


that a certain tax
is

reason

paid to their king as well.

"There

are certain portions also of the frankincense

which

are

given to the priests and king's secretaries:


the keepers of
it,

and

in addition to these,
it,

as well as the soldiers

who

guard

the gate-keepers

and various other employees, have


sides, all

their share as well.


at

And
to

then befor, at

along the route, there

is

one place water

pay

another fodder, lodging of the stations and various taxes and imposts
besides;

the consequence of
it

which

is,

that the expense

for each

camel before
is

arrives at the shores of our sea fthe Mediterranean)


after all this, too, there are certain

688 denarii;
to the

payments

still

to

be made

farmers of the revenue of our empire.

Hence
second quality
27.
litic"

pound

of the best incense sells at 6 denarii, of the


at 3 denarii."

at 5,

and of the third quality


rafts.

To Cana on
as

frankincense,

distinguished

valley,

which would

naturally

was the Dhofar, or "Sachafrom that of the Hadramaut go by camel direct to Sabbatha. Pliny
rafts,

This

(VI, 34) doubts the story of the inflated

derived,

he thinks,

from a fancied resemblance


tribe using

them

Asettee
Axum.
type

the

name given the African tribe Greek word a^/^w meaning "bladder."
to

the

But the

Ascitae, as already

shown, were from Asich ( 33) and were


the inflated raft
is

the founders of

And
still

authentic, being the

well-known

kelck, a

in general use
it

on the Euphrates, whence


This
is

the migrating Arabs no doubt brought probably, also, the

to the south coast.

cargo-ship" of 33, sent from Cana to Masira

Island for tortoise-shell.

127

Inflated raft,

from a

relief at

Nineveh.

After Layard.

27.

The neighboring

the South Arabian coast between Kuria

coast of Persia means that part of Muria Bay and Ras el Hadd,

which had recently been conquered by the Parthian Empire. The word Parthia" our author avoids, and it is likely that this coast did likewise, knowing rather the independent sphere of influence of
the constituent

Kingdom

of Persia;

which, while an integral part of


its

the Arsacid possessions, maintained

local

government

to an extent

never allowed the


28.

districts nearer-

Ctesiphon.

Imported into
:

this place.
little

The

list

of imports indicates

the nature of the trade

wheat, wine, and cheap clothing for


its

the Hadramaut, and graven images for the household worship of

king;

and the Mediterranean products, copper,


in

tin,

coral

and

storax,

where they were in demand ( 49), and Hadramaut shipping ( 57), along with the frankincense produced in the country. The outlook of Hadramaut, then as now, was toward India by sea, and toward Egypt by land. Bent found the same conditions; the capital full of Parsee merchants,
for re-shipment to India,

whither they went

the natives going to India, the Straits and Java, and returning

when

they had amassed a competence;

the English protectorate accepted

because of England's domination of India, in the face of the religious


convictions of rulers and people
{^Geographical Journal,
in

IV,

322).

Maltzan described the Hadrami traders


lot,

Cairo as the keenest of the


while the Dutch gov-

and spoke of their

activities

in the East;

ernment, finding the islands of Java and Sumatra overrun with Hain Batavia, which rebook on their country, comprising more details than Bent could gather on the spot! An enterprising and uncompromising people, these Chatramotitae, who may have been the

dramaut Arabs, stimulated inquiries of them


sulted
in

Van den

Berg'

128

active

power

in the

Minaean dynasty and the Sabaean that followed

it,

both of

whom

subsisted mainly on the carriage of frankincense to the

north, in

and the unpolluted caste of those


spirit

which they were the mediators between the profane world who were able by propitiating the
and gather
its

of the sacred tree, to shed

blood for the purifica-

tion of

mankinJ.

28.

Coral.

This was the red

coral of the Mediterranean,

which

commanded
principal

a high price in

India and China, and was one of the

Roman

exports thither, being shipped to Barbaricum, Bary-

gaza and Aluziris.


it

(See 39, 49, and 56.

As an import

at

Cana

was intended
28.

for

reshipment to India

in

Arab or Hindu bottoms.

Storax

in

Roman

times meant two different things: one, a


officinalis,

solid,

was the

resin of

Styrax

order Styracacece, somewhat

resembling benzoin, and used in incense.

Liquid storax was the sap


S.

of Liquidambar orientalis, order Hamamelidacea, nati\e in

^^^ Asia

Minor, and exported, according to Fliickiger and Hanbury (^Pharmacographia, pp. 271-6), as far as China.
It

was an expectorant and

stimulant, useful in chronic bronchial affections.

The

Periplus does

net distinguish between them, but Fluckiger thinks that the storax dealt

Cana was the liquid storax, destined for India and China; which would have had little use for an incense of less value than their own.
in at

There was, however,


incense gatherers from the
'

a local use for storax in defending the frank-

serpents" guarding the trees; see pp. 131-2.


the

Hirth in his China and

Roman

Orient quotes Chinese annals


collect
all

covering this period, which state that the Syrians


fragrant substances, the juice of

kinds of

which they

boil into su-ho"

which

he
are

identifies

with storax.

Later annals, referring to the 6th century,


is

more complete.

Storax
it is

made by mixing and

boiling the juice


It is

of various fragrant trees;

not a natural product.

further said

that the inhabitants of Ta-ts'in (Syria) gather the storax (plant, or parts

of

itj,

squeeze the juice out, and thus make a balsam {hsiang-kao)


its

they

then

sell

dregs to the traders of other countries;

it

thus goes

through
is

many hands
"

before reaching China, and,

when

arriving here,

not very fragrant.

These references
Glaser notes the
state to

indicate that the


tree.

Chinese su-ho

may

not have

been the product of one particular


have been the

name su-ho, which the Chinese annals further name of the country producing the storax, and

connect with the


Petra,

city Li-kan, supposed to be the same as Rekam or which was a point of shipment. He compares this with the usu-vfooA mentioned in several Assyrian inscriptions a tribute received from Arabia, and with a city called Usuu, placed by Delitzsch south

129

of

Akko on
28.

the sea

but Glaser
bitter

thinks

it

may have been

farther north,

near Tyre.

Aloes,

cathartic,

from Aloe

Perryt, Baker, order LiliaceiE.

times an important article


entirely in Socotra.
hepatica, native
in

dried juice exuded This was from very early of commerce, and was produced almost
variety, less in

being the

Another

South Arabia, particularly

in the

demand, was from Aloe Hadramaut valley,


of the Periplus to

but also as far as northern

Oman.

The

failure

mention Socotrine aloes

is

surprising, unless the product of the island

was monopolized in Cana. This is quite possible, as the island was subject to the Hadramaut. In modern times these and many other varieties are in use, both Bent {^Southern Arabia, wild and cultivated, throughout the tropics.
p.

381) found very


the ancient

little

aloes collected in Socotra, but


it

many

fields

enclosed by walls, where


scribes

had formerly been produced.


still

He

de-

method

used to prepare the gum; the thick

leaves piled

up

until the juice

exudes of their
finally

own

weight, then allowed

to dry in the sun for six

weeks and

packed

in skins for

shipment.

of Sachalites. Until the Arabian coast was was an erroneous idea held by all the geographers, of a deep indentation in the coast-line between Ras el Kelb (14 0' N., 48 45' E.) and Ras Hasik (17 23' N., 55 10' E.), midway be29.

The Bay

surveyed, there

tween which Ras Fartak, or Syagrus (14


the supposed gulf.
tions,

0'

N., 52 12' E.

bisected

The

error

is

very evident in Ptolemy's observa-

coast,

which make Ras Fartak one of the most striking features of the whereas its actual projection is unimportant, and its height less
east.

than that of the ranges farther

The name
of coast;
in

as applied in

29 seems
it

to apply to this

whole

strip

32 that part of

lying east of

Ras Fartak

is

subdivided

Omana; but in 33 the name is resumed. This accords with the Arabian geographers, whose Shehr extended beyond
as the district of

Dhofar.

The word
the

Sachalites

is

Hellenized from the Arabic Sahil,

coast,

"

same word

that appears in

East Africa as Sawahll, where the


strip of

natives are called Swahili.

This narrow

coast plain

was

dif-

ferent topographically

and ethnologically from the Valley of Hadra-

maut.

The
Polo).

mediaeval form of the

mediaeval port that

word was Sheher or Shehr, and the replaced Cana was Es-shehr (the Escier of Marco

Ibn Khaldun (Kay's translation, p. 180) has the following account of this coast: "Ash-Shihr is, like Hijaz and Yaman, one of

'

130

the kingdoms of the Arabian peninsula.

It is

separate

from Hadrapalm-

maut and Oman.


trees in the country.

There

is

no

cultivation, neither are there

The
is

wealth of the inhabitants consists of camels


preparations of milk and small
fish,

and

goats.

Their food

flesh,

with which they also feed their beasts.


as that of
in
it.

The

country

is

also

known

Ash-Shihr

Mahra, and the camels called Mahriyah camels are reared is sometimes conjoined with Oman, but it is conit

tiguous to Hadramaut, and


shores of that country.
It
is

has been described as constituting the

produces frankincense, and on the seashore


found.

the Shihrite ambergris

The
'

Indian
if

Ocean

extends along

the south and on the north Hadramaut, as


of the
latter.

Shihr were the sea-shore

Both are under one


(in Hilprecht, op.
cit.

king.

Hommel
this

700-1) argues for a derivation of

name from some word

allied to the old

Hebrew term
have been
is

for frankin-

cense, shekheleth;

south coast,
also Glaser,

which does not seem while the evidence of the Arab


Skizze,

to

in use

on the
(See

writers

against him.
is

178-9.

The

Periplus in 32

against him,

by using the adjective &f^a/zftV

as qualifying

"frankincense,"

which

would
luhan

be quite redundant.

{,Pharm. Joum. XII, 1853) speaks of the Shaharree from Arabia, as yielding higher prices than that produced in Sachalitic frankincense" Africa; a term exactly corresponding to the
of the Periplus.
29.

Vaughn

Always

fatal.

The

reports of the unhealthy character of

this coast,

spread by the earliest traders, have been assumed to be their

device to discourage competition.

The

fate

of Niebuhr'
s

party in

Yemen, and
sufficiently

the

more

recent tragic outcome of Bent'

explorations,

confirm the dangers from malaria, dysentery and the scorch-

ing sun.

But aside from the question of physical health, the tapping of the
frankincense tree was believed to be attended by special dangers, expressed in the faith of the people, and arising from the supposed
divinity of the tree itself.

Robertson Smith {Religion of


religious value

the Semites, p.

427) recounts
independent of

this belief as follows

"The
animal
of tree,

of incense

was

originally

sacrifice, for

frankincense was the

gum

of a very holy species

therefore, the sacred odor


altar sacrifice,
it

which was collected with religious precautions. Whether, was used in unguents or burned like an
appears to have

owed
it

its

virtue, like the

gum

of the

samora (acacia) tree, to the idea that

was the blood

of an animate

and divine plant."

'

131

And

again (p. 133)

In Hadramaut

it is still

dangerous to touch
the plant will

the sensitive mimosa, because the

spirit that resides in

avenge the

injury.

The same
b.

idea appears in the story of


historical

Harb

b.

Omajfya and Mirdas


eration before

Abi Amir,

persons

who
it

died a gen-

Mohammed.

When

these

two men

set fire to

an uncultiva-

trodden and tangled thicket, with the design to bring


tion, the

under

demons

of the place flew

away with

doleful cries in the shape

of white serpents, and the intruders died soon afterwards.


it

The

Jinn

was believed slew them because they had set fire to their dwellingHere the spirits of the trees take serpent form when they place. leave their natural seats, and similarly in Moslem superstition the jinn of the oshr and hamata are serpents which frequent trees of these But primarily supernatural life and power reside in the trees species. themselves, which are conceived as animate and even as rational

Or
is

again the value of the


it is

gum

of the acacia as an amulet


i.

is

connected

with the idea that


a

a clot of menstruous blood,

e.

that the tree

woman.
like

And

similarly the old

Hebrew
ff.

fables of trees that speak


,

and act

human

beings (Judg. IX, 8

2 Kings

XIV,

9) have
'

their original source in the savage personification of vegetable species.

The Romans
souls of the dead

and Greeks, it is well known, believed were incarnate in the bodies of serpents and
in the

that the
revisited

the earth in that form;

hence, as Frazer has shown {Golden Bough,

3d

ed.

IV, 74), such practices as that described

Baccha of

Euripides,

when

nursing mothers entered the Dionysiac revels clad in

deer-skins and girded with serpents,


also, the

which they suckled.

Hence,
and
re-

Roman custom

of keeping serpents in every household,

the serpent-worship connected with their god Aesculapius, to


shrines, as well as to those of

whose
by the

Adonis

in Syria, childless
saint,
a.

women

paired that they

might be quickened by a dead

jinn, or

births of

Such was the belief concerning the god himself, in serpent form. Alexander of Macedon and the Emperor Augustus.
Herodotus refers
to this

same
he

belief in

two passages

(III,

107

and

II,

75) which have been laughed

at as travellers' yarns.

The

Arabians gather frankincense,"

says,

the Phcenicians import into Greece;


size

for

"by burning styrax, which winged serpents, small in

great

and various in form, guard the trees that bear frankincense, a number round each tree. These are the same serpents that in-

vade Egypt.

They

are driven

from the
is,

trees

by nothing

else but the

smoke
he

of the styrax."

That

the wrath of the incense-spirit


styrax-spirit.

was

appeased by the perfume provided by the


says, these

And

every spring,

winged serpents flew

into

near Buto, where they were met by the

ibis

Egypt through a narrow pass and defeated; hence the

132

veneration for the


tree-spirit

ibis in

Egypt.
its

Here

is

evidently a belief that the


it

hovered over

blood as the traders carried

to market,

and that the danger that threatened the Egyptians was averted by the The location of this Buto defensive power of their own sacred bird.
is

disputed, but

it

was probably along some ancient desert trade-route


at the

such as that between Coptos and Berenice

time of the Periplus.

Buto was

also the

name

of an Egyptian deity,

borrowed from

God'

Land" (Yemen;.
Theophrastus has the same story of the tree guarded by winged
serpents, but refers
it

to

cinnamon
all

{Hist. Plant., IX, 6).

gums of Arabia were which may suggest that myrrh was similarly guarded, except myrrh; from a more purely Joktanite district, less imbued with the animism
According
to

Herodotus,

the fragrant

of the earlier races of Arabia.

The same
of Isaiah

belief probably appears in the

fiery flying serpents"

XXX,

60.

Medicinal waters were guarded by similar powers;


(Frazer, Pausanias, V, 43-5);

a dragon

sacred to Ares protected the sacred spring above Ismenian Apollo

while

among

the Arabs

all

medicinal
/.,168).

waters were protected hy Jinns

(W.

Robertson Smith,

op.

The mon

faith

of the Incense-Land presents

many
is

features in

com-

with that of the Greeks.

While Frazer
some

no doubt

right in

warning against indiscriminate assimilation of


and Semitic, there
is

deities

certainly

truth in the

Greek, Egyptian words of Euripides'

Bacchus (son of Jove and Semele, daughter of the Phoenician Cadmus) who came to Greece having left the wealthy lands of the
Lydians and Phrygians and the sun-parched plains of the Persians,

and the Bactrian walls;

and having come over the stormy land of the


all

Medes, and
of the Salt

t/ie

happy Arabia, and

Asia which

lies

along the coast


mysteries"

Sea,

there having established

my

and

"every one of these foreign nations celebrates these orgies."

According
the

to

Herodotus

(III, 8

and

I,

131), the only deities of

Incense-Land were Dionysus and Urania,


while the Semitic people of

whom

they called

Orotal and Ahlat;


shipped Zeus
lates

Meroe

(II,

29) wor-

(Ammon)
43
).

and Bacchus (Osiris)

whom

Glaser assimidie Siidara-

with the Katabanic gods

'Am

and Uthirat {Punt und

biichcn Reichc,

Now

the invocations of Dionysus in the mys-

teries

were

Evoe, Sabai, Bacchi, Hues, Attes, Attes, Hues!" and

according to Cicero {De natura deorum,


of Bacchus

I, iii, 23) one of the names was Sabazjus; in whose mysteries at Alexandria, we are Protrept. ii, 16) persons initiated had a serpent told by Clement drawn through t'le bosom of their robes, and the reptile was identified
'


133

with the god (Frazer,

Golden Bough, IV, 76).

Here seems

to be

some
to

basis, at least, for identification of the

god of the Incense-Land


Glaser {Punt,
etc., p.

whom

Pliny gives the

name

Sabis;

whom

46) thinks identical with Shams, the Sabaean sun-god, and whose

name appears also in the capital city, Sabota or Sabbatha (Shabwa). There is a suggestive similarity in the legions concerning the
crater of Bir Barhut in the Hadramaut, and Aetna, on the top of which an ancient Latin poem describes the people offering incense to Formerly, Frazer says, victims were sacrificed the celestial deities. also, probably to appease the spirits who were supposed to dwell
there.

The
with

Abyssinian Chronicle, tracing the descent of the monarchs

of that people

who

migrated from the Incense -Land, heads the


op. cit., p.

list

"Arwe
'

the Serpent" (Salt,

460). and Ludolfus

in his

Commentaries (III, 284) refers to the

great

dragon

who

lived at

Axum,'

said to

have been burst asunder by the prayers of nine ChrisTree

tian saints.

(See also James Fergusson,

and

Serpent IVorship;

Plutarch,

30.

De hide et Ostride and De Defectu Oraculorum.^ Syagrus is unquestionably Ras Fartak, 15 36' N.,
headland rising to a height of about 2500

52 12'

E.

bluflf

feet, visible for

many

miles along the coast.


is

This name, meaning

wild boar"

in

Greek,
saivakir,

probably a corruption of the Arabic tribe-name saukar, plural


in

appearing also

Saukira Bay, and in the


folk,

Saghar.

This was an incense-gathering

modern village of whose name Pliny assakr, the

similates to the

Greek

for

'holy"

sacros,

from

root-form

of saukar.

See Glaser, Siizze, 180.


the

Yet
II,

modern name

Fartak,

according to Forster

{op.

cit.

171), has the same meaning,

"Wild Boar's Snout,"

the mediaeval

Arabic geographers having possibly followed Ptolemy's nomenclature.


30.

Dioscorida, (nearer
its

the Arabian coast than the African in


if

point of population and language,


asserts), continues
0'
.

not in location as our author


30'

name

in the

modern Socotra (12


of the Sanscrit

N.
to

54

Both forms are corruptions E. ) meaning "Island abode of bliss."


and Arabia.
Egyptian
tale

Dvipa Sukhadara,
refers
it

Agatharchides

as

"Island of the Blest," a stopping-place for the voyagers between India

How

ancient the

Hindu name maybe


it

is

unknown;
expressed.

the

sense possibly antedates the language in which

is

An
),

of the Xlllth Egyptian dynasty (18th century B. C.


(

recounted by Golenischef
ists,

Report of the Vth Congress of Orientalit

Berlin, 1881

),

speaks of

as

"Island of the Genius, " Pa-anch, the

home

of the

King

of the Incense-Land; and in the


spirit

recognized the^Vn^ or

of the sacred tree.

"Genius" maybe There is good cause

134 for believing that this


is

also the

"Isle of the Blest,"

the farthest

point reached by the wandering hero of that Babylonian Odyssey, the


narrative of

Gilgamesh; which joins

to the story of a search over the

known world

for the soul of a departed friend,

found

in the

end by

prayer offered to Nergal,

god of the dead, the material record of an

early migration

around the shores of Arabia.


(^Ancient

The

theory of
vol. II)
:

this

Cushite-Elamite migration, outlined by Glaser (Siizze,

is

thus

recounted by

Hommel

Hebrew

Tradition, p.

39)

"Egyptian records furnish us with an important piece of ethnological evidence.


a
in
cf.

From
its

the Xllth dynasty (2200 B. C. .0 onwards the Kashi

new

race

makes

appearance on the Egyptian horizon:


originally applied to

Nubia.

This name was


in

Elam

(Babyl. kashu:
cf.

the KissiQi of Herodotus, the


India),

modern Khuzistan;
central

also

Cutch

and Kachh

and according to Hebrew

afterwards given to various parts of

was and southern Arabia;


translation,

from this he argues that in very early times prior to the 2d millennium B. C. northeast Africa must have been colonized by the Elamites, wJio had to pass around Arabia on their way thither. This theory

is

supported by the fact that in the so-called Cushite languages of


other allied

northeast Africa, such as the Galla, Somali, Beja, and


dialects,

we

find grammatical principles analogous to those of the early


totally dissimilar syn-

Egyptian and Semitic tongues combined with a


in Africa, but

tax presenting no analogy with that of the Semites or with any Negro

tongue

resembling closely the syntax of the Ural-altaic

languages of

Asia,

to

which

the Elamite language belongs.

According
of

to this view, the

much-discussed Cushites (the Aethiopians

itcs,

Homer and Herodotus) must originally have been Elamitic Kasswho were scattered over Arabia and found their way to Africa.
note that the Bible
calls

It is interesting to

Nimrod

a son of Cush, and

that the

name Gilgamesh
epic
tells

has an Elamitic termination.

What

the

Nimrod

us of his wanderings around Arabia must therefore

be regarded as a legendary version of the historical migration of the


Kassites from
cation of the

Elam

into East Africa.

Nimrod

is

merely a personifistill

Elamitic race-element of which traces are

to

be

found both

in

Arabia and in Nubia."


the same book, pp. 35-6,
its

And

in

Hommel

thus describes the

references in the epic, which in

present form he dates at about

2000 B. C.

"In the 9th canto we are

told

how he

set out for the land of

Mashu
the

(central Arabia), the gate of

which (the rocky pass formed by

cliffs of Aga and Salma), was guarded by legendary scorpion-men. (Hence perhaps the name "land of darkness" applied to Arabia in

135

early

Hebrew

annals.

through dense darkness;


that

For 12 miles the hero had to make his way at length he came to an enclosed space by

the sea-shore where dwelt the virgin goddess Sabitu;

who

tells

hitn

no one since
"Difficult
is

eternal days has ever crossed the

sea, save

Sha-

mash, the hero.


the crossing, and extremely dangerous the way,
its

And
How,

closed are the Waters of Death which bolt

entrance;

then, Gilgamesh, wilt thou cross the sea.'"


is

But Gilgamesh

directed to Arad-Ea, the sailor of Per-napishtim,

who

is

in the forest felling a cedar.

Him

he asks

to ferry

him

across

to the "Isle of the Blest."

After cutting 120 timbers 60 cubits long


it,

(surely not
inflated raft)

"oars," as the translation has

but rather logs for an

and smearing them with

pitch,
;

"Then Gilgamesh and Arad-Ea embarked; The ship tossed to and fro while they were on

their way.

A journey of forty and five


And
thus

days they accomplished in three days,

Arad-Ea

arrived at the

Waters

of

Death"

which may have been Bab el Mandeb, and at the "Isle of the Blest" where dwelt Shamash-Napishtim, great-grandfather of Gilgamesh. The island Pa-anch of the Egyptian tale is obviously the same as
I, 213), and the tale was an important center of international Here the occasional navies trade not far from the time of Abraham. of Egypt met the peoples of Arabia and Africa and the traders of India, from the Gulf of Cambay and perhaps in greater numbers from the active ports in that ruined sea of past ages, the Rann of Cutch (the Eirinon of 40); a condition not changed at the time of the Periplus, when the inhabitants were a "mixture of Arabs and Indians and

the incense-land Panchaia of Virgil {Georgics


itself

indicates that Socotra

Greeks,"
noting
its

nor yet

when Cosmas

Indicopleustes visited the place,

conversion to Christianity, and observing that the Greek

element was planted there by the Ptolemies.


found
still

"a

great deal of trade there, for


sell

Marco Polo (III, 32) many ships come from all

quarters with goods to


(called Bawarij,

to the

natives.

multitude of corsairs
island;

from Cutch and Gujarat) frequent the

they
this
it

come

there and

encamp and put up


profit, for

their plunder for sale;

and

they do to good

the Christians of the island purchase

knowing well that it is Saracen or Pagan gear." , The names Pa-anch and Panchaia Glaser would connect,

as

already noted, with such others as Pano and Opone, the land of Punt

and the Puni or Phoenicians, whose sacred bird was likewise conPliny gives the story (X, 2) nected with Panchaia.
:

"The
eagle,

Phoenix, that famous bird of Arabia


brilliant

the size of an

and has a

golden plumage around the neck, while the

136
rest of the

body

is

of a purple color;

except the
a roseate

tail,

which

is

azure,
is

with

long

feathers
crest,

intermingled

of

hue;

the throat

adorned with a

and the head with


.

a tuft of feathers.

It is

sacred to the sun.


sprigs of incense,

When
it

old

it

builds a nest of

which

fills

with perfumes, and then lays

cinnamon and its body

upon them to die. From its bones and marrow there springs a small the first thing that it does is worm, which changes into a little bird to perform the obsequies of its predecessor, and to carry the nest
;

entire to the City of the

Sun near Panchaia, and there deposit

it

the altar of that divinity.


pleted with the
life

The

revolution of the great year

is

upon com-

of this bird,

and a new cycle comes round again

with the same characteristics as the former one, in the seasons and

appearance of the

stars.

SeyfEarth has supposed this to refer to the passage of

Mercury
18:

ev ery

625

years,

and Glaser connects the legend with the hawk-faced

Egyptian god Horus (Khor).


said, I shall die in

Compare Job XXIX,


I shall

"Then

my

nest,

and

multiply

my

days as the PhcE-

The bird came from an Arabian land, hence name from the people thereof; just as the Greeks gave the same name phoinix to the date-palm, native in that land; which may be assumed to have been the southern shore of the Persian Gulf, whence
nix" (^Khor or Khot).
his

convulsions of nature, chmatic or political changes, drove


ants in opposite directions, carrying their culture with

its

inhabitdupli-

them and

cating Persian Gulf place-names continuously in the Mediterranean

and Erythraean
Lepsius'
Riche,

Seas.

(See the introduction

Ueber die

l^ilker

und Sprachen Afrikas


die

in

Nubische Grammatik;

Glaser,

Punt und

Sudarahischen

and the reports of the Austrian South Arabian Expedition.

.30.

Great

lizards, of
niloticus,

which the

flesh

is

eaten.

These
seems
Var-

are probably laranus

family Varanida:, order Laeertilla, native

throughout the African region, and attaining a length of more than


five feet.

Another

species, V. salvator, while

somewhat

larger,

to be native only in India


anidce,

and farther

east.
is

The

flesh of all the

although offensive to the smell,

eaten by the natives, and


J'aranus
is

considered equal to that of fowls.

The name

from the

Arabic Ouaran, lizard;


lish

which by a mistaken resemblance


into a popular Latin

to the

Eng-

warn" has been rendered


30.

name. Monitor.

{Cambridze Natural History, VIII, 542-5.)

tortoise-shell of

Tortoise. It is uncertain what species commerce is from Chelone imbricata,


hawks-bill"
turtle,

are meant.

The

family Chelonida,

the so-called

found

in all tropical waters, but sel-

dom

reaching a length of more than thirty inches.

This

is

a "true

137

sea-tortoise,"
'

as

our author puts

it,

but he goes on to describe a

which may is more likely one of the gigantic land-tortoises (family Testudinida:) which appear in many of the islands of the Western Indian Ocean; of which most are now extinct, {Testudo grandidieri only recently in Madabe Chelone my das, the
green turtle" (also a sea-tortoise), but
gascar), while others, like T. gigantea and T. daudini, are
in less
still

'mountain-tortoise, the largest and with the thickest shell,"

found

frequented islands.

The

land-tortoise"

and the "white-

tortoise"

may

include several species of Cinyxis, Pyxis and Testudo.

(See Cambridge Natural History, VIII, 364-387.)


30.

Cinnabar, that called Indian.

Dragon 's

blood.

The

confusion between dragon's blood (the exudation of a dracaena) and

our cinnabar (red sulphide of mercury)


absurd than
it

is

of long standing, but less

seems

at

first

sight.

(XXXIII,
properly the

38,

and VIII, 12).

The story is given by Pliny The word kinnabari, he says, is

name given to the thick matter which issues from the dragon when crushed beneath the weight of the dying elephant, mixed

with the blood of either animal.

The
to

occasions were the continual


place

which were The dragon was said


combats

believed
to

take

between the two.


he

have a passion for elephant's blood;

twined himself around the elephant's trunk, fixed his teeth behind the when the elephant fell ear, and drained all the blood at a draught;

dead to the ground,

in

his fall crushing the

now

intoxicated dragon.

Any
the

thick red earth


kinnabari.

was thus

attributed to such combats,

and given

name

Originally red ochre

(peroxide of iron J, was

probably the principal earth so named.


earth (red sulphide of mercury),
ferred as a pigment to the

Later the Spanish quicksilver

was given the same name and preLater,


again, the exudations of

iron.

Dracana cinnabari in Socotra and Dracana schizantha in Somaliland and Hadramaut (order Dracanece) and Calamus draco m India (order
,

Palmea), were given the name kinnabari.

Being of similar texture

and appearance, the confusion is not surprising, as the Romans had no knowledge of chemistry. Pliny noted errors made by physicians in his day, of prescribing the poisonous Spanish cinnabar instead of the Indian; and proposed a solution of the problem by calling the mercury earth minium, the
ochre
miltos,

follow him.

and the vegetable product kinnabari, but usage did not now give the mercury earth the old Greek name

We

for dragon's blood,

and the dried juice we give the same name

in

English.

varieties of

Wellsted {Travels in Arabia, 1838, II, 450-1) noted the two Dracana, one of which had leaves the camels could eat,

'

'

138

while the other was too

bitter.

Bent

(^Southern Arabia, 379, 381,

387)
notes

gives a good description of

this peculiar tree,

with

its

thick, twisted

trunk and foliage resembling an umbrella turned inside out.


that very
little
is

He

now

exported from Socotra, the cultivated product


it.

from Sumatra and South America having superseded


of gathering
is

The method

the simplest possible, the dried juice deing

ofl the tree into bags,

knocked and the nicely-broken drops fetch the best price.


Century Dictionary the word cinnabar

According
eastern origin:

to the
cf.

Persian zinjarf, xinjafr,

= Hindu

is

'of

shangarf, cin-

nabar.

'

The

bit of

folk-lore quoted

by Pliny confirms the Indian cona dragon or serpent for possession


all

nections of Socotra.

Combats with
countries;

of a sacred place, or for the relief of a suffering people, appear in

the

Mediterranean

such were related of Apollo


nothing of

at the

oracle of Delphi, of Adonis in Syria (perpetuated in the


in
St.

modern

faith

George
in the

in the

same

locality), to say

Marduk and
is

Tiamat

Babylonian creation-story.

But

in all these legends,

held by Semitic people or borrowed from them, the contender

hero or a god;

while

in

Socotra
is

it is

an elephant.

Pliny offers a

ma-

teriaUstic explanation,

which

unconvincing because elephants are


It is evi-

not found in Socotra or in the neighboring parts of Africa.


dently a local faith rather than a natural fact, and light

may be thrown

upon
blood

it

by Bent's observation {^Southern Arabia, 'i79) that dragon's


called in Socotra

is still

blood of two brothers.

'

In the Mediterranean world this


as a dye; in India
it

had

also

ceremonial uses.

gum was used medicinally and One must refer, not to

the

Buddhism of the Kushan dynasty, apparently dominant as far south modern Bombay at the time of the Periplus, but rather to the earlier faith Brahmanism overlaid upon nature-worship, then prevalent among the Dravidian races farther south. The members of the Brahman triad were Brahma, Vishnu and Siva, the creator, preserver, and destroyer; they were worshipped especially at a shrine on an
as the

island in

Bombay

harbor,

called

Elephanta (in constant connection

commercially with the Gulf of Aden), and an elephant's head was


the visible
triad,

emblem

of

the sacred syllable


at the

AUM,

representing the

which was pronounced

beginning and the end of any

reading of the sacred books, and had


elephant signified

many
first

mystic properties.
triad,

The
cobra,'

more

particularly the

person of the

Brahma

the creator, while the dragon or serpent, in the

form of the

represented Siva the destroyer;

and these combats of Pliny, between

an elephant and

a dragon, the blood

from which was called "blood

139

of two brothers," seem to be a reflection of the perpetual tween the first and third persons of the Hindu triad.
It
is

conflict be-

among
of of

AUM

Hindu name for Socotra appears likewise names of the seven manifestations of the power in their ritual: "Earth, Sky, Heaven, Middle Region, Place Births, Abode of the Blest, Abode of Truth;" indicating that the
notable that the
the mysterious

its name from the Indian merchants who had "emigrated on trade there" ( 30), especially in this legendary gum of the dracaena, and suggesting that the name is as old as the Xlllth dynasty tale and the Gilgamesh epic. Another survival of Hindu influence seems to be the mateb or

island

had

to carry

blue

silk

neck-cord, the badge of

Christianity,

which

suggests,

or sacred cord of the

baptism in modern Abyssinian more than any Arab custom, the zennar Brahman priest.

(See the references in


Yo't^hyry, de Jnt.

J. G. Frazer's Pausanias and Golden Bough; Nymph., 26%; Asiatic Researches, Y Mi; Maurice,
,

Indian Antiquities
30.

Yields no
value.

fruit.

This

must be understood

as referring

to agriculture;

this island

was

particularly rich in natural products of

commercial

Aloes, dragon's blood and frankincense were all myrrh and other gums; but owing to the monopoly of the Chatramotitae these went to market at Cana. Bent found many
plentiful, also

evidences of

this early trade,

but no present exploitation

the walled

myrrh and dragon's blood uncollected, and the energies of the people employed in the production of clarified butter. The island seemed full of cattle, and the Sultan kept a special dhow to carry the skins and jars of clarified butter to the mainland, where it was in demand as far as Muscat and Zanzibar.
aloe-fields deserted, the frankincense,

(Southern Arabia, p. 346).


31.

Subject to the Frankincense Country.

By speech,

race and political allegiance Socotra has been joined to the


district

of South Arabia from rime immemorial.


it

1716 showed
garth,
op.
it

depending upon the


p.

Mahra La Roque's map of Kingdom of Fartach" (Ho-

cit.,

found

jealously

45); '\\'ellsted, writing in 1838 (op. cit., 450-3) mentioned as a dependency of the Sheikh of Kissin,
(See
reports of the Austrian Expedition.)
for defence against the

formerly called King of Furtak;" and Bent found the same.


also the

numerous
by

31.

Garrisoned;

two enemies of the


either
side:

Chatramotitae,

whom
of

they were

hard

pressed on

namely, the Homerites and the Parthians.


32.

The Bay

Omana,
is

being that portion of the Bay of


the

Sachalites lying east of Syagrus,

modern Kamar

Bay.

(16

"

140
15'

N.

53 30' E. ).

The

"mountains, high and rocky and steep,

inhabited by cave-dwellers," are the

modern Jebel Kamar and Jebel


feet.

Gara, reaching altitudes of over 3,000

The name
to

'

Omana,"
at the

the

same

as the

modern Oman, seems

have extended

time of the Periplus over a larger area, inof which seems to have
for Isidorus of

cluding

much

of the south shore of the Persian Gulf as well as the

coast of South Arabia as far as

Ras Hasik;

all

been subject to the Parthians, but recently

Charax

Spasini, writing in the time of Augustus, speaks of

Goaesus, King
coast between

of the Omanitae in the Frankincense Country."

The

Ras Hasik and Ras Fartak, likewise associated with the name Omana in the Periplus, had fallen to the Chatramotitas in the recent partition
of the Incense-Land.
32.

The harbor
2'

Khor
at It is a

Reiri (17
tide

called Moscha. This N., 54 26' E. ), a protected


;

is

identified

with

inlet

(now

closed

low

by a sand-bar)

into

which empties the Wadi Dirbat.

couple of miles east of the modern tpwn of Taka, in the east-

the coast between Ras Risut and

fertile strip of some 50 miles along Ras Mirbat, surrounded by the Gara Mountains. Marco Polo describes it (III, xxxviii) as a very good haven, so that there is a great traffic of shipping between this and India. " It is, no doubt, the harbor of the Abaseni of Stephanus Byzantius. The ancient capital, Saphar (whence the modern name

ern part of the plain of Dhofar, a

'

'

of Dhofar, confused by

many

mediaeval geographers with Saphar or

Zafar, the capital of the Homerites in

Yemen)

lay probably in the

western part of the plain, near the modern Hafa. Saphar seems to

dence,"

so that the
calls
it

true

mean no more than capital" or "royal resiname of the ancient city is unknown.
'

Ptolemy
distance

Abissa

Polls,

City of the Habashat.

it and for some beyond on either side, are the original, and perhaps always the most important, Incense-Land of Arabia. are fortunate in

The

Plain of Dhofar, and the mountains behind

We
J.

having a vivid description of the whole region, by


{Geographical Journal, VI, 109-134, with a
printed in
his

Theodore Bent
re-

map

facing page 204;

Southern Arabia^ with careful

corrections by Glaser

und Afrika, 182-192 ). The plain is alluvial washed down from the mountains, which are of limestone, cavernous, and high enough to attract the rains; so that instead of the sandstone and volcanic rocks elsewhere on the south coast, here is one large oasis by the sea," abundantly v/atered the year round, and
(^Die Abessinier in Arabien
soil

producing crops of
of

all

kinds.

The

encircling mountains are the source

many

streams, gathering in lakes on the upper levels and falling to

"
141

the plain through densely

wooded

valleys.

Limes, cactus,

aloes,

and

mimosa form on

all

sides a delightful forest,

and the mountains above

the lakes are clad almost to the

we

never expected to witness in Arabia;

summit with timber. Such a scene it reminded us more of the


Sweet-scented
air

rich valleys leading

up to the tableland of Abyssinia.


trees,
It is

white jessamine hung in garlands from the


grant with the odor of

and the

was

fra-

many

flowers.

probable that a knowlits

edge of such valleys


for floral wealth."

as these gained

for Arabia

ancient reputation

And
falls

following up the stream leading to the an-

cient harbor,

which

over a remarkable limestone

cliff,

Bent found

a broad grassy plain used for grazing,

and

in the

midst a wooded lake,

the center of the local faith


jinnies live
to
in the water,

have fever.

of the Gara tribe; "they affirm that and that whoever wets his feet here is sure Every November a fair is held here, to which all
tribe

the Beduins of the

Gara

come and make

merry.

The

fair

of

Dirbat

is

considered by them the great

festival of the year.


sits

round

rock was shown us on which the chief magician


jinni of the lake,

to exorcise the

and around him the people dance.


the

"
the

short

way up
is

mountain-side

just

back of Hafa,

modern town,

a great cave

hung with

stalactites,

below which
is

are the ruins of an ancient town, in the center of

which

a natural

hole 100 feet deep and about 50 in diameter;

around

this

hole are
gate."

the remains of walls, and the columns of a large entrance

This, the natives told Bent, was the

well of the Adites,

' '

no doubt

an ancient oracle, mentioned as such by Ptolemy, Ibn Batuta and


others.

Near Hafa
full

are

the

ruins of the

ancient capital,

by the by a moat
sea,

sea,
still

around an acropolis some 100


of water;

feet in height, encircled


still

and
is

in

the

center,

connected with the

but

almost

silted up,

a tiny harbor.

The

ground

is

covered with the


at

remains of ancient temples, the architecture of which


nects
after
built

once con-

them with that of the columns at Adulis, Coloe and Axum seeing which no doubt can be entertained that the same people them all."
In Hafa the Bents found
a bazaar with frankincense in piles
el

ready for shipment, just as depicted in the Deir

Bahri temple,

while a large tract of country was


trees,

still

'covered with frankincense

with their bright green leaves

like ash trees, their small

green

flowers,

and

their insignificant fruit." (See later, p. 218.)


its

This

plain, with

ancient capital, Saphar, was the center of the

ancient Cushite empire (or Adite, from Ad, grandson of

Ham) which
having a

included most of Southern Arabia and

much

of East Africa;

"

142
ci\ilization

and religion similar

to

and derived from the Chaldasan.

About 1800 B.
Cushite stock;
of

C,

according to the Arab historians, Joktanite tribes

entered and conquered South Arabia, but were largely absorbed by the
as a result of
in

which the second, or Sabasan, empire

which the Joktanites became the sacred and land-owning caste, while the political and economic activities remained This was probably the power that dealt with the with the Cushites. Egyptians under the XVIIIth dynasty, as pictured at Deir-el-Bahri; concerning which the publication of the Egypt Exploration Fund
formed,

Ad was

seems a

little

too positive that the

Land

of Punt'

'

could not be in

Arabia because the faces of the Punt people were not Semitic.
testimony of Arabia would be
Cushites, conquered by the
at fault if

The

they were.

Later the Sabaean

Banu Ya

rub, a Joktanite stock


in

from YeAbyssinia,

men, migrated

into Africa,

and establishing themselves


six centuries
f

continued the ancient conflict for

more.
179-80) gives

The
Shihr and

account of Ibn Khaldun

Kay's

edition, pp.

a hint of the northern origin of the

Adites. "

people

it

It is said

Oman, he says, originally belonged to was conquered by the Banu Ya rub, son of Kahtan (Joktan). that the Banu Ad were led thither by Rukaym son of Aram^

Hadramaut, AshAd, from whose

who had formerly visited the country in company with the Prophet He returned to the people of Ad and led them in ships to the Hud. They wrested it from the hands of its country and to its invasion.
were themselves subsequently conquered by the Kahtan ruled o^. er the country, and it Banu Ya rub, son of Kahtan. was governed by his son Hadramaut, after whom it was named.
inhabitants, but they

Makrizi varies the legend by making Ad son of Kahtan, by

whom

he was made ruler over Babylonia, and his brother Hadramaut over "Habassia;" and he preserves a memory of the trade of the Incense-

Land

with India, in the

tale of a

hero of that land

who came

by night
re-

to the land

of the Indians in the

form of

a vulture,

whence he

turned bearing seeds of the green pepper, as proof of his journey.

Bent could not have learned more of the Gara tribe, exemplified at the annual reunion at the Dirbat lakes, which is probably an interesting survival of the ancient For as the Mahri represent the Himyarite conquerors of faith. the incense coast-land, so do the Gara represent to some extent the earlier inhabitants. Bent found a state of armed truce under the
It
is

regrettable that

local faith of the

restraining

influence

of

Aluscat;

Haines,

Carter,

and Cruttenden
the

had found the

villages of the plain fighting


plain, the

among themselves, and


to indicate the

mountain folk fighting with the


lords, as of old.

gatherers with the o\er-

Bent

tells

enough, however,

worship

143

of the spirit of the lake, the waters of

which might not be polluted by


"chief magi-

the foot of

man;

the propitiation of the spirit by the

cian"

at the

time of gathering the frankincense, and the celebration


tribal

of the harvest by a

dance'

'

probably reminiscent of bacchais

nalian rites;

after

which the product

sent to

Bombay

for

distribu-

tion, that the rest of

the world, in the

words of Pausanias (IX, 30)


that are re-

may

worship God with other people's incense." The name Moscha is another of those place-names
identifies this port.

peated along the coast from east to west, and survives

in the

modern

Muscat, with which Miiller mistakenly


to Forster {op.
flated skin,"
cit.,

According

II,

174-5)

this is

from the Genaba

Fish-Eaters'' or
moschos, calf.

an Arabic word meaning "in"


floaters

on

skins.

The word
word

continues in the

Greek

commercial harbor, to be the same as Mocha, and to signify a and to the author of the Periplus, and to Ptolemy, it is probable that Moscha limen m&znX. Incense Harbor;" otojc^oj- meaning also 'musk,''
or in later
the same idea was uppermost with

Glaser supposes the "

Milton:

Greek any perfume, even to that Camoes

of strawberries;

as indeed

{Lusiad, X, 201) and with

Now
Fanning

gentle gales.

their odoriferous wings, dispense

Native perfumes, and whisper whence they stole Those balmy spoils. As when to them who sail Beyond the Cape of Hope, and now are past Mozambic, off at sea northeast winds blow

Sabean odors from the spicy shore

Of Araby the Blest, with such delay Well pleased they slack their course, and many a league Cheered with the grateful smell old Ocean smiles Paradise Lost, IV, 156-165.

(See the works already cited of Bent, Wellsted, Glaser,


History of the East, VII, 1-2;

Hommel,
of
the

Zwemer, and Hogarth; Lenormant and Chevalier, Manual of Ancient


also J. B. Haines, in the Journal

Royal Geographical Society for 1839 and 1845;


actions

H.

J.

Carter, in Trans-

Bombay Asiatic Society, for 1845, 1847, and 1851; Makrizi De Valle Hadramaut, Bonn, 1866; Wellhausen, Skizzen und
of
the

Vorarheiten, III, 135-146.)

32.

The

ship could not clear.

Compare the trading

of the

Egyptian expeditions with the "chiefs of the land of Punt" over these

"heaps of incense," and again Marco Polo's description (III, xxxvii): ''A great deal of white incense grows in this country, and brings in a
great revenue to the Prince;
for

no one dares
at

sell

it

to

any one

else;

and whilst he takes

it

from the people

10

livres

of gold for the

144

hundredweight, he
is

sells

it

to the

merchants

at

60

livres,
,

so his profit

immense.

' '

And

according to the Marasid-al-Ittila'

an Arab geois

graphical dictionary of about the


fully

same period, "this incense


is

care-

watched, and can be taken only to Dhafar, where the Sultan

keeps the best part for himself; the rest

made over

to the people.

But any one


put to death.
33.

who

should carry

it

elsewhere than to Dhafar would be

Seven Islands

Kuria Muria,

about 17 20' N.

called Zenobian. These are now called 56 E., and belong to England,
,

which acquired them from the Sultan of Oman.

In the time of the

Periplus they belonged to their western neighbors, the Hadramaut.

The name
Genab;
coast.

Zenobian

is

HeUenized from the Arabic Zenab or

the

tribe

of Beni
tribal

Genab having possessed


in

the neighboring

This same numerous Egyptian


of Punt.''

name,

the form of

Genabti, appears in

inscriptions as

one of the peoples of the


die Siidarahischen Reiche, p.

Land
10.)

(See Glaser, Punt und

Concerning the
portant.

relation of these islands to the early frankincense

trade, a bit of folk-lore preserved

by Marco Polo

is

particularly im-

Pauthier in his French text rightly connects the story with

the Kuria

Muria group because of


it

its

geographical position; Yule and

Cordier repudiate
plus
(II,

as nonsense.

Vincent, in his edition of the Peri-

347)

refers

the

'

fable,"

without explanation, to these

islands.

known, has not been observed. About half-way between Makran and Socotra, Marco Polo says (III, xxxi), are the two islands '"called Male and Female, lying
Its actual

source, so far as

about 30 miles distant from one another.

In the island called

Male dwell
Every year
April,

men alone, without their wives or any other women. when the month of March arrives the men all set out for
the

the other island, and tarry there

these

for three months, to wit, March, May, dwelling with their wives for that space. At the end of three months they return to their own island, and pursue their
.

husbandry and trade for the other nine months.


children

As
girls

for the

which

their wives bear to

them,

if

they be

they abide

with their mothers;


till

but

if

they be boys the mothers bring them up

they are fourteen, and then send them to the fathers.


islands.

Such

is

the

custom of these two

The
all

wives do nothing but nurse their


for their
Polo,

children and gather such fruits as their island produces;

husbands do furnish them with


Cordier'
s

necessaries.

"

(Yule's Marco

edition, II,

404-6.)

This

story

is

a reflection of the belief, already noted

from

Pliny,

that the ceremonial value of the

incense depended on the personal

purity of the gatherers,

who were

considered sacred.

No man touch-

'

145

ing the tree, whether a proprietor according to the caste system of the

Incense-Land, or a farmer or gatherer, slave or


pollution through the presence of

free,

might undergo

women

or of the dead.

The

spirit

of the tree of the dead.

was
If

woman, and

the protecting serpents

were the

souls

gathered without pollution, the incense constituted

the most effective vehicle of prayer, and


uses in purification after conjugal

had also certain sovereign


availed

intercourse,

of

by both

Arabians and Babylonians,


Strabo

as

described by Herodotus (I, 198) and

(XVI,

i,

20).

Pliny's account of the Ascitas,


inflated skins, has

swimming

to the

mainland on

been noted.

Stephanus Byzantius, writing in the

beyond the Sabsi and the Chatramotitae whose land yields myrrh, aloes, frankincense, cinnamon and the red plant which resembles the color of Tyrian
4th century A. D., says

dwell the Abaseni,

purple

(dragon's

blood)."

Pausanias in the 2d century

{^de

situ

Grades,

VI,

269)

mentions a

deep bay of

the

Erythraean Sea

which were the home of these p. 230) describes the "Jenefa" tribe on these Kuria Muria islands, pursuing sharks on inflated skins, Beni Geneba" spread and Wellsted {op. cit., Ghap. V) found the shark-fishers swimall along the coasts of South Arabia and Oman,
having islands, Abasa and Sacaea,"
Ascitae.

same

Bent {Southern Arabia,

ming on
under the
Lieut.

inflated
S.

skins,

and pastoral
retreating

folk,
-to

living in skin tents, but


as noted
,

W.

monsoon
(Trans.
(J.

caves,"
Soc.

in

Cruttenden

Bombay Geog.

VII, 121;

32. 1846)

and General Miles


South Arabia

"is visited every season

Geog. Soc, 1872) observe that the coast of by parties of Somalis, who pay
'

the Arabs for the privilege of collecting the frankincense.

Here

is

obviously the foundation for

Marco

Polo's
the

tale.

The

wandering Beni Genab, whose islands and the coast north and

locality included

Kuria Muria

east thereof,

would

act as fishermen

and herdsmen during certain seasons, while during the remainder of the year they would engage in the more profitable occupation of incense gathering;
in

which they were subjected

to

the

rigid

rules

maintained by the Sayyid or saintly caste of landed proprietors, themselves too dighified to do the work (Van den Berg, op. cit., 40-44).

When

the

first

rush of sap occurred in the spring they


the white

left their

wives

gum, remaining on the gatherings until the trees became dormant incense-terraces for later again when their work for that year was over and they returned home.
perforce, to gather the best of

would naturally remain with their mothers only during past which they would be under the same tabu as the childhood grown men, and would begin work as gatherers.

And

their sons
;

146

Far from being a

fairy tale,

it

is

quite possible that at the time

Marco Polo wrote


crystalized

the caste-system of the

Hadramaut being

fully

under the rule of Islam

this story of the Christian dwellers

earlier

on the "Male and Female Islands" was literally true, as it was in the times in the race-conflict between Joktanite overlords and
Cushite gatherers.

The "Male
tinguish
33.

Island" was, of course, the coast, and the Female

included the entire group of islands; the Arabic dialects failing to dis-

between "coast" and

island."

Beyond Moscha. The

'mountain

range

along

the

shore" is the modern Jebel Samhan, and the name Asich is preserved in the modern Ras Hasik, 17 23' N., 55 20' E., as well as in the westernmost of the Kuria Muria Islands, which faces it. 58 40' 33. Sarapis is the modern Masira Island, 20 20' N.
,

E.

the

first

syllable

only being from the native name, which our

author assimilates to that of the Alexandrian Osiris of the bull-worship,

Osor-Hapi, Sarapis, or
Plutarch, de hide

in the Latin, Serapis.

(Concerning

ship, in high favor at the time of the Periplus, see Strabo,


et Osiride,

this worbook XVII,

Maspero,

Histoire Ancienne,

pp.

30

ff.,

Frazer's Pausanias,

II,

175-6.)
is

The
tribe-name

syllable
Au-.f<7r
is

&r-apis or Ma-j/V-a
or

probably the same as the

Ausan mentioned

in 15.

This
Seres.

island

curiously confused by Pausanias (VI, lb) with the


silk culture,

After describing the Chinese


is

he observes:

the
Sea. Sea,

island of Seria

known

to

be situated
is

in a recess of the

But

have also heard that the island

formed, not by the

Red Red
such

but by a river

named
is

the Ser (this being Masira Channel), just as the


also,

Delta of Egypt
it

surrounded by the Nile and not by a sea;

is

said,

is

the island of Seria.

Both the Seres and the inhabitants

of the neighboring islands of

Abasa and Sacaea are of the Aethiopian

race

some
Here

say,

however, that they are not Aethiopians, but a mixture

of Scythians and Indians."


are confirmations of the Periplus, as to the possession of
to the

Masira and Kuria Muria by the Habashat, and as


activity of

commercial

the Indo-Scythians, then in possession of the Indus valley.

The

use of the

Arabian language" (Himyaritic or Hadramitic,

modern Mahri), noted in ii, confirms the accompanying statement that the island was then subject to Hadramaut,
represented by the

and

its

trade controlled
'

from Cana.
Fish- Eaters
' '

Ordinarily the connection would


of the adjoining so
that

be rather with the

Genaba

coast,

subject at that time to the

Parthians,

the

language spoken

would have been Aethiopic or Geez.

"

147

34.

A barbarous region which now belongs to Persia.


coast

The Arabian

conquered by the Parthian Empire,


ble to the author of the Periplus

beyond the Kuria Muria Islands, being now recently at war with Rome, was inaccessiand
is

described by

him

briefly

and

apparently from hearsay.

His

own
to

saihng-course carried

him "well

out at sea"

from Kuria Muria

Masira, and thence direct to the

mouth
of

of the Indus.

34. Calaei Islands. These are the Daimaniyat Islands N. W. Muscat (23 48' N., 58 0' E. ), the distance being calculated from Masira. The name is obviously the same as the modern Kalhat,
just

north of Sur (22 35' N., 59 29' E.


as Acila

an ancient trading port,

mentioned by Pliny (VI, 32)


Ocelis in
dwellers,

(not to be confused with

Yemen),

a city of the Sabasi (Asabi) a nation of tent

with numerous islands.

This

is

their mart,

from which

persons embark for India."

On

this coast,

between Ras

el

Had and Muscat,

are the

modern
'are

ports of Kuryat and Sur, which, in the

words of General Miles jour-

nal of an Excursion in Oman, Geographical Journal, VII, 335-6)


the Karteia and Tsor, the Carthage and Tyre, of the race

whom we

know

as

Phoenicians,

and who,

earlier

than the time of Solomon,

Their conhad trading-stations along the southern coast of Arabia. venient and important position just opposite India must have led to
their early occupation

by the merchants of those times

who were
est.

en-

gaged

in

exchanging the productions of the East and \^


eastern migration of this tribe-name
is

An
34.

strongly suggested in

Kalat, city and district, in eastern Beluchistan.

Very

little civilized.

This
that a

follows Fabricius' reading

of a doubtful passage in the text;

that offered

by Miiller,

"who do
in-

not see well in the daytime," while less probable, recalls the fact noted

by numerous observers in

Oman,

good proportion of the

habitants suffer from ophthalmia or


terrific

total blindness, due, largely, to the

heat of this coast; which wrs picturesquely described by

Abdthe

sr-Razzak, a 15th century Persian, as follows:

The

heat was so intense that


in its

it

burned the marrow


to coal.

in

bones; the sword

scabbard melted like wax, and the gems which

adorned the handle of the dagger were reduced


the chase

In the plains

became

a matter of perfect ease, for the desert


'

with roasted gazelles.


Question.

'

Quoted from Curzon


,

Persia
9.
^

was filled and the Persian

See also Haklu3rt Society's ed.

XXII,

35.

Galon mountain.
to

While
it is

the the

name
same

has a

Greek form,

and was supposed

mean

fair,"

as that of the islands

and

is

probably a

tribal

name:

mountains of the Kalhat."

148

The

range

is

the Jebel Akhdar, or


feet in

Green Mountains," behind

Muscat, and about 10,000


gi\en by \\'elisted,

altitude.

Good

descriptions are
is

Zwemer, and Hogarth, and

of especial interest

the account of the fertile and populous

Wadi

Tyin, enclosed by these


cit.).

mountains, visited by General


35.

S.

B. Miles (op.

The pearl-mussel, Mekagrina margaritifera, Ham.,


is

family

Ocean, but particularly on the southern shores of the Persian Gulf and in the shallow water The pearl is a deposit formed around a between India and Ceylon.
Jviculida,

found

in

many

parts of the Indian

foreign substance in the mantle of the mussel,


larva.

generally a parasitic
fisheries indicated

Examination by Prof. Herdman

at

the

Manaar

that the nucleus of the pearl

was generally

a Platyhelminthian parasite,

which he identified as the larval condition of a cestode or tapeworm. This cestode passes from the body of the pearl mussel into that of a file-fish and thence into some larger animal, possibly the large Trygon ("Watt, op. cit., pp. 557-8; Cambridge Natural History, III, or ray.
100, 449.)
35.

Asabon mountains. This


cit.,

is

another

tribal

name,

"mountains of the Asabi," or Beni Assab,


as
still

whom

W ellsted described
mountains; and
the Bulletin of the

living there (op.

I,

239-242), a people very different from

the other tribes of

Oman,

living in exclusion in their


in

whom Zwemer

{,Oman and Eastern Arabia,

American Geographical Society, T907; pp. 597-606) considers a remnant of the aboriginal race of South Arabia, their speech being allied to the Mahri and both to the ancient Himyaritic; who were
probably not as
gration,"

Zwemer

thinks,

driven northward by Semitic mi-

but represent rather a relic of that pre-Joktanite southward


preserves the name, being now the Jebel Sibi, 26 20' N., 56 25' E., continued at the end of the cape

migration around this very coast.

The mountain
2800
in the
feet,

promontory of Ras Musandum.

35.

round and high mountain


Ritter,

called Semiramis.
with K6h-i),

Fabricius, following Sprenger and

identifies this

mubarak,

"Mountain
on the

of the Blest" (25 50' N., 57 19' E.


feet, is of

which,

while not high, being only about 600

the shape here described

and

directly,

strait.

Fabricius (p. 146) suggests that the


the Arabic Shamarida

name Semiramis

is

probably

held precious."

Ras Musandum has been a

sacred spot to Arabian navigators from time immemorial.

The classic
:

geographers describe some of the practices of the ship-captains passing


it,

and \'incent

tells

of those in his time as follows (II, 354)


it

All

the Arabian ships take their departure from

with some ceremonies

14^

of superstition, imploring a blessing on their voyage, and setting afloat a toy, like a vessel rigged and decorated, which,
pieces by the rocks,
is
if
it

is

dashed to

to be accepted

by the ocean as an offering for

the escape of the vessel.

"

35. ApologUS. This was the city known as Obollah, which was an important port during Saracen times, and from which caravanroutes led in all directions. As "Ubulu, in the land of Bit-Yakin"
it figures in many of the Babylonian and Assyrian inscriptions. It was among the conquered places named in the Nimrud Inscription of Tiglath-Pileser III (745-727 B. C. ) whose arms were carried from

Bit-Yakin "as

far

as the river

Uknu

(Cynos,

Wadi

ed Dawasir.O

on the

coast of the

Lower Sea," and who

received from

Merodachthe dust of
all

Baladan, of Yakin, king of the


his land
cattle

sea, a tribute of

"gold

it

precious

stones, timber, striped clothing, spices of

kinds,

and sheep."
location of Obollah

The
as a

seems always

to

have given

importance

commercial center.

Under
its

the Seleucidae, and in the time of

Strabo,

Teredon was

the leading port;

while

in

the time of the

Periplus Obollah had regained,

former position.

The name seems derived from Obal, son of Joktan (Gen. X, 28). 35. Charax Spasini is the modern Mohammarah (30 24' N.
48
18' E. ),

on the Shatt-el-Arab,
it

at

its

confluence with the Karun.

Phny

says (VI, 31) that


it

was founded by Alexander the Great, whose

name

bore;

destroyed by inundations of the rivers, rebuilt by Anti-

ochus Epiphanes under the name of Antiochia, again overflowed, and


again restored, protected by three miles of embankments, by Spasinus,

"king of the neighboring Arabians,


scribed as a satrap of

whom
"
its

Juba has incorrectly deFormerly,


Pliny says,
it

King Antiochus.

stood near the shore and had a harbor of considerable distance from the sea.
alluvial deposits been

own

but

now

stands a

In no part of the world have

extent than here."


gulf.)

formed by the rivers more rapidly and to a greater (At the present day it is about 40 miles from the

Pliny's reference to the possession of the lower Tigris by an Arabian chieftain, the name of whose city he extends to the "Characene' district of Elymais, or Elam, indicates how large a part in the
'

affairs of

the Parthian
its

Empire may have been played,

at

the date of

the Periplus, by

subjects south of the Persian Gulf.

Charax was an
its

important stronghold of the Parthian Empire, protecting


trade;

shipping

whose works, written in the time of the Roman Emperor Augustus, include the Mamiones Parthkce, a detailed account of the overland caravan-route from Antioch in Syria
that Isidorus

and was the home of

150

to

the borders of India;


description of the

the same, probably, as the author of the

world" mentioned by PHny (VI, 31) who was commissioned by Augustus to gather all necessary information in the
east, when his eldest son was about to set out for Armenia command against the Parthians and Arabians."

to take the

36.

A
'

market-town of Persia
much confused
it

called

Ommana. The

Roman

geographers were

by similar statements con-

cerning this port, and supposed that


politically,

of Persia,"

and that the


time

of

Hormus mentioned

in the Periplus,
this
is

was geographically, instead of from the straits was eastward along the coast
six days' sail"

of Makran.

But Pliny

better informed,

and locates

it

on

the Arabian side of the Persian Gulf, between the Peninsula of El

Katar and Ras Alusandum, then a Persian or Parthian dependency.

Beyond

the river
is

Cynos

Wadi

ed Dawasir.O he says (VI, 32) "the

navigation

impracticable on that side, according to Juba, on account

of the rocks;
the
out

and he has omitted


of the city of

all

mention of Batrasave,

town

of

Omani, and

Omana, which former

writers have

made

as also of Homna and Attana, to be a famous port of Carmania; towns which at the present day, our merchants say, are by far the

most famous ones

in the Persian Sea.

"

The

spelling

Ommana,"

as distinct

from

'

Omana,"
it

is

due to

Ptolemy, and, while perhaps incorrect for the Periplus,


iently distinguishes

conven-

the

same

as

the

between the two districts. Both are certainly modern Oman, which maintains a nominal, as
dominion over the whole coast-land from the

a century ago a real,

bay of El Katan to that of Kuria \Iuria.

This was no doubt the


Spasini,
re-

dominion of

that Goarsus

mentioned by Isidorus of Charax


in the

"King
cently
tions

of the

Omanitae

Incense-Land,"

and had only

come under

the Parthian control.

After numerous alterna-

between dependence and freedom the whole country submitted

again to Persia in 1650, remaining under Persian control until 1741.

The

exact location of the port of

Ommana

is

uncertain owing

to the limited

knowledge

yet at
it

hand concerning
important

this coast.

Ptolemy

confirms Pliny in locating


(possibly the

east of the peninsula,

by

a river

Ommano,
)

Wadi

Yabrin, an

trade-route) and Glaser

argues strongly for the bay of El Katan.

(Siizze, pp. 189-194.

Al-

most any location between Abu Thabi (24 30' N., 54 21' E.

),

and

Khor ed Duan (24


distance stated,
six

17'

N., 51 27' E.

might be possible, but the


straits,

days,

or 3000 stadia, from the

indicates

Abu Thanni
the coast;

or Sabakha, at both of

which there are

fertile
,

spots

on

El Mukabber on the Sabakha coast (24 N.

51 45' E.)

being perhaps more closely in accord with Ptolemy.

151

Aside from the obvious linking of Apologus and


Persian Gulf ports, in 35 and 36, the text gives

Ommana

as

two

further proofs.
this coast,

The

sewed boats" are such


as

as are

still

made along

and

the wine mentioned in 36 as an export to India

is

referred to in

49

an import

at

Barygaza yrawz Arabia.


list

The "many
and exports

pearls"

exported, and in fact the whole


suggest such a trade as

of imports

in

36,

now

centers at Bahrein.

Miiller, Fabricius, and McCrindle locate Ommana in the bay of Chahbar on the Makran coast (25 15' N., 60 30' E.), reckoning the six days' sail eastward from the Straits of Hormus; and Sir Thomas Holdich followed them in his Notes on Ancient and Meditxval Makran

(Geographical Journal, 1896;


the activity of the
S.

VII, 393-6).

It is

notable that in his

Gates of India, 1910, (pp. 299-300) he abandons this position and refers

Chahbar ports
the

to the

mediseval period.
S.
,

General

B. Miles

(Journal of

Royal Asiatic Society, N.

X, pp.

164-5) argues for Sohar, on the Batineh coast of

Oman,

north of

Muscat, the ocean terminus of an ancient and important caravan-route;


but the location does not tally with the statement in the text, that

Ommana was six days Ommana was the


caravan-routes;

through, or beyond, the Straits.

center of an active and extensive shipping trade

with India, conveniently located with reference to the trans-Arabian

and Glaser points out the probability


land of

that this coast of

El Katan was also the

Ophir"
the

voyages

a trading center

where

King Solomon's tradingproducts of the East were reof

ceived and reshipped, or sent overland, to the Mediterranean.


36.

Copper

is

here mentioned as an article of export from

It is no longer extensively produced in was formerly smelted in considerable quantities in South India, Rajputana, and at various parts of the outer Himalaya, where a killas-like rock persists along the whole range and is known to be

India to the Persian Gulf.


India, but

copper-bearing in Kullu, Garhwal, Nepal, Sikkim, and Bhutan.

See

the authorities cited in Watt, Commercial Products of India, p. 401. But it is possible that this copper imported at Ommana included
also

European copper, exported from Cana ( 28)

to the Indus

mouth

and Barygaza ( 39 and 49) and thence reshipped to the Persian Gulf. During the suspension of trade between the Roman and Parthian Empires, owing to war, this would have been a natural trade
arrangement.
Pliny
(

VI, 26) speaks of copper, iron, arsenic, and red lead, as

exports of Carmania,

whence they were shipped

to Persian

Gulf and

Red Sea

ports for distribution;


port.

indicating again that

Ommana

was no

Carmanian

152

36.

Sandal'WOOd.

tantalum

album, Linn., order Santalaceie.

A small evergreen
a cultivated plant.

tree native in the dry regions of


in

South India (as the


chiefly as
in India

Western Ghats, Mysore, and Coimbatore);


Sandalwood has been
Chandana
is

North India

known

from the

most ancient times, the Sanskrit authors distinguishing various woods


according to color.
the

name

for the series, srikhanda


inferior,

the tree, or white, sandal,

and pitachandana the

or yellow,
distinguish

sandal, both being derived from Santalum album.

They

two kinds of red sandal or raktachandana, namely, Pterocarpus santalinus


and Ccesalpima sappan.

This mention
(6th century A. D.

in

the Periplus seems to be the earliest


It
is

Roman
fre-

reference to sandalwood.
)

mentioned by Cosmas Indicopleustes and thereafter and China.

under the name T%andana;

quently by the early Arab traders

who

visited India
this

Cos-

mas and the Arabs


points out {op.
cit.,

attributed
p.

it

to

China,

mistake arising, as

Watt

976) from the fact that Chinese vessels at this time made the voyage between China and the Persian Gulf, stopping to trade in Ceylon and India, and disposing of their cargoes finally to
the Bagdad merchants.

The wood

is

not native of China.

According
cutta,

to

experiments
is

at the

Royal Botanic Gardens


plants.

at

Cal-

sandalwood

a root-parasite

on many

For further references see Lassen:


I,

Indische

Alurthumskunde,

287.
36.

XealfWOOd.

Tectona grandis, Linn.


in

order Verbenaceie.

large

deciduous tree indigenous


is

both peninsulas of India.

The

wood
larly

that chiefly exported


is

from India

at the present time, particu-

from Burma, and


Watt,
{op. cit., p.

the most important building timber of the

country.

1068), quoting Gamble, says that the western


its

Indian teak region has for hanadi


rivers,

northern limit the Narbada and

Maits

although

it is

occasionally found farther north.

Climatic

changes since the date of the Periplus have probably restricted


area.
It is plentiful in

Bombay and Travancore.


its

The wood owes


fact that
fills
it

value to

its

great durability, ascribed to the

contains a large quantity of fluid resinous matter, which


resists

up the pores and

the action of water.


old,

Watt mentions one

structure
in

known

to

be over 2000 years


its

and the discovery of teak

the

Mugheir

ruins indicates

use there under Nabonidus (6th


earlier.

century B.
36.

C),

and possibly very much

Black'wood.

The

text

is

sasamin,

which Fabricius

alters

and

translates

white mulberry, " from conjecture only.

McCrindle

shows

that the text refers to the

wood

still

known

in India as sisam,

153

which Watt describes {.op. at., pp. 484-5) as one of the best hardwoods of the Panjab and Western India. It is very durable, does not warp or split, and is highly esteemed for all purposes where strength and elasticity are required agricultural implements, carriageframes and wheels, boat-building, etc. as well as furniture and

wood-carving.
to

In Upper India the sisam takes the place of rosewood,


closely related.
sissoo,

which

it is

Watt
south,
is

distinguishes the true sisam or blackwood, Dalbergia

order Leguminosa.

The
latifolia.

Indian

rosewood, native somewhat farther


sissoo is

Dalbergia

D.

described as sub-Himalayan,

gregarious on the banks of sandy, stony, torrential rivers, such as the

Indus and Narbada, from which the Periplus says


36.
'.benum

it

was exported.
Diospyros

Ebony.

Diospyros,

Linn.,

order

Ebenacea.

and D. melanoxylon are the leading


also

varieties

producing ebony

wood; India has


This
in

D.

embryopteris

and D.

tomentosa.

fine black

heart-wood (from the date plum tree) has been


of civilization.

favor since the

dawn

An

Egyptian inscription of

King Mernere, Vlth dynasty (B. C. about 2500), mentions ebony as negro-land" on the Upper a product brought down from the Nile; and the expedition of Queen Hatshepsut (XVIIIth dynasty, B. C. about 1500) brought it from the "Land of Punt," in this case probably from the Abyssinian highlands, although it might have come
from India.

The earliest definite Old Testament reference is in Ezekiel the XXVII, where it appears as a commodity in the trade of Tyre men of Dedan were they merchants; many isles were the merchan:

dise of thine

hand
the

they brought thee for a present horns of ivory and


editor's identification

ebony."

If

Oxford

of

Dedan with
,

the

south shore of the Persian Gulf be correct, this passage indicates a


steady trade in ebony
exactly confirms the

from India prior to the 7th century B. C. and statement of the Periplus that it was shipped
and Apologus.

from Barygaza

to

Ommana

Pliny (XII, 8, 9) says that ebony

came

to

Rome

from both India

and Egypt, and that the trade began after the victories of Pompey the He notes two kinds, one precious, the other ordinary. Great in Asia. 116-117) speaks in glowing terms of the Virgil {Georgics II, Herodotus, however, has preferred ebony tree, as peculiar to India.
to ascribe
it

(III,

97) to Aethiopia, and

states that the

people of that

country were in the habit of paying to the King of Persia, every third year, by way of tribute, 100 billets of ebony-wood, together with a
certain quantity of gold

and

ivory.

'

154

36.
p.

Sewed

boats

known
first,

as madarata.
OTWii'izrr^'fl^,

Glaser {Skkze,
the

190 j shows

this to

be the Arabic

"fastened with palm

fiber,"

which included,
This
latter is

the fibers sheathing the base of

petioles of the date;

and second, those taken from the husks of the

cocoanut.

what Marco Polo

calls

'

Indian nut."

It

was

a later cultivation in Arabia than the date,


it

and the Periplus does


it

not include

among Arabian

exports, although noting

in

33 as a
Arabia,
'

product of Sarapis or Alasira Island.

The

text notes that these

sewed boats were exported


and Hadramaut.

to

meaning the South Coast,

Yemen

Marco Polo
"Their
for they have

(I, xixj gives

a description of these craft, as follows:

affairs, and many of them get lost; no iron fastenings, and are only stitched together with twine made from the husk of the Indian nut. They beat this nut

ships are

wretched

until

it

becomes

like horse-hair,

and from

that they spin twine,


It

and
is

with this stitch the planks of the ships together.


not corroded by the sea-water, but
it

keeps well and

will not stand well in a storm.

The

ships are not pitched, but are rubbed with fish-oil.

They

have

'

':

'

155

one mast, one


hides,

sail,

cover spread over the cargo

and one rudder, and have no deck, but only a when loaded. This cover consists of

take to India for


this

and on the top of these hides they put the horses which they sale. They have no iron to make nails of, and for

reason they use only


stitch

wooden

trenails in their shipbuilding,


I

and

then

the planks with twine as

have told you.


ships,

perilous business to go a voyage in one of those

Hence 'tis a and many of


'

them

are lost, for in that Sea of India the storms are often terrible.

Gemelli Carreri,
the Persian Gulf:
'

who

visited this coast in

1693-9, gives a similar

description, quoted by Capt. A.

Former Trading Centers of Geographical Journal, XIII, 294


Stiffe
:

W.

'Instead of nails,

which they

are without, they use pegs of


strings

bam-

boo or cane, and further join the planks with


stick

made

of rushes.

For anchor, they have a large stone with a hole, and with a little round plank attached to the end.
'

for oars, a stout

"Stitched vessels," Sir B. Frere writes (Yule'


dier's Ed.,
I,

Afarco Po/o, Cor-

117), "are

still

used.

have seen them of 200 tons

burden, but they are being driven out by iron- fastened vessels, as iron
gets

cheaper,

except where

(as

on the Malabar and Coromandel


is

coasts) the pliancy of a stitched boat


stitched build in the

useful in a surf."

But the
old

Gulf

is

now

confined to fishing-boats.

The

lish-oil

used to rub the ships was whale-oil.

The
from

Arab

voyagers of the 9th century describe the fishermen of Siraf in the Gulf
as cutting up the whale-blubber

and drawing the


146.)

oil

it,

which

was mixed with other


ing.

stuff,

and used

to rub the joints of ships' plank-

(Reinaud, Relation
Friar

des Voyages, I,

Odoric

(Journal,

Chap.

II), Writing of

"Ormes,"
Jase,

says

"here

also they use a kind of

barque or ship called

being com-

pact together only with cords.

And

them, wherein

could not find any iron


I

went on board into one of at all, and in the space of

twenty-eight days

arrived at the city of

Thana" (on

Salsette Island,
friars

a short distance north of

Bombay),
'

wherein four of our

were

martyred for the


Jase,

faith of Christ.
is

Cordier observes,

the Arabic Djehaz.

"Sir John Mandeville" gives a legend arising from this method of construction (Voyage and Travel, Chap. LIII, p. 125, Ashton's
edition.
'

'Near that

isle

(Hormus)

there are ships without nails of iron

or bonds, on account of the ro<:ks of adamants (loadstones), for they


are all-abundant there in that sea that
if
it is

marvellous to speak
nails
it

a ship passed there that

had iron bonds or iron


it,

for the

adamant, by
it

its

nature, draws iron to


it."

of, and would perish, and so it would draw

the ship that

should never depart from

156

Theodore Bent
having
shells.

{^Southern Arabia, p. 8) describes these boats as

very long-pointed bows, elegantly carved and decorated with

When

the wind

is

contrary they are propelled by poles or

paddles, consisting of boards of any shape, tied to the

end of the poles

with twine, and the oarsman always seats himself on the gunwales."

Zwemer, {,op. "Even Sinbad


spoon-shaped
oars.

cit.,

p.

101), further confirms the Periplus:

the Sailor might recognize every rope and the odd

All the boats have good lines and are well buUt

by the natives of Indian timber.


facture except their pulley-blocks,

For the rest, all is of Bahrein manuwhich come from Bombay. Sail-

cloth

is

woven

at

Menamah and

ropes are twisted of date-fiber in rude

ropewalks which have no machinery worth mentioning.


long soft iron nails are

Even

the

hammered

out on the anvil one by one.

"Each boat has a


the boat

sort of figurehead called the kubait, generally

covered with the skin of a sheep or goat which was sacrificed

when

was

first

uprooted.

men

The

This blood-sacrifice Islam has never larger boats used in diving hold from twenty to forty
launched.

less

than half of

whom

are divers, while the others are rope-

holders and oarsmen."


36.

Pearls inferior to those of India.


fisheries,

This
tint

is

said

still

to

be the case, the Bahrein pearls being of a yellower


the

than those of

Manaar
36.

but holding their lustre better, particularly in


in

tropical climates,

and therefore always

demand

in India.

Purple.
its

dye derived from various species of Murex,


Pliny (IX, 60-63)

family Muriddte, and Purpura, family Buccinida.


tells

of

use at the time of our author

The

purple has that ex-

quisite juice

cloth.

vein,

which is so greatly sought after for the purpose of dyeing This secretion consists of a tiny drop contained in a white from which the precious liquid used for dyeing is distilled, being
.
. .

of the tint of a rose

somewhat
it

inclining to black.
It
is

The

rest of the

body
fish

is

entirely destitute of this juice.

a great point to take the

alive;
it

for

when

dies

it

spits

out this juice.

From

the larger

ones

is

extracted after taking off the shell;

but the smaller fish are


eject this

crushed

alive,

together with the shells,

upon which they

secretion.

and

Gaetulia,

"In Asia the best purple is that of Tyre, and in Europe that of Laconia.
it

in Africa that of
.

Meninx
are

After
left to

is

taken the vein

is

extracted and

salt is

added.

They

steep for three days,

and are then boiled


is

in vessels of tin,

by
to
in

moderate heat; while thus boiling the liquor


time.

skimmed from time


is still

About the tenth day the whole contents of the cauldron are

a liquid state; but until the color satisfies the liquor

kept on the

157
boil.

The
is

tint that inclines to

red

is

looked upon as inferior

to- that

which

of a blackish hue.
is

The wool
carding
it,

left

to

lie

in soak for five hours,


it

and then,

after

it is

thrown

in again, until

has fully imbibed the color.

The

proper proportions for mixing are, for fifty pounds of wool, two hundred pounds of juice of the buccinum and one hundred and eleven
of the juice of the pelagia.

From

this

combination

is

produced the
in

admirable
the wool

tint

known

as

amethyst color.

To produce
its

the Tyrian hue


is

is

soaked

in the juice of the pelagi'a


state;

while the mixture


is

an uncooked and raw

after

which

tint
is

changed by being
of a

dipped in the juice of the buccinum.


quality

It

considered of the best


is

when

it

has exactly the color of clotted blood, and

blackish hue
to the light;

to the sight, but of a shining

appearance

when

held up

hence

it is

that

we

find

Homer

speaking of purple blood.

{Iliad, E. 83;

P, 360.)

"Cornelius Nepos,
Augustus, has
left

who

died in the reign of the late emperor


:

the following remarks


in favor, a

In the days of

my

youth

which used to sell at 100 denarii; and not long after the Tarentine red was all the fashion. This last was succeeded by the Tyrian dihapha (double dyed) which Nowadays could not be bought for even 1000 denarii per pound.
the violet purple

was

pound

of

who

is

there

who

does not have purple hangings and coverings to his

banqueting couches, even.-"


36.

\Vine.

This was probably


India.

date wine.

Its destination,

ac-

cording to
Sir B.

49, was

Frere {Jmoen. Exot., 750, quoted in Yule's Marco Polo,

It I, 115) says "a spirit is still distilled from dates. mentioned by Strabo and Dioscorides, according to Kampfer, who is says it was in his time made under the name of a medicinal stomachic;

Cordier's edition,

the rich added radix China (rhubarb root), ambergris, and aromatic spices; the poor, licorice and Persian absinth."

tain valleys of

This may, however, have included grape wine also, the mounOman having been the region originally producing the

muscatel grape.
36.

Dates.

Phoenix

dactylifera,

Linn.,

order Palmea.
it

Achas

cording to
existed

De

Candolle

{U Origine des
in the

Plantes Cultiv'ees, 240),

from prehistoric times


to the

from Senegal

Indus basin,

warm, dry zone which extends principally between the parallels 15

It was an important article of cultivation in Egypt, Arabia, and 20 Mesopotamia, and the Indus valley, for its wood, fiber, juice, and
fruit.

158

Date-wine
Nile to the

is

mentioned

as

an Egyptian product shipped up the


(Breasted, Ancient Records,

negro-land," in an inscription of the reign of Mernere,


I,

Vlth dynasty, about 2600 B. CDates appear


zer,
as food, in

336.

an Abydos inscription of the reign of Khen(I,

17th century B. C.
III
,

785).

In the coronation inscription of

Thothmes
tury B. C.

and Queen Hatshepsut, XVIIIth dynasty, 15th cen-

divine offerings to

Amon-Re
159).

included wine, fowl,


Similar
lists

fruit,

bread, vegetables, and dates (II,


the feasts and offerings

appear
reign.

from conquests during the same


dates,

among Under
as

Rameses

III (IV, 244, 295, 299,


for

347) the Papyrus Harris notes 65,480


measures,

"offerings

new

feasts,"

3,100

cut

branches; again, 241,500 measures; and as

offerings to the Nilejars;

god," dried
ures.

dates,

11,871 measures, 1,396

dates,

2,396 meas-

Later, under Psamtik II,

XXVIth

dynasty, 6th century B. C.

(IV, 944) the Adoption Stela of Nitocris says:


great

"Sail

was

set;

the

men

took their weapons, and every noble had his provision,


bread, beer, oxen, dates, herbs."

supplied with every good thing:

for the date, phoinix, was the same as that from Sidon and Tyre Phoenicians Phoinikes, whence numerous commentators, including Movers himself {Die

The Greek name


the
traders

given

Phinizier, II,

i,

1) suppose the
date,

been derived from the


of that race.

name of race and country to have which was one of the leading exports to
noting that the date-palm was a symbol
is

the northern Mediterranean;

But

this in itself

better evidence that the tree received for Mediterranean peoples, the

the

name

of the race, being truly,

tree of the Phoenicians."

(So Lepsius in the introduction to his

Nubian Grammar, Ueber


Punt und

die Vilker

und Sprachen

Afrikas, and Glaser,

die Sildarabischen Reiche,

66-9).
its

Pliny (XIII, 7) has a long description of the date-palm and

numerous uses; he
fully

says the Arabian date

was the

best,

and describes

the different sexes of the trees, and the pollination of the flowers.

dates comes from the southern parts, which Pliny translates "wild boar," ascribing such a taste to the fruit; but as he connects it with the story of the phoenix, his account means no more, probably, than that the fruit came from
specially fine variety of

called Syagri,"

the southern coast of Arabia.

(See under 30.


artificially

The
fertilized

date-palm being dioecious, the flowers must be


in order to ripen the fruit,

and

this involves a

knowledge

of

the habit of the tree, and regular cultivation, in favorable surroundings, including intense heat and drought during the fruiting season.

These
at

conditions are only partially fulfilled on the Syrian coast, and not
all

on the Northern Mediterranean.

They

exist to perfection

around

159

the Persian Gulf,


of supply.
certain.

still

the principal, and probably the earliest, source

When
The

the cultivation

became important

in

Egypt

is

un-

earliest inscription, in the

Vlth dynasty,

refers not to
is

the

fruit,

but to wine (made from the sap), and the time


first

centuries

later

than the

Egyptian Punt-voyages.

Not

until the 17th cen-

tury does the Egyptian date-fruit appear as food,

and not

until the

15th as temple-offering.

It
its

is

by no means impossible that Egypt


with Southern Arabia
(the
that
in turn

owed

this

cultivation to

intercourse

Poen-land)

whence

it

had come

from the Persian Gulf,

original Phoenician, Erythraean, or in a larger sense Arabian, Sea.

Among
cians

the classical references to this home-land of the Phoenicited the Odyssey, IV, 81-5,

may be
iv,

where Sidonia and AethiStrabo,


I,
ii,

opia are conjoined, both clearly Arabian,


iii,

(cf.

34-5;

XVI,
of

4,

27.)

The Old Testament


from

gives

numerous accounts
e.

later migrations

that quarter to Palestine;

g.,

Zechariah IX,
the

6;

Ezra IV,

9.

The

historian Justin
:

(XVIII,

3,

2) gives the reason

for the earlier migration

the people of

Tyre were sprung from

Phoenicians,

who

left their

own

land, being greatly distressed


in the

by earthbuilt a

quakes, and dwelt


later

some time

marsh-land of Babylonia, but

by the shores of the (Mediterranean) Sea, where they


called Sidon because of the

town which they


for sidon
is

the Phoenician

word

for fish."

abundance of the fish; For the relation of this

legend to the fish-god of Chaldaea, Oannes, see


T/ie

WiUiam Simpson,

Jonah Legend.

The

connection

is

noted by the poet Priscian,

843-7:
sed litora iuxta

Phoenices vivunt, veteri cognomine

dicti,

quondam mare rubrum laudibus auctos, Chaldaeo nimium decoratam sanguine gentem,
Quos
misit

Arcanisque Dei celebratam legibus unam.

According

to

Eiselen,

Sidon,

p.

12:

(N. Y., 1907), the word


but Simpson shows

udm means
readily the

to hunt rather

than to ftsh;

how

whole legend changed according

to the surroundings of

the people.

As to the race-origin of the Phoenicians, Syncellus derives them from "ludadan," and Josephus {Antiq. Jud., I, 6, 2) from Dedan, who was a son of Raamah, the son of Cush, according to the geneA later account {Chron. Pasch., I, 54) derives alogy of Genesis X. whom that genealogy makes a son of Joktan. This them from Jobab,
would
indicate for Phoenicia precisely the
:

same experience

as that of

Southern Arabia

succeeding waves of migration, the later tending to


the earlier.

become absorbed by

160
It is

significant that

even the Greeks knew Phoenice as Canaan.

Hecataeus refers to "Chna, as Phoenice was formerly called," and the name survived as late as an inscription of Antiochus Epiphanes, being

connected with the legendary hero Chna, who can be no other than the Canaan of Genesis X, a brother to Cush, and who "begot Sidon,
his firstborn."

particularly a strip of coast

This word, according to Movers, means lowland," under the hills; and the same meaning is
Cutch, or
in its

attached to Cush,

Indian form,

Kachh (Holdich,
of East Africa, and

Gates of India, 35), and to the

modern Sawahil

Shehr of South Arabia, the Sachalites of the Periplus.

Another derivation of "Phoenician" from >/4o;o/, (bloody, murderous), rests on the activities of that people as sea-folk, traders and
pirates.

So do the habits of the race survive

in the

puns of the Greeks.

author of the Periplus ( 33) found the dwellers on Sarapis Island anthropois ponerois, and the Roman shipping out of Egypt had always

The
to

go armed or under convoy.


36.

Gold.

The

Periplus mentions gold coin as an export from

Rome

to India, but gold itself as

an export from

Ommana

only,

and

as a product of the

Ganges

region. of Eastern Arabia, the best fields

Gold was an important product


Dawasir, and the

being in the middle courses of the

Wadi
was

er

Rumma,

the

Wadi

ed

Wadi

Yabrin.

Glaser {Skizze, 347-9) locates


It

alto-

gether ten Arabian gold-fields.

this

production that led the


dust of the coun-

Assyrian Tiglath-Pileser III to refer to gold as the

try" of Merodach-Baladan, king of Bit-Yakin, and to


sian
in

make

the Per-

Gulf ports centers also for the gold produced farther to the east, The watercourses of northPersia, Carmania, and the Himalayas.

were probably the producing areas of the land of II, 11-12, which could readily supply caravans for Chaldaea or Canaan; while El-Yemama and the southern fields, of land of Ophir' of Solomon' s voyages richer yield, were probably the
eastern Arabia

Havilah" of Genesis

'

(I

Kings X)

and according

to the tribal

genealogy (Genesis X, 29)


Into this
the evidence

Ophir was
is

a son of Joktan
it is

and therefore purely Arabian.


not necessary to go farther;

\oluminous controversy

summed up by

Glaser {Skizze, 357-388).

To
apyron,

Greeks and Romans the gold of Ophir" was known as which Diodorus Siculus (II, 50) assumes to be a Greek word,
the
to

"without fire," and goes on


roasting the ores, but
of chestnuts.

explain that

it

was found

in the earth in shining

was not reduced by lumps the size

Agatharchides and Pliny (XXI, 11) are both acquainted

with this apyron gold, and Pliny (VI, 23) mentions also a river Apirus

161

in

Carmania,

in a region previously described

by Alexander's admiral,

Onesicritus, as gold-producing.

To

the mixed Cushite-Joktanite Havilah of Genesis, the JoktaniteI

Ophir of

Kings, and the Cushite

Raamah

of Ezekiel

XXVII,

the

cosmopolitan

Ommana

of the Periplus, under Parthian rule,

was the

lineal successor.

36. Slaves. The Arabs were inveterate slave-traders then as now, and the ports of Oman were always active slave-markets. Arabian dominion along the African coast had this as one of its principal results, until checked by international agreement after European occu-

pation.
il.

The Country of the Parsidae,


This

of another kingdom.
Persis, or Persia, to the

The

author of the Periplus gives the


East and South Arabia.

name
'

whole Parthian Empire and refers to the recent conquests of that

power

in

'country of the Parsidae'

'

is

Persia proper, including Carmania;

a vassal state in the Arsacid folstate, in

lowing, which would not have shared, as a


of the empire.
to Persia proper.

the Arabian spoils

Ommana

was subject
'Persia
its
is

to the Parthian

monarchy, not

Pliny (VI, 28) says

a country opulent even to luxury,


for that of
Parthia.'

but has long since changed

name

"

Strabo

(VI,

iii,

24) observes more exactly,

"at present the Persians are a


other kings;
of Parthia.

separate people,
to the kings of

governed by kings who are subject to Macedon in former times, but now to those

37.
all,

The Bay
(25
7'

of Gedrosia, while hardly


18'

a separate bay at

may

be assumed to be that bounded by the

strip of coast

between

Ras

Nuh

N., 62

E.) and Cape


is

66 40' E. ), while the "jutting cape" 64 36' E.).


37.

(24 45' N., Ras Ormara (25 6' N.,

Monze

66

15' E. ),

Oraea. The bay is the modern Sonmiani Bay (25 0' N., According to Holdich, the and the river is the Purali.

Purali at the time of the Periplus emptied into a bay running

some

distance inland, and

now

silted

up

to the coast lines.

These

are the

people described by Arrian {Anabasis of Alexander, VI, 21-2; Indka,

XXI, XXIV,

XXV) under the name of Oritae or Oritians,


The
river

their country
its

being called Ora.

was

called Arabis,

and on

eastern

bank dwelt "an Indian nation called Arabians;" while the Oritae on the western bank were "dressed like the Indians and equipped with " similar weapons, but their language and customs were different. Their coast-line ran westward from the Arabis 160 miles or, accord;

ing to Pliny (VI, 25-6), 200 miles.

They

dwelt on the inland

hills,

162

and along the shore, the latter being distinguished as Fish-Eaters. Alexander conquered the hiU-folk and colonized their capital, Rhambacia, under his own name (Diodorus Siculus, XVI, 104); while Nearchus fought the coast-folk, reporting them "covered with hair
on the body,
their nails like wild birds'

claws, used like iron for

kill-

ing and splitting fish,

and cutting softwood; other things they cut


Strabo

with sharp stones, having no iron."


their dwellings,
ribs

(XV,

ii,

2)

describes

made

of the bones of whales and great shells;


rafters,

the

being used for beams and

and the jawbones

for doorways.

Here are more echoes of the early migrations that radiated outward from the Persian Gulf. The river Arabis and the Arabians are sufficiently reminiscent of Arabia, while the capital, Rhambacia, appears in Ptolemy as a city of the Rhamnae, derived from the same The Oritas are represented by the modern Brahui. Both source. names have the same meaning, "hill-folk," one in Greek and the other in Persian; but this is probably no more than a punning translation, like that of

Makran

into

Mahi Khuran,
is

Ichthyophagi,

"fish-

eaters."

The

country of Ora

rather related to the

Uru of Chaltribe left

daean place-names; being connected with the sun-worship that survived

well into the Christian era.

The

Brahui are a Dravidian


in earlier

behind by their race on

its

way

to Southern India;

days the

connection of both with the Persian Gulf was

less

broken.

The

name
557)

'

Makran,"

as

shown by Curzon
is

{Geographical Journal, VII,

is

Dravidian; while "Brahui"

thought to refer to the hero of

the tribe, Braho, a

name having

the same root as

Abraham

{Imperial

Gazetteer of India, IX, 15-17).


as those called

These people
(III,

are probably the

same
'

by Herodotus

again (VII, 70) as


to the Aethiopians of
in

94) "Asiatic Aethiopians,' and 'Aethiopians from the sunrise, " who were similar
Southern Arabia, both peoples being represented

the

Persian army, and both having presumably sprung from the

the sons of same stock; as witness the record in Genesis X, 7, Cush: Seba, and Havilah, and Sabtah, and Raamah, and Sabteca; and the sons of Raamah: Sheba, and Dedan. " The Cushite name seems to survive in Kej, in the valley of Makran; the Kesmacoran"
of

Marco

Polo. of the

The names
dynasty in Egypt,
{cf.

Pharaohs of the
:

XXVth

or "Aethiopian"

point to a like origin

Kashta, Shabaka, Piankhi


Katar, Socotra).

Pa-anch, Poen, etc.), and Taharka

{cf.

Wellsted

(I, ch.

v) noted

the strong racial similarity

between the
island of

Beni Genab in South Arabia and the people found on the Makran
coast.

Holdich {Geographical Journal, VII, 388) finds the

Haftalu off the

Makran

coast

the Astola of Ptolemy,

a center of the

'

"

163

sun-worship

locally

known
to

as Serandip;

name which
last

the Saracens
the Sanscrit

gave to Ceylon, but which, apart from


dv'ipa, island,

its

syllable,

seems

be related to the island of Sera, Sarapis, or


coast.
is

Masira,

off the

Arabian

The
as
'

evident connection between both wings of this system

generalized by

Gotz iFerkehrswege im
'

Dienste des If'elthandeh, 33-117)

'Turanian-Hamitic.

Holdich (^Gates of India, 36) seems to have sembling African negroes as the original of the

in
'

mind a race

re-

'

Asiatic Aethiopi-

ans"

descent should have been from the John Mandeville " (chap, xxiv) gives a legend which in some ways seems nearer the truth: Noah had three sons, Shem, Cham and Japhet Cham, for his cruelty, took the greater and the best part, toward the east, that
in

Makran.

But their

Persian Gulf.

Sir

is

clept Asia,

and Shem took Africa, and Japhet took Europe

Cham was
dered

the greatest and the most mighty, and of

generations than of the other.

And

of his

him came more son Chuse was engen-

Nimrod

the giant, that began the foundation of- the tower of

And of the generation of Cham be come the Paynims Babylon and divers folk that be in isles of the sea by all Ind. See also Lassen, op. cit., II, 187-191; Sir Thomas Holdich, Gates
of India, pp. 146-161; and Gen. VII, 668-674.
37.
text,

M.

R.

Haig, Geographical Journal,

Rhambacia.
fills

The name

of the capital

is

not given in the


Fabri-

but Miiller

the lacuna with that mentioned by Arrian.

cius prefers Parsis, the capital of Gedrosia according to Ptolemy;


this place

but

was probably much farther west. Rhambacia was at no great distance from the modern Las Bela (26 26' N., 66 20' K). According to Holdich {Gates of India,
is

320, 'ill), this whole neighborhood

full

of evidences

of

early

Arabian occupation; but the exact

site is

undetermined (150-1).
Sanscrit

The

tribe-name,

Rhamnae, Lassen connects with the

ramana, happy; which, while possibly a mere pun,

may

explain the

Hindu name "blessed" for Socotra, which had been identified with Raamah, or Cushite stock generally. The root of So-co/r-a is evidently the same as El Katar peninsula, adjoining Bahrein.
Shamartda, "precious," an Arabic
Straits

name

for the

mountain

at the

of

Hormus;
;

the

Island of the Blest" of the Babylonian


like

may these reflect a Cushite race-appellation, Gilgamesh epic the "chosen people" of the Hebrevys.?
,^

37.

Bdellium

is

an aromatic

gum exuded from


in

Balsanwdendron

mukul,

order Burseracea, a small tree native

northwestern India,

164

Beluchistan,

Arabia,

and East Africa;

closely allied
a

to

myrrh and

frankincense,

and

similarly

employed from

very early date.


Bactria,

Ache

cording to Pliny (XII, 19) the best sort


inferior
says,

came from

and the

from India and Arabia, Media and Babylonia.

The gum,
taste,

ought to be transparent and the color of wax, odoriferous,

unctuous

when

subjected to friction, and bitter to the


acidity.
it

though
it is

without the slightest

When

used for sacred purposes


still

steeped in wine, upon which

emits a

The

price in

Rome

he

states as 3 denarii

more powerful odor." per pound, making it equal


between the
Arrian

only to the poorest quality of myrrh.

Bdellium was particularly the product of the

hills

Hindu Kush and


{Jnahasis, VI, 22)

the

Indian Ocean, and found

its

way westward

through the Persian Gulf ports or overland through Babylonia.


tells

how the army


came upon
it

of Alexander, returning through

the country of the Oritae,

many myrrh
It is

trees, larger

than

usual," from which the Phoenician traders accompanying the army


gathered the

gum and
12,

carried

away.

probably the hdolach of


of

Genesis
36.

II,

which reached the Hebrews from the "land


district of

Havilah," the south shore of the Persian Gulf, the


of

Ommana

is thought by some Hebrew authorities gem; while the same word is used in the Itinerary to be a of Benjamin of Tudela (Adler's edition, p. 98) for the pearls of the Bahrein fisheries, and with the same meaning in the Meadows of Gold

Bdolach, however,

crj'stalline

of Mas'udi (Sprenger's translation, p. 544).


p. 400; Lassen,
op. cit.,

See also Watt,

op. cit.,

1,290; Glaser, Skizxe, 324-5, 364-7.


of

passage in the

Book

Numbers (XI,

7)

is

perhaps of interest

as reflecting the ancient classification

of fragrant

gums by

size

and

shape of the piece,

rather than by
is

distinguishing the
) to

tree.

The

manna

of the Israelites

there said (in the R. V.

have been "like

coriander seed," and the


bdellium.'
'

appearance thereof as the appearance of


in

The

A. V. has the "color as the color of bdellium,"

Exodus XVI, 31, where the color was said to be The marginal note in white; bdellium being brown, like myrrh. Hebrew, eye, " points to the true meaning. the Revised Version,
contradiction to
'

Glaser has already shown the anti incense of the Egyptian Punt Reliefs
to be an
isclien

Arabian word, a-a-nete,


) ,

tree-eyes" {Punt und

die Siidarah-

Reiche, p. 7

and

to refer to

the large lumps, exuded through

cracks in the bark, or through substantial incisions, as distinguished

from the small round drops, which were supposed to be tree-tears The Hebrews ( 29) or the the tree-blood (as shown under 29). would have had the same classification; so we nvy after the Exodus
conclude that the author of

Numbers meant

to

compare the small

165

crystalline particles of the tamarisk-root syrup,

which

this

manna prob-

ably was, to the

coriander seed, white," while the larger and coarser


to the

efflorescence

was likened

lumps of bdellium (or myrrh) with

which he was
38.

familiar in the Levitical ritual.

River Sinthus.

The

Sanscrit

is

Sindhu,

and and

this

form

Sinthus

is

unusual in Greek, the river being generally


generally drop the
j-

known

as Indus.

Hindu names reaching the West


in

substitute h

Persian mouths.

Sayce, in his Hibbert Lectures (pp.

136-138),

argues on that basis for an ancient sea-trade between India and the

Euphrates, from the word sindhu, or muslin, mentioned in an ancient

Babylonian

list

of clothing.

This

is

the ^adtn of the

Old Testament,

the sindon of the Greeks.


38.

The

greatest river.

The

Indus

is

exceeded by the

Yangtse, Mekong, Irawadi, Brahmaputra, Ganges, and Shatt-el-Arab

(none of which had been seen by the author of the Periplus). Its discharge is greater than that of the Hoang-ho. The sediment brought down is very great, forming in a single year an island 65 square miles in area and 1 yard deep. The delta projects little beyond the normal coast-line, owing to the distribution of silt along shore by the ocean currents, and to the deposit of the remainder in a vast submarine trough 1200 feet deep and upwards, due south of the river

mean

mouths.
38..

(Reclus, Asia, III, 139.)

Graae

is

the Sanscrit fr<?^a.

The

presence of great waterat the

snakes

is still

observed along these coasts, in the bays and

mouths

of rivers.
38.

Barbaricum.

some Hindu word

one

This

name

is

evidently Hellenized

from

suspects Bandar, port, or possibly

such as Bahardipur, which survives in the modern Delta.

some name With the


of the

steady silting of the Delta, the remains of this port are probably yards

deep

in the soft alluvium,

and very

likely quite

away from any

present branches of the river.

now

Shah-bandar (Royal Port), formerly accessible to men-of-war, lies far inland to the east of the present main channel of the

Indus, while a similar fate has overtaken

Ghora

Bari or Vikkar, Keti,

and other

places.

Since the opening of the Karachi

railway most

of these fever-stricken
38.

towns have been abandoned.


a

Minnagara was

name given

temporarily to several

cities

of India during the period of the occupation by the Scyths (the Saka

After the collapse of the Indo-Scythian power these and Yueh-chi). cities resumed their former names with their autonomy.

166

This iVIinnagara may be


expedition
it

identified

with the Patala of Alexander'

the

capital of the delta country.


,
,

Vincent Smith locates


of
in

Bahmanabad, 25 50' N. 68 50' E. about six miles west The site was discovered by M. Bellasis the modern Mansuriyah.
at

1854, and includes extensive prehistoric remains.


has

The

Indus delta

grown

greatly since our author's time,


all its

and the courses of the


Vincent Smith

Indus and

tributaries

have changed repeatedly.

apex of the delta was probably about forty miles north of He cites numerous that place, approximately 26 40' N., 68 30 E.
says that the
facts to

prove that the coast-line has advanced anywhere from 20

to

40 miles since Alexander's time.

The Rann

of

Cutch (EirinonJ,

now
to
Silt

a salt marsh, he thinks was a broad open arm of the sea running 25 N., with the eastern branch of the Indus emptying into it.

brought

down by

the river and formed into great bars washed


tides,

southward by the violent


almost entirely.

has

now

closed the

mouth

of the

Rann

The
III,

coast-line he thinks

may have

averaged 25 N.

from Karachi
until

to the

Rann

of Cutch.

Reclus {Asia,

142-5) says the Rann was probably open sea

about the 4th century,


this

when

a series of violent earthquakes ele-

vated

whole region considerably.

He

reports ruins at

Nagar

Parkar, at the northeast corner, indicating a large sea-port trade there.

These changes may have been one cause


from
this

of the great migration

region to Java in the 6th and 7th centuries A. D.

38.

Parthian princes.
over the

The
to

reference to the rule of "Paris

thian princes"

metropolis of Scythia"

very interesting.

The

first

horde from Central Asia

overrun the Pamirs was the


settled in the

Saka, fleeing before the Yueh-chi.


Seistan (SakasteneJ,

They

Cabul

valley,

and the lower Indus.

By about 120

B. C. their

leader

his fine

Manes had established a kingdom at Cabul, subject to Parthia; was known as the 'Indo-Parthian, " but his race was, roughly
Scythian.
'
'

speaking,
first

Gradually the Yueh-chi pursued the Saka,


this text,

conquering Greek Bactria (they are referred to in


'very warlike nation of the Bactrians,

47,

as the

"

living in the interior).

Their king, Kadphises I, conquered Cashmere and the upper Indus; his son, Kadphises II, who acceded about 85 A. D., after a disastrous
defeat at

Kuche by

the pursuer of the Yueh-chi, the Chinese con-

quering general Pan-Chao

about

90 A. D.

directed

his

armies

southward and rapidly overran the Panjab and the lower Indus, and
then reached the upper Ganges and interior points
like Indore.

Both races were called by the Sanscrit 'Min" or Scyths; the metropolis of Periplus shows the Indo-Parthians ruling in the
Scythia,"

then

at the

apex of the Indus

delta;

showing

their

power

167
in the

Kabul
'

valley to have

been broken already by the Yueh-chi or

Kushan'

dynasty, but their subsequent complete conquest by the

Yueh-chi had not yet been consummated.

The

political conditions described in

the Periplus were probably


last

those that followed the death of Gondophares, the


Parthian ruler in the Panjab.

powerful Indo-

51 A. D. was again consolidated under two lines of rulers; the "Northern Satraps" from the Indus to the Jumna, and the "Western Satraps" in Kathiawar, Gujarat and Malwa. Both these dynasties were at first tributary, and later subject to the Kushan power.

supposed to have occurred about After some years of anarchy and civil war, the Saka power
is

This

More

distant southern raiding

by the Indo-Parthians led

to the

"Pallava" dynasties along the west coast, which after a couple of


centuries succeeded in gaining control of

much

of Southern India.

These
in

princes were thought by labricius to be the ones referred to


as ruling in Calliena, near

52
39.

Bombay.
text
is

Figured linens.
and hence
stuffs

The
this

polymita.

Pliny (VIII, 74)


in difFerent

says:
colors,

Babylon was very famous for making embroidery


of

kind have obtained the

name

of

Babylonian.
threads
it

The method

of

weaving cloth with more than two

was invented at Alexandria; these cloths are c?i!\^A polymita Gaul that they were first divided into chequers. " Martial's epigram, " Cubicularia polymita" (XIV, 150) indicates that the Egyptian tissue was formed in a loom, like tapestry, and that the Babylonian was embroidered with the needle. was
in

39.
Pliny,

Topaz.

The

text

is chrysolithos.

This

stone, according to

came from Aethiopia (Abyssinia) and islands in the Red Sea; and he adds that the best sort came from India. Here is a confusion between two kinds of stone; the Red Sea gem being the true topaz and

The knowledge of was vague, and we are apt to be led astray by assuming that because we have borrowed the Greek or Latin name we have applied it to the same stone.
the Indian either chrysolite or yellow sapphire.
the

Romans

in regard to precious stones

The
topaz,

chrysolithos mentioned in the text was almost certainly our which was produced in abundance in the Red Sea islands, being in

an

important item

the east-bound

exports of

Egypt, under the

Ptolemies and

Rome. Strabosays: (XVI,


. .

iv,

6) "After Berenice

is

the island Ophiodes.

was cleared of the serpents by the king, on account of the topazes A body of men was appointed and maintained by the found there. kings of Egypt to guard and maintain the place where these stones
It

were found, and superintend the collection of them.

"

'

168

It is

remarkable that the Periplus does not mention emeralds also

as an export

from Berenice
in the hills just

to India.

There was a
in

large production

from mines

west of our author's home.

They may

have fetched better prices in

Rome

than

India,

where they would

have had to compete with the native


ance of the

beryls.

For a description of these mines,


site

as well as of the present appear-

of Berenice, see Bent, Southern Arabia, 291-7.

This was the red coral of 39. Coral. See also 28 and 49. Western Mediterranean, which was one of the principal assets of Pliny observes with the Roman Empire in its trade with the East. some surprise (XXXII, 11) that coral was as highly prized in India The Gauls formerly ornamented their as were pearls at Rome. swords, shields and helmets with coral, but after the Indian trade was opened and its export value increased, it became extremely scarce
the

with them.

Tavernier
in

Travels in India, II, xxiii) found the

same conditions

his time

in

Europe,

it

Although coral does not rank among precious stones is nevertheless held in high esteem in the other quarters

of the globe,

and

it

is

one of the most beautiful of nature's produc-

tions, so that there are


Ball, in his notes

some
its

nations

who
(II,

prefer

it

to precious stones.'

on Tavernier
tints

136), ascribes the preference


"

for coral to

"the way

adapt themselves to set off a dark skin,

and

also look well with a white garment.


It

was
its

lief

in

even to

its supposed sacred properties, and the becharm continued through the Middle Ages, and the present day in Italy, where it is worn as a protection

also valued for

uses as a

against the evil eye.

now, were in Sicily, Leghorn and Genoa, in Catalonia, the Balearic Islands and the coasts of Tunis, Algeria and Morocco. Tavernier describes the method of fishing by swabs" crossed rafters, weighted, and bound with twisted hemp, which were let down and entangled amongst the coral on the rocky bottom, breaking more
principal red

The

coral fisheries, then as

Sardinia and Corsica, near Naples,

than they caught.


art.

For a

fuller description, see Encyclopedia Britannica,

Coral.

Red

coral

is

Corallium rubrum, family Gorgonidie.


coral in

There was black

abundance

in the

Red

Sea,

and others
See

along the Arabian coast, but these were not prized so highly.

Haeckel, Arabiiche Korallen.


39.

CostUS.

This

is

the cut root of Saussurea lappa, order Com-

posita, a tall perennial,

growing on the open slopes of the vale of


at elevations of

Kashmir, and other high valleys of that region,

8,000

169

to

13,000

feet.

In the

Roman Empire

it

was used

as a culinary

spice, also as a

perfume, entering into

many

of the ointnlents, though

in less quantity

than pepper and cinnamon.

The

Revised Version

gives
as

it

as a marginal reading for

Exodus

XXX,

24, in place of cassia,

one of the ingredients of the anointing oil of the Hebrew priests. The root was dug up and cut into small pieces, and shipped to Vincent describes the root as being the size both Rome and China.
of a finger; a yellowish

woody

part within a whitish bark.

The
smell,

cortex

is brittle,

warm,

bitterish,

and aromatic, of an agreeable


gifts

resembling

orris.

Chishull (^Antiq. Asiat., 71) notes that the

from Seleucu?
myrrh,

Calhnicus to the Milesians included frankincense, 10 talents;


1 talent;
cassia,

2 pounds; cinnamon, 2 pounds; costus, 1 pound.

By
in

the

Romans

distinguished

Rome

is

costus was often called simply radix, the root, as The price from nard, which was caWsA folium, the leaf. stated by Pliny (XII, 25) to have been 5 denarii per

pound.
In modern Kashmir the collection of costus
the product being sent to Calcutta and
is

a State

monopoly,

Bombay,

for shipment to

China

and Red Sea


In Kashmir moths.

ports.

In China

it is

used in perfumes and as incense.

it is

used by shawl merchants to protect their fabrics from

The word
earth.

costus

is

from the Sanscrit kushtha,


op.

standing in the

See Watt,
39.

op. cit.,

980; Lassen,

at., I,

287-8.

Lycium.
in the

This was derived from


aristata,

varieties of the barberry


feet.

growing
heridacea.

Himalayas, at elevations of 6,000 to 10,000


also B.

Berberis lycium,

B.

asiatica,

B. vulgaris, order Ber-

From

the roots and stems a yellow dye

was prepared; while

from the stem, fruit and root-bark was made an astringent medicine, "The the preparation of which is described by Pliny (XXIV, 77).
branches and roots, which are intensely bitter, are pounded and then boiled for three days in a copper vessel; the woody parts then re-

moved, and the decoction boiled again to the thickness of honey. extracts, and with a murca of olive is mixed with various bitter
and
ox-gall.

It
oil,

The

froth of this decoction

is

used as an ingredient in

compositions for the eyes, and the other part as a face cosmetic, and for the cure of corroding sores, fluxes, and suppurations, for diseases
of the throat and gums,
for coughs,

and

locally for dressing

open

wounds. "

Many empty

lycium pots have been found


(See also Watt,
op. cit.,

in the ruins of

Herculaneum and Pompeii.

130.)

170

39.

Nard
This

(the root, from the lowlands, as distingfuished from

spikenard, the leaf or flower, from the mountains, a totally different


species).
thus,
is

the root of the ginger-grass, Cymbopogon schoenan-

order Graminea, native in the Western Panjab, India, Beluchis-

tan and Persia, and the allied species,


the east and south.
nardus.
It
is

C jwarancusa,

native

more

to

closely allied to the

Ceylon

citronella,

C.

From the root of this grass was derived an oil which was used in Roman commerce medicinally and as a perfume, and as an astringent
in ointments.

This

is

homeward march,
says {Anabasis,

no doubt the nard found by the army of Alexander on its in the country of the Gedrosians, of which Arrian
VI, 22):

"This

desert produces

many

odoriferous

which the Phoenicians gathered; but much of it was trampled down by the army, and a sweet perfume was diffused far and wide over the land by the trampling; so great was the abundance
roots of nard,

of it."
39.

Turquoise.

The
itself

text has calUan stone,

same

as Pliny's callaina

(XXXVII,

33), a stone that

which seems the came from "the


His

countries lying back of India," or


description of the stone

more

definitely,
it

Khorassan.

identifies

with our turquoise, which

occurs abundantly in volcanic rocks intruding into sedimentary rocks


in that district.

The finest stones came from the mines near Maaden, about 48 miles north of Nishapur (the Nisasa of Alexander, 36 30'
).

N., 58 50' E.

natural trade-route
river,

from

this locality
its

would have

been down the Kabul

thence by the Indus to

mouth, where
653
I,

the author of the Periplus found the stones offered for sale.

(See also Heyd, Commerce du Levant au Moyen Age,


Ritter, Erdkunde,

II,

325-330; Yule's Marco Polo, Cordier's ed.,


Stones,

92

Goodchild, Precious

284; Tavernier, Travels


. .

in India, II, xix

"Turquoise

is

only found in Persia


five

Nishapur, the other


Centra I- Asia, 515.
39.
)

days' journey

in two mines, one near from it;" Lansdell, Russian

Lapis
which

lazuli.

The
to

word

in

the text
this to

is

sappheiros,

and

natural inclination

would be

assume
to the

be the same as our

sapphire,
f

is

also a product of

India;

but according to Pliny


as sapphire

XXXVII,

39) the stone

known

Romans

was an
that
is,

opaque blue stone with golden


in a general

spots,

which came from Media,


call Persia.
It

way, from the country


it

we

was not
in

suited

for engraving because

was

intersected with hard crystalline particles.


lapis lazuli,

This can be nothing but our from a very


early time for

which has been


also
as a

demand

ornament and

pigment, ultra-

171

marine, which was so extensively used by the Egyptians in their public


buildings.

Our

sapphire seems to have been rather a product of

southern India and Ceylon, and would hardly have been exported

from the Indus

valley.

Dionysius Periegetes refers to the

underlying rocks which gave

birth to the beauteous tablets of the golden

hued and azure sapphire stone which they detach from the parent rock, " which seems to indicate lapis lazuli rather than our sapphire.

Goodchild {Precious
writers.

Stones, p.

240), also thinks that

this stone

was

almost certainly the sapphire

of

Theophrastus and other ancient

He

says,

It

has been

known from

very remote times,

being

much

used by the Egyptians, and to a lesser extent by the


Epiphanius, Bishop of
Salamis, says the Tables of the

Assyrians.

Moses were inscribed on lapis lazuli. The Romans used it to some extent as a material for engraving on. Beckmann {Hist. Inv., 1, 467 J Lassen is of the same opinion. writing in the 18th century, says that the real lapis lazuli came from Bokhara, particularly at Kalab and Badakshan; that it was sent thence Some came also through Russia to India, and from India to Europe. (The first route corresponds via Orenburg, but less than formerly.

Law

given to

with the Periplus.

consider

it

as the sapphire of the ancients"

a'^

quoting Pliny, Isidori


Dioscorides, V, 157;
xii

Orig.

XVI,

9; Theophrast. de Lapid.

43;

Dionys., Orb. Desc.,V, 1105;


de Lapidibus, 55.

Epiphanius

zemmis,%

5;

MzxhoAeus

Tavernier, {Travels in India, II, xxv) speaks of a "mountain beyond Kashmir producing lapis," which Bali {Economic Geology of India, 529) locates near Firgamu in Badakshan, 36 10' N., 71

For a

fuller description see

Holdich, Gates of India, 426, 507.

Ultramarine was probably not the caruleum of the Romans, which

was

rather copper ochre.


39.

Their blue

glass

was rather

cobalt.
all

ferent
is

Seric skins. Pliny (XXXIV, 41) says, "of kinds of iron, the palm of excellence is awarded to

the dif-

that

which
again

made- by the Seres,


which,
11^
in

who

send
is

it

to us with their tissues

and skins;

next to

quality,

the

Parthian

iron."

And

(XXXVII,

"the most valuable products furnished by the cover-

ings of animals are the skins

which the Seres dye."

These passages
opposed to

are sufficient answer to those

who

have doubted
I,

this statement in the Periplus.

(Vincent,

II,

390; Miilier
is

288,

whom see

Fabricius, p. 151.)

There

no more reason why


in the 1st

furs should not

have been sent overland across Asia

century

than in the 16th to the 19th,

when the trade was most important.


even to-day,
in getting

Con-

sider, for instance, the difficulty

Russian sables

172

to market,

and

how much
"most

easier to get the various wild animal skins to the Indus

from Tibet and Turkestan

mouth

As
it is

to the

excellent iron of the Seres" mentioned by Pliny,

was not Indian steel, more corcoming from the Gulf of Cambay and Egypt It was produced in Haidarabad, a to the Somali coast short distance north of Golconda, and was shipped to the Panjab and Persia to be made into steel; the famous Damascus blades of the
to question
this

open

whether

rectly described in the Periplus as

middle ages being derived mainly from


Travels, Ball's ed.,
I,

this

source.
6.

(Tavernier,

157.)
is

See also under

39-

Cloth.

It

uncertain whether this should be connected


silk,
it

with the following item, yarn, both being


separate item.
as noted
If the latter, as

or whether

it

is

seems probable,

under 38

would be muslin,

the

s'lndon

of the Greeks, long a staple product

of the Panjab
39.

and Sind.

Silk yarn.
at the

According

to the Periplus, the

Roman

traders

found
routes

silk

Cambay, and in from N. W. China. The principal highway for silk, at this time as well as later, was As the demand in Mediterranean through Turkestan and Parthia. countries grew more insistent, the restrictions of the Parthian government became more severe, and quarrels over the silk trade were at the root of more than one war between Rome and Parthia, or later between the Byzantine Empire and Sassanian Persia. This eflort of Constantinople to reach China direct, without dependence on Mesopotamia, led to alliances with Abyssinia, for the sea trade, and with
the Turks, for a route north of the Caspian
;

mouths of the Indus and Ganges, at the Gulf of Travancore, whither it had been brought by various

but no permanent result

was reached

until the 6th century,

when

a couple of Christian

monks

under Justinian succeeded


guarded silk-worm'
into
s

back from China the jealouslyeggs, from which the silk culture was introduced
in bringing

Greece, and imports from the East diminished.

At

the time of the Periplus,

Rome

and Parthia being

at

war, the

sea-route

was the only one open to the See also under 49, 56 and 64.
39.

Roman

silk traders.

Indigo,

a dye

produced from Indigofera

tinctoria,

Linn.,

order Leguminosa ; and allied species, of which about 25 exist in ^^ estern India alone, and about 300 in other tropical regions.
the

Concerning

modern production see Watt {op. cit., 664). It was valued in Western Asia, Egypt, and the Mediterranean countries as a dye and
a medicine.

Pliny says

(XXXV,

25-7)

'

173

We

have indicum, a substance imported from India, with the


I

composition of which

am

unacquainted.

When

broken small

it

is

wondrous combination of purple and deep azure. There is another kind of it which floats in the caldrons in the purple dye-houses, and is the scum of the
of a black appearance, but
diluted
it

when

exhibits a

purple dye.
for ague

If

used as a medicine, indicum acts as a sedative


fits

and other shivering

and desiccates
it

'

sores.

Marco Polo
is

says (III, xxii)

is

made

of a certain herb
is

which

gathered, and (after the roots have been

removed)
lave
it

put into great

vessels

the plant

whole of which is tremendously hot there, so that it boils and coagulates, and becomes They then divide it into pieces of four ounces such as we see it.
until the
is

upon which they pour water and


decomposed.

They then put

this liquid in the sun,

each, and in that form


40.

it is

exported to our ports.

"

The Gulf of Eirinon is the strange expanse now known Rinn or Rann (Wilderness) of Cutch, the name coming from It is a the crescent-shaped rocky island bordering it on the south. uniform saline plain about 140 miles long, and reaching 60 miles from shore to shore; and in the dry season (of the N. E. monsoon) it is It opens seaward by a dry and firm, 10 to 20 inches above sea-level. narrow channel, and west of Cutch the northern Rann communicates through a second channel with the Rann, which is connected In the rainy season with the low-lying- coast of the Gulf of Cutch.
as the

(of the

S.

W.

monsoon)

the sea

is

driven through these channels by


hills also

the wind, and the rain descending from the

flows into

it,

But the ground forming a sheet of stagnant water about 3 feet deep. is so level that the Rann is never deep enough to stop the camel caravans,

which

cross

it

at all seasons,

traveling

by night,

to

avoid the

terrible heat

and

refraction,

and the

illusions of the

mirages which

constantly hover over the Rann.


is

The

guidance of

stars

and compass

preferred.

one time flooded by the sea, and by the remains of vessels dug as Old harbor works are obser\ed up near the neighboring villages. Nagar Parkar, on the eastern side of the Rann. Within hisnear

This

saline plain

was

certainly at
salt

shown by the abundance of

times it was probably the scene of an active sea-trade; even in modern times the port of Mandavi, on the southern coast of Cutch,
torical

carries

on a

direct trade with Zanzibar, in small vessels averaging 50

tons, of less than

10 feet draught.

We are here again

reminded of the ancient Turanian (Accadian-

Dravidian) sea trade, which must have centered in these bays. The whole area was probably raised by some great earthquake.

174

The

upheaval

is

too regular to have occurred by ordinary causes.


it

At
and
is

the time of the Periplus


shoal, with a clear

seems

to have

been open

vy^ater,

although
delta,

opening into the ocean below the Indus


it.

with a branch of the Indus running into

Now

the Indus delta

pushed very much farther south, and the scour of the


its

tides has carried

alluvium along the coast, almost blocking up the Rann;


it

while the

branch that watered

no longer flows

in that direction.

One

is

led to surmise that the great migration

from Cutch and

Gujarat to Java, which occurred in the 6th and 7th centuries, and

which led to the establishment of Buddhist kingdoms there (surviving in the tremendous temples of Boroboedor and Brambanan) may have
been due even more to this cause than to the invasion of hostile Aryan The conversion of a navigable bay into tribes from the upper Indus.
a salt desert,

spelled ruin

and the diversion of the rivers that watered it, must have and starvation to multitudes of its agricultural and seafar-

ing inhabitants,

who would

have been forced to migrate on a scale

unusual in history.

Geological considerations tend to confirm the tradition, otherwise unsupported by historic evidence, that the Indus was formerly
deflected by the Rohri Hills directly into the
it

Rann

of Cutch, where

was joined by the


canal.

river

which was supposed

to have

formed a con-

tinuation of the Sutlej and Sarasvati through the


f

now

dried-up Hakra

Wahind)

still

overflow into the eastern desert and even into the Rann.
still

During exceptional floods the waters of the Indus Other


attest the incessant shiftits

channels traversing the desert farther south


ing of the main stream in
let.

search for the most favorable seaward out-

"Ancient,"
mouth.

According to Burns, a branch of the Indus known as the Purana, or still flowed in 1672 about 120 miles east of the present
constant shiftings of the river-bed toward the west have
arid,

The
many

rendered the eastern regions continually more


river-channels into
salt-pits.

and have changed

In the year 1909 a city of 25,000

inhabitants,

The name
irina, a

Dera Ghazi Khan, was almost annihilated by the Indus. Eirinon, Rinn or Rann is from the Sanscrit aranya or waste or swamp.

the modern Gulf of Cutch. modern Dwarka (22 22' X., 69 5' E. ), is uncertain. It seems to be the same as Bahlika^ which is associated with Surashtra in the Mahahharata, the Ramayana and
40.
is

The Gulf
the

of Baraca

Whether

name

sur\ives in the

the Vishnu Purana.


41.

Ariaca.

This
is

word

in the text

is

very uncertain.

Lassen

thinks that the

name

properly the Sanscrit Latica (pronounced Larica)

175

and included the land on both


also gives the

sides of the

Gulf of Cambay.

Ptolemy
Latica.

name

Larica.

An

inscription of

Asoka mentions

The

form seems to have been Rastika or Rashtrika, belonging to the kingdom. " This word appears also in Syrastrene. The Prakrit form of this word Rdshtra survives also in the modern Maratha
earliest

{Maharashtra).

(Lassen,

I,

108.)

Another explanation derives


for the western seaboard.

Ariaca from Apardntika, an old

name

(Pandit Bhagvanlal Indraji,

Indian Antiquary, VII, 259-263.)

According

to

Reclus (Asia,

III,

(Baraca and Syrastrene) were originally


has been raised in historical times.

165) both Cutch and Kathiawar islands. This whole area

The

land connecting Kathiawar


is

with the mainland

is

not over 50 feet above sea-level and

full

of

marine remains.
Its

position seaward

made

it

early a centre of trade,


political

and a great
religious.

mixture of races
41.

also an

asylum for refugees,


text
is

and
is

Nambanus. The
as the

Alamharus.

This

probably

the

same
41.

Saka ruler Nahapana.

See under 52.


Abhira,

Abiria.

This
17,

is

the

native

which Lassen

(I,

538-9), argues must have been the Biblical Ophir.


of the

In the account

II Chronicles VIII,

gold,

I Kings, X, 11; and IX, 10, the products mentioned are sandalwood (.0, precious stones, ivory, silver, apes and pea-

Ophir

trade given in I Kings, IX, 26-28;

cocks.

The word
is

translated ape,

Lassen remarks,

is

kophi,

not a

Hebrew word,
for ivory

but derived from the Sanscrit word kapi.

The word
is

noted under 49.

The word
togei.

for peacock, tukhi-im,

the Sanscrit sikhi, called in Malabar,

derives
to the

Sandalwood, Lassen thinks, was the almug or algum, which he Lassen also refers from the Sanscrit valgu, Malabar valgum.
Indian city Sophir (the Suppara of 52).
in India
is

But the location of Ophir


Abhira, the modern Gujarat,
dealing in
of India'
s
is

impossible.

The

land of

and was purely an agricultural country. none of the products mentioned, and is at the northern end west coast, not the southern, from which these products
is

came.

Later scholarship

sufficiently sure in locating

Ophir on the

Arabian coast of the Persian Gulf,but the Indian names for the products mentioned proved clearly enough that it was a trading center
dealing with India, even
if

the land

itself

was not Indian.


Just as

The name,

too,

has a suggestive similarity.

we have

Cutch, Kachh, Khuzistan^Kassites, and wretched Cush," so Abhira, Apir, Ophir suggest the same Dravidian-Accadian activity be

tween

India, the Persian

Gulf,

and Africa, which

later

gave

way

176

to a Semitic, nati\e Arabian activity.

This would have been a couple

of thousand years before Solomon's day.


41.

Syrastrene.

Sanscrit,

Surashtra;
Surat,

The name

survives in the

modern

the modern Kathiawar. which owes its name to

Arabic domination.

At the time

of the Periplus this peninsula, to-

gether with the opposite coast of Cutch and Cambay, was subject to
the Saka or Indo-Parthian dynasties.
41.

A fertile
its

country.
and

Gujarat

is

still

one of the

richest

regions in India,
fringing
is

prosperity being largely due to the 60 seaports


to the fertility of
its

its

coast-lines

deep black
to

soil,

which
cattle,

particularly adapted to the

cultivation of cotton.
in large

Horses,

sheep and grain are exported


parts of India.

numbers

Bombay and

other

41.

Rice.

Oryza,

Linn.
is

order Graminea.
saliva.

The

species

now

most generally cultivated


varieties,
coides,

Ory%a

There

are various wild

one of importance being Oryza coarctata (Roxb. ) or 0. tritiwhich was native in the Indus and Ganges valleys, and also This wild apparently in Mesopotamia (see Watt, op. cit., 823-5). variety resembles wheat and seems to have been mistaken for it by Strabo and some of the Greek writers on India. Oryza iativa, the cultivated form, is native in India, Burma, and Southern China. It is the principal food of Asia, and doubtless

was

so at the time of the Periplus,


It

when

it

was exported

to

Arabia

was cultivated in China, according to Stanislas Julien, as early as 2800 B. C. and probably somewhat later in India. WdXX. thinks the cultivation began rather in Turkestan, whence it spread to China, India and Persia in the order named, the changing
and East Africa.
,

climate also forcing

its

wild habitat southwards.

He

thinks that coin-

which the Dravidian invaders passed until they culminated in the Tamil civilization. He also cautions against the tempting derivation of the Greek word oryzji and the Arabic al-ruzz. (from which the modern rice, riso, riz, arroz, etc. ), from the Tamil arisi, thinking that they are rather from the old Persian virinzi
cides with the region through
(Sanscrit vrihi), indicating an early connection before migrations had radiated
41.

from Central Asia.

Sesame

oil, expressed

from the seeds of Sesamum Indicum,


oil

D. C.

order Pedalinea;

an annual plant cultivated throughout the


obtained from

tropical

and subtropical regions of the globe for the


Originally, perhaps,
it

the seed.

was

a native of Africa, but


it

was

regularly cultivated in India long before


countries.

reached the Mediterranean


safe to

At

the time of the Periplus

it is

assume that sesame

177

tral

was an important crop throughout India and the warmer parts of CenAsia. Our author shows us that the oil was exported from the Gulf of Cambay to both Arabia and Africa, whence doubtless it was

reshipped to the

Roman
in

world.

According

to the statistics given by

Watt

{_op.

cit.,

982) the area

under cultivation

India in 1904-5 was over 4,000,000 acres, of


in the
oil is

which about 700,000 was


In modern India the
anointing the body,
also used as
It is

Cambay

states.

largely used for culinary purposes, in


It is

in

soap manufacture, and as a lamp-oil.


clarified butter.
liable to
oil,
is

an adulterant of ^hi or
oil,
it

a yellow

without smell, and not


closely resembles olive

become
is

rancid.

In

many

properties
olive

and

similarly used

where the
in

oil

is

not cultivated.

It

extracted by simple ex-

pression in mills.

Strabo

(XVI,

i,

20) refers to the ancient custom


oil.

Mesopotamia of anointing the body with sesame


41.

Clarified Butter. The text is boutynn (see also under This is not fresh butter made from cream, but rather the Indian ghi, an oil reduced from butter. Fabricius says that it could not have been transported from India to Africa under the tropical
14).
sun, and

would read

bosmoros,

an Indian grain; but ghi stands long


in

journeys to-day and might very likely have been

demand
oil
is

in the 1st

century on the African coast, which produced no

except from the

cocoanut palm.
moisture
sediment.

According

to

Watt

{op. cit.,

478) ghi
is

an

oil

de-

canted after heating the butter about twelve hours, during which the
is

driven off and the residue (casein, etc.)

deposited as a
its

The
is

butter thus loses about 25 per cent of

bulk.

It is

made from
G/ii
classics. If

buffalo's milk rather than cow's.

mentioned

in

some

of the

most ancient of the Hindu

carefully enclosed in leather skins or earthen pots, while

still

hot,
salt

it

may be

preserved for

many

years without requiring the aid of

or other preservatives.

Fryer, in 1672-81, speaks of tanks of ghi


old, of great value medicinally,

in the

Deccan, 400 years

and high

price.

This word boutynn has been variously emended by the commenwhom had fresh butter in mind, although Lassen should have been familiar with the durability of clarified butter, and with the probability of its export from the rich agricultural region of Gujarat. Lassen, Oppert and others, following a mention of boutyros by
tators, all of

Theophrastus, identify

it

with asafoetida, by

way

of the Sanscrit bhutari

("the enemy of

evil spirits").

But asafoetida was a product of Af-

ghanistan and would have been brought to the Indus mouth rather than

'

: :

178

to Barygaza.

the

While Theophrastus may have referred to it as boutyros, Romans knew it more intimately as laser, which is the word that
would probably have
used.
It

the author of the Periplus

entered into

Roman
ders.

medicine as a remedy for fevers and tropical digestive disor(Pliny,

XIX,

15).

Fabricius

needlessly alters
identify.

the text to read bosmons,

2l

grain,

McCrindle suggests wild barley or millet. The following passages from Strabo throw some light on that question He says (XV, ii, 13) "By the vapors which ascend from so
which he does not

many
is

rivers,

and by the Etesian winds, India, as Eratosthenes

states,

watered by the

summer

rains,

and the

level country

is

inundated.

During the rainy season, flax and millet, as well as sesamum, rice and bosmoros are sown; and in the winter season, wheat, barley, pulse, And again and other esculents with which we are unacquainted.
'
'

(XV,

ii,

18)

"Onesicritus says of bosmoros that


is

it is

a smaller

between rivers. It is roasted after being threshed out, and the men are bound by oath not to take it away before it has been roasted, to prevent the seed from being
grain than wheat, and

grown

in countries

exported.'

The
pure, and

treasuring of this bosmoros and the prejudice against

its

ex-

portation indicate the native millet,

which was regarded


for temple-offerings.

as particularly

was the grain most used

Other grains which might suggest themselves, are the African millets, Hokus sorghum ( Hindu yWr) or Kaffir corn (see Pliny, XVIII, 10, for description of its remarkable size and prolific increase) and Both are imPennisetum typhoideum (Hindu, bajra) or spiked millet. portant crops in modern India, but were probably brought from Africa more recently than the date of the Periplus, and being native in Somaliland, would not be probable articles of import there.

Wild

barley,

suggested by McCrindle, was also native in Egypt

and Somaliland, and therefore not likely to have been imported.

Another possible grain


tata

is

the Indus valley wild rice, Oryxa coarc-

(Hindu, barirdhan)
p.

which has been confused with wheat.


Panicum miliaceum, while grown

See

Watt,

823.
millet,

The common
was
native in

in India,

Egypt and the Mediterranean countries.

Altogether the bosmoros of Strabo was mostprobabl\ "Poor man's


millet," Panicum Crus-galli;

which

is

extensively cultivated to-day in


native

China and Japan


gal,

as well as India.

The

name

given

it

in

Benorder
as

bura shama, might readily be Hellenized into bosmoros.

According
Gramineix,
is

to

Watt

{op.

cit.,

843)

Panicum

Crus-galli,

a large, coarse plant, preferring

wet ground, such

179

borders of ponds and banks of streams.


as a rainy-season crop over
feet.
It

It

is

most of India
soils

on
is

extensively cultivated

the Himalayas to 6500

thrives

on

light

sandy

and

often cultivated

when

the

rains

are

over,

on the banks of rich good


soil.

silt

deposited by rivers.

The
by the

yield

is fifty

fold in

It

is

the
is

quickest-growing millet,

harvested sometimes in six weeks, and

consumed
it

chiefly

poorer

classes, for

whom

it is

useful because

ripens early and affords


millets.

a cheap article of food before bajra


41.

and the other

monache,

cloths. These were the and sagmatogene of 6 and 14. The account given by Tavernier throws some light on the earlier production. He
molochine,

Cotton and the Indian

says {op.

cit.,

II, xii)

"White

cotton cloths

come

to

Renonsari (near

Surat) and Broach,


large fields,

where they have the means of bleaching them in on account of the quantity of lemons growing in the

neighborhood.
only 20 cubits
kinds.

The
when

cloths are

21 cubits long when crude, but


are both

bleached.

There

broad and narrow


piece
is

long."

The broad are lYi cubit wide, and the The cotton cloths to be And again:

20

cubits

dyed red, blue, or

Agra and Ahmadabad, because these two towns are near the place where the indigo is made, which is used The cheaper kinds are exported to the coast of Melinde in dyeing.
black, are taken uncolored to

(the Azania of the Periplus), and they constitute the principal trade

done by the Governor of Mozambique, who sells them to the Kaffirs to carry into the country of the Abyssins and the kingdom of Saba, because these people, not using soap, need only rinse out these
cloths."

Vincent's translation of sagmatog'enc by

'

stuffing,"
'the

that

is,

un-

unspun cottons from Gujarat do not go to Europe, being too bulky and of too small value, and they are only exported to the Red Sea, Hormus, and
spun cotton,
is

supported by Tavernier,

who

says

Bassora.

Marco Polo

(III, 26) says of this locality:

"They

have also a

great deal of cotton.

Their cotton

trees are of very great size,


(

grow-

ing six paces high, and attaining to an age of 20 years.


arboreum.
) It
is

Gossxpnim

to be observed,
is

however,

that,

when

the trees are


stuff

so old as that, the cotton

not good to spin, but only to quilt or

beds withal.

Up

to the age of 12 years, indeed, the trees give


is

good

spinning cotton, but from that age to 20 years the produce

inferior.

Pliny also (XII, 21) quotes from Theophrastus a description of the tree cotton, contrasting it with silk: "trees that bear wool, but of a different nature from those of the Seres; as in these trees the
leaves produce nothing at
all,

and indeed might very readily be taken

180

for those of the vine,

were

it

not that they are of smaller

size.

bear a kind of gourd, about the size of a quince, which


bursts asunder of linen cloth

They when ripe

and discloses a
is

ball of

down, from which a

costly kind

made."
capital

41.

Minnagara. This

was

identified

by Miiller with

modern Indore, but according to Vincent Smith Up- cit., 192-3) may be the ancient town of Madhyamika or Nagarl, one of the oldes' sites in India, of which the ruins still exist, about eleven miles north
the

ofChitor (24
in

it

N., 74 39' E.). "\lcCrindle and Fabricius prefer, but quite conjecturally, to place Kathiawar; but the text indicates the mainland in observing that
53'
river pre-

from Minnagara cotton cloth was "brought down," by


sumably, to Barygaza.

The name Minnagara means


the Hindu name
41. 59'E.).
to

"City of the Min," which was

for the

Saka invaders.
is is

Barygaza.

This

the

modern Broach (21


'

42' N., 72

The Greek name


Here
is

be a corruption of Bhrigukachha,

from the Prakrit Bharukacha, supposed 'the plain of Bhrigu, " who was
Dravidian connection

a local hero.

at least a suggestion of

with the Brahui of Gedrosia, their hero Braho and their KacA place-

names.

The

district of

Barygaza was an important part of the empire of

Chandragupta Maurya,
princes,

who

is

said
it

to

have resided
into the

at

Suklatirtha.

After the collapse of his dynasty

fell

hands of the Saka

who were

in

power

at

the time of the Periplus.

The Greek 41. Signs of the Expedition of Alexander. army reached Jhelum (32 56' N. 73 47' E. ) on the river of the Somewhat above that place, on the opposite side of the same name.
,

river,

Vincent Smith locates the


)

field of his battle

with Porus.

(Early

History of India, 71-8.

Alexande'r then penetrated to Gurdaspur, on

the Sutlej river, about 50 miles


his retreat.

N. E. from Amritsar.
is is

Here he began
probably quothardly

The
told

author of the Periplus

mistaken in supposing that

the Alacedonians got ing

beyond the Indus region, and


trader at Barygaza,

what was
traders

him by some

who would

have distinguished Alexander from Asoka.


tfie

Under

the caste system

were not concerned with the


outcasts;

religious or political activities

of the country, and those concerned with foreign trade

were

often, as

now, mere
ha\'e

while even had they been informed, they would


attributing

been quite equal to

anything,

for the

moment,

to
far

Alexander, out of deference to their Greek customers,

who were

more

interested in h.s exploits than

any Hindu could

be.

181

41.
Point. 42.

The promontory
Another
gulf.

of Papica

is

Goaphat, or Gopinath

This

is

the Gulf of Cambay.

42. Baeones is Piram Island opposite the mouth of the Narbada Diu (21 36' N., 72 21' E. ), as shown on the following map. Vincent, Island, the modern Portuguese possession, preferred by

does not conform to the sailing-course of the Periplus,

as

shown

byMdUer

(I,

290.)

EofG

to 30 Feet.

80 i o 75 feet.

75 Feet and upwards. ao Miles.

_^^__^_^.^__^^_

According

to the Imperial Gazetteer,

XX,

149-150,

it

is

a reef of

rock partly covered by brown sand, and is surrounded by rocky reefs To avoid the rising to the surface from a depth of 60 to 70 feet.

chopping sea and sunken reefs, boats have still to follow toward the Narbada, as described in the Periplus. the course
tide-currents,

182

42.
into the

The

great river Mais

is

the

head of the

^ulf, at the city of

modern Mahi, emptying (22 18' N., 72 Cambay.

40' E.

42.

The

river

Nammadus-

-Hindu,

Narmada

is

the

mod-

ern Xarbada or Nerbudda.


43.

Hard to navigate.
shoal
is

The sketch-map on

the preceding

page, from Reclus, Jsia, \o\. Ill, illustrates the

difficulties.

Herone
gulf,

and

Cammoni would

no doubt the long bar at the eastern side of the be at the end of the promontory that lies
of the Tapti River, the entrance to the

to the

N.

W.

of the

mouth

prosperous mediaeval port of Surat.


the

This

is,

perhaps, the same as

Camanes
44.

of Ptolemy.

Trappaga and Cotymba.


539

The
in the

first

word Lassen dekotia,

rives (II,

from trapaka, a type of

fishinij

boat mentioned by other


a.

travellers to this region.

The

second suggests the modern

craft

from these waters found by Burton

Somaliland ports (First

Footsteps,

408 j.

Fishing-boats entering

Bombay Harbor

44.

Anchorages and

basins.

The

maintenance
vessels

of

this

regular service of pilotage, under


at least

which incoming

were met
in the

100 miles from Barygaza, indicates an active and regular com-

merce, such as our author describes.


river
is

The
active.

use of

stations"

still

necessary here, and


sailing traffic
is

in

other rivers such as those of Burma,

where modern

more

183

45.
bore,

Very

great tides. The

vivid description

of the tidal

and the following paragraph, is certainly the result of personal experience. To a merchant familiar with the all but tideless waters of the Red Sea, it must indeed have been a wonder of nature. The same thing occurs in many places where a strong tide is forced
in this

into a narrow, shallow

of Fundy, the

and curving estuary, as Bay of Panama, and elsewhere.


fall

in

Burma, the Bay According to the


at a velocity of at

Imperial Ga%etteer of India, IX, 297, high spring tides in the Gulf of

Cambay
knots.

rise

and

as

much
damage

as 33 feet,

and run
25

6 to 7 knots an hour.

Ordinary

tides reach

feet,

\%

to

The

inevitable

to shipping,

under such

difficulties,

was the cause of the desertion more recently, Bombay.


46.

of the

Cambay

ports for Surat and,

The

sea rushing in with a hoarse roar.


"Through
hoarse roar never remitting,

Along

the midnight edge

by those milk-white combs careering." Walt Whitman: Patrolling Bamegat.


a Prakrit form of the Sanscrit Arashtra,
in fact the
literature.

47.

Arattii.This

is

who were

a people of the Panjab ;


in

name

Aratta

is

often

synonymous with the Panjab

Hindu

This people occupied the country around the 47. Arachosii. modern Kandahar (31 27' N., 65 43' E.). McCrindle {.Ancient
India, 88) says

Arachosia extended westward beyond the meridian


east

of

Kandahar, and was skirted on the


it

by the

river Indus.

On

the

north

stretched to the western section of the

Hindu Kush and on

the fact that

The province was rich and populous, and was traversed by one of the main routes by which Persia communicated with India added greatly to its importance."
the south to Gedrosia.
it

47.

Gandaraei.

(Sanscrit,

Gandhdra.)
its

This people dwelt on

both sides of the Cabul River, above

junction with the Indus; the

modern Peshawar district. In earlier times they extended east of the Takshasild, a large Indus, where their eastern capital was located
and prosperous
city,

called

by the Greeks

Taxila.

(See also Holdich, Gates of India, 99, 114, 179, 185; \incent Smith, Early History, 2>1, 43, 50, 52, 54; Foucher, Notes sitr la geographie ancienne du Gandhdra.

The

trade-route briefly referred to in the mention of

Gandhara

and Pushkalavati was that leading to Bactria, whence it branched westward to the Caspian and the Euphrates, and eastward through Turkestan to China, the "Land of This" of 64.
47.

Poclais.

(Sanscrit, Pushkardvafi,oxPushkaldvaU,

"abound-

184

This was the western

whence the Peucelaotis of Arrian. Gandhara {,cf. Strabo, XV, 26-8; Arrian, ^TZfl^ajw, IV, xxii; Jndica,lV; Lassen, II, 858;, the modern Charsadda, 17 miles N. E. of Peshawar, on the Suwat River.
ing in lotuses."
Prakrit, Pukkalaoti,

capital of

47.

Bucephalus TUexandria.
cit.,

This

is

identified

by Vincent
(See under

Smith

{,op.

62) with the modern town of Jhelum.


is

41.

Its

position

marked by an extensive mound west of the


is

present settlement.

The mound

known

as Pindi,

the town,

" and
Its

yields large ancient bricks

and numerous Graeco-Bactrian

coins-

position at a ferry
rior gave
it

on the high-road from the west

to the Indian inte-

great

commercial importance.

47.
its

Warlike nation of the Bactrians.


in

This

passage, with

reference to Graeco-Bactrian coins current in Barygaza, presents a

view of Indian history which does not appear


rary work.
turies

any other contempoduring the four cenis

The

sequence of events

in Bactria

between Alexander and the Periplus, which


{op. cit.,

fully set forth

by

Vincent Smith

summarized as follows: The Empire of Alexander was broken up at his death and the whole Eastern section from Syria to India fell to Seleucus, one of his generals. The Indian conquests were lost immediately, but the intervening country remained under Greek control for nearly 100 years
IX,
is

X)

under Antiochus Theos. The two northeastern provinces of Parthia and Bactria revolted. The Parthians, an Asiatic race akin to the

Turks,

set

up for themselves, and

built

up a

military

power which

later

absorbed the country beyond the Euphrates.

The

Bactrian country,

which was then populous and productive, remained under the government of Greek princes, and its independence was finally recognized in
208 B. C.

The Greek monarchs

in

Bactria immediately set about

enlarging their domains by


the Indus Valley.

striving; to

gain an outlet to the sea through

In 190 B. C. Demetrius conquered the whole Indus Valley and that part of Afghanistan lying around the modern
Cabul.

During his absence in India a relative, Eucratides, re\'olted and Demetrius returned home but his name does not reappear. From 160 to 156 there seems to have been anarchy in Bactria which ended
in the assassination of Eucratides

by his son Apollodotus, whose reign

seems

to

have been very short.

In the years 155-153 a Greek King Menande;, apparently a


brother of Apollodotus,

whose

capital

was Cabul, annexed the

entire

Indus Valley, the peninsula of Suras'ntra (Syrastrene) and other territories on the western coast; occupied Mathura; besieged Wadhya-

mika (now Nagari near Chitorj, and threatened the

capital,

Patali-

'

185

putra,

to Bactria.

modern Patna. Menander had to retire, however, supposed to have been a convert to Buddhism, and has been immortalized under the name of Milinda in a celebrated dialogue entitled The Questions of Milinda, which is one of the most noted
is

which

the
is

He

books

in

Buddhist

literature.

Heliocles, son of Eucratides, seems to have been the last

Greek

king to rule north of the Hindu

Kush Mountains.

This phase of Asiatic history is reflected by the mention of the Greek coinage of Apollodotus and Menander, current in Barygaza at
the time of the Periplus.
old,

The

coins must have been over 200 years


silver coins in

and the preservation of small


is

commercial use

for

that length of time

remarkable.
very warlike nation of the Bactrians' which

To

understand the

living in the interior under their own king, Chinese annals mention one must go to the history of central Asia. that in the year 165 B. C, a nomadic Turki tribe in northwestern

our author mentions as

China and owing allegiance


tars,

to the

Chinese emperors, known as the


territory

Yueh-chi, were driven out of their

by the Hiongnu or TarThis displaced numerous savage tribes in central Asia, who in turn moved westward; and thus the great waves of migration were begun which inundated Europe for centuries, overwhelmed the Roman Empire, and long threatened to extinguish

and migrated westward.

white

civilization.

The Yueh-chi in their westward movement drove out a tribe known as the Saka, who had lived between the Chu and Jaxartes
These tribes in the years 140-130 poured into Bactria, overwhelmed the Greek Kingdom there and continued into the country known as Seistan, then called, from its conquerors, Sakastene. Another
rivers.

branch of the Saka horde settled in Taxila in the Panjab and Mathura on the Jumna, where Saka princes ruled for more than a century

under the Parthian power.


originally
at

These Saka

connected with the Parthians.

tribes seem to have been Another section of the Sakas

a later date pushed on southward and occupied the peninsula of

Surashtra,

founding a Saka dynasty which lasted for centuriesreferred to by the author of the Periplus in 38 as
'

This
'subject

country

is

to Parthian princes

who were

constantly driving each other out."

The

Sakas of India seem to have been subject to the Parthians,


at

and Indo-Parthian princes appear

Cabul and

in the

Panjab about

There is a long line of Parthian princes recorded as rul120 B. C. ing in Cabul; among them Gondophares, who acceded in 21 A. D. and reigned in Cabul and the Panjab for thirty years. This is the
same prince who
is

mentioned

in the apocryphal "Acts of St.

Thomas,'

186

which, although not composed


the time.

until the third century

A. D.,

reflects

the prominence with which his

name was regarded

in the history of

The

Indo-Parthian princes were gradually driven southward by

the advancing Yueh-chi,

who had
first

expelled the last of

them from the


is,

Punjab before the end of the


of this work.

century A. D.

that

at the

time

The
trouble,

Yueh-chi,

whose
in

westward

migration

started

all

this

had

settled

Bactria north

of the

Oxus River about

70

B. C.

The

scattered tribes

central power,

and

their

were gradually brought together under a wandering habits were changed for agriculthe
rule in

ture

and industry;
I,

under Kadphises
different people

so that when who began to

Yueh-chi nation was unified 45 A. D., it represented a


the

from the savages

who had overwhelmed


his

Greek

Kingdom
stan for

of Bactria.

Kadphises reigned over Bokhara and Afghanison Kadphises


II,

40 years, and was succeeded by

who

extended his conquests into India.

The
to the

Chinese emperors had never abandoned their assertion of

sovereignty over the Yueh-chi.

An

embassy was sent from China


to try to

Oxus River

in the years

125-115 B. C.

persuade the

Yueh-chi

to return to China, but the mission

subsequent revolutions kept Chinese interest


B. C. and 70 A. D.

was unsuccessful, and at home between 100

Tartar army under the Chinese General Pan


all

Chao
its

reasserted

Chinese supremacy over


as far as the Caspian Sea.

of Central Asia, extending

conquests

Thus, with the submission of Khotan and Kashgar to Chinese armies in 73 A. D., the route south of the Central Asian desert was thrown open to commerce from end to end. With the reduction of Kuche and Kharachar in 94 A. D., the route north of the desert was also thrown open, and for the first time regular

commerce between East and West was made


It

possible.
still

should be borne in mind that this route was


the-

policed by

savage tribes only nominally subject to

Chinese Empire,
trade

and

while communication was opened up immediately,


carried

was not

on

in large

volume

until the

time of the

Roman Emperor
in the

Marcus

Aurelius, 100 years later.


II, ruler

Kadphises
extended
sent an
his

of the Yueh-chi,

who had

meantime
delta,

conquest into India but not yet as far as the Indus

army of 70,000 cavalry against the Chinese General Pan Chao, and was totally defeated near Kashgar; and was obliged for some
years to send tribute to China.

"

187

About 95 A. D. he be^an
his

kintjdom reached as

far as

his further conquests of India, and Benares and Ghazipur on the Ganges

Rive:-.

the

The Yueh-chi opened Roman Empire. Here, The


it

up the
to

commerce between

India and

as in Central Asia, the trade

had been

merely incidental and subject


tribes.

depredations of numerous savage

Parthians had done what they could to control and orto


it

ganize

and

le\5' tribute

on the

not controlled

to the eastward.

Roman merchants, but they had The existence of unified power in

and Afghanistan made possible a regular trade from Euphrates. The rapid growth of such trade is indicated by the coinage of the Yueh-chi Kings in India. Kadphises I struck coins in bronze only, which were imitated from those of AuKadphises II imitated the gold coins of the Roman Empire, gustus.
the Indus A'alley the

Ganges

to the

In Southern which were then pouring into India in a steady stream. India, where there was an active Roman maritime trade, there was

no native gold coinage, the


It
is

Roman

being

sufficient.
its

probable that the Indian embassy, which offered


in

con-

gratulations

Rome

to

the
his

Emperor Trajan, was dispatched by


conquest of Northwestern India.

Kadphises
47.

II, to

announce

Alexander penetrated to the Ganges.


The
great
it

This

is,

of

course, quite untrue, the Panjab having been the turning-point of his
expedition.

mass

of India

was
is

entirely unaffected

by

his

inxasion, except as

led to the

subsequent centralization of power


author

under Chandragupta Maurya.

Our

confusing Alexander with

Menander.
"The
She
East

bowed low

before the blast

In patient, deep disdain;


let

the legions thunder past,

And

plunged in thought again.

Matthew Arnold; Obermann.


48.

Ozene. This
The
Prakrit
is

is

the

modern

Ujjain, 23 11' N., 75 47'

E.

the chief city of IVlalwa.


Vjjeni,

The

Sanscrit

form

is

Ujjayini,
is

"vic-

torious."

from which the Greek

derived.

even

Ujjain is one of the seven sacred cities of India, not yielding In Hindu legend it was here that the elbow of to Benares.

The river Sipra, on the dismemberment of her body by Siva. The place was important under which it is located, is also sacred. on In early times it was known the earliest Aryan settlements in IVIalwa. AvantI, a kingdom which is described in Buddhist literature as one as As Ujjeni it is very prominent of the four great powers of India. Buddhist records, having been the birthplace of Kachana, one of in
Satifell,

188
disciples. Here was a Buddhist monastery known Mount, while it was the principal stage on the route from the Deccan to SravastI, then the capital of the great kingdom of Kosala. Here also in his younger days Asoka, later emperor, and the greatest patron of Buddhism, was stationed as viceroy of the western provinces of the Maurya Empire. This was the custom also in several subsequent dynasties, on both sides of the Vindhyas, for the

Sakyamuni' s greatest
as the Southern

heir-apparent to act as viceroy in the western provinces.

Uijeni was the Greenwich of India, the tude of


its

first

meridian of longi-

was a trade center for all produce imported at Barygaza, whence distribution was made to the Ganges kingdoms. At the time of the Periplus it was no longer a
geographers.
its

By

location

it

capital, the royal seat

being at

Minnagara. "

The Maurya

empire

had broken up, and


northwest,
its

in

the anarchy following the irruptions in the

western provinces' of Surashtra

and Jvlalwa had been


themselves in power

raided by Saka freebooters,


as the

who

finally established

'Western Satraps," or Kshatrapa dynasty.

For a generation

or so before the formal proclamation of the dynasty the invaders'

stronghold was their capital.

After their claims were recognized they

probably ruled from Ujjeni, which Ptolemy describes as the capital of


Tiastenos or

Chashtana, the
in

Kshatrapa

ruler

of

his

time.

It

re-

mained, apparently,

Saka hands until about the 5th century A. D.,


the

when

it

reverted to

Brahman power under


King Arthur

Gupta Empire

this

expulsion of the

misbelieving foreigners" giving rise to the tradition


of India, at

of Vikramaditya of Ujjain, the

whose

court

the

nine gems, " the brightest geniuses of India, were supposed to

have flourished.
(See Imperial Gazetteer, VIII, 279-280;
sen,
I,

XXR',

112-114; Las-

116.

48.

Spikenard:
to

Nardostachys jatamansi, order I'alerianacea.

perennial herb of the alpine Himalaya, which extends eastward from

Garhwal and ascends mounted by


essential
oil.

17,000 feet in Sikkim.

"The
little

drug consists
finger, sur-

of a portion of the rhizome, about as thick as the a bundle of reddish-brown fibers, the
It is

remains of the

radical leaves.

aromatic and
it is

bitter,

and

yields

on

distillation

an

In India

largely used as an aromatic adjunct in the

preparation of medicinal

oils,

and

is

popularly believed to increase the

growth and blackness of the hair."

(Watt,

op.

at.,

792.)
in price accord-

According
ing to the size;

to Pliny fXII, 26),

Leaf nard varies


the

for that

which

is

known by
sells

name

of hadrosphae-

rum, consisting of the larger leaves,

When

the leaves are smaller,

it is

40 denarii per pound. called mesosphaerum, and is sold


at

'

189
at 60.

as

But that which is considered the most valuable of all, is known microsphaerum, and consists of the very smallest of the leaves; it
at

sells

75 denarii per pound.


it

All these varieties of nard have an

agreeable odor, but


old

is

when
'

gathered

that

most powerful when fresh. If the nard is which is of a black color is considered the
first

best.

Pliny observes that leaf nard, or spikenard, held the

place in
3-5,

Rome among
which
tells

the ointments of his day.


alabaster

Compare Mark XIV,

of the

cious," valued at

box of ointment of spikenard very premore than 300 denarii.


also, for further references,

See under 24:


48.

Lassen,

I,

288-9.

Caspapyra.

This
is

is

the

Kasyapapura,
the

city of the

Kasyapa."

Greek form of the Sanscrit The same word survives in

modern Kashmir, which


,

nounced pamara)
raphers,

and meaning
'

'previous Buddhas.

from the Sanscrit Kasyapamata {"ptohome- of the Kasyapa" (one of the According to the division of the Greek geogIndia proper.

Gandhara was the country below Cabul, while Kasyapamata


district in

was ihe adjoining


II,

(See Lassen,

I,

142;

631.)
It

was from a town named Caspapyra,


his

that Scylax of

Caryanda
refers to
it

began

voyage of discovery

at the

command

of the Persian king

Darius.

The

story

is

given by Herodotus (IV, 44).

He

the place as being


city of

in the Pactyan land,"


It

and Hecataeus

calls

'a

the Gandaraeans."
53'

could not have been far above the


15'

modern Attock (33


History,

N., 72

E.).

Vincent Smith (Ear/y


but

32) doubts the connection of the name with Kashmir;


district,
it

while
that
its

outside the present limits of that


earlier extension
it

is

not impossible

tinguishes

was wider. from Gandhara points in


the

The

fact that the Periplus dis-

that direction.

48.

Paropanisus was
Hindu Kush.
It

name

given the mountain-range

was made the boundary between the empire of Seleucus, Alexander's successor, and that of Chandragupta Maurya, by a treaty ratified in 303 B. C. by which the newly-established Indian empire received the provinces of the Paropanisadae,
called
;

now

Aria, Arachosia and Gedrosia.

The

first

Indian emperor,

more
'that

than two thousand years ago, thus entered into possession of


scientific frontier' sighed

for in vain by his English successors, and

never held in

its

entirety

even by the Mogul monarchs of the 16th


113;
Ixii;

and 17th centuries."


132-4;
Strabo,
Pliny,

(Vincent Smith, Ear/y History,


10 and
ii,

also

XV,

i,

9;

Plutarch, Alexander,

Justin,

XV,

4;

VI, 20;

Arrian,

Anabasis,

V, 5;

Indica, II.

See

also Holdich, Gates of India.)

'

190

48.
valley,

The

Cabolitic country

is,

of course, the

modern Cabul

above the Khyber Pass;

being within the present limits of

Afghanistan.
48.

Scythia.

See under

41.

subject to the Parthian princes,

weak

This was the region which was successors of Gondophares,

whose reign had ended about 51 A. D.


49.

Lead.

Pliny

(XXXI\', 47-50)
lead

distinguishes

between black

lead and white lead;


also

the former being our lead, the latter tin (see

under

1).
its

White
boats

he says came from Lusitania and


islands of the Atlantic,"

Galicia, doubting
its

reported origin in

and

transportation in

Black lead,
scription suggests

made of osiers, covered with hides.' he says, came from Cantabria in Spain, and his- degalena, or sulphide of lead and silver. It came also

from

Britain,
at

and from Lusitania


in the

where

the Santarensian

mine was

farmed

an annual rental of 250,000 denarii.

Lead was used


same way
wine.
tion;
It

form of pipes and

sheets,

and had many

medicinal uses, being used in calcined form,


as

made

into tablets in the

antimony (see under


as

was used

this ), or mixed with grease and an astringent and repressive, and for cicatriza-

in the

treatment of ulcers, burns, etc., and in eye preparations;

while thin plates of lead


a cooling and beneficial

worn next

the body were supposed to have

effect.

As an import

at

Barygaza lead was required largely for the coinage

of the Saka dominions.

Bright-colored girdles. These were probably for the hill-tribe, who worked the carnelian mines then as The modern Coorgs, a related tribe, still wear a distinctive now. "girdle-scarf" which is now made at Sirangala. ijmp. Gaz., \'III,
49.
Bhils, a

Dravidian

101-4;
49.

IX, 36.)

Sweet clover. This


melilote'
'

is

Trifilium meliktus,

order Legiifor

minosa, the

of the

Greeks and Romans, used


Pliny

making

chaplets and perfumes, and medicinally.


best sorts

were from Campania in Italy, from Chalcidice and Crete; native always in rugged and wild localities. "The name sertula, garland, which it bears sufficiently proves that this plant was formerly much used in the composition of chaplets.
smell, as well as the flower, closely resembles that of saffron,
itself is
it is

(XXI, 29) says the Cape Sunium in Greece, also

The
the

though the stem

white;

the shorter and

more

highly

esteemed."

And

again

more fleshy the leaves, (XXI, 87), "the meli-

lote applied

of diseases of the eyes.

with the yolk of an egg, or else linseed, effects the cure It assuages pains, too, in the jaws and head,

'

'

"

191

applied with rose oil;

and employed with


all

raisin

wine,

it

is

good

for

pains in the ears, and

kinds of swellings or eruptions on the hands.


itself

decoction of

it

in

wine, or else the plant

beaten up raw,

is

good for pains

in the

stomach."
in the

Concerning the use of chaplets

Roman

world, Pliny gives

many

details

(XXI, 1-10).

The

chaplet was a

crown of honor

given the victors in the sacred games.


tree foliage

Originally laurel and other

Sicyon, about 380 B. C.


ivy,

was used; flowers were added by the painter Pausias, at Then came the "Egyptian chaplet" of narcissus, and pomegranate blossoms, and then a durable article

of thin laminae of horn, and of leaves of gold, silver, or tinsel, plain

or embossed.

Chaplets were

won

by personal prowess
parents,

of slaves or horses entered by the winner,


right, for himself

in the games, or by and gave the victor

that
'

'the

and for

his

after

death,

to

be crowned
its

without

fail,

while the body was laid out in the house, and on

being carried to the tomb.


indiscriminately worn.
'

On

other occasions, chaplets were not

The

use of chaplets by those not entitled to


cites several cases of

by law, and Pliny


sepulchres and the

Chaplets were used also in

them was forbidden punishment for the offence. honor of the gods, the Lares, the
still

Manes;

this

custom

surviving in the laying of

immortelles on tombs of departed friends.


'*Atque
aliquis senior veteres veneratus

amores.

Annua

constructo serta dabit tumulo.

TibuUus,
For such uses the
his

II, 4.

plaited chaplet, the rose chaplet,

and various

devices embroidered by hand,

and Pliny notes that in time there was a demand for chaplets imported from India, made
into use,

came

of nard leaves

unguents.
has

on fabrics, or else of silk of many colors steeped in Such is the pitch to which the luxuriousness of our women
!

at last arrived
It

'

would seem

as

if

this

sweet clover might also be intended for

the manufacture of chaplets for re-exportation to


49.

Rome.
is

from Persia and Carmania, and reached In modern times both realgar India from various Persian Gulf ports. and orpiment are produced in large quantities in Burma and China, where it is not impossible that production existed at the time of the
of arsenic.
principally
Periplus.

Realgar. It was

The

text

is

sandarake.

This

the red sulphide

Pliny
friable,

(XXXIV,

55) says "the redder


its

it

is

the

more pure and


in quality.
It

and the more powerful

odor the better

it is

192
is

detergent, astringent, heating, and corrosive, but


its

it

is

most remarkit

able for

antiseptic properties."

Dioscorides (V, 122) says

was
its

burned with resin and the smoke inhaled through a tube, as a remedy
for coughs, asthma,

or bronchitis.

Theophrastus

also

describes

properties.

The Greek word


Callitris guadrivalvis,

survives in the

modern gum sandarac from

order Conifem, produced in Algeria and


its

rocco; but this was not

meaning

in classical times.

MoThe word is

of eastern origin, referring apparently to the color,

and was extended

from ore

to

gum

because of appearance, reversing the process in the

case of cinnabar ( 30).

and

The wood in this sandarac tree was much valued by the Greeks Romans for furniture, being, perhaps, the thyine wood' of
'

Revelation XVIII, 12.

Tavernier also
to trade for pepper.

(II, xii)

found

vermillion'

'

brought by the Dutch

49.

Antimony. The
It

text

is

stimmi.

This was the sulphide


eye-tinctures, both in

ore, stibnite.

was made
in

into ointments

and

India and Egypt.

The ore came from

Eastern Arabia and Carmania,


in the

and

is

mentioned
II, at

an Egyptian inscription
II,

tomb
),

of

Khnum-

hotep

Benihasan (under Sesostris

1900 B- C.

being brought

by "Asiatics of the desert."


Pliny

stone

(XXXIII, 33-4) describes it as found in made of concrete froth, white and shining \^
and
refrigerative properties;
its

silver

mines, "a

being possessed

of astringent

principal use, in medi-

Pounded with frankincense and gum, it was valued as a cure for various eye irritations, and mixed with grease, as a cure for burns. But its main use was for dilating the pupils and for painting the eyebrows. Omphale, the Lydian queen who capticine, being for the eyes."

vated Hercules,
toilet;

is

represented by the poet Ion as using stimmi in her

Jezebel, in II Kings,

IX,

30,

probably used

it

when

she

"painted her face and tired her head;"


dient in the kohl used by

while

it

is

the chief ingrePersia.


its

women

in

modern Egypt and

Pliny and Dioscorides (V, 99j agree in their description of


preparation.
It

was enclosed in dough or cow-dung, burned in a furnace, quenched with milk or wine, and beaten with rain-water in This being decanted from time to time, the finest powder a mortar.
was allowed
49.
to settle, dried

under

linen,

and divided

into tablets.

aureus and denarius were current throughout Western India, and strongly influenced the Kushan and Kshatrapa coinages. See under 56; also Rapson,

Gold and

silver

coin. The Roman

Indian Coins.

193

The profit on the exchange was Roman coinage to that of India, which
lead),

due
latter

to the superiority of the

was

still

crude, of base
tin

metal (bronze or lead), for which even the bullion, (copper,

and

was imported.

49.
original

Ivory- For

references

see

Lassen,
this

I,

.311-315.

The

word used in I habbin, elephant's teeth," which the Hebrews shortened to .fA^;z, 'tooth," which is the word used in Amos, III, 15; Can:. V, 14. In ancient Egypt this word ibha became abu, whence the Roman and Etruscan ebur for ivory. The Greek elephas, or rather the root form elephantos, applied first to the ivory and later to the animal, was the Arabic article el and the Sanscrit ibhadanta, 'elephant'
'elephant."
the
'

word is ibha, Kings, X, 22, s/ien

From

came

teeth."
49.

Agate and carnelian.


to

See

also

under

6.

The

text

is

onychirie lithia kai mourrhine.

According
articles

Watt

(o^. cit.,

561), the murrhine vases and other

which were so highly prized in Mediterranean countries, were largely of agate, carnelian and the like, and came from the Gulf of Cambay, which was the chief market for that Indian industry. The stone is from the amygdaloidal flows of the Deccan trap, The most important place at which chiefly from the State of Rajpipla. agates are now cut is Cambay, but the industry exists also at JabbalThey are pur and elsewhere within reach of the Deccan trap. much used for ornamental and decorative purposes, being made into
brooches, rings,
seals, cups, etc.

While
that are.

collecting the pebbles the miners divide

primary classes

them

into

two

those that are not improved by burning, and those

Of

the

former there are three


rori.

on30c, cat's eye,

and a

yellow half-clear pebble called


bring out their color.

All other stones are baked to

April, the stones are spread in the sun in an

During the hot season, generally in March and open field. Then, in
deep by three wide,
is

May,

a trench,

two

feet

dug round the


a

field.

The

pebbles are gathered into earthen pots, which, with their mouths

down and a hole broken in their bottoms, are set in Round the pots, goat or cow-dung cakes are trench.

row

in the

piled,

and the

whole kept burning from sunset to sunrise. The pots are then taken About out, the stones examined, and the good ones stowed in bags. the end of May the bags are carried to the Narbada and floated to

Broach (Barygaza).

By

this

treatment the light browns brighten into white, and the

darker shades into chestnut.

Of

yellows, maize

becomes

rosy,

orange

deepens into red, and an intermediate shade becomes a pinkish purple.

194

Pebbles in which cloudy browns and yellows were

first

mixed are now


of the red car-

marked by

clear

bands of white and

red.

The hue

nelian varies from the palest flesh to the deepest blood-red.


are of a deep, clear,
stone, the

The

best

and even red


esteemed.

color.

The

larger

and thicker the

more

it

is

White

carnelians are scarce, and

when

of large size and good quality are

much

esteemed.

This burning of agates is fully described by Barbosa in 1517, and seems to be of very ancient date. It was then, as now, chiefly the industry of the Bhils, an ancient Dravidian tribe which may formerly have possessed the Cambay coast, but had been driven
to the hills

by

later invaders.

It

is

this

product, in
II,

all

probability,

which

is

the

onyx stone"

of

Genesis

12,

which reached
first

the

ancient world through the

'land of

Havilah" on the Persian Gulf.

the

Pliny CXXXVII, 7, 8) says that murrhine was Romans after the conquests of Pompey the Great
dear,

known
that

to
it

in Asia;

was fabulously
valued
at

T. Petronius having broken one of Nero's basins sesterces, while Nero himself paid 1,000,000 ses300,000
Pliny attributes the vessels to Parthia and
of moderate size only, seldom as large as a

terces for a single cup.

Carmania.

They were

drinking-cup, supposed to be of a moist substance, solidified by heat

under ground; shining rather than


colors, with

brilliant;

having a great variety of

wreathed veins, presenting shades of purple and white,

with fiery red between.


ally

Others were quite opaque.


an agreeable
taste

They

occasion-

contained

crystals,

and depressed spots that looked and smell.

like warts.

They were

said to have

While Pliny's description is not very definite, it suggests agate more than any other substance, and the reference to Parthia and Carmania rather than to the Gulf of Cambay means that until the Romans
discovered the sea-route to India they were dependent on the Parthian
trade-routes for their Eastern treasures,

and had only such information,

often misleading, as the Parthians offered them.


49.
49.

Silk cloth. See under 49 and 64.

Mallow

cloth.

See

also

under
It

6.

This was a coarse

fabric, like the native cloth


is

made by
drill.

the East African negroes, which

imitated by the
Hibiscus

modern blue

was dyed with the flowers


is

of

Rosa-Sinensis,

order Malvacea, a shrub which

native

throughout India and China.


49.

See Watt,

p.

629.

Long pepper
it

Pz>r/on^z^ffz,

Linn., order P/>fra^.

Watt

(p. 891), says

is

a perennial shrub, native of the hotter parts of


hills

India from Nepal eastward to Assam, the Khasia

and Bengal,

westward

to

The Sanscrit

Bombay, and southward to Travancore and Ceylon. name pippali was originally given to this plant, and only

195

within comparatively recent times was transferred to black pepper.

Long pepper

is,

The
the sun.

fruit

is

The

mentioned by Pliny (XII, 7) as well as the Periplus. gathered when green, and is preserved by drying in dried unripe fruit and the root have long been used in

medicine.
SO.

Dachinabades.

This

is

the Sanscrit dah/iinapat/ias, "the


the

way toward
50.

the south;" Prakrit dakkhindbadha:

modern Deccan.

nations. An interesting account is given by T. C. Evans, Greek and Roman India, in the Anglo-American Magazine for 1901, pp. 294-306. His conclusion is that "the Greek invader found there an ancient and highly organized society, differing little in its usages and modes of living from those which exist at the present time; and although there are no means of verifying the
conjecture,
it is

Many populous

not unlikely that the population of the peninsula was

as great in that period as in

our own."

If this

view

is

correct, India

was the most populous region of the world at the time of the Periplus, as it was the most cultivated, the most active industrially and commercially, the richest in natural resources and production, the most highly organized socially, the most wretched in the poverty of its
teeming millions, and the
least

powerful

politically.

The

great

powers of India were the Kushan

in the far northwest,

Maurya in the Ganges watershed, the Andhra in the Deccan, and the Chera, Pandya and Chola in the South. The economic status of the country made it impossible that any one of these should possess political force commensurate with its population, resources and industries. It was made up of village communities, which recognized the military power only so far and they were relatively unconcerned as they were compelled to do so
the Saka in the

Cambay

country, the remains of the

in dynastic changes, except to note the

change in their oppressors. For a contemporary account of the nations of India, see Pliny,

VI, 21-3.
51.

Paethana:

Sanscrit,

Pratisthana.

This

is

the

modern

on the Godaveri River (19 28' N., 75 24' E.). According to the Imperial Gazetteer (XIX, 317), Paithan is one Asoka sent missionaries to the of the oldest cities in the Deccan. Petenikas, and. inscriptions of the 2d century B. C. in the Pitalkhara Ptolemy mencaves refer to the king and merchants of Pratisthana.
Paithan,
tions
it

as the capital of

Pulumayi

II,

the

Andhra king (138-170 A. D.

was probably the capital of the western provinces, the seat of the Andhra monarchs having been in the eastern part of the kingdom, at Dhanyakataka, the modern Dharanikotta, on the Kistna river just
but
it

above Amaravati (16 34' N., 80 22'

K).

196

According
textile industry.

to the Periplus,
it

Paithan was an important center of the

ton and

silk.

To-day Almost all

retains a considerable

manufacture of cot-

traces of the ancient city are said to have

disappeared.
51.

Xagara.
identified
9'

The

Sanscrit

name had

the same form, appear-

ing in several records betwreen the 6th and 10th centuries A.


place
is

D.

The
19'

by Fleet with the modern Ter (Thair) (18

N., 76

E.

),

being a contraction of Tayara, the


It
is

g and

y being

frequently interchanged.

about 95 miles southeast of Paithan,

and agrees
text.

substantially with the distance

and direction given in the


is

From Broach

to Paithan the actual distance, by road,


to

about

240 miles, and from Paithan


journey of 12 miles,

Ter 104 miles, being 20 and 9 days' respectively. There are said to be some very
merchandise from the regions

interesting remains of the ancient city.

As

pointed out by Campbell, the

along the sea-coast" was not from the west coast, but from the Bay

and Fleet traces briefly the routes the first starting at Masulipatam (16 11' N. 81 8' E. ), and the second from Vinukonda fl6 3' N., 79 44' E. ), joining about 25 miles southeast of
of Bengal;
,

Haidarabad, and proceeding through Ter, Paithan, and Daulatabad,


to

Markinda

(in the Ajanta Hills).

Here the main

difficulties

began,

through the Western Ghats, over the 100 miles to Broach.


natural terminus

This was the great highway of the Andhra kingdom, and was at Calliena in Bombay Harbor, as suggested

its

in

52.

The

obstruction of that port by the Saka

power

in Gujarat

forced the tedious overland extension of the route, through the


tains, to

mounSo-

Barygaza.
J. F. Fleet,

(See
ciety,

Tagara: Ter, in Journal of


Sir

the

Royal Asiatic

1901, pp.

537-552;
,

James Campbell,

in

Gazetteer of the

Bombay Presidency xvi, 181; H. Cousens, Archaeological Survey of India, Annual Report, 1902-3, p. 195; Imperial Gazetteer, II, 82; xxiii, 284.)
51.

Country without

roads.
tanks,
It is

Tavernier
and
rivers,

says of the

Dec-

can (I, xi)

wheel carriages do not


difficult passes.
cart.

travel, the

roads being' too

much

interrupted by high mountains,

and there being


difficulty that

many narrow and


one takes a small

with the greatest


to take

mine to pieces frequently in order to pass bad places. There are no wagons, and you only see oxen and pack-horses for the conveyance of men, and for the transport of goods and merchandise. But in default of chariots,
I

was obliged

you have the convenience of much larger palanquins than in the rest of India; for one is carried much more easily, more quickly, and at
"
less cost.

197

52. 41' E.
),

Suppara.This

is

the

modem

Sopara (19 25' N., 72

Bombay. It is said to have been the capital of the Konkan between 500 B. C. and 1300 A. D. It appears in the Mahahharata as Shurparaka, as a very holy place. Some Buddhist writings assert

a few miles north of

that

Gautama Buddha,
the

in

a former birth,

was

Bodhisattva of Sopara.
52.
10' E. ),

See Imp. Gaz., XXIII, 87.


is

Calliena.This

modem

Kalyana (19

14'

N., 73

on the eastern shore of the harbor of Bombay. It was the principal port of the Andhra kingdom during the periods when it held According to Lassen, the name was also applied to the west coast. the strip of coast on either side of the harbor, roughly between 18
and 20 N.

Cosmas

Indicopleustes, in the 6th century A. D., found

it

one

of the five chief marts of

Western

India, the capital of the powerful

Chalukya kings, with a trade


clothing.

in brass,

blackwood

logs,

and

articles of

See Imp. Gaz.,

XIV,

322.
of

The word
similar
52.

kalyana means "blest," and is at least reminiscent names on the western shores of the Erythraean Sea.
;

added

The elder Saraganus Sandares; to which should be Nambanus of 41. (The text has Sandanes and Mambarus.
)

Here

are three important references, both for fixing the date of the

Periplus and for throwing light

The
tury B.

great empire of the

on a dark period of Indian history. Mauryas went to pieces in the 2d cenits

C,

leaving as

its

strongest successor

Dravidian element,
valleys of

the
the

Andhra country

in the

Deccan, which comprised the


the

Godaverl and Kistna;

Telugu peoples, roughly

the

modern

Nizam's dominions.

In the south the other Dravidian kingdoms, the

Tamil-speaking Cholas, Pandyas and Cheras, retained their independNorth of the Vindhyas there was anarchy. The ence as before.

had resumed their local governments, while the West and Northwest had succumbed to the Asiatic invaders, the Saka and Kushan tribes. The western coast below the Vindhyas was a bone
Bengal
states

of contention between the Saka


archs,

commanders and
at least

the

Andhra mon-

who

maintained the feud for

century, with varying

success.

The

provinces of

Surashtra, Gujarat and

Malwa,

after years of

warfare, were incorporated under a stable government by the Western Kshatrapa, or Saka Satraps, who subsequently defeated the Andhras and annexed the Konkan coast. This is thought to have been the
origin of the

Saka

era, dating

half-century later

from 78 A. D. still largely used in India. Andhras under Vilivayakura II, or Gautamlthe
,

putra Satakarni,

reconquered the coast-land, only to lose

it

to the

198

the Saka era of 78 A. D. monarch named Nahapana, by whom the line of the Satraps was established. This is thought to be the same as the Mamharus of 41, whose name should be written Nambanus.
for

Satraps after another generation.

From

46

years,

there are coins of a

The Andhra
ing them.

kings are enumerated in the Puranas, which, to-

gether with the coinage, afford almost the only information concern-

dynastic
is

name, borne by many of these monarchs, was


reigned about 44-69 A. D.);
w)\i\& Sandancs

Satakarni, and this

supposed to be the Saraganus of 52 (probably

Arishta Satakarni,
is

who

probably the same as Sundara Satakarni, whose short reign of a

year, succeeded

by another of

six

months,

is

affirmed by at least

two

of the Puranas.
to

The
fixed

reign of this Sundara (the text should be altered


at

Sandares)

is

by Vincent Smith and others


it

83-4 A. D.
itself

From
follow.

these facts

has been supposed that the Periplus


this

must

be dated in the same year, 83-4 A. D., but


Its

does not necessarily

date

is

considered in the introduction, pp. 7-15, and

upon ample evidence 60 A. D.


If

Roman,
41
is

Arabian,

and Parthian

is

fixed at

Nambanus
that he
is

of

the

same

as

Nahapana,

it

must yet be

shown

the same as the great satrap

whose

victories over the

Andhras and conquest of the Konkan are

cited as

one of the numer-

ous events thought to be commemorated by the Saka era of 78 A. D.

At

one predecessor, formerly thought to be identical with that now been distinguished under the name of Bhumaka, and the materials are not yet at hand for affirming, or denying, the
least

Nahapana, has

possibility of others, in the

so-called Kshaharata line

which preceded

the achievements of the Satraps.

And
is

if

Sandares of 52

is

the same as Sundara Satakarni, there

a great difficulty in the

way
its

of identifying the Periplus with the single

year of his reign.

Calliena, his

own

port,

he must be supposed

to

have closed,

in order that

foreign trade might be diverted to Bary-

enemy! He, the Andhra was still "in his possession;" not, be it observed, in that of the Satraps. The Konkans were still nominally, though evidently not effectually, an Andhra demonarch, must have done
this,

gaza, the port of his Saka rival and bitter

for the port

pendency.

The

inference

is

unmistakable that the Periplus


recognition of the Kshatrapa
is,

is

describing a
its

state of things prior to the

power and

annexation of the Andhra coast; prior, that

to the Saka era of 78


port,
still

A. D.
the

It

describes clearly

enough an Andhra

subject to

Andhra kingdom, but

harried and

dominated,

"obstructed" as

"

199

the text has

it,

by the powerful navy of

its

northern enemy, while that

enemy was
What,

still

struggling to obtain possession.


of

then,

Nahapana and Sundara?

The

doubt as to the
as to the latter,

indivisibility of

the former has already been suggested;

own reign and those of his successor and his immediate predecessors, and the length of that of his predecessor
the shortness of his

Arishta (25 years) indicate for


the royal heirs;
at least in part,

him a long period of waiting as one of which, according to the Andhra custom, was spent,
Here he

as viceroy at the western capital, Paithan.

exercised
to

all

the functions of a monarch, and his would be the


all

name
it

appear on

proclamations issued on the western coast.

"Since

came

into the possession of Sandares" indicates, therefore, a date toas as

ward the end of the reign of Arishta Satakarni, who is referred to the elder Saraganus," and who, it maybe inferred, had been,
viceroy at Paithan, a

more powerful

ruler than the youthful Sandares,

now

struggling against greater odds to maintain the

Andhra power on

that coast.

Between Arishta and Sundara the Vayu and Matsya Puranas are Hala (with whose name the adoption of Sanscrit as the literary language of Northern India is so
agreed in placing three other monarchs:
closely

associated),

Purindrasena, 5 years.

who reigned 5 years; Mandalaka, 5 years; Then came Sundara, 1 year, and Chakora,

6 months, followed by Siva Satakarni,


reigns,

These live short 28 years. coming between two long ones, seem to suggest a quick succession of weak and impractical sons of a strong monarch, followed
in their turn

by another long reign of sterner purpose

a succession of

events like the reigns of the sons of

Henry

II.

and Catherine de
Barygaza he

Medici

in France.

This would account

for the condition described to


at
:

the author of the Periplus by some acquaintance the old king Saraganus Paethana, he

When
at

(now

ruling at

Dhanyakataka) was viceroy

made

Calliena an active port;


at

now that
artistic
it

is

on the throne

and

his sons

have tried their hand

the viceroy's post

other, in the intervals of their literary


finally

and

pursuits,

one after the and it has

been turned over


Saka general

to

young Sandares,

has been an easy matter


its

for our

to send

down

his ships

and stop

trade."

Had
said,

the story been written in 83 A. D., the informant

would have

"our
closed

satrap has
its

annexed

that

country to his

own

dominions, and

ports.

The same
known
to

explanation

is

perfectly feasible for


in

Nahapana,

who

is

was satrap at Ujjeni. But as the great satrap lived until the Saka year 46, or 124 A. D., itismoreprobable thatoneof thatnameinoO A. D. was his predecessor.
have been governor
Surashtra before he

200

There
alters

are

other explanations of these three names.

Fabricius

both

Mambarus

and Sandanes to Sanabares, supposing him to

have been an Indo-Parthian successor to Gondophares; McCrindle thinks Sandanes was a tribe-name, and refers to the Ariake Sadinon of
Ptolemy.

The

But neither supposition is convincing. explanation based on the Puranic lists and the coinage has
is

inherent probability, and

confirmed by the description of


if

political

conditions in 52 of the Periplus,


the

that be applied to the reign of

Andhra king Arishta Satakarni

(44-69 A.

D.

),

through the

medium

of his heir-presumptive Sundara, ruling as viceroy at Paithan,

and displaying in the Konkans the only show of Andhra authority which would have come under the observation of a Graeco-Roman merchant and shipmaster. (See A.-M. Boyer, Nahapdna et F ere Qaka, \n Journal A siatique, July-Aug. 1897, pp. 120-151; an excellent paper, in which the only
,

matter for criticism should be thought


sinian

is

that the inscriptions of the Nabataean Malichas

less

trustworthy than the chronology of the Abys-

Chronicles,

compiled

much

later.

C.

R. Wilson, Proposed

identification

the

of the name of an Andhra king Asiatic Society of Bengal, June, 1904 ;


Coinage,

in the Periplus, in

Journal of with which the foregoing

suggestions are in accord, except as to their sequel.

Vincent Smith,
The Western

Andhra History and

in Xeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenl'dnd-

ischen Gesellschaft, Sept.,

1903.

Pandit Bhagvanlallndraji,
Society,

Kshatrapas, in Journal of the Royal Asiatic

1890, pp. 639-662.

EJ.

J.

R. A.

Rapson, The Coinage of the Mahdkshatrapas and Kshatrapas, same author, Ancient India, in NuS., 1899, 357-404;
J.

mismatic Supplement,
in

A.

S.

B., 1904, p. 227.

Col.

J.

Biddulph,

a note to Mr. Rapson' s


is

first article,

observes that our knowledge of

the Satraps

derived solely from their coins, of


s

which the former


that of the

are

undated
his

that each ruler puts his father'

name on
and

his coins as well as

own;

that the dates overlap frequently;

two

titles,

Mahakshatrapa indicates the monarch, and Kshatrapa the heir-apparVincent Smith, Catalogue of the Coins in the Indian Museum, ent.

Calcutta;
p.

also
J.

190.

E.

Chronology of Andhra Dynasty, in his Early History, Rapson, Coins of the Andhra Dynasty, the IVestem
,

Kshatrapas, etc.

British

Museum.

See also Cunningham, Book of


to

Indian Eras;
the

Duff, The Chronology of India from the Earliest Times

Beginning of the 16th Century.)


53.

Semylla.

This

is

the Symulla of Ptolemy, the Chimolo of

Yuan Chwang,

the Saimur of the early

Mohammedan

travellers;

the

modern Chaul (18 34' N., 72 55' E.), about 25 miles south of Bombay. The ancient Hindu name was Champavati, and was con-

201

nected with the reign


Ancient India, 161;
53.

of

Krishna in Gujarat.
Miiller,
I,

(S^e McCrindle,

Imp, Ga%., X, 184;

295.)

Mandagora.This is probably the modern


3'

Banket

(
'^

17 59'
closed

N., 73

E.)
S.

at the

mouth

of the Savitri Riyv^It is


it

rlT^^po'^

during the

W.

monsoon.

now

a fisliing village of

no im-

portance, but in former times

was a great center

for the trade in

teak and blackwood, and for shipbuilding.


Miiller,
I,

(See Imp. Gaz.., VI, 383;


,

295.)

The name
this

suggests the Sanscrit 4^<?;za'ara-^zV/.


ar,^

(In

Ptolemy the positions of


53.

and the following port


is

reversed.

Palaepatmae.
73 10' E.
of Siva.
),

This

probably the modern Dabhol (17


the Sanscrit Dahhileshwar,

35'

N.

the

name being from


Konkan.

name
it

It is

of considerable historical importance, being the

principal port of the South


turies
ports.

From

the 14th to the 16th cen-

had an extensive trade with the Persian Gulf and Red Sea

Here

is

the underground temple of Chandikabai, dating from

the 6th century.

Ump. Gaz., XI, 100.)


Palapatmce
is

The name
suffix

probably the Sanscrit Pdripatana

the

meaning town," while Pari was a general term applying to the Western Vindhya mountains and the coast south of them. (Nundo Lai Dey, Geographical Dictionary of Ancient and Mediceval India, q. 68.)
This is placed by Miiller and McCrindle at 53. Melizigara. modern Jaigarh (17 17' N., 72 13' E.), formerly a port of some size, but now little more than a fishing-village. It is not impossible that it may be the modern Rajapur (16 34' N., 73 31' E. ),
the

which

lies at

the head of a tidal creek, and

is

the only port ohi this


i

Ratnagiri coast to

which Arab boats

still

trade direct, though vessels

of any size cannot approach within three miles of the old stone quay.

(See 72>. Gaz., XIII, 379;

XXI,

66.)

This
hills," a

is

the Sigerus of Pliny

the Melixegyris of JPtplemy,

The name seems

to suggest the Sanscrit, Malaya-giri,

Malaya

name which covered the southern part of the Western Ghats. The same name appears in the Male of Cosmas and our Malabar.
53.
(III,

Byzantium.
it

This

is

evidently

corruption.

Lassen

6) assumes
is

to

have been a colony of Byzantine Greeks, but

there
It
is
,

probably the modern Vizadrog (Sanscrit, Vijayadurga;

not the slightest evidence of the existence of such a colony. 16 33'

N.

73 20' E.), described as being one of the best harbors on the


{,Imp. Gaz,.,

western coast.

XXIV,
is

310;

so Vincent, Miiller

and

McCrindle.
53.

Togarum. This
)

probably the modern Devgarh (16

23'

N., 73 22' E.

described as

"a

safe

and beautiful landlocked

202

harbor, at

all

times perfectly smooth.

The

average depth of water

is

18

feet.

The
ilmp.

entrance, only 3 cables in width, lies close to the fort

point."
53.

Gaz.,Xl,nS;

SO Vincent, Miiller
text has initial
it

and McCrindle.
instead of

Aurannoboas. The
It is a

J, no

doubt a corruption. 3' N., 73 28' E. ).


iron

McCrindle places

at the

modern Malvan (16

place of considerable importance, good

ore being found in the neighborhood.


is

To

the Marathas an
is

island in the harbor


in the chief shrine.

Sivajl' s

cenotaph, and his image

worshipped
marsh,
"

(See Imp. Ga%., XVII, 96.)


salt

The name Malvan is a contraction of Maha-lavana,


and the Greek Aurannoboas
is

perhaps intended for the Sanscrit

Aranya-vaha, which would have a similar meaning.

Vengurla Rocks (15

Islands of the Sesecrienae. These are probably the 53' N. 70 27' E. ), a group of rocky islets some 3 milfs in length and 9 miles out from the modern town of Vengurla, which was a port of considerable importance during the Dutch occupation in the 17th century. (^Imp. Gaz., XXIV, 307.)
53.
,

53.

Island of the Aegidii.


20 N., 74
0'

This

is

perhaps the island of


It

Goa
is

(15

E.

),

the present Portuguese possession.

of historical importance, having

been

settled

by Aryans

at

an early

date,

and appearing

in the Puranas.

(Imp. Gaz., XII, 251; so Aluller

and McCrindle.)
identify
it

Imperial Gazetteer, following Yule, prefers to with Anjidiv (14 45' N., 74 10' E. J ; but the location is

The

we assume the order in the text to be wrong, and to refer to the grouping of this and the following island on either
less satisfactory unless

side of the
53.

Karwar

point.
is

Island of the Caenitae. This Rocks (1449'N., 74 4' E.), a cluster


facing, the roadstead of

probably the Oyster


islands

of

west

of,

and

Karwar.
"peninsula."

53.

Chersonesus. Greek,

This answers

for

the projecting point at the

from early times a trade

modern Karwar (14 49' N., 74 8' E.), center for the North Kanara, and an active

port as late as the 16th century, exporting fine muslins from Hubli

and elsewhere

in

the interior, also pepper, cardamoms, cassia, and

coarse blue dungar'i cloth.


53.

{Imp. Ga%.,

XV,

65.)
says of
this

Pirates.

Alarco

Polo

(III,

xxv),

coast,

more than a hundred corsair vessels on cruise. These pii'ates take with them their wives and children, and stay out the whole summer. Their method is to join in fleets of 20
or 30 of these pirate vessels together, and then they form
call

there go forth every year

what they

a sea cordon, that

is,

they drop off

till

there

is

an interval of 5 or 6

'

' ' t

203

miles between ship and ship, so that they cover something like a hundred miles of sea, and no merchant ship can escape them. For when

any one corsair


plunder them.
saying,
fall
!

sights a vessel a signal

is

then the whole of them make for

this,

made by fire or smoke, and and seize the merchants and


let

After they have plundered them they


get

'Go along with you and


'

more

gain,

and

that

them mayhap

go,
will

to us also

But

now

the merchants are aware of

this,

and go so

well

manned and armed, and with such

great ships, that they don'

Still mishaps do befall them at times." fear the corsairs. In this same vicinity, Yule observes, Ibn Batuta fell into the pirates' hands, and was stripped to the drawers. The northern part of Malabar, Kanara, and the Southern Konkan, were a nest of pirates from a very

ancient date until well into the 19th century,

when

their occupation

was destroyed by the

British arms.
(III,

Marco Polo
Mangalore),
the cargo.
'tis
if

says

xxiv)

of

the

kingdom

of

Ely (near

any ship enters their estuary and anchors there,

having been bound for some other port, they seize her and plunder

For they say. You were bound for somewhere else, and God has sent you hither to us, so we have right to all your goods. And they think it is no sin to act thus. And this naughty custom
prevails
all

over the provinces of India, to wit, that

if

a ship be driven
it

by

stress of
it

weather into some other port than that to which


sure to be plundered.
it

was
due

bound,

was
'

But
all

if

a ship

came bound
it

originally to the place they receive

with

honor and give

protection.

In 1673, Yule notes, Sivajl replied to the pleadings of an English

embassy, that
!

it

was

against the laws of

Conchon" (Ptolemy's
'

Pirate Coast )

"to restore any ship or goods that were driven ashore.


at Calicut.

Abd-er-Razzak notes the same practices


53.

White
1'

Island (14

N.

Island. This is probably the modern Pigeon 74 16' E.), also known as Nitran. It lies about
about 300 feet high, and
is

10 miles
It

off the coast,

visible for

25 miles.

abounds

in white coral
is

and lime.

{Imp. Gaz.,

XX,

136.)

This

probably the same as the Nitrias of Pliny (VI, 26), the

stronghold of the pirates,

who

threatened the

Roman

merchants; and

may
It

be the Nitra of Ptolemy.


53.

Naura and Tyndis, the

first

markets of Damirica.
either side of the

seems

clear that a long stretch of coast

on

modern

Goa was

given a wide berth by foreign merchant-ships because of the


of
its

piratical habits

people, and because

it

produced no cargo of

which they were

in search.

Like the following

ports,

Muziris and Nelcynda, these two have

204

been placed too


and Kanara

far

north by most of the commentators.


in the

The

infer-

ence from the few words

Periplus

is

that the South

Konkan

districts were those more particularly infested by pirates. These may be identified with the Satiya kingdom of Asoka' s inscripThe Tamil ports, strictly speaking, lay within the region where tions. the Malayalam language is now spoken, that is, within the modern
districts of

Malabar, Cochin, and Travancore.


districts

The

Tulu, Kanarese

and Telugu

seem

to be within our

author's Dachinabades

These four ports probably lay respectively which the Portuguese and Dutch found Cannanore, Calicut, Cochin and Trathe Kerala kingdom divided vancore of which the last-named, at the time of the Periplus, was held by the Pandya kingdom.
rather than his

Damirua.

within the four

districts into

The
all'

four

named

in the

Tamil states, Chola, Pandya, Kerala, and Satiya, are (Vincent Smith, Asoka, 2d Rock Edict of Asoka.

p.

Mr. Smith thinks {Early History, pp. 164, 340-1) that 115). Kerala did not extend north of the Chandragiri river (12 36' N. ). Naura being then in North Malabar, may be identified with the
52'

modern Cannanore (11

N., 75 22' E.).

The

latter place

is

known

to

have been an active port in the days of the

and has yielded one of the most important finds in coins, of the reigns of Tiberius, Claudius and Nero.
It

Roman trade, India of Roman

seems clear that the identification of this place with the modern Honavar (14 17' N., 74 27' E.), while a tempting one, owing to Honavar lies the similarity of names, is not in accord with the facts. rather within the strip of coast which was in dispute between the

Andhra and Saka


princes;

dynasties, as well as the petty

while from similarity of


well.

name

the

Maurya and Pallava modern Cannanore would


that

answer equally

The

location of Tyndis, of the


It is

Chera kingdom, depends on


(10 48'

of Muziris.

described as

a village in plain sight on the shore,


,

"

and may be identified with the modern Ponnani N. This place lying at the mouth of the river of the same name, E. ). which drains a rich section of the western mountains known as the
Anaimalai
Hills,

75 56'

would have been a natural terminus

for the pepper


district.

produced there, as well as for the beryls of the Coimbatore

This Ponnani
unlike nearly
for

river,
all

according to the Imperial Gazetteer


is

(XX,

164),

others on the west coast,

navigable for small vessels

some
E.
)

distance inland.

Dr. Burnell prefers Kadalundi near Beypore (11 11' N.,'75

49

on the north bank of the

river of the

same name, which

is

also navigable to the foot of the mountains, and carries

down

large


205

quantities of timber.

Qmp. Ga%., VIII,

17.)

But the distance of

500

stadia

between Tyndis and Muziris

indicates Ponnani.

53.

have retained.

Danurica. The That name


it,

text has Limyrike,

which previous
in

editions

does not appear


it

India,

or in other

Roman
correct

accounts of

and

is

clearly a corruption caused

by the
its

scribe's confusing the

Greek

and L.
in

The name
Ptolemy

appears in

form

in the

Xllth segment of the Peutinger Tables, almost


as Dimirike;

contemporary with the Periplus, and


there seems

and

no good reason for perpetuating the mistake. Damirica means the country of the Tamils," that is, the Southfirst

ern Dravidians as they existed in the


larly the

century, including particu-

Chera, Pandya and Chola kingdoms;

known
was

in their

own

records as Dravida-desam.
53.

Muziris.The
,

location of this port

fixed by Burnell,

Caldwell and Yule


nore (10
times.
text

at Muyiri-kotta,

w^hich as Kodungalur or Cranga-

14' N. 76 11' E. ), was an important port in mediaeval Their argument was based on the 7000 stadia named in the as the distance between Barygaza and Damirica. Vincent Smith {Early History 340-1) is confident that Maziris and

Cranganore are the same.

He

says

The Kingdom

of Satiyaputra
river has

must have adjoined Keralaputra; and since the Chandragiri


Satiyaputra

always been regarded as the northern boundary of that province, the

Kingdom

Konkans or lowlands between the Western Ghats and the sea where the Tulu language is spoken, and of which Mangalore is the The name of Kerala is still well remembered and there is center. no doubt that the Kingdom so called was equivalent to the Southern Konkans or Malabar coast. The ancient capital was Vanji, also named Karuvur, the Karoura of Ptolemy, situated close to Cranganore; which represents Muziris, the port for the pepper trade, menthe

should probably be identified with that portion of

tioned by Pliny and the author of the Periplus at the end of the

first

century A.

D."

Vanji, accordingto the /OT/J^r/WGazrftor

must be placed
E.
),

at the modern where the Periyar River empties


is still

21), Parur or Paravur (10 10' N., 76 15'


into the

(XX,

Cochin back-waters.
it

Parur

a busy trading center, as well as the headquarters of the

district.

While now in the district of Travancore,

formerly belonged

to
all

Cochin,
the

that

is,

to

Chera or Kerala.
;

It is said to

comprise almost

Jews
first

in

Travancore

and the settlement may date from the end


is

of the

century,

when

it

known

that there

was a considerable

Jewish migration to Southern India.


Muziris and Nelcynda placed them and Nileshwar (12 52' N., 74 51' E., and 12 16' Mangalore
earlier identification of

The

at

206

207

This conflicts with nearly all that we know of the N., 75 8' E. j. geography and politics of the Tamil kingdoms, and is entirely impossible forNelcynda. This port, according to the Feriplus, belonged to the Pandyan kingdom, which certainly never extended so far north.

E ofG
.12 Miles.

7/6-50

The Cochin

Backwaters: from Rectus, Asia,

\'ol.

III.

'

208

The
and
sea,
sea,

text tells us that

Muziris was distant from Tyndis,

'

'by river

500 stadia," and Nelcynda from Muziris,


stadia.

by river and

500

"

This can hardly refer

to anything but the

Cochin

backwaters.
53.

Nelcynda.

This

port

is

called the

city

of

the Neacyndi,

by Pliny;

Melkynda by Ptolemy; Nincylda by the Peutinger Tables, Cyncilim by Friar Odoric, and Nilcinna by the Geographer of Ravenna. It was probably in the backwaters, or thoroughfares, behind Cochin
(9 58' N., 76 14' E.
j,

the exact location being uncertain because

of the frequent shifting of river-beds, sand-bars and islands; but cer9 36' N., 76 31' E. ), which tainly very near the modern Kottayam
(

is

exactly 500 stadia,

or 50

miles,

from Cranganore.
is
is

Kottayam,

according to the Imperial Gazetteer (.XVI, 1),


Syrian Christian community,

a center of the

whose church here


and
is still

one of the most

ancient on the west coast.


routes from the Pirmed

It is also

the natural terminus for the tradea trade-center of considerable

hills,

importance.

The name
Nilakantha,
fers

Xelcynda,

Fabricius thinks (p. 160),


Siva.

is

the Sanscrit

'blue

neck," a name of

Melkynda, which he translates

Western Kingdom.

Caldwell, however, pre"


is

A
469).

good account of the topography of the coasts of India


J.

given by

A. Bains (AliU's International Geography, 1907


coast-line
is

ed.

p.

'The

singularly devoid of indentations, except at

the mouths of the larger rivers and toward the northern portion of the

west coast.
a
little

The

only harbors except for light-draft vessels, are found

way up

the deltas of the chief rivers, or where, as at

Bombay,

a group of islands affords adequate shelter from the open sea.


eastern coast, in particular,
is

The

provided with

little

more than a few

imperfectly protected roadsteads.


coast
is

The

southern portion of the west

distinguished by a series of back-waters, or lagoons, parallel

with the coast, and affording a safe and convenient waterway for small
vessels

when

the season of high winds

makes the ocean unnavigable.

'

54.

Cerobothra.

This

is

a transliteration of

Ch'eraputra or

Tamil kingdom, which in its greatest extension reached from Cape Comorin to Karwar Point, nearly 7 degrees of latitude. At the time of the Periplus the northern part had separated, while the southern end had passed to its neighbor, the Pandyan kingdom; leaving Kerala nearly coterminous with modern Malabar and Cochin districts. The capital was at Karur, or Parur, opposite
Kcralaputra, the western

Muziris or Cranganore.

Cheraputra
brothers

is

son of

Chera^"

one of the legendarj' three


in

who founded

the Dravidian

power

South India.

209

Pliny's use of the


applies to the country,

word

as the

name

of a king

was

incorrect;

it

and is also a dynastic name or royal title. The Chera backwaters seem to be referred to by Pliny in a debated passage on the trade of Ceylon with the "Seres" (VI, 22):
their accounts agreed with the reports of our
tell

own

merchants,

who

us that the wares which they deposit near those brought for sale
a river in their country, are

by the Seres, on the further bank of

removed by them if they are satisfied with the exchange." Here Seres must be read as meaning Chera, the Ch and 5 being interchanged, just as the neighboring Chola kingdom is always Soli in
Sinhalese records.
It
is

quite possible that

Chera

is

also

meant by
this

Pliny's Seres of

XXXIV,

41,

who

sent the best iron to

Rome;

being a product

of Haidarabad, and referred to in 6 of the Periplus, as shipped

from

India to Adulis.

The
to

See also under Sarapis, p. 146. silent trade, " noted by Fa-Hien in Ceylon

itself, is

referred

under 65, and again by Pliny (VI, 20), Pausanias and Cosmas Indicopleustes (book II)-

(III, xii, 3),

For further references to Chera and the other Tamil


History,

states

growing

out of the original establishment at Korkai, see Vincent Smith, Early

Chap,

xvi;

Caldwell,
of
J. B.

Grammar of the Dravidian

Languages,

introduction;
raphy;

also History

Tinnevelly;

Shanguni Menon, LandofthePermauls;


to

Elliot, Coins

of Southern India
B.

down
K.

the 6th century

Francis Day, The Walter Dakhan Foulkes, The of 1-10; Indian Antiquary, 1879, C,
History of Travancore;

Burnell, South Indian Palceog-

Pandian, Indian Ullage Folk;


Civilization

Sir

the

in

pp.

P.

Padmanabha Menon, Notes


Society,
iii,

on /Malabar

and

its

place-names, in

Indian Antiquary, Aug., 1902;

Royal Asiatic
viii,

199;

1;

Wilson, The Pandyas, Dawson, The


and
Sketch

in

Journalofthe

Ch'eras, in J.

R. A.

S.,

Sewell,

Lists

Southern India, in

of the Dynasties of F. Kielthe Archaeological Survey, Madras, 1884; of


Inscriptions,

horn, Dates of Chola and Pandya Kings, in Epigraphia Indica, Vols. Imperial Gaxetteer, Vol. II, Chaps, i, iii, iv, v, IV-VIII, inclusive;
ix;

Biihler,

Indische Paltsographie,

and generally,

his

Grundriss der

Indo-Arischcn Philologie

und Altertumskunde;

Fleet,

The Dynasties of the

Kanarese Districts, and Bhandarkar, Early History of the Dekkan, in Loventhal, Coins of Tinnevelly Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency I, ii;
,

Hultzsch,
54.

South Indian Inscriptions.

Abounds

in ships.

In

these protected thoroughfares

flourished a sea-trade, largely in native Dravidian craft,

which was of

early creation and of great influence in the interchange of ideas as well as commodities, not only in South India, but in the Persian Gulf,

210

Merchant-ship of the 2d century, from a relief on a sarcophagus in the Lateran Museum.

cipally maintained.

and the coasts of Arabia and Africa, with which the trade was prinBoth Buddhist and Brahman writings testify to its
existence in the 5th century B. C.
;

but their evidence

is late,

as they

are the product of the


in

Northern Aryans, an inland race,


activities

who

appeared
Better

South India after


is

its

had been widely developed.

evidence

given by the Dravidian alphabet, supposed to be from a

Semitic (Himyaritic, or Phoenician) original, and to date from about

1000 B. C.

whereas the Aryan, or KharosthI, alphabet was formu-

lated after the conquest, about

500 B. C.
,

(R. Sewell, Hindu Period

of Southern India,

in Imp.

Gaz.

II,

322.

"Sent from Arabia and by the Greeks" were the ships found by
our author in the Chera baci<waters.
error
is

The

text has Ariaca, but the

obvious, as the articles of trade

were from

foreign,

and not

Hindu, sources.
kingdoms,
India,

No

Aryan language had penetrated

into these

which lived their own life, completely secluded from and in touch with the outer world only through the Northern medium of maritime commerce, which had been conducted with
from very
early times.

safety

ber\ls of Coimbatore,

The pearls of the Gulf of Manar, the and the pepper of Malabar were not to be had
C."
(Vincent Smith, EarhHistory, 334.)

elsewhere, and were largely sought by foreign merchants, as early as


the 7th or 8th century B.

211

Benjamin of Tudela,
account of trade on

in the

12th century, gives the following

this coast:

Thence
sons of Cush,

is

seven days' journey to

Khulam (Quilon) which


These

is

the beginning of the country of the Sun-worshippers.

are the

read the stars and are all black in color. They commerce. When merchants come to them from distant lands and enter the harbour, three of the King's secretaries go down to them and record their names and then bring them before the King, whereupon the King makes himself responsible even for their property which they leave in the open unprotected. There is an official who sits in his office, and the owner of any lost property has only to describe it to him when he hands it back. This custom preare honest in
vails

who

in all that country.

during the summer, no

From Passover to New Year, that is all man can go out of his house because of the
is

sun, for the heat in that country

intense,

of the day onward,

everybody remains

in his
all

and from the third hour house until evening.


all

Then

they go forth and kindle lights in

the market places and

the streets, and then do their

work and

business at night-time.

For

they have to turn night into day in consequence of the great heat of
the sun.
fields,

Pepper

is

found there.
of the city
is

They
as

plant the trees thereof in the

and each

man

knows

his

are small collected so that


it

and the pepper


it

as

white

snow.

own plantation. The trees And when they have


'

they place

it

in sauce-pans

and pour boiling water over


it

it,

may become
and

strong.
it

Then

they take

out of the water and ginger and

dry

it

in the sun,

turns black.

Cinnamon and

many

other kinds of spices are found in this land."


54.

Pandian kingdom.

This was Pandya,


Tamil

the southernmost,

and

traditionally the earliest, of the three


districts

states.

Roughly

it

coincided with the modern


the time of the Periplus
it

of Tinnevelly

and Madura;

at

extended beyound the Ghats and included

Korkai (the Colchi of 59, which see) had been removed to Madura (9 55' N., 78 7' E.). Here too, as in the Chera kingdom, the name is used for the country and as a dynastic title, not as the name of any king.
Travancore.
capital, originally at

The

55.

Bacafe.

(Ptolemy
)

gives

Barkare, which

is

perhaps the

preferable reading.
at

This

place, distant 120 stadia

from Nelcynda,

an

inlet of the sea,


)

can be no other than Porakad (9 22' N., 76


is

22' E.

for

which
is

it

a close transliteration;

while the distance

from Kottayam Porakad was once a notable port, but declined with the rise of AUeppey, built a few miles farther north after a canal had been cut

exactly in accord with the text.

212

throuijh

from sea

to

backwater and harbor works constructed.

(^Imp.

Gaz.,

XX,

188.)
at

The

Portuguese,
It
is

had settlements
as Porcai,

Porakad.

and subsequently the Dutch, mentioned by Varthema (1503)


as Porca.

and by Tavernier (1648)

The
sea,

remains of a
being
visible

Portuguese fort and factory are


at

now

covered by the

low water. (Ball, in his edition of Tavernier, I, 241.) Here also is the mouth of the Achenkoil river, which rises in the Ghats near the Shencottah pass, the main highway between TravanAccording
to

core and Tinnevelly.

Menon
all

{Notes on Alalabar and

its

place-names), the

settlements

were nearly

east of the backwaters at the Christian era,

During the and the present beaches existed only as tide-shoals. middle ages there was a period of elevation, which led to the formation of new islands, while floods from the mountains changed the courses of the rivers, and the location of the inlets. At present the
tendency
being
is

toward subsidence, houses


water.

built at
,

Cochin

a century ago

now under

About 800 B. C.

according to local tradi-

tion, the sea

reached the hills. Megasthenes, in the 4th century B. C.

mentioned

as

on

the

Tropina (Tripontari) now on the mainland side of the backwaters; Ptolemy's three shore towns between Muziris and Barkare are likewise on the land side.
sea-coast" the

town

of

56.

Large

ships.

The increase
is

in the size of shipping follow-

ing the discovery of Hippalus

referred to also in 10.

Pliny speaks


213

'

of

thesame thing

in describing the trade

between Malabar and Ceylon,

"The
vessels

navigation," he says CVI, 24),

made

of rushes, rigged in the

"was fornierly confined to, manner familiar on the Nile.


prows
at either

The
there
nels,

vessels of recent times are built with

end so

that

be no need of turning around while sailing in these chanwhich are extremely narrow. The tonnage of the vessels is.

may

3,000 amphorae. "

(About 33 tons.)
'

By double prows' Pliny probably means some such build and rig as shown in the accompanying illustration, which is typical of the Indian Ocean generally. Mast and sail can be reversed at will, so
that the craft can be sailed in either direction.

56.

Pepper,

black

and white.

Piper

nigrum,

Linn.,

order

Piperaceic.

perennial climber, wild in the forests of Travancore


in the

and Malabar, and extensively cultivated from very early times,


hot,

damp

localities of (I,

Southern India.
peperi,

Lassen

278), notes that the Greek v^oxA

hztin piper,

simply repeats the Indian

name pippali.
pepper
is

The

antiquity of the trade in

not so easily
it

shown
it

as

that in other spices.


inscriptions.

There

is

no

certain

mention of
it

in the

Egyptian
a

In the

Hebrew

scriptures

is

unknown, nor has


of

place arnong the

mint and anise and


bit

cummin"
it.

the Gospels.

Herodotus has no
in the 4th

of folklore to attach to
,

Theophrastus, indeed,

and Dioscorides between black, white and long pepper. The Sanscrit writers describe it as a medicine for fever and dyspepsia, used together three pungent subwith ginger and long pepper; these were their
century B. C.
it

knows

as

a medicine,

distinguishes

stances. "

{Mahavagga, VI,

19,

1;

see

also

I-tsing,

Record

of

Buddhist Praciias
edition, p. 135.)

[7th century A.

The

D.J, chap, xxviii; Takakusu's Romans had it after their conquests in Asia
at

Minor, Syria and Egypt, and


for
it.

once provided the


through the

greatest

market
of

Egypt knew

it,

probably,

sea-trade

the

Ptolemies;
Gulf.

Syria through the caravan-trade to

Tyre from

the Persian

There is some reason for supposing that pepper was the more especially in demand in Babylonia and the Persian Gulf trade generally, just as cinnamon was that more especially reserved for Egypt; and that the most active demand for it came with the
spice

extension

of

the

Persian

empire under Darius.

The

trade

was

by sea and not overland;. Herodotus knows the Dravidians (III, 100) a complexion closely resembling the Aethiopians,' only as having
far from the Persians, toward the south, It may also be surmised that a steady and never subject to Darius." demand for pepper existed in China before it arose in Rome, and

and as being "situated very

'

214

that this

v\

as

one reason

for the sailing of the junks to the

Malabar

In Marco Polo's 2d century B. C. and probably earlier. day the tonnage of the junks was calculated according to their capacity for one shipload of in baskets of pepper; and he found (II, Ixxxii)
coast in the

pepper that goes

to

Alexandria or elsewhere, destined for Christentoo, to this

dom, there come a hundred such, aye and more Zayton" (Chwan-chau, above Amoyj.

haven of

The

trade in pepper in the time of the


it

Roman Empire

brought

the merchants unheard-of profits just as

did later the

It was one of the most important articles Venetians. between India and Rome, supplying perhaps three-quarters of the total bulk of the average westbound cargo.

Genoese and of commerce

The
is

constant use of pepper in the most expensive


its

Roman

cookery

reflected by

price,

quoted by Pliny (XII, 14j as 15 denarii, or

about $2.55 per

lb.

Among
under
St.

the offerings by the emperor Constantine to the church

Silvester,

were

costly vessels

and fragrant gums and

spices,

including frankincense, nard, balsam, storax, myrrh, cinnamon, saffron

and pepper.

That
5,000
lbs.

it

continued in high esteem

is

shown by

the terms offered

by Alaric for raising the siege of


of gold, of 30,000

Rome:

the immediate payment of


silk,

lbs.

of silver, of 4,000 robes of


lbs.

of

3,000 pes. of

fine scarlet cloth,


Fall, III,

and of 3,000
271-2.)

weight of pepper."

(Gibbon, Decline and

Pliny, indeed, expresses surprise at the taste that

brought

it

into

so great favor

'

XII, 14)

It is quite surprising that

the use of pepper

has

come
use,

so

much

into fashion, seeing that in other substances


their sweetness,

which

we

it is

sometimes

and sometimes
h:;s

their appear-

ance that has attracted our notice; whereas, pepper


that can plead as a

nothing in
its

it

recommendation

to either fruit or berry,


it

only

desirable quality being a certain

pungency; and yet


India!

is

for this that


first

we
trial

import
of
it

it

all

the

way from

Who
I

was the

to

make
satis-

as an article of food.?

And who,

wonder, was the man

that

was not content

to prepare himself

by hunger only for the

fying of a greedy appetite.''

In medieval Europe the trade was highly organized, the spice

being handled especially by merchants called


prices quoted in Rogers' History of Agriculture

'pepperers;" and the

and

Prices in

England

show Cape

that in the years just prior to the Portuguese discovery of the

route, a

pound

of pepper brought

pay for a carpenter!

two shillings, being four days' Yet the people preferred it above all other

215

'

"

spices;

it

was the

first

thing asked for by "Glutton" in Piers

Plowman

(V, 310-13):

hauegodeale, gossib," quod she' "glotown, wiltow assaye ? Hastow aughte in thi purs' any bote spices?" I haue peper and piones," quod she "and a pounde of garlike, A f erthyngworth of f enel-seed for fastyngdayes.
I
'

'

Friar Odoric

(Chap,

iii)

describes the pepper production of

Minibar"
are

as follows:

the

wood

in

which

it

grows containeth

in

circuit eighteen days' journey.

And

in the said

wood

or forest there

two

cities,

ably Nelcynda).

one called Flandrina, and the other Cyncilim" (prob"In the aforesaid wood pepper is had after this
it

manner:
pepper

first

groweth

in leaves

like

unto pot-herbs, which they


they

plant near unto great trees as


in clusters, as

we

do our vines, and they bring forth


ripe,

our vines do yield grapes, but being

are of a green color,

the grains are laid in

and are gathered as we gather grapes, and then the sun to be dried, and being dried are put into
is

At the south Polumbrum, which aboundeth (The proper form would be Polumbum, the Latinized version of Polum or Kolum, the modern Quilon. P and K are interchanged here as in the case of Karur, the modern
earthen vessels;

and thus

pepper made and kept.


city of

end of the said forests stands the with merchandise of all kinds."

Parur.

Tavernier found pepper sold principally at Tuticorin and Calicut. The Some, however, came from Rajapur on the Ratnagiri coast. Dutch," he says (II, xii. Ball's ed. ), "who purchase it from the Malaharis do not pay in cash for it, but exchange for it many kinds of merchandise, as cotton, opium, vermilion, and quicksilver, and it is 500 livres of it brings this pepper which is exported to Europe.
. .

only 38

reals,

but on the merchandise which they give in exchange

they gain 100 per cent.

One

can get

it
it

for the equivalent in


in that

of 28 or 30 reals cash, but to purchase

money way would be much

more

costly than the

Dutch method."
(I, xvi) a large

He

mentions also

storehouse kept by the Portu"

guese at Cochin, called the "Pepper House. Flilckiger and Hanbury, See also Watt, 896-901;

Phamiaco-

graphia, p. 579;
dis,

Encyclopaedia Britannica, article

"Pepper;"

Indian Trees;

Bran-

Vignoli, Liber Pontificalis,

Rome, 1724-55.

Odoric

also describes a propitiation of the serpents guarding the

pepper, similar to those of the frankincense and diamond; the story Mandeville" (Chap, xviii) "In is better in the version of "Sir John
:

that country be

many manner

of serpents and of other vermin for the

great heat of the country and of the pepper.

And some men

say.

216
that to

when they will gather the pepper, they make fire, to burn about make the serpents and the cockodrills to flee. But save their grace
all

of

that say so.

For

if

they burnt about the trees that bear, the

it would dry up all the virtue, as of any and then they did themselves much harm, and they But thus they do: they anoint their should never quench the fire. hands and their feet with a juice made of snails and of other things made therefor, of the which the serpents and the venomous beasts

pepper should be burnt, and


other thing;

hate and dread the savour;

and that maketh them


it

flee

before them,

because of the smell, and then they gather

surely enough.

This

belief in the guarding of treasure, or of wealth-producing

trees, or the habitation thereof,

by

spirits in

the form of serpents, has

already been noted as attaching to frankincense

appear likewise with the diamond ( 56).


stances
to

The

( 29), and will supposed necessity

of appeasing or else expelling the serpents by the use pf other sub-

was held strongly


it

in

Rome

itself.

Pliny ascribes this


'

power

galbanum, "a kind of giant fennel" (XII, 56).


state

If ignited in a
its

pure

has the property of driving

away

serpents by
it,

smoke."
oil

And
III,

again

(XXIV,
is

13), "the very touch of

mingled with
\'irgil

and

spondylium,

sufficient to kill a serpent."

So also

{Georgia,

415):
"Galbaneoque
agitare graves nidore chelydros."

The

frankincense gatherers depended on burning storax;

see

under 29, pp. 131-2.


56.
late this

Malabathnim.
"betel,"

Heeren, Vincent and McCrindle transand thereby accuse the Periplus of a blunder in

63 and 65, where the substance is described as coming from the Himalaya mountains. The translation rests on an assumption that
the petros of the text in 65
hetle
is

the same as the Portuguese betre or

meaning
\A
att (p.

betel.

891) says

this latter is
leaf,

rather derived

from a Alalay
if

word

vettila

or vern-ila, meaning

" and

it is

very doubtful

the

betel of

modern times entered


petros
is

into

international

commerce
/>ff/rfl,

in the

Roman period. The word


variety of

rather

from the Sanscrit

"leaf," of

the tamala tree which,

as explained

cinnamon or laurel. Cinnamomum incrs, and possibly from the Cinnamomum zeylanicum which in later times was cultivated in Ceylon and
India was also from
is

under 10, 13 and 14, is a The leaf exported from Southern

one of the sources of our cinnamon.

(See Tavernier, Traveh,


prinPliny

II, xii).

cipally

coming from the Himalaya mountains was from the Cinnamomum tamala, which was native there.
leaf

The

'

217

says that the jnalahathrum which entered so prominently into Roman perfumes should have a smell like nard, and other Roman writers seem to have confused it with the Ganges nard mentioned in 63.

(See also Lassen,

I,

279-285;

II,

555-561J
it

Horace,

(II,

vii,

89), refers to

as follows:

"Coronatus nitentes Malobathro Syrio capillos."

dients of the ointments

Malabathrum and spikenard were the two most treasured ingreand perfumes of the Roman empire.
curious trade condition
is

Rocoming from the Somali coast of Africa, while they knew the malabathrum as coming from various parts of India; and yet the malabathrum was, in at least one case, the leaf from the same tree that produced a variety of cinnamon. The Periplus in no place mentions the export of cinnamon from India, but in 56 and 63 describes the export of malabathrum. This seems to indicate a trade monopoly of very ancient date and thorough enforcement, by which the bark only went for trade purposes to the African coast, while the leaf was an open article of trade to India. Lindsay {History of Alerchant Shipping and Ancient Commerce, I, 156-7), also remarks on this striking instance of the secrecy with which the ancients conducted the more valuable portions of their trade." Herodotus, he thinks, could only have obtained his information about cinnamon from the merchants who traded along the shores of Malabar who kept the secret of its provenance as the
suggested by the fact that the

mans knew cinnamon and

cassia only as

Carthaginians kept that of British

'

tin.

Another

letter

from Mr. R. E. Drake-Brockman, dated Berbera,


(See under 13,
p. 87).

April 27, 1910, gives further confirmation of the absence of the cin-

namon

species
It is

from the Somali peninsula.

unlikely that the original inhabitants of this country


its

knew
the

anything of cinnamon until they had heard of

commercial value
to
if

from the natives of India or Arabs, who ha\e been known


coastal people

from the

earliest times.
all,

These same
is

traders,

they

penetrated into the interior at

which

extremely doubtful, would


if

have hunted for anything of any commercial value, and

cinnamon

had existed they would have continued to export it up day as they do frankincense, myrrh and gum arabic.
is

to the present

point which

worthy of notice
cinnamon.
"It

is

that the Somalis have


to

names

for

all

the last three,

whereas they have had


for

go to the Arabic language for their names


of

They know

two

varieties, koronfol

and karfa, both

of which are imported.


is

highly probable that both Strabo and Pliny were led to

218

believe that the


into the

myrrh, frankincense, cinnamon and spices pouring


of Aethiopia and upper Egypt
all

kingdom

came from
and

the

same
their

place.

Possibly traders in Aethiopia obtained a better price for


if
it

myrrh and cinnamon

they stated the

difficulties

dani;ers

they experienced collecting


or their antecedents in the
'

in the countries of the savage

Gallas

Horn

of Africa.

'There can be no doubt that the natives of these regions have


less

always been greatly feared by their


Somalis and
there can be
their antecedents
little

warlike neighbors.

The

have always been keen traders, and

doubt that
it

the practice of collecting


species here collected
its

if cinnamon ever existed in these regions, would not have been dropped unless the was of a very inferior quality and gradually lost

marketable value."

Through the courtesy of the same gentleman in gathering specimens of the various aromatic gums of Somaliland, a more positive statement may be made than was possible under 32, pp. 141-2,
concerning
the

Egyptian frankincense trade,

in

determining the

character of the trees depicted on the Punt reliefs at Deir el Bahri, a

photograph of which was reproduced on page 120.


Professor Breasted in his Ancient Records of Egypt (II, 263-5),
calls this tree

myrrh, and translates

it

as

myrrh wherever the records

refer to

it.

In the publications of the Egypt Exploration P'und {The


it

Temple of Deir-el-Bahri, III, 12),


in

'\scaAe.A frankincense, but is located

Somaliland in the neighborhood of Mosyllum, because of the sup-

posed African appearance of the Punt people


in

who

appear elsewhere

the

reliefs.

Specimens of true myrrh sent from Somaliland show clearly that no sculptor could have intended to depict by the rich foliage on the reliefs, the bare, thorny, trifoliate but almost leafless myrrh tree, nor
yet the almost equally leafless varieties of

Somaliland frankincense.
the only place producing
fertile plain
is

This
of

tree

is

clearly Boswellia Carteri, the frankincense of the rich plain


in

Dhofar

Southern Arabia.

This
and

is

frankincense where the trees can be cultivated on a


shore, in the midst of green fields
cattle.

There
is

by the no place on
s

the African coast

which meets these conditions.


not Arabs,"
/.

Naville'

objection

that the natives are

e.,

not Semitic,

really in favor

of such a belief;

they were the pre-Semitic, Cushite race whose domin-

ions centered at Dhofar,

and who are represented there by the modern


that the trees in that relief are

Gara

tribe.

There can be no question


modern Shehri
luban.

the frankincense of Dhofar, the


Periplus, the

"Sachalitic frankincense"

of

the

'

219

To

the possible objection that the Darror and Nogal valleys, in


fertile
it

the southern part of the Somali peninsula, are

and might prosaid that the

duce a better
fertility

foliage than the northern coast,

may be
is

stops far short of the east coast,


reliefs

which

absolutely desert;
sea.
'

whereas the
56.

show

a rich

and

fertile plain

bordering the

great quantity of coin.


Pliny.

The drain of specie from


is

Rome
bitterly

to

the East has already been referred to under 49, and

condemned by

"The

subject," he says (VI, 26), "is

one well worthy of our


us of less than

notice, seeing that in

no year does India drain

wares,

5S0M0,Q00 sesterces (g22,000,000) giving back her own which are sold among us at fully 100 times their first cost."
generation before the Periplus, in 22 A. D., this was

A
am

made

the subject of a letter from the emperor Tiberius to the


If

a reform

is

in truth intended,

where must
.

it
.

I to restore the simplicity of

ancient times?

Roman Senate begin.? and how How shall we


.

reform the

taste for dress

How are we to

deal with the peculiar

articles of feminine vanity, and in particular with that rage for jewels and precious trinkets, which drains the empire of its wealth, and sends, in exchange for baubles, the money of the Commonwealth to foreign (Tacitus, Annals, nations, and even to the enemies of Rome.?"
iii,

53.)

This extravagant importation of luxuries from the East without


adequate production of commodities to offer in exchange, was the

main cause of the successive depreciation and degradation of the

Roman

currency, leading finally to

its

total repudiation.

The moneTarentum

tary standard of

Rome
its

was
wars.

established

by accumulations of precious

metal resulting from


in

The
to

sack of the rich city of

272 B. C.

enabled

Rome

change her coinage from copper to

silver.

After the destruction of Carthage and Corinth in 146 B.

C,

gold coinage came into general use, and through the wars of Caesar gold

became

so plentiful that in 47 B. C.

its

ratio to silver

was

as 1 to

Under Augustus the ratio was 8.9, lower than ever before or since. Under about 1 to 9.3, the aureus being worth 25 silver denarii.
reign of Nero,
after which came the marked by every form of wastefulness and extravagance, during which the silver denarius fell from 1-84 to 1-96 pound Under of silver, an alloy of 20 per cent copper being added to it.

Claudius the sea-route to India was opened,

Trajan the alloy reached 30 per cent, and under Septimius Severus Finally, under Elagabalus, 218 A. D., t\i& denarius had 50 per cent.

become wholly copper and was Exported was tampered with.

repudiated.

Even

the golden aureus

in large quantities to

become

the basis

of exchange in India, the supply at

home was

exhausted.

Under

220

Augustus the aureus weighed 1-40 of a pound of gold, and under


Diocletian
it

weighed but 1-60.


Brooks Adams,

Under Constantine
of
Civilization

it

fell

to 1-72,

when
tines,

the coin was taken only by weight (Sabatier, Monnaies Byzani,

and Decay, 25-8). which no new wealth was produced, that led finally to the abandonment of Rome and to the transfer of the capital at the end of the 3d century to Nicomedia and
51-2;
It

Law

was

this steady loss of capital, to replace

soon afterward to Byzantium.

Coin of Nero commemorating the opening of the harbor-works

at Ostia.

In the Madras Government Museum there is nearly a complete series of the coins of the Roman Emperors during the period of active trade with India, all of them excavated in southern India. A notable fact is that there are two distinct breaks in the series which may of course be supplied by later discovery, but which seem to indi;

cate a cessation of trade due to political turmoil in

Rome. The

coins

of Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius and

Nero

are numerous.
in India.

very few

of

Vespasian and Titus anywhere


lasting until the time of

There are Those of


then there

Domitian, Nerva,
cation, so far as

Trajan and Hadrian are frequent;

comes another break


it

Commodus.

This

indi-

has any value, points again to the dating of the

Periplus during the reign of

Nero

rather than during those of Ves-

pasian and Titus.

For a
pp. 1-47.
56.

full

account of

Roman
No.
2,

coins discovered in South India,

see E. Thurston, Catalogue

Madras Government Museum,

Crude
Ceylon
crystal."

glass.

The

origin of the glass industry in India


Antiquities
,

is

uncertain.

According
in

to Mitra,

made

in

the 3d century B. C.

of Orissa, and Pliny

I,
(,

101,

it

was
66)

XXXVI,

refers to the glass of India as superior to all others, because

pounded

Mirrors, with a

foil

of lead

and

tin,

'made of were largely

used there at the time of the Periplus, and Pliny indicates

(XXXVII,


221

'

20) that "the people of India, by coloring

crystal,

have found a
' '

method of

imitating various precious stones, beryls in particular.

An

early play, the Mrichchhakatika or Little Clay Cart, gives a scene in a

court of justice to this effect (Mitra,

op.

cit.,

100;

see also A.

Ryder's translation, Cambridge, 1905):

Do

you know these ornaments?"


I

"Have
It
is

not said?

not say more; they


true;

They may be different, though like; I canmay be imitations by some skillful artist." provost, examine them; they may be different,
artists
is

though

like;

the dexterity of the

no doubt very

great,

and

they readily fabricate imitations of ornaments they have once seen, in

such a manner that the difference


56.

shall scarcely

be discernible.

'

Copper,

tin,

"India has neither brass nor lead, but exchanges precious stones and pearls for them. " The
for the coinage.

So Pliny

and lead. As at (XXXIV, 17):

Bai^gaza, intended chiefly

Indian coins were of lead, slightly alloyed with either copper or


(Sir

tin.

Walter

Elliot,

Coins of Southern India, p. 22.)


also,

Lead was used


for the

mixed with a

little tin

in thin sheets, as a foil

manufacture of mirrors.

(Mitra,

op. cit., p.

101.)

56.

Orpiment.

This

is

the yellow sulphide of arsenic, appear-

ing in the form of smooth shining scales,


article of

which have long been an


the nation of the Ori and

export from the Persian Gulf to India.

Pliny (\'I, 26) says.

Next

to these

is

then the Hyctanis


harbor
at its

(Rud Shur?)

a river of Carmania, with an excellent


at this spot the writers state

mouth, and producing gold;

that for the first time they caught sight of the

Great Bear.

The

star

Arcturus too, they

tell

us, was not to be seen here every night, and

never

when

it

was

seen,

during the whole of

it.

Up

to this

spot
to

extended the empire of the Achasmenidae, and in these districts are be found mines of copper, iron, arsenic, and red lead."

mentum making
56.
xviij,

The principal use

of orpiment

was

as a

yellow pigment

auri pig-

a durable mineral paint, as did realgar

and

lapis lazuli.

Wheat

for the sailors.

Marco

Polo also notes (III,

"No

wheat grows

in this province, but rice only."

56.

Cottonara.
identifies

Dr.

Burnell derives this from Kolatta-nadu,

which he

with North Malabar, of which Cannanore and


centers.

Tellicherry are the

Dr. Buchanan prefers Kadatta-nadu,


In mediaeval times the

South Malabar, on either side of Calicut.

Bishop Caldwell, in domain of the Rajas of Kolatndd included both. his Dravidian Grammar, derives the name from Malayalam kadatta, Meni>n {Indian Antransport or conveyance, and nddii, district.
tiquary,

Aug.

1902 J, suggests

kadal,

sea,

or kbdu,

mountain;

and

))

"

222

kodu-nadu, the hill-country back of the sea-coast, would accord with


the facts while supporting the transliteration of the text. the term does not
56.

In any case
locality.

seem

to have

been applied

to

an exact

Great quantities of fine pearls.These were from the


Gulf of Manar, mentioned in 59, and brought to be Chera ports, the meeting-point of Eastern and Western

fisheries of the

sold in the
trade. 56.

Silk cloth.

From

China,

by

way

of

Tibet and the

Ganges.
56.

See under 39, 49 and 64.

56.

See under Transparent stones. These were


Gangetic spikenard.
district, for

63.

principally the beryls


in

of the Coimbatore

which there was a constant demand


their principal foreign

Rome, and which always found


Malabar
after the
(II, xxi)

market

in the

ports.

This

localization of the

gem

trade continued until


is

Portuguese period in India; the reason


:

stated

by Tavernier

Goa was
in all

formerly the place where there was the largest trade

Asia in diamonds, rubies, sapphires, topazes, and other stones.

All the miners

and merchants went there to

sell

the best which they


full liberty to sell,

had obtained

at the

mines, because they had there


country,
if

whereas, in their

own

they showed anything to the kings


to sell at

and princes, they were compelled


to fix.

whatever price they pleased

There was also at Goa a large trade in pearls, both of those which came from the island of Bahrein in the Persian Gulf, and those fished for in the Straits of Manar on the coast of the island of Ceylon. India and Ceylon were preeminently the source of production of precious stones of all kinds, which were exported to every part of the
civilized world.
1.

Wzxx. (p. 556) classifies the production as follows:

The

Beryl group,

from the sea-green aquamarine

to

the

2. 3.

(The beryllium of Pliny, XXXVII, 20. Diamond. (The adamas of Pliny, XXXVII, 15.
white.
Pearl.

4.
5.

Ruby.

(The

carbunculus of Pliny,

XXXVII,

25.

Sapphire, occurring in

numerous colors, various blues, violet, yellow, green and white. Produced mainly on the Southern
Malabar
in
hills,

now

rarely

found

in India but

more

frequently

Ceylon.

6.

Spinel.
culus.
)

(The hyacinthm (Included among the


Watt doubts
its

of Pliny,
Ig^

XXXVII,

41.)

varieties of Pliny's carbun-

7.

Topay,.

production

in

India at any place,


it

and the Periplus shows on the contrary that

uas imported

223

from the Red


42.)
8.

Sea.

(The

chnsolithos of Pliny,

XXXVII,
India but
callaina of

Turquoise.

product of Persia, not occurring 33.)


in

in

reaching the northwestern ports of trade.


Pliny,
9.

(The

XXXVII,

Garnet.

Common

tana being the best.

many parts of India; those of Rajpu(One of the 12 varieties, perhaps the


)

alabandk, of Pliny'
10.

carbunculus.

Jade and Jadeite;


substituted.

found mainly

in

Turkestan but

also in
is

upper Burma, while a serpentine from Afghanistan


W^hile not produced in India, these
their

often
find

all
is

way

to Indian markets.

The
also

leading market

China.

11.

Lapis Lazuli,

or ultramarine;
all

from

Persia.

Largely
in India,

used for decoration of

kinds and in

demand

Egypt and the Mediterranean world from the

earliest times.

(The
12.
a.

sapphiros of Pliny,

XXXVII,

39.

Quartzose, including

Rock

crystals,

white and colored, which the

Romans do
9-10.
j>

not seem to have distinguished from more precious


stones.
b.

{j:\\& crystal oi Pliny,

XXXVII,

Agate, carnelian, bloodstone, chrysoprase, jasper, chal-

cedony, cat's eye, onyx, opal,

etc.

(^Achates,

murrhine;
sar-

sarda; heliotropium ; chrysoprasus ;


donyx;
13.
astrobolos;

iaspis, carchedonia;

onyx;

o^a/ (Pliny,

XXXVII.)

Tourmalines, varying from black through red, dark blue, olive


green,
India.

and white, the red

varieties

being commonest in
29.
)

(The
II.

lychnis of Pliny,

XXXVII,

For further discussion of the deposits and


229-43; Tavernier,

trade, see Lassen,

I,

"Beryls," says Pliny

(XXXVII,

20),

'are

produced

in India,
all

and are rarely to be found elsewhere.


uniformity of the surface,
angles.
If
is

The

lapidaries cut
is

beryls
dull

of a hexagonal form, because the color, which

deadened by a

heightened by the reflection from the


bril-

they are cut in any other way, these stones have no

liancy whatever.

"

(The

crystals are naturally hexahedral.) in color

The

most esteemed beryls are those which


of the sea.
. .

resemble the pure green

The

people of India are marvelously fond of beryls

of an elongated form, and say that these are the only precious stones

they prefer wearing without the addition of gold." In the Mrkhchhakatika, an early Sanscrit play, there
is

a scene

which includes
examining

row

of jewelers'

shops,

where

skillful artists are

pearls, topazes, sapphires, beryls,

rubies, lapis lazuli, coral

224

and other jewels;

some

set rubies in gold;

some work with gold

or-

naments on colored thread, some string pearls, some grind the (Mitra, op. lazuli, some pierce shells, and some cut coral."
p.
11)0..)

lapis
cit.,

5b.

Diamonds.

The

text

is

adamas.

notably Dana, have doubted whether the

Some commentators, Romans ever knew the true


probably

diamond.

There can be
15)

no

doubt that Pliny in his description

(XXXVII,

includes under adamas other substances,

quanz, iron ore, emery, etc., but he also says that the
the greatest value, not only

diamond possessed

among the precious stones, but of all human Watt says (p. 556), India was long the only possessions; and as source of diamonds known to European nations.
Garcia de

Orta (1563), mentions various Eastern diamond

mines, such as those of "Bisnager" (Vijayanagar) and the

Decam"
full

(Deccan).
particulars

Ball, in his translation of

Tavernier's Travels, gives

diamonds (II, 450-461). Tavernier was a diamond merchant and the first European (1676) to examine critically the diamonds and court jewels of India.
of
all

the Indian sources of

The
(1
)

principal districts were,

Southern

Group:

districts

of

Kadapa,

Bellary,

Karnul,

Kistna, Godaveri, (Golconda, etc.);

'2'

Middle Group:

Mahanadl
)

valley,

districts

of Sambalpur,

(^3)

Chanda; Northern Group: still worked


'

Vindhyan

conglomerates

near Panna

Pliny

(XXXVII,
it

15j describes the Indian adamas as


transparency and

'found,

not in a stratum of gold, but in a substance of a kindred nature to


crystal
;

which
is

closely resembles in

its

its

highly

polished hexangular and hexahedral forms."

(The

true

form of the

diamond
of,

octahedral.)

In shape

it

is

turbinated, running to a

point at either extremity, and closely- resembling, marvelous to think

a hazel-nut.

two cones united "

at the base.

In

size, too,

it is

as large even as

The Romans seem


cutting.
sion,

to

have had no knowledge of diamond-

its hardness is beyond all expressame time it quite sets fire at defiance; owing to which indomitable powers it has received the name which it derives from the Greek." to subdue.") (a privative, and damao,

Pliny goes
at the

on

to say that

while

After his description of the hardness of the diamond, Pliny observes,


this

indomitable power, which sets


fire,

at

naught the two most


is

violent agents in nature,

namely, and iron,

made

to yield before

225

the blood of a he-goat.

The

blood,

however, must be fresh and


"
it.

warm;

the stone, too, must be well steeped in

Ball (Tavernier, Travels, II, 460-1), quotes a story from Nicol Conti (15th century) about Indian diamonds obtainable only by fling-

ing pieces of meat on the mountain,' where the diamonds could not be collected owing to the number of serpents. The pieces of meat with diamonds sticking to them were then carried to their nests by
'

from whence they were recovered by diamond seekers. This myth is founded on the very common practice in India on the opening of a mine, to offer up cattle to propitiate the evil spirits
birds of prey,
.
.

who
myth.

are supposed to guard treasures

these being represented by the

At such sacrifices birds can;" which is the foundation


Here we have
(56).

of prey assemble to pick up wjiat they


for the remainder of the story.

a striking similarity to the beliefs connected with

the gathering of frankincense, as outlined under 29, and pepper

The

Thousand Nights and One Night gives substantially the same


Sinbad the Sailor, 2d voyage), while sufficiently iden-

story (dxliv-v;

tifying the stone

Walking along
celain

the valley

found that

its soil

was of diamond,

the stone wherewith they pierce jewels and precious stones and por-

and (myx, for that


save by

it

is

a hard dense stone,

whereon neither

iron nor steel hath effect, neither can

we

cut off aught therefrom nor

break

it,

means of the leadstone."


(III, xix) records
in those

Marco Polo
Moreover

more

definitely this ancient belief:


rife to a

mountains great serpents are

marthat

velous degree, besides other vermin, and this owing to the great heat.

The

serpents are also the most

venomous

in existence,

insomuch

any one going

to that region runs fearful peril;

for

many have been

destroyed by these evil reptiles.

Now among
valleys, to the

these mountains there are certain great and deep


is

bottom of which there


can
get,

no

access.

Wherefore the
pieces of flesh,
valley.

men who go

in

search of the diamonds take with

them

as lean as they

and these they

cast into the

bottom of a

Now
down
as

there are numbers of white eagles that haunt those mountains

and feed upon the serpents.


they pounce upon
to
it

When
it.

the eagles see the meat thrown


it

and carry

up

to

some rocky

hill-top

where they begin


ing to drive

rend

But there are

men on

the watch, and

soon as they see that the eagles have

settled they raise a loud shout-

them away.

And when

the eagles are thus frightened

away the men recover the pieces of meat, and find them full of diamonds which have stuck to the meat down' in the bottom. For the

226

abundance of diamonds down there


ishing, but to

in the

depth of the valley

is

aston-

nobody can get them; and if one could it would be only incontinently devoured by the serpents which are so rife there." be

The
life

part played by the eagles


profit of

is

that of other sacred birds, for the

defence and

man.

Compare

the bird Jatayu,

who

gave his

in defence of Sita against the


ibis at

Raksha Ravana,

in the

Ramayana

the

Buto

(p. 132), and the eagles XI, 755; Pliny, X, 5.j

who defended Egypt against the frankincense-serpents, who fought the dragons. (Virgil, Aeneid,

mond
still

Connected with these beliefs was that in the efficacy of the diain warding off from the wearer all sorts of evils. Sir John Mandeville" {Travels, XVII), recounts it for his day, and it may
be observed.

He
him
that

that beareth the


it

diamond upon him,


his

it

giveth

him

hardiness
It giveth

and manhood, and

keepeth the limbs of

body whole.
if

victory of his enemies in plea

and

in

war,

his cause be rightful.


all

And
stone.

if

any cursed witch or enchanter should bewitch him,


shall turn to himself
assail the

sorrow and mischance

through virtue of

that

And no
healeth

wild beast dare


that
if is

And

it

him

lunatic,

man that beareth it on him. and them that the fiend pursueth
for to sweat.
.

or travaileth.

And
it

venom

or poison be brought in presence of the

diamond, anon
it

beginneth to

wax moist and


it.

Nathles

befalleth often time that the

good diamond loseth

his virtue
it is

by

sin,

and for incontinence of him that beareth

And
it is

then
little

needful to

make

it

to recover his virtue again, or else

of

value."
trans-

56.

Sapphires.

The

text

is

hyakinthos,

which has been


is

lated as jacinth, ruby

and amethyst.

Jacinth

a product of Africa

Rubies are from Burma and probably never came from India. Pliny says that the hyacinth resembles the amethyst, but draws a distinction between them. Pliny probably had in mind a violet sapphire, and his word really might be translated as meaning all tints of sapphire from blue to purple.
rather than India.
in great quantities

Dionysius Periegetes refers to the "lovely land of the Indians

where the complexions of the dwellers are dark, their limbs exquisitely tleek and smooth, and the hair of their heads surpassing smooth and
(McCrindle, Ancient India, p. 188. ) Goodchild {Precious Stones, p. 183), also thinks that the sapphire was the hyacinthus of Pliny, and says that the principal source
dark blue like the hyacinth."

W.

of sapphires in that part of the world was in the watered gravels of Southern Ceylon, which were derived from watered crystaline rocks; and at the time of the Periplus the natural market would have been

on the Malabar

coast.

The

ruby,

which

is

practically of the

same

227

chemical composition, being of the corundum group, was found in the same place as the sapphire in Ceylon, and was probably classified by Pliny under the carbunculus (XXXVII, 25). Both rubies and sapphires
are found in

much

greater quantities in

of

the

Periplus these deposits

Burma and Siam, but at the time were probably unknown to western

commerce.
56.

Tortoise-shell
and
alters
it

from Chryse.

Fabricius objects to this


it is

reading,

to

"that found along the coast;" but

prob-

able that the text gives a correct reference to the active trade of Eastern

shipping in South Indian ports; which


in

is,

indeed, specifically mentioned

60 and
to

great province of

Malabar

"from the Manzi," and says (III, xxv) that the ships from Aden and Egypt 'are not one to ten of those that go to
63.

Marco Polo
'

notes particularly the ships

the eastward; a very notable fact."

To
plus

assume that conditions were the same


to

at the

time of the Peri-

would be

go beyond the evidence;

yet the records of the

Chinese themselves point strongly


to India

to the existence of

an active sea-

trade at that time, certainly to Malacca, and less frequently, perhaps,

and beyond.
this

With
Zamorin

item ends the


It
is

list

of articles traded in by the author of

the Periplus.
of

interesting to

compare

it

with the letter from the

Vasco da from India fourteen centuries later: "In my kingdom there is abundance of cinnamon, cloves, ginger, pepper, and precious stones. What I seek from thy country is gold, silver,
Calicut to the
of Portugal, carried by

King

Gama

on

his return

coral,

and scarlet."

57.

Hippalus first discovered.


at

The discovery
p.

of Hippalus,

which may be placed

opened a new ocean to Roman shipping; but it is probable that Arabian and Dravidian craft had frequented that ocean for many centuries, and inconabout 45 A. D. (see
8J,

ceivable that they should not have


of the

made

use of the periodic changes

most notable feature of their climate. The evidence of both countries indicates, on the contrary, that they steered boldly out of sight of land, before records were written to tell
monsoons, by
far the

of

it

A-Ir.

Kennedy

in

an

article

in the Journal

of

the

Royai Asiatic

1898, (pp. 248-287) also thinks that the monsoons were understood before the time of Hippalus, but doubts the beginning of any
Society,

regular sea-trade before the beginning of the


ascribing
ships
all

7th century B.
in

C.

such trade to the


to have
this reign

activities of

Nabonidus,

whose time
I"'i'

were known

come

to

Babylon from India and even from


st-ii-tradc

China.

Following

he thinks

between

.i

:ind

Babylon flourished for

a couple of centuries, being mainl\' Dravidian

but partly Aryan, and leading to the settlement of Indian traders in


Arabia, East Africa, Babylonia and China.

He

minimizes the impor-

tance of the early Eijyptian trading-voyages, considering


local,

them

purely

while the numerous references to articles and routes of early

trade in the

Hebrew

scriptures he passes

by with the assertion

that they

are due to the revision following the return of Ezra.

But whatever may have been Ezra's revision of the Hebrew


books, substantially the same articles of
records of Egypt
articles of
at

trade are

described in the
in

corresponding dates, and they indicate a trade


(See also under

Indian origin to the Somali coast and overland to the Nile,


i5 6,

centuries before Ezra's day.

10, 11,

and 12.)

Such opinions presume a continuous trading-journey without exBut primitive trade change of cargoes at common meeting-points. At the time of the passes from tribe to tribe and port to port.
Periplus cargoes changed hands in Malacca,

Malabar, Somaliland,

South Arabia, Adulis and Berenice.


in

the Deir

el

Bahri

reliefs describing
tells

The custom is stated in detail Queen Hatshepsut's expedition


the queen,

of

1500 B.

C,

where Amon-Re

they were heard of from

which the people knew not; mouth by hearsay of the ancestors. The marvels brought thence under thy fathers, the Kings of Lower
one trod the incense-terraces,

"No

mouth
to

to

Egypt, were brought from one


cestors of the
for

another,

Kings of Upper Egypt,

and since the time of the anwho were of old, as a return


II,

many payments."
It

(Breasted, Ancient Records,

2S7).

was the

particular

achievement of the Egyptian Punt expedi-

tions that they traced the treasured articles to their source

the land from the heavy charge of those

and freed 'many payments." Like-

wise Hippalus must be remembered, not for a discovery


world, but for freeing the

new

to the

Roman Empire from


it

Arabian monopoly of
lasting

the Eastern trade by tracing

to

its

source.

Beyond India no

discovery

was made.

Ptolemy, indeed,

knew

of Cattigara through

the account given by Marinus of Tyre;


ceptional,

but such voyages were exand the majority of the Chinese ships stopped at Malacca,
It

while the Malay colandia carried the trade to Malabar.


for the

remained

Arabs

to

complete the

through line" by opening direct com-

munication under the Bagdad Caliphate, between the ends of the earth,

Lisbon and Canton.


Prof.
Society,

'

T. W'. Rhys Davids,


p.

in the

Journal of the Royal Asiatic

1899,

432, quotes an interesting Buddhist passage referring

to early sea-trade as follows

'

229
'

In the Dialogues of the Buddha

is

Sutta of

Digha

a passage in the
says:

Kevaddha

5th cent. B. C.

The Buddha

Long ago ocean-going merchants


upon the
sea,

on board a

ship, taking

vvere wont to plunge forth with them a shore-sighting bird.

When
to the

the ship

was out

of sight of land they


it

would
and

set the

shore-

sighting bird free.

And
to

West and
If
if

would go the North, and

to the East

to the

South and

to the intermediate points,

rise aloft.

go,

but

on the horizon it caught not it would come back

sight of land, thither


to the

it

and would

ship

again.

Just so,

brother,"

etc.

Cosmas

Indicopleustes found this same custom in Ceylon in the

6th century A.

D., merchants depending on shore-sighting birds

instead of observations of the sun or stars.

There

are similar passages in the oldest of the


:

Vedas (see Gib-

son's Rig Veda, Vol. \)

"Varuna,
air,

who knows

the path of the birds flying through the

he, abiding in the ocean,

knows

also the course of ships.

'

"May Ushas dawn


harnessed
at

today,

the excitress of chariots

which are

her coming, as those

who

are desirous of wealth send

ships to sea."

"Do
off

thou, Agni,

whose countenance
if

is

turned to
' '

all

sides,

send

our adversaries, as

in a ship to the opposite shore.

Do

thou

convey us

in a ship across the sea for our welfare.

(A remarkable
Dha-

prayer for safe conduct at sea.


Kalidasa, in the Saiunta /a, gives the story of the merchant
navriddhi,

whose immense wealth devolved to the king on the former's perishing at sea and leaving no heirs behind him.

The
'

Hitopadesa describes a ship as a necessary requisite for a

man

to traverse the ocean,

and a

story

is

given of a certain merchant,


at last

'who, after having been twelve years on his voyage,


"

returned

home with a cargo of precious stones. The Institutes of Manu include rules
time commerce.

for the guidance of mari-

The

passages quoted above indicate a well-developed and not a

primitive trade.

The

sea-trade

was

principally of Dravidian develop-

ment, while both the Vedas and the Buddhist writings are of Aryan
origin,

and refer to things new


J-Vissenschaften,

to their race but old in the world. in

(See also Bilhler, Indhche Studien,

SitzMngsberichte der Kais.


3,

Akad.

d.

Vienna, 1895, No.


in

pp.

81-2;
7;

Indian

Paleography,
III, 3.)

5;

Foulke,

Indian Antiquary,

XVI,

Lassen,

More

significant

is

the Phoenician origin of the Dravidian alpha-

230
bet, in

long before the Aryan invasion of southern India; while a passage


the

Rdmayana

suggests
'

the

ships of

contemptuously called
his

monkeys."

those whom the invaders When Rama was dispatching


Sita,
it

messengers to the four winds in search of


"flew'
'

was the maligned


Ceylon and
dissails,

Hanuman who
covered her.

across the Gulf of

Manar

to

Who

can doubt that the wings he used were

or

Ceylon a force of Aryan landsmen, who later turned and crushed them under the caste-system and Stern must have been established the dynasties of Dravda-d'esam the subjection that brought them to worship one of their own race
that the Dravidians ferried across to
'<

under the guise of a monkey, and to carry the

cult of the

monkey-

god Hanuman
keys are
ers, to the

in their

own

ships to the vales of


it

unknown and where

has outlived the

Oman, where monmemory of its found(Gen.


S.

confusion of the modern observer.

B. Miles,

in Geographical Journal, VII, 336.)


Significant also
is

the fact that Lieutenant Speke,

when

planning

his discovery of the source of the Nile,

secured his best information


{.Journal, pp. 27, 77,

from a map reconstructed out of the Puranas.


216; Wilford, in Asiatic Researches, III).
the river, the
It

traced the course of

Great Krishna,

' '

through Cusha-dvipa, from a great


it

lake in Chandristhdn,

Country of the Moon," which

gave the

correct position in relation to the Zanzibar islands.

The name was

from the native Unya-muezi, having the same meaning; and the map correctly mentioned another native name, Amara, applied to the district

bordering Lake Victoria Nyanza.


'All our previous information,"

says Speke,

"concerning the

hydrography of these regions, originated with the ancient Hindus,

who

told

it

to the priests of the Nile;

and

all

those busy Egyptian

geographers,

who

disseminated

their

knowledge

with a

view

to

be famous for

their long-sightedness,

in solving the

mystery which

enshrouded the source of

their holy river,

humbugs.

The Hindu
it

traders

had a firm

basis to stand

were so many hypothetical upon through


)

their intercourse with the Abyssinians.

"

(See 14.

Altogether

must be supposed

that the navigation of the Indian

Ocean began from


claimed
its

that Western India community of interest Jong excluded their customers of the Mediterranean world, from whose standpoint Hippalus was quite as great a discoverer as if he had really been

the Persian Gulf and Arabia;

share at an early date;

and that

this

"the

first

that ever burst

Into that silent sea."

57.

Throw

the Ship's head.


meaning

The

text

is

trachelizontes,

which

is

a wrestlers' term

literall>'

'throwinir by the

neck

231

o
p4

ho pa

.in

(U

^1>

T3 -^

5
c
"

n>

232

The word

has led to

much

unnecessary' confusion in the translation


is

of this passage.

Our

author

describing a sailing-course

w hich

is

obvious by referring to the map.


trade-wind, from H-isn

The

straight

course before the

Ghorab

to the

Gulf of Cambay or the mouth of


that the vessel

the Indus, would carry a vessel along the Arabian shore as far as Ras
Fartak, l^eyond

which the coast gradually recedes, so


without changing
its

would
for the

'stand out to sea

course.

vessel

bound

Malabar ports and saihng before the wind, with the type of

would have required steering off her course the whole time, thus describing a wide curve before making the Indian Boats were not handled as easily then as now on a beam wind. coast. The quarter-rudder required a constant pull on the tiller by the hands
rigging then in use,

of the steersman.
57.

The same
is

course.

Pliny's

account of the voyage

to

India (VI, 26), which has been cited by most commentators on the
Periplus,

appended

for comparison.

It will

be seen that y
its

hile

it

agrees with the Periplus in


of Arabia,
its

many

points, particularly in
is

description

description of the Indian coast

not altogether the

same:
'In later times
it

has been considered a well- ascertained fact that

the \'oyage from Syagrus, the Promontory- of Arabia, to Patala, reck-

oned

at thirteen

hundred and

thirty-five miles,

can be performed most

advantageous!}" with the aid of a westerly wind,

which

is

there

known

by the name of Hippalus.

The
one
to those

age that followed pointed out a shorter route, and a safer

who might happen

to sail

from the same promontory


this route

for

Sigerus, a port in India;

and for a long time

was followed,

until at last a stiU shorter cut


thirst for gain

brought India even

day voyages are made to


are carried on board the
pirates.
It

was discovered by a merchant, and the still nearer to us. At the present India every year; and companies of archers
those seas are greatly infested with

\'essels, as

will not be amiss too,

on the present occasion,


reliance

to set forth

the whole of the route from Egypt, which has been stated to us of
late,

upon information on which


first

may
is

be placed, and'

is

here

published for the

time.

The

subject

one well worthy of our


less

notice, seting that in


five

no year does India drain our empire of


millions of sesterces,
at
gi\

than

hundred and
prime
cost.

fifty

ing back her

own

wares

in exchange,

which are sold among us

fully

one hundred times

their

Two
The

miles distant from Alexandria

is

the
is

town

of Juliopolis.

distance thence to Coptos, up the Nile,

three hundred and

233

eight miles;

the voyage

is

performed,

when

the Etesian winds are


is

blowing,

in

twelve days.

From Coptos

the journey

made with

the

aid of camels, stations being arranged at intervals for the supply of fresh

water.

The first of these stations is called Hydreuma


distant

(watering-place)

and

is

twenty-two miles; the second

is

situate

on a mountain,
is

at

a distance of one day's journey from the

last;

the third

at a

second
is

Hydreuma
is

distant

from Coptos
is

ninety-five miles;

the fourth

on a

mountain; the next to that


distant
is

another Hydreuma, that of Apollo, and


;

from Coptos one hundred and eighty-four miles


another on a mountain.

after

which,
at a

there

There
distant
is

is

then another station

place called the

New

Hydreuma,
to
it

from Coptos two hundred

and

thirty miles;

and next

there

another, called the


is

Old Hy-

dreuma, or the Troglodytic, where a detachment

always on guard,

with a caravansary that affords lodging for two thousand persons.

This
the

last
it

is

distant

from the
to the

New Hydreuma

seven miles.

After

leaving

we come

city of

Berenice, situate upon a harbor of

Red

Sea and distant from Coptos two hundred and fifty-seven

miles.
night,

The

greater part of this distance

is

generally travelled by

on account of the extreme heat, the days being spent at the stations; in consequence of which it takes twehe days to perform the

whole journey from Coptos

to Berenice.
sail

Passengers generally set

at

midsummer, before
in the region

the rising

of the Dog-star, or else immediately after, and in about thirty days


arrive at Ocelis in Arabia, or else at

Cana,

frankincense.
it is

There

is

also a third port of Arabia,

Muza

which bears by name;

not,

however, used by persons on


at, it

their passage to India, as only

those touch

who

deal in incense and the perfumes of Arabia.

More

in the interior there is a city;

the residence of the king there

is

and there is another city known by the name of Save. To those who are bound for India, Ocelis is the best place for emIf the wind, called Hippalus, happens to be blowing, it is barcation. possible to arrive in forty days at the nearest mart in India, Muziris by
called Sapphar,

name.
tion,

This, however,

is

not a very desirable place for disembarcaits

on account of the pirates which frequent


in fact,

vicinity,

where they

occupy a place called Nitrias; nor,


merchandise.
distance
either

is it

very rich in articles of


is

Besides, the roadstead for shipping

a considerable

from the shore, and the cargoes have to be conveyed in boats, At the moment that I am writing for loading or discharging.
the
port,

these

pages,

Another

name of the king of this place is Caelobothras. and a much more convenient one, is that which lies in
Here
at a

the territory of the people called Neacyndi, Barace by name.

king Pandion used to reign, dwelling

considerable distance from

234

the mart in the interior, at a city

known
p.

as

Modiera.

The

district

from which pepper

is

carried

down
on

to Barace in boats

hollowed out
as Cottonara.

of a single tree (see illustration

212),

is

known

None

of these

names

of nations, ports,

and

cities are to

be found

in

any of the former writers, from which circumstance it would appear Travellers set sail that the localities have since changed their names. from India on their return to Europe, at the beginning of the Egyptian
our December, or at all events before the month Mechir, the same as our Ides of JanuThey ary; if they do this they can go and return in the same year. set sail from India with a south-east wind, and upon entering the Red

month

of Tybis,

which

is

sixth day of the Egyptian

Sea, catch the south-west or south."


58.

can be no doubt that

Dark Red Mountain. The text "Red it refers to the

is

Pyrrhon.

There

Bluffs," a series of

high sandstone and laterite headlands, which abut on the coast at Varkkallai (8 42' N.), and again below Anjengo (8 40' N., 76
45' E.
).

These

are the "Warkalli

Beds" of the Indian

geologists,

and have recently been pierced by a canal to complete the backwater communication between Tirur and Trivandrum, nearly 200 miles.
{Imperial Gazetteer,

Beyond
did not go.

this

point

XXIV, 300.) we must assume


his

that the author of the Periplus

The

remainder of

work, usually referred to as the

"sequel,"
at

represents

Nelcynda or Bacare, and


Paralia.
is

what he learned by inquiring of acquaintances set down in writing toward lightening the
all

darkness of Mediterranean ideas concerning


58.

matters oriental.

According
it

to

Caldwell
Karei,

{Dravidian Grammar,
coast;"

56), this

a translation of the
is

Tamil

according to

Burnell and Yule,

Purali, an ancient local

name

for Travancore.

This is supported by Gundert in his Malayalam Dictionary, and by the The Raja's tides still Malayalam translation of the Ramayana. Lord of Purali." The native name for include that of Puratisan,
this

country in general was Malayalam, from mala, mountain, and

alam, depth; the land at the foot of the mountains,


Paralia, to the author of the Periplus,
is

Piedmont.
below the
as far as

the coast-line

Travancore backwaters, around Cape Comorin, and


Bridge:

Adam's

comprised within the modern

districts of

Travancore and

Tinne\elly.

Balita. This is probably the modern VarkkaUai (8 42' It was formerly the southern end of the long line of j. backwaters, and a place of considerable commercial importance. By
58.

N.

76 43 E.

cutting through a bluff the lachwaters have recently been connected

with others leading as

far as

Trivandrum, which

is

now

the chief port

'

235

of the district.

At Varkkallai
visited

is

the celebrated temple of Janardan,


all

an avatar of Vishnu,

by pilgrims from
vicinity

parts of India; while


it

numerous mineral
resort.

springs in the

make

a favorite

health

{Imp. Gaz.,

XXIV,
is

300.)

58.

Comari.

This

Cape Comorin, the southern extremity

of the Indian peninsula (8 5'N., 77 33' E.).

The name

is

the

Tamil form

of the Sanscrit Kumar'i, virgin,

which was applied

to the

goddess Durga, or Parvati, the consort of


in

Siva.

Yule observes (Marco Polo, II, 882-3) that the monthly bathing her honor is still continued; and according to the Imperial Gazetteer
it is

(X, 376),
In the

one of the most important places of pilgrimage


century of the Christian era

in

Southern India.'
first

Rome,

Parthia, India,

and China were the four great powers of the world, of which the first and last were advancing, the others passing through political
transformation.

Of

the world's religions, the Buddhist, as

Edmunds
1905,

has well said {Buddhist and Christian Gospels, 3d ed., Tokyo,


p.

was the most powerful on the planet. " But it was no longer The disintegration of the the Buddhism of the Emperor Asoka. Maurya Empire had been followed by the rise of the Indo-Scythian power in the northwest, and of the Andhra in the Deccan. Both these were Buddhist, the Scythian Kanishka in the following century being the second great exponent of that faith; but the ways of the barbarian were not those of the Hindu, the two chief Buddhist powers were at war, and in 126 A. D., when the Andhra king Vilivayakura II, or Gautamiputra Satakarni conquered, the queen-mother Balasri destroyed the Sakas, set up a memorial at Karll telling how he properly expended the taxes which he Yavanas, and Pahlavas
23),
.

levied in accordance

with the sacred law

and prevented the

mixing of the four castes."

(Vincent Smith, Early History, 188.)

To

the north the great missionary


just

movement through Turkestan and


of those kingdoms a

China had only


layas into

begun, while the rice-migrations from the Hima-

Burma and Indo-China, which made


in the

bulwark of Buddhism

middle ages, had not taken place.

In

Ceylon the native race, the Sinhalese, were heartily for the Law of Piety, as in Asoka's day; but opposed to them racially and in matters religious, were their neighbors and ancient enemies, the Southern Dravidians, with their Aryan dynasties and caste-systems, who had never embraced the Buddhist doctrine, and whose primitive natureworship was included bodily within the
especially,
cult of the

Hindu

gods.

Siva

"the auspicious," Rudra

of the

Fedas;

the god of the

storm, the destroNcr and reproducer, was the deity venerated by the

236

Dravidians, tog-ether with his consort or "energic principle," Durga.


(

His symbol was the cobra, hers the

lion,
)

while their son was Ganesa,

as the southern kingdoms waxed strong, so their religion was pushed. forward, steadily displacing Buddhism in its home-land as it in turn spread outward over the great continent of Asia; until the Deccan and Bengal returned to the earlier faith, while of the structure built up by Kanishka the \\ hite Huns

elephant-headed, the god of learning.

And

had

left

but wreckage.
religion of India as seen
at

The

by the author of the Periplus was


satraps, a

therefore twofold:

Barygaza under the Saka

heterodox

Buddhism had supplanted the

Law
C.
;

observed at Ujjeni and Pataliputta

under the Mauryas, and preached

to the nations of the earth

under
upheld

Asoka

in the third century B.

while the purer form


at their

still

by the Andhras could not be found

western port, Calliena,

which the Sakas had "obstructed." In the south the earlier faith was advancing, and in Nelcynda, where some acquaintance related to our author the things he set down about the eastern half of India, it was the great epics which supplied the information; the Puranas, the Mahabharata and the Ramdyana, which continued to uphold the "southern sisters" in the use of that visible altar-flame which those
of the north
'

light,

'

had thought to replace by contemplation of the 'inner but were learning anew their lesson from the Katha Vpanhhad:
'

"that lire
oblation."

is

day by day to be praised by

men who wake,

with the

Underlying the formal acceptance of the Brahman


still

faith there

existed the earlier animism, the worship of spirits in the

form

of

trees

and serpents, with

all

the train of associated beliefs described in

such works as Fergusson, Tree and Serpent Worship ; Tylor, Primitive


Culture;

Frazer, The Golden Bough;

W.

Robertson Smith, The


Life.

Reli-

gion of the Semites;

Ernest Crawley,

The Tree of

The

identity
treas-

of belief has

been indicated by the legends attached

to the

most

ured articles of early trade.

For

international trade began largely

on

a religious basis, and was continued as a

means

of elaborating worship.

And

to the activity

and persuasiveness of the commercial peoples may

be attributed the wide acceptance of their assertions regarding the


peculiar efficacy and sanctity of the spirits of their

own

sacred trees.

There was no reason per se for the Egyptian faith in myrrh as a purifying and cleansing agent beyond the gum of their own trees, or for the trust of the Babylonians and Greeks in frankincense, or of the Romans in cinnamon, bejond their own pine-resin or the golden bough" of their earlier faith it was the result of the eclectic spirit which accepted that which was told them by strangers. The serpent-cult in Rome
;

'

257

was no mere extravagance, but


with
its

reflected the early faith in the existence

of departed spirits in serpent form.

The

funeral of Sabina Poppaea,

fabulous store of spices burned, was not mere show, but was

intended to provide Nero's consort with a countless array of protecting spirits in the under-world.
faith was the common property of those trading and west. Incorporated by Brahmanism, it persisted almost unmodified among the caste of those trading by sea, defiled

This formless
east

between

beyond hope

in

Brahman

eyes ;
it is

it

permeates the Book of

and the Gilgamesh epic; and the Koran, and it is


the Bents visited in
its

the background of the

the Dead Old Testament

earliest devotees,

still addressed to their jinni by those whom Dhofar and Socotra, whose ancestors were among and carried it to the ends of the earth.

59.

Colchi. This
tradition this

is

the

modern Kolkai (8
earliest seat of

40'

N., 78

5'

E.

By

was the

Dravidian power in
before their domin-

Southern India, where Chera, Chola and Pandya, the legendary progenitors of the great dynasties, ruled in

common

it was one of the Pandyan kingdom, being more accessible to the capital than Nelcynda. Owing to the deposit of silt by the Tamraparni River the sea retired from Kolkai, and in mediaeval times another nearby place, Kayal (the Coil of Marco Polo), became the

ions

were separated.

At

the time of the Periplus

chief ports of the

port.
{_lmp.

At present the
Ga%.,

trade of this district passes through Tuticorin.

XV,

387; a good
II,

map

is

given in Yule's

Marco

Polo,

Cordier's edition,

373-4.

This

is

the country from which

made
lon,

his leap across the sea

Hanuman, the monkey-god, from the Mahendragiri mountain to Ceyto

and so helped

Rama

the rescue of his

consort Sita from

Ravana, the

demon
afar

king of Ceylon, as told in the Ramayana;

and

here was consequently a center of the worship of

was carried
in

by the Dravidian

sea-folk.

In the

Hanuman, which rich Wadi Tyin

which passed through the port of Kalhat that from which persons embarked'for India," j-lcila of Pliny (VI, 32), General Miles found a town Sibal, which, he observes, means monNo monkeys famous pre-Islamic idol. key, " and was the name of a exist in Oman, but a temple stood here dedicated to that image."
the trade of
(

Oman,

Geographical Journal, VII, 522-537).

Two
Cambay

shrines of

Hanuman

are

still

venerated at'Surat on the

which was also in constant communication with Arabia. According to local tradition, this was the original capital of Drdcoast,

vida-d'esam,

India at the time of the Periplus.

and the birthplace of the dynasties ruling in Southern This dominion of the Pandyas'

'

238

was was

said to

have been established by the descendants of Pandu,

who

Pandava brothers, the heroes of the North Whether the dynastic Indian war recounted in the Mahahharata. connection was real, or whether it was attached to the legend like
the father of the

Pushkalavati and Takshasila through Pushkala and Taksha, sons of

Bharata in the Ramdyana,

is

less

important than the obvious Aryan

descent of the dynasty in this Dravidian land, and their rigid institution
of the caste-system
since

which

still

prevaOs here in a completeness long

outgrown

in other parts of India.

Those who would

see in the

northern spread of this dynasty a southern origin for the Dravidian


race do not take into account the late origin of the dynasty, probably the 5th or 4th century B. C.
,

and

its

alien character

among

a people

already settled and developed.

Arrian {Indica, VIII) gives another version of the origin of


dynasty,

this

was 'the only daughter of Heracles, among many sons; the land where she was born, and over which she ruled, was named Pandaea after her. " No worthy confrom Pandasa, who, he
says,

sort appearing,

years,

Heracles made her marriageable at the age of seven and married her himself, "that the family born from him and

her might supply kings to the Indians.

The
that the

story

is

not accepted by Arrian in entire faith; he observes

power exerted by Heracles in hastening the maturity of Pandasa might more naturally have been applied to the postponement
of his

own

senility;

but, as he says in another connection

"I know, however, that it is a very difficult task for one the ancient tales to prove that they are false.
'

(XXXI), who reads

In Greek literature concerning India, Heracles


tified

is

usually iden-

with Vishnu, and Bacchus with

Siva.

The dominion
brothers,

Chera,

of the Pandyas was divided among three reputed Chola and Pandya, in which form it appears in

Asoka's inscription of the 3d century B.

C,

and

in the Periplus.

The

capital
7'

had been removed, as Pliny


E.
),

states, to

Madura (9
great city,

55'
its

N., 78

which the Ramdyana describes

as a

gates being of gold inlaid with gems.

The
original,

seceding kingdoms were larger and more powerful than the


the most important being the Chola, the "Coast Country"

of 59.

The

dynastic succession of these


in

kingdoms forms the longest unat

broken chain

Indian history,

covering a period of

least

two

thousand years.
(See Imperial Gazetteer,

XVI, 389;
p.

\'incent Smith,
)

F,arly History,

341-7; and authorities quoted on

209.

239

The
nists in

Dravidians of Southern India were active traders and colo-

Ceylon, in opposition to the native Sinhalese, with whom they were in frequent conflict, and in spite of whom they had extended
their

power

effectually over the

northwestern coast of Ceylon, the

region of the pearl-fisheries.


59.

Pearl-fisheries.

These were,

as at present, in the shallow


)

waters of the Gulf of Manar.

(See under 35, 36, and 56.

Pliny (IX, 54-8) says that pearls


after the surrender of Alexandria;

came

into general use in


first

Rome

but that they

began to be used

about the time of

Sylla.

The
island of

first

rank, and the very highest position


.
.

among

all

valuis

ables belongs to the pearl.

The most

productive of pearls

the

Taprobane.
origin

The

and production of the


influence
shell,

shell-fish

is

not very different

from that of the


year exercises
it

shell of the oyster.

When

the genial season of the

were,
it

it

which

on the animal, it is said that, yawning, as and so receives a kind of dew, by means of becomes impregnated; and that at length it gives birth, after
its

opens

its

many

struggles,

to the

burden of

its

shell,

in

the shape of pearls,


If this has

which vary according


perfectly pure state

to the quality of the


it

dew.
shell,

been

in a

when
if

flowed into the


but
if
it

then the pearl prois

duced

is

white and

brilliant,

was

turbid, then the pearl

of a

clouded color also;

the sky should happen to have been lowering


will be of a pallid color;

when
which
is

it it

was generated, the pearl


is

from

all

quite evident that the quality of the pearl


state of the

depends

much
it

more upon a calm


that
it

heavens than of the

sea,

and hence

contracts a cloudy hue, or a limpid appearance, according to


. .

the degree of serenity of the sky in the morning.


ful that

It is

wonder-

they should be influenced thus pleasurably by the

state of the

heavens, seeing that by the action of the sun the pearls a;e turned of
a red color,

and

lose

all

their whiteness, just like the

human

body.

Hence
rays.
I

it

is

that those
lie at

which keep
still

their whiteness best are the deep-

sea pearls,

which

too great a depth to be reached Ly the sun's

have seen pearls

adhering to the shell

for

which reason

the shells

were used

as boxes for ointments.

"The lish, as soon as it even perceives the hand, shuts its shell and covers up its treasures, being well aware that it is for them that it and if it happens to catch the hand it cuts it off with the is sought;
sharp edge of the
shell.
.
.

The

greater part of these pearls are


tl.e

only to be found
those that
lie

among

rocks and crags, while, on

other hand,

out in the deep sea are generally accompanied by sea-

240

dogs.

And

yet, for all this, the

women

v\ill

not banish these gems

from

their ears!

"Our

ladies glory in having pearls

suspended from their

fingers,

or two or three
the rattling of
at the

them dangling from their ears, delighted even with the pearls as they knock against each other; and now,
of

present day, the poorer classes are even affecting them, as people are in the habit of saying, that 'a pearl worn by a woman in Xa}-, even more public is as good as a lictor walking before her.'

than

this,

they put them on their


all

feet,

and
it is

that,

not only on the laces

of their sandals but

over the shoes;

not enough to wear pearls,

but they must tread upon them, and walk with them under foot as
well.

"I once saw Lollia Paulina, the wife of the Emperor Caius it was not at any public festi\'al, or any solemn ceremonial, but only at covered with emeralds and an ordinary betrothal entertainment

pearls,
in

which shone
in

in alternate layers

upon her head,

in her hair,

her wreaths,

her ears, upon her neck, in her bracelets, and on


all to 40,000,000 once to prove the fact, by

her fingers, and the value of which amounted in


sesterces;

indeed she was prepared

at

showing the receipts and acquittances.

Nor were

these any presents


to

made by
inces.

a prodigal potentate, but treasures

which had descended


It

her from her grandfather, and obtained by the spoliation of the prov-

Such are the

fruits of

plunder and extortion


all

was

for this

reason that Al. Lollius was held so infamous


presents which he extorted from the kings;
that

over the East for the

the result of which was,

he was denied the friendship of Caius Cassar, and took poison;


all this

and

was done,

I say,

that his granddaughter might be seen, by


all

by the glare of lamps, covered


forty millions of sesterces!"

over with jewels to the amount of

Pliny then recounts the well-known story of Cleopatra' s wager

with Antony to serve him an entertainment costing ten millions of


sesterces,

and of her dissolving a great pearl

in vinegar

and swallow-

ing

it.

The same

thing had been done before, he says, in

Rome,

by

Clodius, son of the tragic actor Aesopus,

who

served a meal in which

each guest was given a pearl to swallow.

Of
and
in

the pearl industry,

Marco Polo

says (III, xvij:

"All round

this gulf the

water has a depth of not more than 10 or 12 fathoms,

some places not more than 2 fathoms.


till

The

pearl-fishers

take their vessels, great and small, and proceed into this gulf, where

they stop from the beginning of April

the middle of

May.

Of

the produce they have

first

to

pay the king, as his

royalty, the

tenth part.

And

they must also pay those

men who charm

the great

'

241
fishes (sharks) to

prevent them from injuring the divers whilst enall

gaged in seveking pearls under water, one-twentieth part of


they take.

that

These fish-charmers are termed Abraiaman (Brahmans); and their charm holds good for that day only, for at night they dissolve the charm so that the fishes can work mischief at their will." There can be little doubt that this kind of protection was sought by the divers at the time of the Periplus, and \\Ae observed it still in force, one of the Brahmans" exercising this ancestral office being a Christian!
In the case of frankincense, pepper and diamonds, the guardian
spirits

took the form of serpents and were appeased or repelled by


spirits

other

or by sacred birds.
^\ e

But sharks called for the


else

visible aid

of the priests.

may suppose

the shark to have been a soulless


that the industry dates

and unimpressionable demon, or

from a

time after the Aryan invasion of Southern India, so that the priestly
caste could properly decline to stand aside for the benefit of the ser-

pent-cults that had preceded them.


59.

Coast country.

This
is

country, different from, and beof the

yond, the Pandyan kingdom,


the

the third

Dravidian

states,

Chola kingdom; at the time of the Periplus, as it states, the Coast Country' largest, richest, and most prosperous of the three. Chola coast, " Chola-mandalam, from which is from the native name,

modern word Coromandel. By the Sarawas given another name, Maahar, not to he confused with Malabar; the meaning being "ferrying-place," and referring to the By the Ceylonese it shipping-trade for Malacca and the Far East. was called Soli, which name they applied to both Chola and Pandya, The even though their relations with Madura were more important. boundaries were, roughly, from the Penner River on the north (emptying into the Bay of Bengal at 14 40' N. ), and on the south the During Valiyar River (10 3' N. ), or even the Vaigai (9 20' N. ). kingdom conquered and absorbed its the mediaeval period the Chola
the Portuguese derived our

cens

it

progenitor, the Pandyan, and they are

still

classified together in the

modern

Carnatic."
pearl-fisheries
at

The
Strait,

belonging to

this

kingdom, the product of

which was sold only


north of

the capital, Uraiyur, were those of the Palk


Bridge, as distinguished from those of the
to the

Adam's

Gulf of Manar, which belonged administered from Madura.


59.

Pandyan kingdom, and were

Argaru.

This

is

nearly a correct transliteration of

Urai-

yur ("city of habitation"), the ancient capital of the Chola kingdom, now part of Trichinopoly (10 49' N., 78 42' E. ).

'

242

Previous identifications of this

name have

failed to take into ac-

count the fact that

it v\

as inland,

and

in a different

country from the

Pandyan kingdom. The capital grew up around a fortress built on the summit of the Rock of Trichinopoly, which rises abruptly out of the plain to a height of 340 feet above the old city, which nestles picturesquely at its foot.
Little
like

"The view from the frowning heights of the rock is very grand. is now left of the old fortifications but the citadel and a pagodatemple.

A covered passage hewn out of


p.

the rock leads to them.

'

(Furneaux, India,

430.)

After the destruction of Uraiyur about the 7th century A. D.,


the capital was removed to Malaikurram, the

modern Kumbakonam
of
its

(10 58' N., 79 22' E.


(Sir

j,

which

still

retains traces

former
j.

grandeur; andafter other changes to Tanjore (10 47' N., 798'E.

Walter

Elliot, Coins

of Southern India, 130; Vincent Smith, Early

History, 164, 342.)


59.

Argaritic muslins.
little

The

textile industry of

both Trichi-

nopoly (or Uraiyur) and Tanjore has been famous from early times.

There can be
the

doubt that some of the finest fabrics that reached


this kingdom of Chola. From this part came those gold-threaded embroideries

Roman

world came from


in

of India, in the middle ages,

which were
60.

such demand in the Saracen markets.

Ships from the north

that

is,

from the Ganges and

Bengal.
India,

Kalidasa, in the Raghuvamsa, tells of a tour of conquest of

made by Raghu, the great-grandfather of Rama; starting from Ayodhya the modern Oudh) he went eastward to the ocean, "having
(

conquered the Bangalis,

who

trusted in their ships."

(Foulkes,

in

Indian Antiquary^ 1879, pp. 1-10.)


60.

Camara.

Ptolemy mentions
if

a Chaberis emporion, at one of

the mouths of the Kaverl River;


of the Periplus were nearly,

probably both this and the Cawara

not quite, identical with the modern

N., 79 50' E.). This is probably intended for PWW;i7;^/-/, "new 60. Poduca. the modern Pondicherry (11 56' N., 79 49' E. ). town," So

Karikal(10

55'

Bohlen, Ritter,

Benfey,

Miiller,

McCrindle and
^i^-^x^towi?,

Fabricius;

Yule,

following Lassen, prefers Pulikat (13 25' N., 80 19' E.).


60.

Sopatma.
(II,

This

is

probably

"fair

may

be identified with the modern Madras (13 Lassen

4'

town," and N., 80 15' E. ).


either

542) doubts the

possibility

of

identifying

Camara

or Sopatma;

and there

is

no evidence

that Pondicherry exall

isted at the time of the Periplus.

The

location of

three ports can

be no more than conjectural.

243

60.

doubt, the craft

Ships of the country: Sangara. The first were, no made of hollowed logs with plank sides and outriggers,

such
p.

as are still used in South India and Ceylon (pictured on 212); the larger type, sangara, were probably made of two such canoes joined together by a deck-platform admitting of a fair-sized

deck-house.

Dr. Taylor (^Journal of the Asiatic

Society

of Bengal, Jan.,

1847, pp. 1-78), says that the ndimsjangar


coast for these double canoes.
in

is still

used on the Malabar

Caldwell gives the forms changadam Malayalam; jangala in Tula; and samghadam in Sanscrit, "a Benfey (art. on India in Ersch & Gruber's Encyklopadie, 307) raft." derives it from the Sanscrit sangara, meaning trade Lassen, how; '
'

and Heeren {,Ideen iiher die Politik, etc., I, iii, 361) ascribes the word to This is quite possible, as the type itself is Malay, a Malay ojiginal.
to shipping,

ever (II, 543), doubts the application of the

word

and found throughout the archipelago.

Modem

double canoe with deck-structure, of the sangara type;

in general

use in South India, Ceylon, and the Eastern Archipelago.

The
coast
is

comparatively large size of the shipping on the Coromandel indicated also by the Andhra coinage, on which a frequent
a ship with

symbol

is

two

masts, apparently of considerable tonnage.

244

The

maritime

traffic, to

which the

ship type bears witness,

is

also

attested

by the large numbers of


(E.
*

Roman

coins

which are found on


the

the

Coromandel Coast."
Ixxxii).

J.

Rapson, Coins of

Andhra

Dynasty,

Early South Indian Coins


(re-drawn and restored from Elliot, Coins of Southern India) Plate II, fig. 45 Plate I, fig. 38

Kurumbar

or Pallava coin of the

Andhra

coin,

showing a two-masted

Coromandel coast; showing a twomasted ship like the modem coasting


vessel or if honi.

ship presenting details like those of

the Gujarati ship at Boroboedor, and


the Persian ship at Ajanta.

The
in the

shipping of the

Andhra and
at

Pallava coins doubtless survives

modern

masida boats"

Madras:

harbor (of Madras) can never be a harbor of refuge, and works will secure is immunity for landing and shipping operations from the tremendous surf which is so general along the Passenger traffic from the whole of the Coromandel coast. shore to the vessels is carried on by jolly-boats from the pier, or masulah
all

"The

that the

These latter are relics of a bygone day, when Madras was an open roadstead and when landing through the surf by any form of jdUy-boat was a matter extremely difficult, if not imposThese masulah boats are flat-bottomed barges constructed of sible. planks sewn together with rope of cocoanut fibre, caulked with oakum, and are able to withstand better than far more solidly built craft the shock of being landed on the sandy beach from the crest of a seething
boats from the sho(;e.

breaker."

(Eurneaux, India, 254.)

245

Similar in a general
rati

way

to the

Andhra coin-symbol

is

the Guja-

ship can'ed in bas-relief

on the

frieze of the Buddhist

temple

at

Boroboedor in Java. While dating from about 600 A. D., this vessel was probably not different from those of the 1st century, while the
short broad
sail

with

double

yards

is

identical

with those of the

Egyptian Punt Expedition of the 15th century B. C.

Gujarat! ship of about 600


this

A. D.

from the Boroboedor

frieze.

Ships of

type were doubtless included

among

the trappaga and cotymha of 44, which,

piloted merchants into Barygaza.

"In the year 525 (Saka


a king of

era,

= 603 A.

D.),

it

being foretold ta
with about 5000

Gujarat that his country would decay and go to ruin, he

resolved to send his son to Java.

He embarked

followers in 6 large and about 100 small vessels, and after a voyage of four months reached an island they supposed to be Java; but finding
in

themselves mistaken, re-embarked, and


the center of the island they

finally settled at
. .

Matarem,
prince

were seeking.

The

now
his

found that
state.

men

alone were wanting to

make

a great

and flourishing

He
. .

accordingly applied to Gujarat for assistance,

when

him a reinforcement of 2000 From this period Java was known and celebrated as a people. kingdom; an ejttensive commerce was carried on with Gujarat and other countries, and the bay of Matarem was filled with adventurers
father, delighted at his success, sent
.

from

all

parts."

(Sir

Stamford Raffles,

Histo'-x

of Java,

II,

87

flF.

246

60.

Colandia:

This

name seems
ship."

to

be of Malay origin, and


sailing ship,"

perhaps means no more than


is

Koleh panjail,

the

name

for the fast fishermen entered in

modern Singapore

re-

gattas.

(Pritchett, Sketches
text
is

The
onta

of Shipping and Craft, 166.) kolandiophonta, generally supposed to be corrupt, the


participle
I,

being the

present

of

to

be."

But Rajendralala
the San-

Mitra
scrit

{.Antiquities

of Orissa,

115) derives the

word from

kolantarapota, "ships for going to foreign shores."

Burmese laung-zSt, (without rigging)


as the

dug-out laung-go for river use.

The

a carvel-built vessel on the same lines larger type, in general use on the

Egypt.

Chindwin River, shows Chinese influence, although the lines are tliose of ancient This type displays the stem-cabins differently arranged from those in
See also Chatterton, Sailing Ships,
7, 31.

the higher-built Chinese junk.

The
size,

colandia

must have been

laung-zat, kattu

which made the voyage to Chryse and were of great similar to the Chinese junks or the Burmese The sea-trade of the Gulf of or Chindwin traders.
early date.

Tonkin was of very Malacca prior to the


century B.
C.

Chinese annals mention voyages


to the

to

Christian era, and probably as early as the 12th

This region, known


(2d century B. C.

Chinese as

Yix'e-chang,

was independent
the

until the extension of the


).

Chinese boundaries under


compass, or
south-

Han

dynasty

The

pointing chariot," was

known

in the

11th century B.

C,

but, as indi-

247

cated by Hirth

Undent History of China, pp. 126-136), was probably used mainly for geomancy until applied to navigation by Persians and
Arabs
visiting

China

in the

6th and 7th centuries A. D.


stars

themselves steered by the nature of the sea-bottom.

The Chinese and the sun, and by observing the

Model
Marco Polo
ited in

of an early type of Chinese junk, showing the individual cabins in the

stem-structure, each occupied by a merchant with his stock of goods, as told


;

by from the serial collection of models of commercial shipping, exhibthe Commercial Museum, Philadelphia.

The
came

Arabian geographer Mas' udi mentions Chinese junks which


his time,

to Bassora in

and

in the cave-paintings

Ajanta,

'

248

commemorative of the visit of a Persian embassy in the early 7th century, a ship is shown which, if not a junk, is manifestly influenced by
that type of vessel.

(See Torr, Ancient Ships, plate VII,


III,

fig.

40.

Marco Polo (Book


the junks of that day:
'

Chap.
s

I) gives a detailed description of

(Yule'

edition II, 249-51.)


to

'The

ships in
fir

which merchants go

and

fro

amongst the

Isles

of India, are of

timber.

They have
cabins,

but one deck, though each of

them contains some 50 or 60


greatly at their ease, every

wherein the merchants abide

man

having one to himself.

The
. .

ship

hath but one rudder, but

it

hath four masts; and sometimes they have


ship

two

additional masts,

which they

and unship

at pleasure.

"The
case

larger of their vessels

have some thirteen compartments or


strongly framed, in

severances in the interior,

made with planking


.

mayhap

the ship should spring aleak.


fastenings are
all

"The

of good iron nails and the sides are


. . .

double, one plank laid over the other, and caulked outside and in

with lime and chopped hemp, kneaded together with wood-oil.

of

"Each of their them 300. They

great ships requires at least are indeed of great size, for

200 mariners, some one ship shall carry

5000 or 6000 baskets of pepper; and they used formerly to be larger And when there is no wind they use sweeps, so than they are now. Every great big that to pull them requires four mariners to each.
. .

ship has certain large barks or tenders attached to

it;

these are large

enough
apiece;
large

to carry

some

of

1000 baskets of pepper, and carry 50 or 60 mariners them 80 or 100.'' So Fa-Hien left Ceylon in a

merchantman, on board of which there were more than 200 to which was attached, by a rope, a smaller vessel, as a provision against damage or injury to the large one from the perils of
men, and
in

the navigation."

Java-dvtpa,

another large

(^Travels, chap. xi. ) And landing from this vessel where he spent five months, he again embarked in merchantman, which also had on board more than 200

men.

They

carried provisions for 50 days.'


Polo, II, also,

(See Yule's Marco


other mediaeval writers;
building, primitive

252-3, for description of junks

in

for a full

account of Burmese ship-

and modern, Ferrars, Burma, 132-8.


. .

60.

Imported

everything.

Yule,
:

in his

333), quotes from the Arab geographer Wassaf

Marco Polo (II, "Maabar extends in


beautiful prodcall Junks,

length from Quilon to Nellore, nearly 300 parasangs along the seacoast.

The

curiosities of

Chin and Machin, and the

ucts

of

Hind and

Sind,

laden on large ships which they

sailing like

mountains with the wings of the wind on the surface of

the water, are always arriving there.

The

wealth of the Isles of the

249

Persian Gulf in particular, and in part the beauty and adornment of other countries, from Irak and Khurasan as far as and Europe,

Rum

are derived

from Maabar, which

is

so

situated

as to be the

key of

Hind." Marco himself (III, xx) calls Chola "the kingdom of Maabar called Soli, which is the best and noblest province in India, and where
the best pearls are found."
Friar

the said region

Odoric (chap, iv) says of this kingdom: "The king of is most rich in gold, silver and precious stones, and
fairest

and there be the


61.
to

unions (pearls)

in all the

world."

Palaesimundu.
(I,

Lassen

201)

this

the law of piety;"


distinction
is

that

This is the modern Ceylon. According word is the Sanscrit Palistmanta, "abode of is, the Dharma of Gautama Buddha. The
by the ancients"
it

of interest;

was

called Taprobane,
it

which
yana.

is

the Sanscrit Tdmraparn't, the

name

given to

in the

Rdma-

The knowledge

concerning Ceylon which reached the west

through Onesicritus, Eratosthenes and Strabo, was of the island before


its

conversion to Buddhism under the missionary zeal of Asoka.


it

author speaks of
religion,

in the time of

its

greatest devotion to the

Our new

which

its

neighbors the Dravidian kingdoms of Southern

India never fully accepted.

McCrindle (^Ancient India, 20, 160), the name was given by Vijaya, who led the first Indian colony into the island, and applied to the place where he first landed. compare Tdmra-liptt, the seaThe name means copper-colored The Pali form, Tambapanni, port town at the mouth of the Ganges. appears in the inscription of Asoka at Girnar. Another Brahmanical name, Dvtpa Havana, 'island of Ravana," (the demon-king, kidnapper of Sita in the Ramdyana) is thought by some to be the origin
According
to

Taprobane, or Tamraparrii,

'

'

of Taprobane

Ptolemy notes that the ancient name was Simundu (mistaking the two syllables of our author's word Palaesimundu for the Greek Cosmas palai), but in his own time Salike, the country of the Salae. which, as McCrindle notes, is Indicopleustes called it Sielediba;
first

through the Pali the true Sanscrit name for the island
"island of the lions,"
or lion-like men-heroes.

Sinhala-dvipa,

To

this

source

may

be traced
Pliny

its

other names, Serendib, Sylan, and Ceylon."


the

knows

name

Pala;simundus (VI, 24) but applies


lies

it

to a
it

city "adjoining the harbor that

facing the south,"

and

calls

"the most famous

city in the island, the king's

place of residence,
is

containing a population of 200,000. "

But there

no harbor on the

south coast of Ceylon, and Pliny seems to be confusing his city and

250

harbor with the actual position of the island


harbor,

in relation to the ancient

now

lost, at

Cape Comorin.

Ramayana the Sinhalese are referred to as rakshas and demons and spirits, not human because racially opposed to the So Fa-Hien describes them in an interesting passage Aryan invaders.
In the
nagas,
relating to their trade
(

Travels, chap, xxxviii)

"the country

originally

spirits and nagas, had no human various countries carried on a trade. with which merchants of When

inhabitants, but was occupied only by

trafficking

was taking

place, the spirits did not

show

themselves.

They

simply set forth their precious things with labels of the price attached
to

price;

them; while the merchants made their purchases according to the And he found in the capital city and took the things away. " "many Vaisya clans and Sabasan merchants, whose houses are stately

and beautiful."

Cosmas Indicopleustes
Ceylon and
its

(Christian

Topography,

book XI J,
appended

tells of

trade in the 6th century A.


Periplus,

D.

his
is

account amplifies
for

what

is
:

said in the

and a

translation

com-

parison

"This ii the great island of the ocean, situated in the Indian Sea; which is called by the Indians Sielediba, by the Greeks Taprobane, where the hyacinthus stone is found; and it lies beyond the pepper country. It has other small islands scattered around it in great number; of which some have fresh water, and cocoanut palms. They But that great island, so its inhabitants are very close to one another. say, is 300 leagues in length, and in breadth about 90 miles. Two
kings reign in the island, hostile to each other;
of

whom

one has

the

region of the hyacinthus, and the other the rest of the island, in which
is

the

market-town and

port.

It is

frequented by a great press of


is

merchants from

far countries.

In that island

established the
is

Church

of Christ, of the sect of the Persians, and there

a presbyter sent

from

Persia,

the natives,

be seen
top;
itself,

in

and a deacon, and the whole service of the church. But and the kings, are of other faiths. Many temples are to on the top of one of them, they say, is a hyathis island; and very
great, like a great spinning-

cinthus, in full view, sparkling

and

it

shines brightly, sending out iiery rays almost like the sun

From all parts of India, Persia and Aethia marvellous sight. come a multitude of ships to this island, which is placed as it were midway between all lands; and it sends ships likewise hither
opia

and thither
other

in all directions.

"From

the inner regions, that


are

is,

from Tzinista and from


cloth,

the

market-towns,

brought

silk

aloe-wood,

cloves,

and sandalwood, and other products according to the place;

and

it

251

forwards them to those of the outside, that

is,

to

Male,

in

which
and

pepper grows;
to Sindu,

to Calhana,

where
it,

brass
too,
is
is

is

found, and sesamin wood,

and various kinds of cloth (for

a great market-town);

where the

castor

musk
all

found,

and spikenard

and to

Persia, to the country of the Homerites,


it

receives other things from


its

these places,

and Adulis; and in return which it transmits to the

inner regions, with

own

products likewise.

Now

Sindu

is

the

beginning of India;

for the river Indus,

sian Gulf, separates Persia

from

India.

which empties into the PerThese are the best-known

market-towns of India:

Sindu, Orrhotha, Calliana, Sibor, and

Male

which has
about
five

five ports to

which pepper
Pudapatana.

is

brought;

Parti,

Mangarouth,
distance of
is

Salopatana, Nalopatana,

And
again,

then,

at a

days and nights from the mainland, out in the ocean,


that
is,

Sielediba,

Taprobane.

Then

on the mainland,
and there
is

is

market-town,
shipped;
there
'

Marallo, shipping conch-shells;

Kaber,

shipping alabandenum, and then the country from which cloves are

is

and then Tzinista, which sends silk cloth; within which no other land, for the ocean encircles it on the east.
this island Sielediba,

'And so
itself

placed in the midst of India, which


all

produces the hyacinthus, receives goods from


all,

markets and ships to

being

a very great market.

of trade

one from our

own

parts,

And there came thither on matters named Sopater, who died about 35
same time from
Persia,

years ago.

And

his business

took him to the island of Taprobane,

where

it

happened

that a vessel arrived at the

and there landed together those from Adulis, among


Sopater, and those from Persia,

whom

was

among whom was an ambassador


the

of

the

Persians.

And

so,

as

custom was, the captains and

tax-collectors receiving them, brought

them before
seated.

the king.

And
asked
trade

being admitted into the presence of the king, after they had offered
the proper homage, he bade

them be

them:

"How

goes

it

with your countries, and


of your kings,

And then he how with your

and commerce.'"'
king asked,
ful.?"

"Excellently well,"
is

they said.

Replying,

the

"Who,

the greatest and most

Without delay the Persian answered:


he
is

"Ours

is

powerthe most
and

powerful, the greatest and the richest;

the king of kings;

But Sopater was silent. he has power to do whatever he wills." Then said the king, "You, Roman, have you nothing to say.?"

And

Sopater replied,
If

"What

have

I to say,

when

this

man

says such

you wish to learn the truth, you have both kings here; examine them, and you will see which one is the most magnificent But the king was amazed at this speech, and the most powerful.' And he answered, You and said, "How have I both kings here.?'
things?
' '

"

252

have the money of both; images of both, and you

you have the gold coin of the one king,


is,

and the drachma of the other, that

the milharense ;

compare the
he, approving

will see the truth. "

And

Now the gold coin was and assenting, bade that both be produced. for thus are the best exported thither; fine, bright, and well-shaped; and the miUiarense was of silver and I need hardly say, not to be compared with the gold coin.
reverse,

and then
'

at the

admiration, saying.

king looked at both obverse and and held forth the gold coin with Truly the Romans are magnificent and powerful
other;

The

he commanded that Sopater should be treated with honor; that he should be seated upon an elephant, and led around This Sopater told me, the whole city with drums, and acclaimed.

and wise.

'

And

and those

also

from Adulis, who voyaged with him

to that island.

And when
ashamed.
61.

these things happened, so they say, the Persian was greatly

Almost touches Azania.

Our

author's ideas of the


Alela, with

world

in general are similar to those of

Pomponius

whom
100)

he was nearly contemporary;


thones, "

whose map (reproduced on

p.

retains the old idea of a balancing southern

continent of the Antich-

with the eastern end of which he identifies Taprobane.

The

Periplus does not indicate quite that extent for Ceylon, but exits

aggerates

size tenfold.

The

confusion

may have been

partly due

to the grandiloquent descriptions left by the


visited

Ceylonese embassy which


History of Ancient

the

Emperor Augustus.
II.

(See Bunbury,

Geography, Vol.
62.

Masalia.

This
,

is

the Maisolia of Ptolemy,

who

has a

river Maisolos, probably the Kistna.

In Sanscrit, as McCrindle shows,

the

name is Mausala, which survives in Machhlipatana, the modern Masulipatam (16 11' N. 81 8' E. ), until the construction of the

Bombay

railway the chief port of entry for the Deccan.


it

At the

date

of the Periplus

was, no doubt, the greatest market of the Andhra


it

kingdom.

Tavernier found

(I,

xi)

the best anchorage in the

from which vessels sail for Pegu, Siam, Arakan, Bengal, Cochinchina, Mecca, and Hormus, as also for the islands of Madagascar, Sumatra, and the Manillas.

Bay

of Bengal, and the only place

The

text notes the


s

great quantitj' of

cotton cloth
for
is

made

there.

In Tavernier'

time

it

was

especially noted

its

painted, or pen-

cilled, chintzes (II, xii)

called calmendar, that

to say,

made

with

a brush."

He

contrasted these fine hand-painted fabrics with the

coarse printed goods from Bengal.

The

supply, he observes,

was never

equal to the demand.

See also Imperial Gazetteer, XVII, 215.

253

The difBculties of travel through the Andhra kingdom are noted under 50. Fa-Hien also found the kingdom of Dakshina "out of the way and perilous to traverse. There are difficulties in connection
with the roads;
but those

who know how

to

manage such

difficulties

and wish to proceed should bring with them money and various articles and give them to the king. He will send men to escort them.

These will, at show them the


62.

different stages, pass

them over

to

others,

who

will

shortest routes. "

Travels, xxxv.

This is the Sanscrit Dasarna, the modern Holy Land of India." The name appears in the Vishnu Purana and the Ramayana, as a populous and powerful country. Ptolemy mentions also a river Dosaron, the modern Mahanadi. The ivory from this region has long been famous. It is mentioned both in the Mahabharata and the Vishnu Purana, as the most acceptable offering which the king of the Odras" could take to the Pandu
Orissa, the
sovereign.
62.
still

Dosarene.

(See also Mitra, Antiquities of Orissa,

I,

6.)

Cirrhadae.
race,

This

known

as Kirata, live

are of

Turanian

tribe, whose descendants, Morung, west of Sikkim. They with marked Mongolian features as described;

was a Bhota
the

in

and were formerly independent- and powerful, having provided a dynasty of considerable duration in Nepal. Their location is not on the
sea, as indicated

by the

text,

but in the valleys of the Himalayas;


the course trending,
'

we
by a

need only omit the words


scribe, to

'

easily inserted

make our
(I,

author's information correct.

The Mahabharata

locates

them on the Brahmaputra.


441-450)
fully describes the

Lassen

Bhota race, whose name


allied to the Tibetans,

survives in the

modern Bhutan.

They were

and inhabited much of Bengal at the time of the Aryan migration. Their native Lassen names ten different tribes, one being the Kirata. They were a warlike, capital was at Mokwanpur in Eastern Nepal. uncultivated, polygamous race, whose native animism yielded imperfectly to Brahman or Buddhist teaching, and whose neglect of religious rites caused the Brahman Hindus to reduce them to the rank of
Sudras.

Hence

the

contemptuous description of
Pliny calls

their

Mongolian
and says
flexible

faces as "noseless."
'

them

Scyrites

(VII,

2),

'they have merely holes in their heads instead of nostrils,

and

feet, like the

body of a serpent."

Ptolemy

calls their

country Kir-

rhadia.

The

Kirata were under-sized, In the

and by the Aryan Hindus were

called "pigmies.''

Vishnu, called

Brahman mythology there was a bird of Garuda, who was a special enemy of the Kirata, and

"

254

Lassen

(II,

657) thinks

this story the original of the battle

between

pigmies and cranes, in Hesiod and other Greek writers.

Metrasthenes relates the story in some


Strabo
are

detail,

and

is

reproved by

(XV,

i,

57):

"he then

deviates into fables, and says that there


in height,

men

of five,
nostrils,

and even three spans

some of

whom

are

without

with only two breathing orifices above the mouth.

Those
by

of three spans in height

wage war with

the cranes (described

Homer) and

with the partridges, which are as large as geese;

these people collect and destroy the eggs of the cranes

which

lay their

eggs there; and nowhere

else are the eggs or the young cranes to be


this

found; frequently a crane escapes from


point of a

country with a brazen

weapon
tribe
is

in

its

body, wounded by

these people."

one of the Kavyas, called which recounts the combat, first mentioned in the MaKiratarjuniya, habharata, between Siva in the guise of a Kirata, or mountaineer, and
This
especially referred to in

Arjuna.
62.

Bargysi.

These

are the Bhargas of the Vishnu Purana,.

there mentioned as neighbors of the Kirata, and doubtless of like race.

(Taylor, Remarks on the Sequel


Society

to

the Periplus, in

Journal of

the Asiatic

of Bengal, Jan. 1847.)

62.

of our author, but

Horse-faces and Long-faces. This is no invention was no doubt told him by some friend at Nelcynda,
by his book

The Aryans professed Tibeto-Burman races at their eastern frontier, and their references to them are full of exaggeration and fable. The Vara Sanhita Purana mentions a people in the mountains east of India," that is, in the hills on the Assam-Burma frontier,
who spoke
the Sanscrit writings. the greatest contempt for the
called Asvavadana,

horse-faced.
;

"

(Taylor,
62.

op. cit.

so Wilford in Asiatic Researches, VIII and IX.)

Said to be Cannibals.
flesh,

Herodotus
it

notices such a custom


are

among
eat

the

other Indians, living to the east,

who

nomads and
'

raw

who

are called Padaeans."


is

(Ill, 99.)

When
man,

any
if
it

one of the community


be a

sick,

whether

be a

woman

or a

man

the

men who
if is

are his nearest connections put


flesh

him
kill

to death,

alleging that
if

he wasted by disease his


sick, they,

would he

spoiled;

but
feast

he denies that he

not agreeing with him,

and

upon him. And if a woman be sick, in like manner the women who And whoever are most intimate with her do the same as the men. reaches old age, they sacrifice and feast upon; but few among them attain this state, for before that they put to death every one that falls
into

any distemper.

'

255

So Tibullus (R',
daeus;" and Strabo

i,

45), "Ultima vicinus Phoebo tenet Arva Pai,

(XV,
'

56), quoting Megasthenes' account of


'

Indian mountaineers

'who eat the bodies of their relatives. The same practices were said by Dr. Taylor to be followed a couple of generations ago by the Kukis, or Kuki Chin, a TibetoBurman tribe in the Chin Hills between Assam and Burma; the sick and aged were killed and eaten because of the belief that by such means their souls remained in the tribe, and were preserved from the
agonies of transmigration into the bodies of animals.

The name of
which they appear
63.

Padaeans"
in the

is

probably meant for Purushada, under

Vara Sanhka Purana.


is

Ganges.

The name
By
it,

applied in the
is

district, river

and town.

the district

same paragraph to meant Bengal; by the

river,

more

especially the

Hughli estuary, but east of Ganga-Sagar


as at present.

island

and not west of

This, until about the 15th


river

was the Sagar island were


century,

largest

mouth

of the

Ganges; the Hughh


still

and

the sacred places, and

retain their sanctity.

This

ancient mouth, the Adi Ganga, silted up, and the river constantly

tending eastward, finally joined


putra,

its

main channel
is

to that of the

BrahmaGa%.,

emptying

into the

Meghna
of
18'

estuary as at present (/ot^.

XII, 133-4).
the
to the

By

the

town

Ganges

probably meant Tamra-lipti,

), which gave its name Pandya kingdom, and to the island of This was the sea-port of Bengal in the Post-Vedic and Ceylon. Buddhist periods, being frequently mentioned in the great epics. It

modern Tamluk (22


Tamra-parnI

N., 87 56' E.

river in the

Bangalis, who trusted in their ships, was the port of the who were conquered by the hero of Kalidasa' s Raghuvamsa. Here it was that Fa-Hien sojourned two years, after which he embarked in a large
'

'

merchant

vessel,

and went

floating over the sea to the southwest

to the country of Singhala."

This

identification,

which

is

supported by

preferable to that of

Tamra-lipti at

Fergusson and Dr. Taylor, the modern Sonargaon (23 40' N.

many scholars, seems who would place


,

90

36' E. ), the

ancient Suvarnagrama, the chief port of Eastern Bengal under the Gupta

Empire and in the middle ages. Near here was Vikramapura, the modern Bikrampur, one of the capitals of Chandragupta Vikramaditya. But its importance does not seem to date from so early a period as that of the Periplus; while it is more likely that the name of Ganges would have been localized on the sacred, and at that time
the principal, estuary.

Strabo has been accused of ignorance for remarking


that the

(XV,

i,

13)
his

Ganges " discharges

its

waters by a single mouth."

But

256

information probably reflects the esteem in which that mouth was held,
as well as its

predominant

size, in his

time

63.

Malabathrum.
best

This
is

was from the Eastern Himalayas,


Ptolemy,
country
of
also,

the greatest source of supply, as noted under 65.


says

"the
"

malabathrum

produced

in

the

the

Cirrhadae.
63.

Grangetic spikenard.
in

This was probably

the true spike-

nard, from the Himalayas, noted under 49, and valued sufficiently
to

be shipped
it

considerable quantity to Nelcynda, where the

Romans

fouftd

( 56).

Pliny describes another kind from the

Ganges (XII, 26) which

"is altogether condemned, as being good for nothing; it bears the name of ozcenitis, and emits a fetid odor." This, as Watt remarks
(pp.

451, 462, 792), was a variety of

Cymbopogon or Andnpogon,

allied to the

" nard root"


and

of 39;

probably Cymbopogon jwarancma.


all

These

species, the lemon-grass, ginger-grass, citronella, etc.,


oils,

yield

aromatic

until recently

have been
in the

much

confused.

Pliny confuses this grass also with malabathrum, which, he re-

marks

f^XII, 59),

"

is

said to

grow

marshes

like the lentil."

63.

Pearls.

These were not of

the best qualit}';

as Dr.

Taylor

remarks, those of the Ganges streams are inferior, being small, often
irregular,

and usually reddish.

63.

Muslins of the finest


the

sort, called

Gangetic.

These
all

are the muslins of


fabrics

Dacca

district,

the most delicate of

the

of

India, an ancient test of

which was

for the piece to be

J'entus textilis, or nebula, were names drawn through a finger-ring. which the Romans knew of them. They are mentioned in under

the Institutes of
industry:
give
in
let

Manu,

in

way

to

show

the organization of the

a weaver

who

has received 10 palas of

cotton thread
like

them back increased

to eleven, by the rice-water

and the

used

weaving; he
Tavernier

who
tells

does otherwise shall pay a fine of V) panas."

of a Persian ambassador

who

took his sovereign,


ostrich's egg, en-

on returning home,

a cocoanut of the size of

an

riched with precious stones;

and when

it

was opened

a turban
fine that

was
you

drawn from it 60 cubits in length, and of a muslin so would scarcely know that you had it in your hand."

The

history of

cotton spinning in India goes back to remote

antiquity, being associated

with the Vedic gods or goddesses

who

are

described and pictured as wearing

such garments, showing great

skill

woven garments. The in both woven and tinted


in

patterns of design, are

abundantly reproduced

from

early temples

Mitra {Jntiauities of

257
Orissa, Vol. II),
tile

from whence

it

appears certain that the cotton tex-

industry at the time of the Christian era

was

far in

advance of

that of

any of the western countries.


possibly have been spun
it

While cotton may


seems more
sula
likely that

first

in

Turkestan,

it

has always been native in the Indian penincultivation

and

that the

Aryan invaders found the

and industry

both well established.


cipally to
quality,

The

early Fedas, for example, referred prin-

such as are

woolen cloth of various kinds, some doubtless of fine still made in Kashmir. In the Rig I'eda the
is

material used in clothing

not specified.

The Mahabharaia
brought to Yudhisthira
Cloths and skins;

in the

Sabha Parva

enumerates

presents

the former of wool and embroidered with and brocades; the latter marten and weasel; blankets of various manufacture by the Abhiras of Gujarat; cloths not of cotton,
gold, shawls

but of sheep or goat wool, or of thread spun by


patta fibres

worms

(silk.''),

or of

woven, by Scythians, Turkharas and Kankas; housings for elephants, by princes of the Eastern tribes, lower Bengal, Midnapur and Ganjam; fine muslin from people of Carnatic and Mysore.
and
linen, or

various kinds.
furs,

The Ramayana The

mentions

silken,

trousseau of
silk,

Slta consisted of

woolen and cotton stuffs of woolen stuffs,


divers colors, princely

precious stones, fine

vestments of

ornaments, and sumptuous carriages of every kind."

Heeren supposes the woolen stuffs to have been Cashmere shawls. Ramanuja mentions a stuff from Nepal.

The change
climate of the

of

custom as the Aryans penetrated into the hot

Ganges Valley is shown in the Laws of Manu, which prohibited Brahmans the use of wool. Aside from the priestly caste, however, fine fabrics of all kinds were
in use.

In an early play, the Mrichchhakatika, the buffoon inquires:


is

who

that

gentleman dressed

in silken raiment, glittering


if

with rich
ioint.?"

ornaments, and rolling about as

his limbs

were out of

(Act IV,

Sc.

II).
little

There can be
' '

doubt that the fine muslins of Eastern Bengal


'

Aryan invasion. of course, were both by hand, and although Spinning and weaving, this industry was renewed by the cottons from Manchester and the starting of mills about Bombay, this superlatively fine yarn is still proIn 1888 the spinners who supplied the duced in some quantities. quality were said to be reduced to two elderly women in the finest
'

known under such names as "Textile Breeze", were made there before Running Water or
'

Evening

Dew

",

the

258
village of

Dhamrai, about 20 miles north of Dacca, but

it

that the industry might be revived with any revival of the


this fine fabric.

was thought demand for


in this

An
industry.

incredible

amount
of

of patience
testing

and

skill

were required
of
to pass a

One way

the

fineness

the fabric, often

described by mediae\al and earlier travelers,


of

was

whole piece
finger-ring. to size

20 yards long and 1 yard wide through an ordinary The best test, however, was by the weight in proportion

and

200 years ago a piece of muslin 15 yards long by 1 yard wide could be made so fine as to weigh only In 1840 a piece of the 900 grains, or a little o\er 1-10 of a pound. same dimensions and texture could not be made finer than 1,600
threads.
It is

number of

said that

grains

and was valued

at

about S50.
carried

p'ece of this muslin 10 yards


in less than five

long by 1 yard wide could not be


the

woven
on

months, and

work could only be


air

in the

rainy season

when

the

moisture in the

would prevent the thread from breaking.

At

several places in northwestern India fine muslins

duced, but nowhere of quality equal to those of Bengal.

were proThese also

were shipped westward, appearing in the Periplus as exports at the mouth of the Indus and at the Gulf of Cambay. The change from hand spinning and weaving to power looms and spindles was not
gradual
as in Europe, but was due to the direct importation of European fabrics, so that a few months sufficed to destroy the earlier industry and to lay the way for the modern textile miUs of India.

(See Henry Lee, The Vegetable


India:
tures

Bombay, 1899; chap.


India.

iii.

of

Also, The Cotton

J. H. Furneaux, T. N. Alukharji, Art ManufacPlant, published by the U. S. Depart-

Lamb of Tartary.

ment

of Agriculture, 1896.
63.

Gold mines.
plateau,

This was
gold
in

probably the gold of the Chota

Nagpur
mouth.

located from 75 to 150 miles west of the Ganges

The

rivers flowing north


alluvial

and east of these highlands have

long produced

considerable quantities.

The

river

Son, which formerly flowed into the Ganges


capital

at the site of the ancient

Pataliputra,

writers Erannoboas,

the modern Patna, was called by the classical from the Sanscrit hiranya-vaha, carrying gold."
'

(McCrindle, Ancient

India, p. 43;

There was
the famous

also a substantial supply

cf the Aurannoboas of 53.) from Tibet, which produced


all

ant-gold" mentioned by
Pliny.

the classical writers from

Herodotus to

As

Ball pointed out {Journal of the Royal Irish

Academy, June, 1884), the "ant-gold" was a Sanscrit


small fragments of alluvial gold;
this

name

for the

name was

passed on, being apalso referred to as

plied to the dogs of the Tibetan miners,

which were

259

as preserved in the temple of Hercules at Erythrae,

PUny was a gold-miner's pick- axe, made of a wild sheep' s horn mounted on a handle. (See Herodotus III, 102-5; Arrian, Anabasis V, 4-7; Strabo, XV, i, 44; Pliny, XI, 36; McCrindle, Ancient India, 51.)
griffins.

The "horn

of the gold-digging ant," mentioned by

Gold was

also

brought into India through the Tipperah country

about 60 miles east of the Ganges delta;


river-washings of

coming

chiefly

from the

Assam and northern Burma.


it

Tavernier notes (III, xvi) that


silk

was of poor

quality, like the

of that country, and that both were sent overland to China in


silver.
it

exchange for

In Assam, Ball notes,


to

require their subjects to

every year,

was formerly the custom for the rulers wash for gold a certain number of days while regular gold-washers were taxed.
in

Tipperah merchants trading


(III, xv),

Dacca, according

to

Tavernier

took back
shells,

coral,

yellow amber, tortoise-shell bracelets,

and others of sea and


sea-shells.

the size of our 15

with numerous round and square pieces of / coins, which are also of the same tortoise-shell

The Assam
India, p. 231,

washings
(III,

are,

however, of substantial
See also

yield, as

Tavof
in

ernier himself states

xvii).

Ball, Economic Geology

and the

A lamgirnama of Muhammad
caltis
is

Kazim ri663),

the Indian Antiquary, July, 1887.

The
kalita,

coin called

thought by Benfey to be the Sanscrit

"numbered."

There was, however, a South Indian coin


cit.,

called kali (Elliot, op.

137), while Vincent, quoting Stuckius,


kallais.

mentions one of Bengal called

Wilford

(^Asiatic Researches,

V, 269), preferred the refined gold


Pliny mentions gold

called canden.

on the Malabar coast (coming from the


(p.

mines of Mysore); but, as Watt observes been mainly an article of import in India.
63.

565), gold has always

Chryse Island
this

doubt that by
as the Aurea

(the "golden"). There can be little was meant the Malacca peninsula, known to Ptolemy

Chersonesus,

although the location

"just opposite the


fashion.
in the

Ganges" disposes mense gold mines


State of

of a long voyage in rather


of ancient date have

summary

been discovered

ImMalayan

Pahang, north of Malacca, and these are probably the ones

which gave the name of "golden" to the peninsula. It is known from Chinese records that ships from that country made the journey to Malacca as early as the 4th century B. C, and perhaps as early as the 12th; while the legend of Buddha's visit to Cambodia is at least

260

suggestive of the great influence exercised

from India over

all

Indo-

China.

,
,

H. C. Clifford {Further India, N. Y. 1904, pp. 6-7) gives an excellent account of the hazy, yet vaguely correct, ideas of the Romans Of Chryse, in the 1st and 2d centuries concerning the Far East.
the golden, Pliny has nothing to
tells
tell us,

and the author of the Periplus


Ganges.

us only that

it

was

situated opposite to the


silk,

He

speaks,

however, of Thina, the land of


externally,'

situated

whence we may gather

that

where the seacoast ends Chryse was conceived by

an island lying not only to the east of the Ganges, but also to This indicates a distinct adthe southward of the Chinese Empire. vance in knowledge, for the isle of Chryse, albeit still enveloped in a

him

as

golden haze, was to the author of the Periplus a real country, and no

Rumors must have reached him concerning mere mythical fairyland. and this would tend to prove it, on which he believed he could rely; China via the Straits of Malacca, even though it that the sea-route to was not yet in general use, was no longer unknown to the mariners
of the east.

We

know

that less than a century later the sailor Alex-

ander, from

whom
it

Marinus of Tyre derived the knowledge subse-

quently utilized by Ptolemy, himself sailed to the

Malay

peninsula,

and beyond, and


this

may

safely be

concluded that the

feasibility of

southeastern passage had

become known
means

to the seafarers of
test

China
as

long before an adventurer from the west was enabled to


of
its

the fact

existence through the

of an actual

voyage."

And

illustrating the state of

knowledge

in the

Roman

world

in the 1st cen-

tury,

Mr.

Clifford aptly cites Josephus (^Antiquities of the Jews, VIII, 2)

who

recounts the Ophir voyages of Solomon, venturing some curious


:

At Ezion-Geber, a bay of Egypt on the Erythrasan number of ships. The port is now named Berenice( !), and is near the city of Elan, formerly deemed to be in the Hebrew jurisdiction. King Hiram greatly assisted King Solomon in preparing his navy, sending him mariners and pilots, who conducted Solomon' s officers to the land that of old was called Ophir, hut now the Aurea Chersonesus, which belongs to India, to fetch gold."
identifications

Sea, the king constructed a

It is

uncertain what knowledge Pliny had of Further India.

His

account of Eastern Asia (VI, 20) professes to begin with the Scythian Ocean, "^-that is, the Arctic and after some names of doubtful

origin

he mentions

of the Attacori

sunny

hills

and the nation on the gulf of that name, a people protected by their from all noxious blasts and in the interior the Caseri,
. . .

the Promontory of Chryse

a people of India,
flesh.

who

look toward the Scythians, and. eat

human

Here

are also

numerous wandering nomad

tribes of India."

'

261

The numerous
that the ports of

migrations from India into Indo-China,

both

before and after the Christian era, give ample ground for the belief

South India and Ceylon were in truth, as the Periin greater


vi'ith the Far East, employing number, than those coming from Egypt.

plus states, the center of an active trade


larger ships,

and

The
A. D.
to,
,

great migration from Gujarat to Java in the 6th century and the resulting Hindu kingdoms, have already been referred
their

and

greatest

monuments remain

to us

in the

tremendous
less distinc-

Buddhist temples of Boroboedor and Brambanan.


is

If Clifford's belief

correct, the ruins at

Angkor-Wat
origin.

in

Cambodia

are

no

tively of ancient

Hindu
in

Of

these he quotes Francois Garnier:

Perhaps never,

any place, has a more imposing mass of stone


art

been raised with more

and science.
less

If

we wonder

at the

Pyra!

mids

as a gigantic

achievement of human strength and patience, then


here

to a strength

and patience no whit

we must add

genius

'

64.

A Land called This. This can hardly be other than the


of

great western state

China, Ts'in, and

the city called Thinae"


its

(meant, probably, as the genitive of This), was


yang, later

capital,

Hienits

known

as Si-gnan-fu,

on the

Wei

river not far

above

confluence with the Hoang-ho, in the present province of Shen-si.

This

state of
states,

Ts'in was for centuries the

most powerful of the

and a constant menace to the imperial power. Chou dynasty, which ruled from 867 to 255 B. C. found
Chinese
,

The
itself

harassed in the west by the Tartar tribes, and in the east by rebellious subjects, the states of

Wei, Han, Chau, Ts'i and Ch'u.

Very

early in the dynasty, perhaps in the 8th century B.


their sovereign rights

C,

a portion of

were resigned

to the prince of Ts'in, in con-

sideration of his undertaking the defence of the frontier against the

Tartars. This policy naturally profited Ts'in more than the empire, and the princes of Ts'in, as the annals put it, "like wolves or tigers wished to draw all the other princes into their claws, so that they The power of Ts' in grew until it overbalanced might devour them.
' '

the confederation of eastern states,

and the imperial power

itself.

As

Tartar territory was conquered

it

was incorporated into the Ts'in

dominions, and

finally a

Ts'in prince became Emperor of China in

monarchs, Ts'in Chi Hwangti, The from 221 to 209 B. C, is one of the brighest names in who ruled It was he who began the Great Wall, and who Chinese history. the Chinese frontier across the Gobi desert, making Hami, pushed under the Tian-Shan mountains, his outpost, and thus preparing the

255 B. C.

greatest of the Ts'in

Regular caravan communication with Bactria. China and Bactria is said to have begun in 188 B. C. between

way

for direct

travel

262

But the success of Ts'in had brought


itself
it

its

own

reaction.
all

It

was

so

gave

much way to

a Tartar

state that

it

could not control

China, and

the

Han

dynasty.

The

political

importance of the

was emphasized, however, by the first Han emperor, Kaotsou, who removed his capital from Loyang in Honan to Hien-Yang or Singanfu in Shensi, the ancient Ts'in capital, and in order to make that
state

western location more accessible


great high-road

to

the rest of the empire, built a

from Loyang

to Singanfu,

which

is still

in use.

Buddhist pilgrim in northwestern China: froma6-ft. panel in the Commercial

Museum,

Philadelphia, 1128 times enlarged

from a portion

of a film exposed

by

Bailey Willis, Carnegie Institution, Washington.

'

263

The Han
made no

dynasty soon lost

its

outposts beyond the wall, and


reign of

them 25-58 A. D., who made China


effort to recover

until the

Kwang

Vouti,

Anam, and by
policy

his

power and conquered policy toward the Yueh-chi reasserted sovereignty


a
military

His son, Mingti, began the aggressive westward which led to the great conquests of the General Pan-chao, who led his army of Chinese and Tartars as far as the Caspian, and who defeated near Khoton the Yueh-chi king Kadphises, then established in upper India. It was in this region that Buddhism seems first
over Turkestan.
to
this

have reached China, rather than through Tibet or Burma, and from time China was always more or less directly in communication
(See Hirth, Ancient History of China;

with Western Asia.

Geography

oj" the

Chinese Empire;

Douglas,
)

Richard, Comprehensive China; Boulger, History


Morse,
The Trade and

of China; E. H.

Parker,

China; Y{.

B.

Administration of the Chinese Empire.


64.

silk and silk yarn and silk cloth. See also 49 and 56. This is the earliest correct statement of the under 39, source of silk and of the routes by which it reached the world's
markets.
Silk
is

Raw

the cocoon-secretion of the mulberry-leaf moth,

mori,
first

family Bombycida,

order Lepidoptera;

native,

apparently,

Bombyx and

cultivated, in the

warm-temperate climate of northwestern China.

Chinese legends mention the making of musical instruments of wood, with silk threads, under the emperor Fu-hi, (29th century
B.

C),

while the rearing of the


,

loom,

etc.

are ascribed to Lei-tsu,

worms and the invention of reel, known as the 'Lady of Si-ling,


'

wife of the emperor Huang-ti (27th century B. C-).

Cloth was

woven
classes

of

silk,

embroidered by the empress, and those of the higher

Soon other were enabled to discard skins as wearing apparel. were discovered, and dyeing introduced; so that rank and position were for the first time indicated by the man's outward
textile materials

appearance.
In the Chou-li,
that the
detail,

dating from the 11th century B.

C,

it

appears
every

Chinese government supervised the production of

silk in

and that specialties of design, ornament, and embroidery, were The same book describes already monopolized in different families. trade the provinces of China: King-chou, the modern Hu-naa, had in cinnabar, ivory, and skins; Yu-chou, next on the north and reachi

ing the Yellovir River, traded in bamboos,

varnish,

silk

and hemp;

while the northernmost, Ping-chou (the modern Shan-si)


especially for cotton

was noted

and

silk textures.

It

was

this

province which

264

was most in contact with the nomad tribes of Central whose hands silk first reached the western nations.

Asia, through

(Hirth, Ancient History of China, 9, 22-3, 117, 121-2).

The

antiquity of the silk industry in India


in favor of
its

is

uncertain, but the

weight of evidence seems to be

importation from China,


early

by way of the Brahmaputra


in the Christian era;

valley,

Assam and Eastern Bengal,

while the cultivation of native varieties, not

feeding on mulberry leaves


(the

the

Saturnidce, mcixx^in^

J ntheraa paphia

modern
all

tasar silk);

Anthercca assama (feeding on laurel species


ricini

principally),

and Attacus

(feeding on the castor-oil plant) were


silk.

probably

stimulated by the value of the Bombyx

(See Watt, pp. 992-1026;

Cambridge Natural History, VI, 375.)


silk cloth existed in

The
soon
gifts

trade in silk yarn

and

Northern India
as

after the

Aryan

invasion.

Silk

is

mentioned several times,

from foreign

countries, in the
it

the Institutes of

Manu; and

Mahdbharata, the Ramdyana, and may be assumed that some trade at least
it

went

farther west.

The

Egyptian records do not mention


it

prior

to the Persian conquest,

and

was, no doubt, through the empires of

Darius and Xerxes that

it first

reached the Mediterranean world.


to silk:

the

The Hebrew scriptures contain at least two references dmeshek of Amos III, 12 seems to be the Arabic dimaks,
meslii in

English

damask, a silken fabric; while

mean

a silken gauze.

Isaiah also

Ezekiel XVI, 10 seems to TXLIX, 12) mentions the Sinimm

a manner indicating extreme distance.


It

has been supposed


it

that the<