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Urban Planning in Berlin, London, Paris and Chicago 1910 and 2010

I ntroduction

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100 Years General Town Planning Exhibition in Berlin


Town planning concerns everyone. It influences not just where and how we live and work, and how much we move around, but ultimately our happiness and well-being and that of our descendants. But it also has an impact on the costs of urban living, today and in the future. Planning creates hopes and visions for a better, more liveable city. Over the years it has also been the subject of criticism and outrage. It has a long history and has been practised since cities came into existence. It is only since shortly before the First World War, however, that town planning was established as a profession with its own visions, principles and methods. And back then it was a success story. General Town Planning Exhibition in Berlin 1910 On 1st May, the Allgemeine Stdtebau-Ausstellung (General Town Planning Exhibition) opened its gates at the Royal Arts Academy in Charlottenburg at Hardenbergstrasse (today Berlins University of the Arts). The exhibition was inspired by the urban planning competition for Greater Berlin, the results of which were shown alongside many projects and plans from Germany and abroad. It reached a broad audience, attracting 65,000 visitors; success which came as a surprise to some. The feedback from abroad was equally positive. In August of the same year, it was shown in Dsseldorf and in the autumn some sections of the exhibition were presented at the International Town Planning Conference in London.

I ntroduction

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I ntroduction

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City Visions 1910 | 2010


The exhibition City Visions 1910 | 2010 is a celebration of the anniversary of the General Town Planning Exhibition. It compares two key moments in time: The years around 1910 and 2010. 1910 The planning exhibition of 1910 presented the summation of contemporary urbanist thought and knowledge. It was the first time that an exhibition had given a comprehensive account of the reality of the built environment of metropolitan areas in the industrial age. The aim was to find solutions for the demands of traffic as well as beauty, public health and economic efficiency. The main message was that the problems of large cities could only be overcome with a multi-disciplinary approach. 2010 A hundred years later todays agenda in the postindustrial metropolis is determined by a sustainable design approach. The big themes have remained the same to some degree; their context has changed dramatically, however. A new understanding of urban development is finding its way into town planning strategies, which are often broad in approach and controversial in design. At the same time new problems that threaten the integrity of cities are emerging such as a dramatic weakening of the influence of the public sector, the encroachment of private companies on the public realm and new forms of social polarisation as a result of de-industrialisation and immigration.

Berlin | Paris | London | Chicago


The exhibition concentrates on Berlin, Paris, London and Chicago, four outstanding metropolitan cities, whose approaches to town planning attracted a lot of attention in 1910 as it does today. Berlin In 1910 Berlin was trying to find answers to the challenges of unplanned growth in the industrial age. 100 years later Berlin is considered a model city of the post-industrial society. Paris Paris in 1910 was characterised by the big plans and visions of Eugne Hnard. Todays Grand Pari(s) initiative marks an era of a new national urban development policy. London Previously Greater London was the birthplace of the Garden City Movement, which aimed to decentralise the metropolis in an orderly way. Today it has become the model of a renaissance of urban centres. Chicago In Chicago the world famous plan of Daniel H. Burnham was introduced in 1909. This aspired to enhance a city seen as lacking in beauty. Chicago Metropolis 2020 presents itself as a new strategic plan to develop a sustainable metropolitan region.

City Portraits

City Portraits

10 miles

Berlin
in 1989, Berlins public sector-led approach to urban planning has faced new challenges. Nowadays, an ageing population, increased social polarisation and climate change require new wasys of working. This comes at a time when the public sector is drastically reducing its lead role. Today, Berlin is concentrating its scarce resources on the central district. Alongside its historic splendour, the inner city is still home to former industrial sites and a great deal of former workingclass areas with dense tenement housing, which suffer from social exclusion but are also places to experiment. The outer districts, especially their vast social housing developments, are also important. The major city region of today is larger than its predecessor in 1910 and it is stretching beyond Berlins administrative boundaries into the federal state of Brandenburg. Limiting urban sprawl on one hand and addressing the renaissance of the southern half of the city region, catalysed by the new Berlin Brandenburg International Airport and the revitalisation of Potsdam, require combined efforts from the authorities of Berlin and Brandenburg.

10 miles

London
Population 1910: 7.16 million 2009: 7.8 million (in 2009) Size 1900: 311 km2 (120 mi2) 2001: ,623 km2 (627 mi2) 1 (Greater London in 2001)

Population 1910: 1.67 million 2010: 3.46 million Size 1910: 66 km2 (25.5 mi2) 2010: 892 km2 (344 mi2)

One hundred years ago Berlin was going through immense growth, encouraged by private initiatives. This raised numerous key issues: at the fore were the issues of housing provision, transport capacity and the availability of public open space. At the same time planning professionals considered Berlin to be an urban laboratory, where new visions and new approaches to planning were tested. Many of these ideas were made visible at the Town Planning Exhibition in 1910. After the First World War the circumstances changed dramatically. Berlin was decentralised, the construction of housing in urban areas largely ceased and urban planning became public sector led. By the end of the Second World War, East and West Berlin faced grave housing shortages. Social housing delivery, however, was primarily concentrated in suburban areas. The compact and densely populated fabric of Berlin that had been severely decimated by bombings was further decreased by demolition programmes and car-oriented infrastructure schemes. In the years following the First World War, Berlin relied on strict planning policy controls and heavy subsidies. Since the fall of the Wall

In 1910, London the heart of the British Empire was the capital of the largest political system in the world and the largest city in Europe. In this era, many urban planning strategies were designed to improve imperial London, such as the construction of the ceremonial route, The Mall and the Kingsway through Holborn. This followed half a century from 1855 when large scale urban infrastructure projects such as sewers and underground railways had been pioneered in London. Large and all-encompassing urban plans, however, did not really stand a chance in London around 1900, at least in central London. The urban structure of the inner city experienced little change until the widespread destruction caused by the Second World War. Efforts to decentralise metropolitan areas, through the development of garden suburbs and new towns, were meticulously executed over decades. London doubled in size between 1918 and 1939 but lost population in the 1950s and 1960s at the height of the decentralisation to the new and expanded towns such as Harlow, Stevenage and Peterborough, regaining its upward growth from the 1980s. Industrial decline in London has freed up many industrial sites for redevelopment. One of the largest such sites, was the port of the

West India Docks in East London, which was redeveloped into the Canary Wharf business district during the 1980s. This vast project has moved the financial centre of London eastwards. The late 1990s brought a u-turn in policy from decentralisation towards re-urbanisation, and focused on increased competition and innovation within the service and tourism sectors. The cuts to the system of local politics and planning made by the Conservative government under Margaret Thatcher, reached their zenith in 1986 with the abolition of the Greater London Council, Londons regional governing body. Its functions were transferred to the boroughs and the Government Office for London. The city was in desperate need of coordinated, regional planning and so, in the year 2000, under Tony Blairs Labour government, the Greater London Authority (GLA) was established. The GLA is an institution that sees Londons urban development as a top priority. Strategically placed urban projects, steered by a comparatively lean authority, equipped with similarly lean budgets, are intended to support the regeneration of targeted areas within London. The aim is to turn London into a city that is economically thriving, inclusive and sustainable, with high-quality design.

City Portraits

City Portraits

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Population 1914: .9 million 2 Greater Paris region: > 4 million since 1904 2010: .2 million 2 Greater Paris region: 10.2 million Size 1910: approx. 100 km2 (39 mi2) 2010: 05 km2 (40 mi2) 1 Greater Paris region: 2.8 km2 (1051 mi2)

Paris
Population 1910: 2.19 million 2010: .70 million 2 Greater Chicago region: 9.8 million Size 1920: 500 km2 (192.8 mi2) 2010: pprox. 606 km2 (234 mi2) a of which approx. 588 km2 (227 mi2) is land surface.

10 miles

Chicago
programmes, the construction of inner city motorways, which were mostly implemented after World War II, despite its many modernist architectural gems. Many parts of the city were dominated by urban decline and poverty, with the declining central business district surrounded by derelict, postindustrial quarters. Nowadays, Chicagos inner city area is an attractive workplace, popular leisure centre and most of all a desirable residential location. Its reputation comes mainly from an innovative approach regarding urban revitalisation since the 1990s, but also from a clever combination of market orientated development policies and strategic planning. Once again the Commercial Club helped to deliver change to the City through planning. Of particular importance for the change in planning strategy was the support given by Richard M. Daley, Mayor of Chicago since 1989. The socially ambivalent consequences of this marketorientated development are very much apparent in Chicagos urban fabric today, mainly in buzzing public spaces and parks or re-used historic buildings.

By 1910 Paris had accomplished its dramatic redevelopment programme, begun during the second half of the 19th century. This redevelopment, associated with the name of prefect Georges Eugne Haussmann, continues to affect the fabric and image of the central city today. Until 1910, its connectivity to the outer areas was strongly limited by the historic city wall. At that time, all attempts to break this ring failed. The construction of the underground metro since 1900 and later the introduction of the regional-high speed-rail system in the 1970s, however, has since connected the inner city with outer areas. Since the 1960s the urban ring road, Boulevard Prifrique, forms a new barrier. Neither government nor any other official planning policy co-ordinated metropolitan planning / activities for a long time. The banlieue, or urban fringe, remained dominated by pavillonnaire, single dwelling suburban housing. The construction of five new satellite cities, villes nouvelles, from 1965 onwards has not changed the situation notably. However, over the last ten years some new ideas have emerged. In 2007 the dispute over the competition for the conversion of the covered market, Les Halles, led to a change in opinion about

the importance of this central location for the entire metropolitan area. In June 2009 the cross-borough partnership, Paris Mtropole, was founded. The historically single centre-focused Paris is moving away from splendid isolation. An expert study by 10 invited planning groups, Le Grand Pari du Grand Paris (The Big Challenge for Greater-Paris), began in 2008 and promised a comprehensive urban vision. The study envisages a metropolis suited to the postKyoto Protocol era committing to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases, in terms of mobility, density, densification of the pavillonaire (single dwelling suburban housing areas), regeneration of the grands ensembles (large social housing estates), urban agriculture and, lastly, a new structuring of the spatial organisation of the entire metropolitan area. The details of the overall process are highly debated by the public. The history of Grand Paris might have to be rewritten.

The second half of the 19th century brought a phase of incredible growth for Chicago which had not even existed prior to 1800 and was only made a city in 1836. Within a few decades the city turned from a small military town on Lake Michigan to the second biggest city in the USA and into one of largest industrial metropolitan areas in the world. The city became famous for its dynamism and prosperity. The unmanaged growth that accompanied Chicagos rapid industrialisation, however, was characterised by housing shortages, social conflict, traffic chaos and unsanitary conditions. The business elite of the city, in a group called the Commercial Club, responded to these problems by commissioning the Plan of Chicago (1909). The Plan, designed by Daniel Burnham and Edward Bennett, delivered a regional approach to planning of hitherto unknown scale. It was recognised as exemplar well beyond the borders of the US. Unfortunately this dynamic Spirit of Chicago could not prevent the post Great Depression and World War II decline of the city which accelerated because of suburbanisation and deindustrialisation. Until the early 1980s, Chicago was still suffering from the consequences of this decline and of comprehensive Urban Renewal

1910

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1910

#1 The Big Plan

Berlin

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The Big Plan


The big urban plan, and its present ational medium, the birds eye view, was considered a driving force of urban planning by 1910. This approach formed part of a clear style of 20th century planning, distinct from plan ning practices in the 19th century. This later form of planning used more pragmatic urban extension plans to steer the enormous growth of cities in the era of industrialisation. The competition GroBerlin 1908/1910 for example, demanded a comprehensive reform of the entire metropolitan region including the historic centre and the suburbs. In the 19th century town planning was mostly based on defining the border between public and privately owned land, the regulation of build ing heights, and initiatives to improve the citys technical and transport infrastructures. A more holistic approach to planning developed in the 20th century, which included subjects such as road and rail infra structure, public recreation spaces healthy living conditions and the grouping of grand civic buildings. Fascination with the big plan was an international phenomenon. The labo rious images were no longer directed exclusively at aristocrats or planning experts, but were looking to appeal to a broad section of the population to convince them of the need for radical plans. The American City Beautiful Movement is a prime exam ple. In 1909 politicians and civilians alike were particularly drawn to the Plan of Chicago because of its im pressive birds eye views painted by Jules Guerin. This popular plan, effective as an advertisement yet extremely complex, became the subject of a local, national and inter national media hype. Today the Plan of Chicago continues to symbolise the big plan. Make no little plans; they have no magic to stir mens blood []. Make big plans; aim high in hope and work, remembering that a noble, logical diagram once record ed will never die, but long after we are gone will be a living thing, asserting itself with evergrowing insistency.
Quote attributed to Daniel H. Burnham, speech at the Town Planning Conference, London 1910

Plan for the spatial development of Greater Berlin


Contribution to the urban planning competition for Greater Berlin 1908/1910

Hermann Jansen

The plan for the spatial development of Greater Berlin (Grundplan fr die bauliche Entwicklung von Gro-Berlin) is one of two projects that were awarded the first prize in the urban planning competition for Greater Berlin 1908/1910. The main topic of Hermann Jansens contribution was within the limits of possibility. Jansen became Professor

of Urban Planning at the Technische Hochschule BerlinCharlottenburg in 1923. The plan at a scale of 1:10,000 roughly covers the area of Berlin today, a size which was initially reached in 1920. The plan includes eyecatching features, including parklands and open spaces, and a railway network, both above and underground.

1 Hermann Jansen Contribution to the urban planning competition for Greater Berlin 1908 /1910, overview
Courtesy: Architekturmuseum der Technischen Universitt Berlin, Inv. Nr. 20513

1910

#1 The Big Plan

Berlin

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1910

#1 The Big Plan

Paris

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Vision for Berlins urban city region


Contribution to the urban planning competition for Greater Berlin 1908/1910

Albert Gessner

Plan for redevelopment and extension of Paris

Lon Jaussely / Roger-Henri Expert / Louis Sollier

This aerial view shows a vision of an ordered, urban metropolis. It clearly demonstrates how Greater Berlin was perceived on a region al level. The lower third of the picture shows Kreuzberg Hill. In the background is Berlins green hinterland, with numerous water ways. The picture was part of the contribution by Berlins architect Albert Gessner for the compet ition for Greater Berlin 1908/1910 and it won a special prize of the jury. It followed the motto Become the most comfortable place to live in the world (Werde der wohnlichste Wohnort der Welt).

2 Albert Gessner Contribution to the urban planning competition for Greater Berlin 1908 /1910, Sdbahnhofstreet to Lake Mggel, birds eye view 2
Courtesy: Architekturmuseum der Technischen Universitt Berlin, Inv. Nr. 8014

The plan for the redevelopment and extension of Paris by Lon Jaussely, Roger Henri Expert and Louis Sollier won the first prize in a competition for the exten sion and beautification of Paris in 1919. The basis for the competition, run by the Dpartement Seine was the release of a new town planning law from 1919 (Loi Cornudet). The awardwinning plan is considered to be a summary of urban visions for Grand Paris in the 1910s. The design is reminiscent of the (also award winning) plan, which Hermann Jansen submitted for Berlin in 1910.

Framed facsimile: Lon Jaussely, Roger-Henri Expert, Louis Sollier Plan for the redevelopment and extension of Paris, 1919
Courtesy: Acadmie darchitecture / Cit de larchitecture et du patrimoine / Archives darchitecture du XXe sicle

1910

#1 The Big Plan

London

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1910

#1 The Big Plan

Chicago

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An Imaginary Plan for London

Paul Waterhouse

Daniel H. Burnham / Edward H. Bennett

Plan of Chicago

Birds-eye view looking at Chicago on the banks of Lake Michigan

Chicagos strategic position on two important waterways, and its importance as a railway centre, turned the city into a key infra structure hub in North America in the second half of the 19th century. Burnhams vision for the Plan of Chicago was illus trated with watercolour paintings drawn in Burnhams office but coloured in by Jules Guerin. The vast extent of the area depicted in the drawings matches the scale of opportunities available to the rapidly growing Chicago. The existing transport infrastruc ture in the region facilitated Chicagos expansion plans.

This plan is a curious manifesto of ideal ism and coherence. Waterhouse recon figured the patchwork chaos of Londons urban fabric into a geometrically ordered plan, but kept the most important sites, such as a Royal Palace which would have replaced Buckingham Palace, in their historicallydetermined locations. His plan was a retroactive manifesto as it main tained the randomness of historical evo lution, and so demonstrated how London could have been shaped by a general plan when there was no desire to have such a plan.

Framed facsimile: Paul Waterhouse An Imaginary Plan of London, 1907


Courtesy: RIBA Library Drawings & Archives Collections

2 Daniel H. Burnham, Edward H. Bennett Plan of Chicago, birds eye view over Chicago on the banks of Lake Michigan, 1909 Drawing: Jules Guerin
Courtesy: Chicago History Museum

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#2 Monumental City Centre

Berlin

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Monumental City Centre


The exceptional growth of large urban regions put enormous pressure to modernise on many preindustrial cities in Europe. Next to traditional civic buildings like churches, castles and town halls, new buildings were erected such as universities, museums, theatres, monuments to trade and commerce, hotels, and government and administrative buildings. The dev elopment of the contemporary city centre most notably grew around train stations and along high streets. Medieval historic centres were ren dered less relevant and became sites for radical redevelopment and demo lition, often to clear the way for new infrastructure. The main objective of the ruling classes in the era before the First World War was the construction of the Monumentalstadt (Monumental City). An impressive arrangement of monumental buildings was intended to give the public realm a new and impressive dimension. The unchallenged model for these kinds of transformations was Paris, which in 1853 was given a modern yet artful compact shape by Georg esEugne Haussmann. Haussmann concentrated on the meticulous application of classic design princi ples such as axis and symmetry and therefore focused on a histori cally grounded understanding of monumentality. Via the Parisian cole des Beaux-Arts, which had a strong influence on urban planning in the United States, the idea of mon umentality was adopted by Daniel H. Burnham in the Plan of Chicago of 1909 and informed the City Beautiful Movement. In London the redevelopment of the Mall embodied a symbol of global power, though was relatively small in size, and its impact on the city as a whole was not great. Paris followed with projects by Eugne Hnard. At the Greater Berlin competition 1908/ 1910, Eberstadt, Mhring & Petersen proposed to transform the Knigsplatz (the Kings Square) into the Reichsforum (National Forum) of imperial grandeur, while Bruno Schmitz, with his birds eye view of a monumental Berlin, even outplayed Burnhams civic design for Chicago. Most large cities only show character in their city centres.
Translated from Werner Hegemann, in: Der Stdtebau nach den Ergebnissen der Allgemeinen Stdtebau-Ausstellung in Berlin, Vol. 1, Berlin 1911

Monumental City Centre


Contribution to the urban planning competition for Greater Berlin 1908/1910

Havestadt & Contag / Schmitz & Blum

The most startling contribution to the Greater Berlin competition was the set of large charcoal drawings made by respected preservationist Bruno Schmitz. The drawings displayed a vision for Berlin, which overstated the scale of Berlin as a world city. A monumental city (Monumentalstadt) north of the Koenigsplatz, accommodating palaces of the arts and civic buildings, form the largest of five areas included in the expansion of Berlins city centre. To avoid disturbing the artistic expression of his drawings, Schmitz did not define any specific uses.

Framed facsimile, top: Havestadt & Contag, Schmitz und Blum Contribution to the urban planning competition for Greater Berlin 1908 /1910, New-Berlin around North Central Station, birds eye view
Courtesy: Architekturmuseum der Technischen Universitt Berlin, Inv. Nr. 8010

bottom: Havestadt & Contag, Schmitz und Blum Contribution to the urban planning competition for Greater Berlin 1908 /1910, New-Berlin around South Central Station, birds eye view
Courtesy: Architekturmuseum der Technischen Universitt Berlin, Inv. Nr. 8008

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#2 Monumental City Centre

Berlin

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1910

#2 Monumental City Centre

Paris

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Upgrading of Kniggrtzer Street between Anhalt Station and Potsdam Station


Contribution to the urban planning competition for Greater Berlin 1908/1910

Joseph Brix / Felix Genzmer

Promenade and viewing corridor between Champs lyses and Invalides

Eugne Hnard

Like other competitors, Brix and Genzmer proposed a northsouth railway line to be run under Berlins central park (Tiergarten). With two stations close to Potsdamer Platz there was not enough space to cope with the number of people moving to and from the station. This was solved by directing commuter trains to Potsdam Station (Potsdamer Bahnhof) and national rail to Anhalt Station (Anhalter Bahnhof). Both were strategically linked by a newly widen ed street, which freed up space for the expansion of the business district around Leipziger and Potsdamer Platz.

3 Brix & Genzmer Contribution to the urban planning competition for Greater Berlin 1908 /1910, perspective view of the widened Kniggrtzer Street to become a grand boulevard adjacent to the station. Painting: Otto Gnther-Naumburg
Courtesy: Architekturmuseum der Technischen Universitt Berlin, Inv. Nr. 20132

4 Brix & Genzmer Kniggrtzer Street, location plan


Courtesy: Architekturmuseum der Technischen Universitt Berlin

Only a few of the ideas of Eugne Hnard were ever realised. One of them was the magnificent promenade and visual axis, which was created for the Worlds Fair in 1900. The promenade, which spanned the River Seine, was designed to connect two significant areas of the city, the Champs lyses and the Esplanade des Invalides. The Alexander III Bridge (Pont Alexandre III) was built specifically to form this link. Hnards promenade effectuated one of the most significant transformations in the layout of Paris since the extensive inter ventions of GeorgesEugne Haussmann in the 19th century.

1 Eugne Hnard The new promenade Champs lyses Esplanade des Invalides, birds eye view
Courtesy: Cit de larchitecture et du patrimoine / Archives darchitecture du XXe sicle (Reproduction of unknown origin)

2 Eugne Hnard The new promenade Champs lyses Esplanade des Invalides, plan, 1894 / 1900
Courtesy: Cit de larchitecture et du patrimoine / Archives darchitecture du XXe sicle (Reproduction of unknown origin)

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#2 Monumental City Centre

London

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1910

#2 Monumental City Centres

London

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Design for the Queen Victoria Monument


Plan and birds eye view

Aston Webb

Central Plan of London

Paul Waterhouse

The redesign of The Mall, by Aston Webb in the early 20th century, forms the centrepiece of imperial urban planning in London. The large statue of Queen Victoria in front of Buckingham Palace, and Admiralty Arch, which forms the entrance to The Mall, were part of Webbs redesign. Webb also added the very thin stone facing to the palaces faade.

1 Aston Webb Design for the Queen Victoria Monument and the redevelopment of The Mall, birds eye view, 1903
Courtesy: RIBA Library Drawings & Archives Collections

With his plan to create a new thorough fare in the centre of London, Paul Waterhouse hoped to improve eastwest circulation of traffic. His street layout, however, was not straight like Georges Eugne Haussmanns design for Paris, but curved, following John Nashs design

for Regent Street. Waterhouse thought the composition would create surprising moments and enable the design of interesting commercial buildings.

2 Paul Waterhouse Central Plan of London showing changes to the two main roads as well as one additional thoroughfare south of the Thames, 1907
Courtesy: RIBA Library Drawings & Archives Collections

1910

#2 Monumental City Centre

Chicago

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Daniel H. Burnham / Edward H. Bennett

Plan of Chicago

Birds-eye view looking from the west with proposed Civic Center Plaza as urban centre

The planners of Chicago paid special attention to its core or central area, where central junctions were identified as ideal locations for grand civic buildings. At the terminus of an impressive boulevard, was a 50,000 square metre forum for civic administration, with the town hall at its heart. The administrative cluster was never realised and its site is now a huge motor way junction.

1 Daniel H. Burnham, Edward H. Bennett Plan of Chicago, birds eye view looking over the city from the west, showing proposed Civic Center Plaza as central hub of a system of main traffic thorough-fares and surroundings, 1909 Drawing: Jules Guerin
Courtesy: Chicago History Museum

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1910

#3 New Models for Dense Urban Living

Berlin

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New Models for Dense Urban Living


The housing problem formed the central debate in the European town planning discourse. Criticism was focused on the living conditions of workers in denselybuilt and over crowded tenement housing areas. Towards the end of the 19th century these stretched well beyond the boundary of the city centres into new developments in the outskirts. Planners generally saw their own cities as a bad example and looked to others to draw inspiration. While Ebenezer Howard wanted to get rid of the chaos of London, Daniel H. Burnham recommended George Eugne Haussmanns Paris as a role model for Chicagos reorganisation. This in turn was a nightmare prospect for many reformers in Germany, who viewed London with its suburbs as a role model. This international climate of criticism and propaganda furthered impressive urban alternatives to highdensity city centres. Berlin was one of the centres of discussion and a testing ground for new ideas. Experiments with new urban block typologies, private roads, mixeduse developments and new district centres in the urban fringe were manifold. Eugne Hnard invented a new stepped building structure for Paris which allowed faades to project into the streets they flanked, an alternative that never saw the light of day. Londons slums began to be replaced with modern workers quarters funded from the public purse and charities. Daniel H. Burnham was inspired by an allembracing streamlining of the large city. All these alternatives insist ed on dense urban patterns, urban streets and public spaces. The biggest new invention was a new type of largescale urban project; new city districts built in one go by a new generation of private land dev elopment companies. These were typically narrow building blocks with courtyards and were mainly targeted at highincome residents. To some progressive planners of the era such private land development companies were nothing more than speculative developers. Their rented apartments were compared to working class ten ements and urban design exhibitions largely ignored these typologies. 1,088,269 of Berlins residents (excluding Greater Berlin) are living in flats, where every single heated room contains between 3 and 13 people. Berlin has got a population of 2,040,148.

Development of the Tempelhofer Feld


Contribution to the urban planning competition for Greater Berlin 1908/1910

Hermann Jansen

2 Hermann Jansen Contribution to the urban planning competition for Greater Berlin 1908 /1910, proposed design for Tempelhofer Feld
Courtesy: Architekturmuseum der Technischen Universitt Berlin, Inv. Nr. 20553

Framed facsimile: Hermann Jansen Contribution to the urban planning competition for Greater Berlin 1908 /1910, birds eye view of the proposed buildings on the western part of Tempelhofer Feld
Courtesy: Architekturmuseum der Technischen Universitt Berlin, Inv. Nr. 20563

3 Land parcels plan of Tempelhofer Feld


Courtesy: Architekturmuseum der Technischen Universitt Berlin, Inv. Nr. 20570

The development of the western Tempelhofer Feld (Field) caused one of the biggest disputes in Berlin prior to the First World War. Hermann Jansen sub mitted a design proposal to the Greater Berlin 1908/1910 competition, for a residential quarter, with an urban block structure that omitted lateral blocks and side wings. The birds eye view from 1910 shows an attractive urban alternative to the outdated, dense tenement stock, and a generous green belt can be seen in the background. Jansens proposal was never realised.

Translated from Statistical Institute Berlin (Chairman Heinrich Silbergleit), at the Town Planning Exhibition 1910

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#3 New Models for Dense Urban Living

Berlin

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1910

#3 New Models for Dense Urban Living

Paris

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Carl-James Bhring

The Civic Forum Weiensee


New centre in a growing metropolitan region

Boulevard Redans

Eugne Hnard

1 Aston Webb Plan des Queen-VictoriaDenkmals und die Neuordnung der Mall. Situationsplan und Vogelschau
Quelle: RIBA Library Drawings & Archives Collections

In the heyday of local municipal comp etition, some suburban authorities devel oped local town centres, with the hope of supporting localised urbanisation and creating local identities. This helped to establish the base for Berlins polycentric structure. One example is the Civic Forum (Kommunales Forum) of the Weiensee borough. This forum, which was built between 1907 and 1912, was based on plans by the local development director, CarlJames Bhring.

It comprised a hall for community uses, a public pool, an innovative high school, fire station and housing for civil servants arranged around a small lake. Civic devel opment in Weiensee was made possible by the establishment of a land acquisition fund, a public initiative to acquire the necessary properties.

4 Carl-James Bhring Plan of the Civic Forum Weiensee


Source: Moderne Bauformen. Monatshefte fr Architektur und Raumkunst, 6 / 1915, p. 214

5 Secondary school at the Civic Forum


Source: Moderne Bauformen. Monatshefte fr Architektur und Raumkunst, 6 / 1915, p. 213

6 Hospice at the Civic Forum


Source: Moderne Bauformen. Monatshefte fr Architektur und Raumkunst,, 6 / 1915,p. 219

With his Boulevard Redans stepped boulevard, Eugne Hnard developed an alternative to the outdated boulevards of 19th century Paris. While Hnards concept did not greatly alter building density or landownership rights, inter locking building frontage elements allowed

for increased window sizes, improving access to natural light and broke up the wall created by building frontages Hnards idea, however, was never implemented.

1 Eugne Hnard Boulevard `a Redans, 1903, section, plan


Source: Eugne Hnard, tudes sur les transformations de Paris, 1903 1909

2 Comparison to traditional boulevard


Source: Eugne Hnard, tudes sur les transformations de Paris, 1903 1909

3 Boulevard `a redans, perspective


Courtesy: Eugne Hnard, tudes sur les transformations de Paris, 1903 - 1909

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#3 New Models for Dense Urban Living

London

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1910

#3 New Models for Dense Urban Living

Chicago

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Condition before and after redevelopment 18931900

London County Council (LCC), Architects Department

Daniel H. Burnham / Edward H. Bennett

Plan of Chicago

Planned boulevard connecting north and south sides of the river

The Boundary Street Estate in Bethnal Green (18931900) was the first big project initiated by the Architects Department of the London County Council (LCC) to clear slums and replace them with flats for workers. The simple, red brick buildings, which featured traditional, resi dential decorative elements such as gables, surrounded a circular green. The LCC applied ideas from the Arts and Crafts Move ment to the design of buildings. Despite their configuration in rows rather than perimeter blocks a mixeduse quarter with many urban functions was formed.
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Chicagos transport system could not cope with its volume of passengers, and its business quarter in particular was heavily congested. One solution pro posed by the planners was the widening of Michigan Avenue, which had the purpose to sepa rate goods and service deliveries from the elegant lives of shoppers. Planned as a grand boulevard, the entire road was to be ele vated so that the eastwest traffic could pass underneath with help of ramps. A double decker bridge was to then lead the traffic unhindered across the Chicago River.

2 1 Boundary Street Scheme, before renewal, 1893


Courtesy: City of London and London Metropolitan Archives

2 Boundary Street Scheme, after renewal, 1900


Courtesy: City of London and London Metropolitan Archives

1 Daniel H. Burnham, Edward H. Bennett Plan of Chicago, birds eye view looking over the city from the west, showing proposed Civic Center Plaza as central hub of a system of main traffic thorough-fares and surroundings, 1909 Drawing: Jules Guerin
Courtesy: Chicago History Museum

1910

C hapter #4

1910

#4 Green Belts, Corridors and Parks

Berlin

p. 1

Green Belts, Corridors and Parks


An orderly growth of metropolitan areas with help of green grids and green belts or green wedges was seen by many social reformers as a way to achieve health and well being of the metropolitan population. Dense development of these areas was to be structured with decorative, productive, outer and inner parks and flooded with light and air. Public parks and baths, lidos and large rec reational areas for play and sport were mostly planned for the working classes. It was believed that a healthy population would lead to an increase in productivity. In this context the work of landscape architects came to the fare. The park section of the Town Planning Exhibi tion 1910 was a favourite amongst the visitors. In Paris Eugne Hnard designed a plan with nine parks, which, connect ed through the Boulevard Redans alongside the former city wall, were supposed to surround the inner city. The entries for the Greater Berlin competition 1908 contained a multi tude of concepts to make the metro politan region greener. While Hermann Jansen proposed two con centric green belts, Bruno Mhring envisaged green strips that connect ed the city centre with the city fringe. In the US, park planning reached hitherto unknown dimensions. The Plan of Chicago, introduced in 1909 by Daniel H. Burnham and Edward H. Bennett, envisaged several rings of parks and thus linked their plan conceptually to the Park networks of the Olmsted Brothers. The aim was to provide every resident in the city with a park in walking distance. These American park systems became a much admired model for Europe. These parks and open space networks of the American cities comprise everything that people living in dense large cities need for their recreation.

Plan for Green Spaces


Contribution to the urban planning competition for Greater Berlin 1908/1910

Joseph Brix / Felix Genzmer

1 Translated from Leberecht Migge, in: Die Gartenkultur des 20. Jahrhunderts, Jena 1913

The establishment and protection of green infrastructure was a central concern for the Greater Berlin competition 1908/10. The plan by Brix and Genzmer, two pro fessors at the Technical University, aimed to maintain surrounding woodlands as well as significantly expanding green spaces. Brix and Genzmer also suggested creating an association with the purpose of acquir ing and managing the woodlands. How ever, the jury criticised the plan, arguing that the green bands did not enter deep enough into the urban centre.

1 Brix & Genzmer Contribution to the urban planning competition for Greater Berlin 1908 /1910, plan for green spaces
Courtesy: Architekturmuseum der Technischen Universitt Berlin, Inv. Nr. 20122

2 Scheme drawing of the arrangement of green spaces 2


Source: Eberstadt, Rudolf / Mhring, Bruno / Petersen, Richard: Gro-Berlin. Ein Programm fr die Planung der neuzeitlichen Grostadt, Berlin 1901, p. 5

1910

#4 Green Belts, Corridors and Parks

Berlin

p. 2

1910

#4 Green Belts, Corridors and Parks

Paris

p. 1

Schillerpark in Berlin

Friedrich Bauer

Expansion of Paris

Eugne Hnard

Eugne Hnards plan from 1905, which was never imple mented, addressed a public debate about the extremely low proportion of green spaces in Paris. The planning area includ ed the suburban area (Grand Paris) and comprised 165 km2 with 3.47 million residents (1906). The plan proposed a homogenous distribution of new parks, particularly in areas where parks were lacking. Furthermore Hnard suggested a total merge of the suburbs (banlieue) with Paris an idea which still pre occupies planners today.

Before the World War I there was wide spread criticism of the lack of playgrounds and usable small urban spaces (play grounds, parks, promenades) in Berlin. One attempt to rectify this situation was the Schillerpark, built 19091913 in the North of Berlin and designed by land scape architect and gardening poet Friedrich Bauer of Magdeburg. This park was widely praised at the time, Werner Hegemann called the Schillerpark the

first modern park in Berlin, as it allotted large spaces to be used for playing sports and games. The meadow for citizens on the left was intended for relaxation purposes, while the meadow for students on the right was for sport.

3 Friedrich Bauer Plan of the Schillerpark in Berlin, 1909 1913


Source: Bericht ber die Gemeinde-Verwaltung der Stadt Berlin in den Verwaltungs-Jahren 1906 bis 1910, Vol.1, Berlin 1912, after p. 222

1 Eugne Hnard Extension of Paris with existing and newly created green spaces, 1909
Source: Der Stdtebau, 7/1910, table 1/2

2 Eugne Hnard Population density in Paris and surroundings, 1909


Source: Der Stdtebau, 7/1910, table 1/2

1910

#4 Green Belts, Corridors and Parks

Chicago

p. 2

1910

#4 Green Belts, Corridors and Parks

Chicago

p. 3

Frederick Law Olmsted / John Charles Olmsted

Park No.2

Daniel H. Burnham / Edward H. Bennett

Plan of Chicago

Birds eye view of Grant Park with planned marina, lagoons and park on the south side

Chicagos park system included several neighbourhood parks, which were comparatively small (on average 4 hectares). They were used for recreation and child play. Park No. 2, for example con tained a large sports field, which could be turned into an ice skat ing rink in the winter. It also con tained a race track, a swimming and paddling pool, a playground and playing field for children as well as a community centre. Such facilities were typical of Chicagos new parks.

2 Park No. 2
Source: Werner Hegemann, Der Stdtebau, Vol. 2, Berlin 1913, fig. 305

Grant Park occupies the central part of the urban waterfront of Lake Michigan. The park itself was intended to be Chicagos cultural centre, with museums and a library dedicated to the arts and sciences. In front of the park a marina was proposed, while to the north and south, water parks with lagoons, beaches and promenades were to be added. Their purpose was to offer recreational facilities for Chicagos residents, especially during the hot summer months.

Framed facsimile: Daniel H. Burnham, Edward H. Bennett Plan of Chicago, birds eye view of Grant Park, the marina, lagoons and park on the south side. Drawing: Jules Guerin
Courtesy: Chicago History Museum

1910

C hapter #5

1910

#5 New Garden Suburbs

Berlin

p. 1

New Garden Suburbs


Suburbs had long existed alongside large cities, but the arrival of railways meant they could be far larger and further from the city centre. The prospect of more space and escape from the increasingly dense, noisy and unhealthy central areas gradually made them favoured residential districts for the middle class. In 1898 Ebenezer Howard proposed a radical new urban model, the garden city. It was conceived of as a selfsufficient urban community, cooperatively organised, made greener and restricted to 32,000 residents. It aimed for an ideal syn thesis of city and countryside. This idea was convincing. What made the garden cities distinctive and attractive, in particular to the middle classes, was their landscaping, small commercial centres and good transport connections to the central city. Raymond Unwin planned the first, Letchworth, and with his partner Barry Parker produced a memorable architectural idiom that slyly adjusted vernacular architectural forms for civic and private life. The very attractiveness of the image they produced undermined the purity of Howards social ideals, because the architecture was easier to imitate than the social programme was to inculcate. Consequently what looked like garden cities were at best garden suburbs, extensions to towns that were not selfsufficient in the way Howard envisaged. The Garden City Movement had barely begun to take off when it was absorbed as yet another suburban typology. Almost all contributions to the Greater Berlin competition 1908/1910 used this typology. Exam ples were the Garden City Frohnau in Berlin (1908), Londons Hampstead Garden Suburb (1905), also planned by Unwin, and the CitJardin du Grand Paris (1919) in Paris. The garden suburb of the early 20th century was built around its own local centre and train station, which differs from later suburbs, character ised by autocentric, urban sprawl. City and countryside need to wed and the outcome will be new hope, new life and a new culture.
Ebenezer Howard, in: Garden Cities of Tomorrow, London 1902

Garden City Frohnau

Joseph Brix / Felix Genzmer

In 1907, the construction of Frohnau, a commercial garden city was planned for the Northern edge of Berlin. The client was the Berliner TerrainCentrale. The design of Frohnau was de cided through a competition in 1908, won by Joseph Brix and Felix Genzmer, both professors at the Technical University of Berlin. As the land parcels plan from 1913 shows, the garden city had a distinctive centre with a square either side of the station, surrounded by a system of curved streets.

1 Felix Genzmer Plans for Berlin-Frohnau, 1908


Courtesy: Architekturmuseum der Technischen Universitt Berlin, Inv. Nr. 1273

2 Plan of the Garden City Frohnau


Source: Gartenstadt Frohnau an der Nordbahn zwischen Hermsdorf und Stolpe, advert, Berlin 1913

1910

#5 New Garden Suburbs

Berlin

p. 3

1910

#5 New Garden Suburbs

London

p. 2

A perfect small settlement


Contribution to the urban planning competition for Greater Berlin 1908/1910

Hermann Jansen

Hampstead Garden Suburb

Barry Parker / Raymond Unwin

2 Bary Parker, Raymond Unwin Proposal for Hampstead Garden Suburb, plan, 1905
Courtesy: City of London and London Metropolitan Archives

3 Bary Parker, Raymond Unwin Plan of Hampstead Garden Suburb showing Edwin Lutyens design for the town square
Courtesy: London Metropolitan Archives

4 Raymond Unwin Design for group of eight non-detached dwellings for Hampstead Garden Suburb, perspective, 1905
Courtesy: First Garden City Heritage Museum, Letchworth

Shortly before the World War I a radical change took place in the typology of sub urban housing. The aim was to develop small settlements and single house types to make life outside the city centre in creasingly accessible to the less privileged social classes. As part of the Greater Berlin competition 1908/10 Hermann Jansen pre sented a small residential estate with group ed terraced houses. Jansen succeeded in creating a relatively urban typology for this project.

4 5 Hermann Jansen Competition for Greater Berlin 1908 /1910, estate with small residences (Kleinwohnungssiedlung), birds eye view
Courtesy: Architekturmuseum der Technischen Universitt Berlin, Inv. Nr. B 2619,06

Hampstead Garden Suburb was the most sophisticated and convincing plan for a new garden suburb in London. Garden suburbs differed from garden cities in that they were attached to existing cities, rather than selfcontained social and eco nomic entities. It had begun as a social enterprise by the philanthropist Henrietta Barnett. In the first plan, Unwin and Parker suggested an informal and curved net work of streets, which, together with the traditional English village green, aimed to give people a sense of traditional village life. In 1908 Edwin Lutyens turned the Green into a geometrically ordered town square with the main frontage formed by an educational building with two churches at either side.

Unwin did not have typical suburban singlefamily dwellings in mind when he designed Hampstead Garden Suburb. Even if the single dwelling formed the basic typology these were part of a wider spatial plan. Groupings of eight white walled and red roofed single family homes were designed, which created a unified aesthetic, but allowed for slight differences on second glance. In addition, they were assembled around a communal courtyard and grouped using shared walls and roofs to create an enclosed ensemble.

1910

C hapter #6

1910

#6 Metropolitan Mobility

Berlin

p. 1

Metropolitan Mobility
The traffic problem was hotly debat ed at the Town Planning Exhibition in 1910. The prime objective was an im proved organisation of the expanding metropolitan area with the help of a system of radial highspeed rail and primary roads. The centre was to make way for the modern age of transport with numerous projects to drive new roads through historic urban fabric. Metropolitan regions and masstransport have since be come important subjects in terms of town planning. The extreme growth of many metropolises in the early 20th century, made new transport infrastructure projects inevitable. The old road network could no longer cope with the new requirements of passenger and freight transportation. The rail lines serving suburban com muters already played an important role in 1910. In the early 20th century newly built and extended railway and underground systems in Berlin, Paris, London and Chicago improved con nections between the city centre and the region. These were funded by private companies or by the public sector. Whether lines were planned above or below ground was often controver sial. Technical, design quality and fi nancial arguments had to be weighed up. Costs for overground lines were more affordable, but elevated rail ways on viaducts were not only a source of noise but also unsightly. Vi sions of highlevel railways joining the tops of buildings did not come to fruition. Many of the plans to open up new streets inside the city centres, which were exhibited at the Town Planning Exhibition in 1910, never saw the light of day. That spared catastrophic con sequences for the urban fabric of many cities. [] for the first time ever there has been a planning strategy for the transport in metropolitan areas.
Werner Hegemann on the importance of transport issues, in: Der Stdtebau nach den Ergebnissen der Allgemeinen Stdtebau-Ausstellung in Berlin, Vol. 2, Berlin 1913

Design for a high-speed rail network in Greater Berlin

Erich Giese

Railways generated rapid growth in greater Berlin during the second half of the 19th century. Around 1900 highspeed rail was the primary driver of deurban isation as it brought more distant areas within reach. In response to this pressure, plans for expanding the rail network became a central part of submissions for the Greater Berlin competition 1908/10. The proposal by Eric Giese from 1916 shows the fast growing rail network, which was slowed down abruptly by World War I.

1 Erich Giese Design for a high-speed rail network for Greater Berlin, 1916
Courtesy: Erich Giese, Das zuknftige Schnellbahnnetz fr Gro-Berlin, ed. Verband GroBerlin, Berlin 1919, table 13

1910

#6 Metropolitan Mobility

Berlin

p. 2

1910

#6 Metropolitan Mobility

London

p. 1

August Scherl

Proposal for an elevated railway

Diagram of a central city with surrounding garden cities Map of the Ten Cities of Health
With his original Garden City concept of a central city for 58,000 inhabitants, surrounded by six wellconnected small gar den cities of 32,000 inhabitants, Ebenezer Howard proposed a metropolitan planning vision as an alternative to the chaotically growing city. A schematic trans lation of this diagram is present ed in the proposal of Ten Cities of Health in Londons hinterland, presented by Whitechapels district surveyor at the London Town Planning Conference of the RIBA in 1910. It shows how a social idea with utopian goals can gradually be translated into reality. This idea was only realised after World War II in the new towns that followed Patrick Abercrombies Greater London Plan of 1944, the New Towns Act of 1946 or the Town and Country Planning Act of 1947.

Ebenezer Howard

Arthur Crow

Radical alternatives to the outdated metro railway system were a frequent topic of discussion in the years before World War I, due to the increasing importance of high speed rail transport for the metropolitan region. August Scherl, publicist and media mogul proposed an elevated railway in 1909. He recommended a radialperiphery system with several concentric rings, served by radial railways terminating at a central station. The elevated trains never came to fruition but they did attract a lot of publicity.

2 August Scherl Proposal for the central station for an elevated railway, 1909
Courtesy: August Scherl, Ein neues Schnellbahn-System. Vorschlge zur Verbesserung des Personen-Verkehrs, Berlin 1909, p. 95

3 August Scherl Proposal for an elevated railway, 1909


Courtesy: August Scherl, Ein neues Schnellbahn-System. Vorschlge zur Verbesserung des Personen-Verkehrs, Berlin 1909, p. 95

1 1 Ebenezer Howard Diagram of central city with surrounding garden cities


Source: Ebenezer Howard, Garden Cities of Tomorrow, 2nd edition, London 1902

2 Arthur Crow Map of the Ten Cities of Health, 1910


Source: Town Planning Conference, RIBA 1910

3 2

1910

#6 Metropolitan Mobility

Chicago

p. 1

Daniel H. Burnham / Edward H. Bennett

Plan of Chicago
Plan of the outer, concentric and radial highways

1 Daniel H. Burnham, Edward H. Bennett Plan of Chicago, plan of the outer, concentric and radial highways, 1909
Courtesy: Chicago History Museum

The design of the Plan of Chicago was based on contemporary forecasts of pop ulation growth from two to thirteen million people over 30 years. The developed area of the region around the southern part of Lake Michigan had to grow in size

accordingly. A system made of radial and concentric streets, the longest with a radius of 90 km, were to provide a future structure, interconnecting suburbs and linking them back to the centre.

2010

C hapter #7

2010

#7 Sustainable Mobility

Berlin

p. 1

J. S. K. International / gmp

Sustainable Mobility
The idea of mobility is the trade mark of the 20 th and 21st century. It is the embodiment of progress, advancement, and of the future itself. Pioneers in mobility can be found in England, Germany, France and in the US. Despite highspeed rail and elec tric vehicle innovation, the car, with its immense appetite for fossil fuels, is still at the centre of investment in mobility a potent symbol of indi vidual freedom. Mobility continues to dominate urban planning. The construction and ex tension of motorways is top of the priority list. This is no longer accepted by everyone, however, and remains highly controversial, as it nearly always has been. The public is aware of the increased destruction of the country side and air and noise pollution. Traffic congestion is everyones urban night mare. Overcrowded public transport is not a meaningful alternative while increasing ridership and huge costs make it difficult to satisfy demand economically. Slowly but surely, how ever, more sustainable means of trans port, which conserve resources and reduce space consumption are gaining importance. Sustainable mobility must become an integral part of urban planning. New transport infrastructure is the armature of our future regions. Dependence on the car will only decline if alter natives like trams and electric buses, new inner city rail stations and the urbanisation of airports, receive sufficient investment. Political initiatives like congestion charging, promotion of cycling and public space programmes also play an important role. Metropolitan regions are once again paving the way for new types of mobility, as they did a hundred years ago. Suddenly I had the thought that the balance between parks and car parks could be the best indicator for quality of life in our cities.

Turn 3 into 1 The Transformation of Berlins Airports

Lester R. Brown, in: Plan B 2.0: Rescuing a Planet under Stress & a Civilization in Trouble, Washington DC, 2006

The new Berlin Brandenburg International Airport is being built in southeast Berlin. It will cost more than 3 billion and will be complemented by a wide range of facili ties including an underground railway station and a business park. It will have a big impact on movement patterns in the metropolitan area and on the hierarchy of urban areas. Berlins planning department expects areas along the axis between the airport and central trainstation in Berlins centre to undergo strong redevelopment. In South Berlin areas of which some have been prosperous since the 19th century will gain even more importance. In contrast, combined with the closure of the existing Tegel Airport, the North will lose out.

1 Masterplan Gateway BBI


Courtesy: Machleidt & Partner with Thomas Jansen Ortsplanung

2 BBI Airport City, aerial perspective


Courtesy: gmp Architects / JSK International Visualisation: Bjrn Rolle

Client: Berlin Brandenburg International Airport (BBI): FBS Flughafen Berlin Schnefeld GmbH
Masterplan Gateway BBI: Senate Department for Urban Development, Berlin

When: 19962012 Size: Airport: 1,470 hectares


Terminal: 280.000 m gross building area Airport City: 16 hectares, 148.000 m gross floor space Masterplan Gateway BBI: 450 hectares

Planning: Terminal: J.S.K. International Architekten und Ingenieure GmbH / gmp general lanungsp gesellschaft mbH
Masterplan Gateway BBI: Machleidt & Partner

Budget: around 3 billion Euro

2010

#7 Sustainable Mobility

Berlin

p. 2

2010

#7 Sustainable Mobility

Paris

p. 1

Berlins Cycling Strategy

Le grand huit The Big Eight

Cergy-le-Haut

Pontoise

H
J

TGV
H

Aroport Charles de Gaulle Triangle de Gonesse Villepinte-Tremblay Parc des Expositions


K

Parc des Expositions RER B

TGV

Port de Gennevilliers Les Agnettes Bcon-lesBruyres Rueil Nanterre La Dfense Grande Arche Suresnes Centre

Gennevilliers RER C Saint-Denis Pleyel

Le Bourget Aroport Le Bourget RER B

Aulnay

Sevran-Beaudottes

Sevran-Livry

Les Grsillons Saint-Ouen RER C Porte de Clichy

1
Mairie de Saint-Ouen Clichy-Montfermeil

Saint-Lazare Madeleine Pyramides Chtelet

Chelles
P

Saint-Cloud Transilien Pont de Svres Ile Seguin

Gare de Lyon Bercy Olympiades Cour St-Emilion Bibliothque Franois Mitterrand Kremlin-Bictre Hpital Champigny Le Plant Vitry Centre Crteil lEchat Villejuif Louis Aragon Les Ardoines Le Vert de Maisons

Noisy-Champs

Les Moulineaux Chtillon - Montrouge Bagneux M4

Villiers-sur-MarneLe Plessis-Trvise

Versailles Matelots

Versailles Chantiers

Arcueil - Cachan Villejuif Institut Gustave Roussy

M.I.N Porte de Thiais

RESEAU DE TRANSPORT STRUCTURANT DU GRAND PARIS


Ligne rouge Ligne bleue Ligne verte Ligne 14 actuelle Trac variante Trac variante Trac variante

Massy - Palaiseau Saclay Sud

Ligne du rseau existant Gare optionnelle

The Berlin Senate Department for Urban Development has been seeking to increase the proportion of bicycles among Berlins transportation options since 2006. At the moment bicycle trips make up 13% of all journeys. This should increase to 25% in the inner city area. Berlins cycle lane network, which covers 125 km, is being extended by a further 30 km. New cycle lanes will be largely located on roads. Simultaneously, the German rail authority, Deutsche Bahn, with the city of Berlin, is developing the StadtRAD project, which will enable public transport ticket holders to make use of cycle hire.

ga

re

Aroport dOrly

TG V

Gare TGV
Source fond de plan : IGN 2010

va ga ria re nt e
Corridor de tracs possibles

Client: Senate Department for Urban Development, Berlin When: until 2011

3 Extension of bicycle route network, July 2010


Courtesy: Senatsverwaltung fr Stadtentwicklung Berlin

The 130 km new highspeed regional railway project, which consists of two overlapping rings, is intended to improve connections between Paris and its hinter land. It will serve the most important existing transport hubs and development opportunity areas including airports, train terminals, and destinations like La Dfense, MarnelaValle, Saclay and SaintDenis. The controversial project is part of the governments major action plan to strengthen the region in terms of sustain ability, attractiveness and quality of life.

Client: French government Planning: Secrtariat dtat charg du dveloppement de la rgion capitale When: until ca. 2020 Budget: 21.4 billion Euro

1 Le grand huit, the new high-speed regional rail project, planned routes
Courtesy: Socit du Grand Paris

2 Increase in population of greater Paris until 2030


Courtesy: Socit du Grand Paris

3 Location of Paris business and employment centres until 2030


Courtesy: Socit du Grand Paris

4 StadtRad docking station at Potsdamer Platz, 2010


Photo: Thomas Spier

2010

#7 Sustainable Mobility

London

p. 1

2010

#7 Sustainable Mobility

London

p. 2

University College London / Gort Scott / URS / Fluid / East

5th Studio / Regeneris / Marks Barfield

Mapping Suburban High Streets High Street 2012

Crossrail and Crossrail Urban Impact: Thamesmead / Abbey Wood

4 4 Crossrail overview
Courtesy: 5th Studio / Design for London

1 1 High Street 2012, overview


Courtesy: Design for London / LDA

5 Vision for the Abbey Wood Crossrail station


Courtesy: 5th Studio / Design for London / LDA

2 Sketch of redesign of Whitechapel Market


Courtesy: East Architecture Landscape Urban Design

Londons high streets are to be strength ened in recognition of their importance for the urban fabric. Many used to be historic corridors for trade. Some date back to Roman times. High streets suffer from competition with shopping centres, heavy traffic and congestion. The High Street 2012 project will extensively re design the stretch between Aldgate and Stratford in east London, showcasing one of Londons key high streets during the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. The quality of the public realm is to be upgraded and the distinctive character of the areas along the corridor is to be enhanced and celebrated.

3 Characteristic mixed uses along high streets


Courtesy: Gort Scott

Project: High Street London (report) Client: Design for London Project team: Sir Terry Farrell / Joyce Bridges / University College London / Gort Scott / URS When: since 2009

Project: High Street 2012 Client: GLA Group / London Borough of Tower Hamlets / London Borough of Newham Planning team: Fluid / East Architecture Landscape Urban Design (Detail Whitechapel Market)

Crossrail, the UKs largest high speed regional railway infrastructure project, is likely to have several dramatic effects on inner and outer London and the parts of its catchment area affected by Crossrails route. From 2018 onwards the new route will connect Heathrow, the West End, the City of London and Canary Wharf. Design for London and Crossrails Urban Integration Team are involved in urban design studies to define regeneration priorities and to embed individual stations like Abbey Wood in Thamesmead within their surroundings, focusing on public realm improvements and high quality developments. This work will help to maximise the potential of these locations for urban regeneration.

Project: Crossrail Client: Cross London Rail Links Limited (Transport for London, Department for Transport) When: 20082018

Project: Crossrail Urban Integration Study (fig 4) Client: London Development Agency / Design for London Consultants: 5th Studio / Regeneris When: 2009/10

Project: Thamesmead / Abbey Wood Crossrail Urban Impact Study (fig 5) Client: London Borough of Bexley / London Borough of Greenwich / GLA Group incl. Design for London / Crossrail Consultants: 5th Studio / Marks Barfield When: 2008/09

2010

#7 Sustainable Mobility

Chicago

p. 1

Chicago Metropolis 2020 Connectivity

The Chicago Metropolis 2020 framework proposes to strengthen and enhance the core city, existing centres and districts in the inner urban area. Urban growth will be concentrated within regional centres, with a diverse social structure and a mix of uses. Local public transport will con nect these centres with suburban employ ment areas. A regional green grid will secure recreational areas close to resi dential settlements. Lastly, the plan aims to create a powerful metropolitan planning agency.
Client: City of Chicago When: 20082020

1 The expansion of Chicago


Courtesy: Chicago Metropolis 2020

2 Intermodal Villages in the wider Chicago region


Courtesy: Chicago Metropolis 2020

2010

C hapter #8

2010

#8 Urban Land Recycled

Berlin

p. 1

ASTOC / Studio UC Klaus Overmeyer / ARGUS

Urban Land Recycled


Vacant brownfield sites and derelict buildings are a big challenge and a unique opportunity for major cities. Mixeduse quarters and large devel opments, hard to accommodate in inner cities, can be built on these sites. The redevelopment of vacant land has increased dramatically. Sites include disused military and indust rial areas, railway sidings and docks as well as derelict commercial build ings like empty department stores in Germany and redundant shopping centres in the US. Berlin has a vast offering of brown field sites that include a redundant airport and former border zones. In London, Paris and Chicago there is still plenty of land for development within the urban area, despite great demand for growth. The Lower Lea Valley in East London, where the 2012 Olympic Park is sited, is a well known example. A combination of historic fabric, romantic notions of former uses, low values and locational advantages make urban wasteland areas attractive for urban pioneers with unusual con cepts for temporary uses. This can have mixed effects. Landowners and investors objectives often differ from the requirements of temporary users and existing residents, but they gen erally benefit in the longer term. The initial conflict frequently causes issues for less wellprepared local authori ties. A well known case study for this issue is the eastern area of the River Spree in Berlin, known as Media spree Areal. Unused spaces and wastelands are not a constraint but a base condition for urban regenera tion. They act as a future room and offer a field for learning and experimenting with the future city. They are part of the richness of this city.

Urbanisation of the Main Station Area

Until recently Berlins central railway station sat in isolation on a large vacant site in the former border area between East and West Berlin. A new urban district is now developing around the station on the basis of the Masterplan Berlin Heidestrasse (April 2009), which proposes a flexible approach to development. The pharmaceutical company Bayer Healthcare is also planning to expand its campus towards the North Harbour in the northern part of the masterplan area. Appropriate station forecourts have yet to be designed and implemented.

Client: Masterplan Heidestrae: Berlin Borough of Mitte / Senate Department for Urban Development / Vivico Real Estate GmbH / Deutsche Bahn AG
Lehrter Strae: Vivico Real Estate GmbH PharmaCampus Bayer Healthcare: Bayer Healthcare Humboldthafen: Liegenschaftsfond Berlin / Senate Department for Urban Development, Berlin Lehrter Stadtquartier: Vivico Real Estate GmbH / Motel One / Meermann Chamartin Gruppe

Humboldthafen: Winkens Architekten / Augusto Romano Burelli, Architetto, Kahlfeld Architekten Lehrter Stadtquartier: O. M. Ungers (south of Invalidenstrae), Max Dudler (north of Invalidenstrae), Station forecourts: Landschaftsarchitekten Schwartz / Kiefer

1 New quarter around Berlin main station, overview of the schemes. Developments shown in white are proposed
Courtesy: CAD-Daten: Senatsverwaltung fr Stadtentwicklung Berlin Project Lehrter Strasse: Vivico / Bayer Healthcare / Barkow Leibinger Architects Visualisierung: Aljoscha Hofmann, Ringo Bigalk

When: until ca. 2030 Size: Heidestrae: 40 hectares


Lehrter Strae: ca. 6,5 hectares Humboldthafen: ca. 10 hectares Lehrter Stadtquartier: ca. 17 hectares PharmaCampus Bayer Healthcare: 18 hectares

Translated from Ingeborg Junge-Reyer, in: Urban Pioneers. Berlin: Stadtentwicklung durch Zwischennutzung, Berlin 2007, p. 18

Planning: Masterplan Heidestrae: ASTOC Architects & Planners / Studio UC Klaus Overmeyer / ARGUS
Lehrter Strae: carpaneto.schningh Architekten, FAT KOEHL Architekten PharmaCampus Bayer Healthcare: Barkow Leibinger Architekten

2010

#8 Urban Land Recycled

Berlin

p. 3

2010

#8 Urban Land Recycled

Paris

p. 1

Faber / Klenzendorf / Scknick GbR

Bar 25 Temporary Uses at the Spree

Atelier Christian de Portzamparc / Institut durbanisme de Paris / Laboratoire CRTEIL

Fentre Paris Nord Masterplan

Bar 25 was one of the most prominent temporary uses along the eastern em bankment of the River Spree. The pop ular waterside drinking spot was created on the site of a former port area previously occupied by the Berlin Wall. Since 2002 the citys municipality has been trying to attract media businesses into the area. This has been a controversial plan which threatened to force temporary uses out of the area, of which Bar 25 is a prime example. For years it fought to stay, but was eventually closed down in October 2010. It remains unclear who owns the waterside of the Spree and who will be allowed to use it in the future.

Client: French government, study Le Grand Pari(s), 2008 Planning: Atelier Christian de Portzamparc / Institut durbanisme de Paris, Universit Paris XII / Laboratoire CRTEIL When: since 2007
5 Bar extension Johannesburg 24, 2010
Photo: Carolin Saage

2 1 Gare du Nord (shown bottom left) with a green corridor to replace dis-used railway tracks. The new Nord Europe station replaces both existing stations Gare du Nord and Gare de lEst.
Courtesy: Atelier Christian de Portzamparc

Licencee: Faber, Klenzendorf, Scknick GbR When: until 2010 Size: ca. 10,500 m2

6 Bar 25, plan 7 Bar 25, location


Site survey by the TU Berlin Departments for Sociology of Planning and Architecture and Building History, 2009 Survey team led by Aljoscha Hofmann and Tobias Rtenick. Students: Anne-Marie Arera, Svea Esins, Nikolai Kaindl, Janette Pannek, Janine Sempf, Daniel Wiest Editing: Aljoscha Hofmann

2 New Nord Europe station with business district, residential buildings and circular railway connection.
Courtesy: Atelier Christian de Portzamparc

The masterplan for the socalled North Window stretches from the stations Paris Nord to Paris Est and from the suburb of Aubervilliers to Saint Denis. Architect Christian de Portzamparc, one of the practices involved in the Grand Pari(s) study of 2008, proposes to close the rail way stations, but to preserve the glamorous station concourses, dating back to the 19th century. Redundant railway tracks from Paris Nord could be transformed into a green corridor with new residential buildings alongside its edges. At Paris Est these could also be used for a new, dense and mixeduse residential quarter, whose main spine could extend along the Boulevard Sbastopol to the newly pro posed Europe Station.

2010

#8 Urban Land Recycled

London

p. 1

2010

#8 Urban Land Recycled

London

p. 2

The Olympic Legacy for the Lower Lea Valley

Client: Olympic Site: Olympic Park Legacy Company / Olympic Delivery Authority
Olympic Fringe: Design for London / London Development Agency / London Thames Gateway Delivery Corporation / LB Newham / LB Hackney / LB Tower Hamlets / Waltham Forest Architects include: Olympic Site: Allies and Morrison Architects / AECOM / Zaha Hadid / Hopkins Architects / Populous / Make Architects / Hargreaves LDA Design Olympic Legacy: Allies & Morrison Architects / Maccreanor Lavington Architects / Witherford Watson Mann Architects / Vogt Landscape Architects Olympic Fringe: muf architecture/art / 5th Studio Architects / Studio Egeret West / East Architecture Landscape Urban Design / Kinnear Landscape Architects / Churchman Landscape Architects / Urban Initiatives / Urban Practitioners / AECOM

When: 20052012 / 2035

Londons Olympic project is a catalyst to the delivery of muchneeded investment in East London and aims to dramatically improve the quality of life for the com munities of the Lower Lea Valley and surrounding areas. The Olympic Park itself will be transformed after the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games into a new urban district with 4 Olympic sport ing venues and the new park at its heart. This redevelopment will take around 25 years, and will deliver around 10,000 new homes, neighbourhoods which connect into the surrounding areas, new schools, workplaces and transport connections.

The areas around the Olympic Park itself are referred to as the Olympic Fringe, and it is expected that the new develop ments in thse areas will accommodate around 35,000 new residents, especially around Stratford, Bromley by Bow, Leyton and Hackney Wick. The Mayor of London and the Boroughs, and the London Thames Gateway Development Corporation are working together on masterplans and are already delivering new public spaces, connections and community facilities to ensure that all this investment creates sucessful places which will have a long lasting benefit for current and future local communities.

2 Olympic park view in legacy


Courtesy: Olympic Park Legacy Company

2010

#8 Urban Land Recycled

London

p. 4

2010

#8 Urban Land Recycled

Chicago

p. 1

Design for London / East / Terry Farrell / muf / Landroom / Maccreanor Lavington / AECOM amongst others

Office for Metropolitan Studies OMA

The Royal Docks

McCormick Tribune Campus Center

6 6 Framework plan
Courtesy: Design for London / London Development Agency

7 Siemens Urban Sustainability Centre, 3D view (under construction) 7


Courtesy: Wilkinson Eyre Architects

The Royal Docks in East London are one of the biggest regeneration opportunities in the UK. Derelict since the 1980s, large swathes of land have lain dormant for the last three decades, despite large amounts of investment and a number of attempts at masterplans. In 2010 the local Mayor of Newham and the Mayor of Londo launched a new vision for the Royal Docks, present ing a strong partnership, using the combi nation of land holdings and the local plan ning powers to form a virtual development corporation. The plan is to develop a flexible strategy able to last over a longer term development phase, focus a spatial plan on raising the standard of the in between spaces, attract temporary mean while uses for 2012 to coincide with the Olympics, and work with the private sector to establish parameters for devel opment without being too prescriptive.

8 Thames Barrier Park and the Royal Docks, aerial photograph


Photo: David Copeman Courtesy: Design for London / London Development Agency

Client: Greater London Authority / London Development Agency / London Borough of Newham Planning: East Architecture Landscape Urban Design / Terry Farrell with Design for London / muf architecture/art / Landroom / Maccreanor Lavington /Aecom When: since 2006

The Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) designed by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe is situated on the south side of Chicago, an area with pockets of social and eco nomic deprivation. As part of a new masterplan for the campus, Rem Koolhaas has designed a campus centre, nick named The Tube. The design includes a noiseabsorbing steel tube which wraps the elevated railway above the centre. The centre itself is a flat building with cafes, shops, exhibition and conference spaces.

Client: Illinois Institute of Technology Architects: Office for Metropolitan Studies OMA When: Completed 2003

1 McCormick Tribune Campus Center floorplan (ground floor)


Courtesy: Office for Metropolitan Architecture OMA

2 McCormick Tribune Campus Center and railway station


Photo: Philippe Ruault

2010

C hapter #9

2010

#9 Alternatives to Suburban Sprawl

Paris

p. 2

Alternatives to Suburban Sprawl


Suburban sprawl has become one of the most serious global concerns in urban planning. Suburban develop ment, once a beacon of hope for the orderly growth of cities, has lost some of its appeal in recent years. Sprawl, it is now thought, can compromise the social and cultural coherence of society. Its dependence on cars and fossil fuels contributes considerably to climate change. Sprawl is an issue in all countries but the most critical debate is taking place in the US. There is a shared view amongst US professionals, media, community initiatives and in politics, particularly under President Obama, that urban sprawl needs to be confined. The aim is to move away from its landhungry, car dependent typology. An updated version of the historic garden city has been trialled incorporating higher densities, social and functional diversity and good public transport. Examples can be found in the Chicago region. Suburban sprawl is no longer as common in Europe where different problems have arisen. Formerly sprawling metropolitan regions have shrunk and reurbanisation has taken place a model that has been pro moted in the US. Curiously Europe has also been importing some subur ban models of development from the US such as gated communities, although these are increasingly resisted as being socially exclusive. The metropolitan regions of London and Paris have become laboratories to test out new models to contain sprawl. The aim is to cut back subsi dies, intensify dispersed communities by adding small centres, encourage the reuse of brownfield sites and make life in centres more attractive. Development of greenfield sites is heavily regulated and must focus on key transport hubs.

Cooper Robertson & Partners

Val dEurope

[] if the Regional Coordinat ing Council were even partially successful in creating intermo dal transportation hubs in the region and bring about large mixeduse developments surrounding these hubs, more suburban residents would choose to live and work in one of these intermodal villages.
Elmer W. Johnson in: Chicago Metropolis 2020, Chicago 2001, p. 141

Thirty kilometres east of Paris near Euro Disney, the suburb of Val dEurope is being built. Val dEurope will have forty thousand residents by 2017. A large shopping centre adjacent to the local station, several business and residential areas, large parks and a golf course have already been built. The entire town is planned and managed by Euro Disney S.C.A. and located adjacent to the theme park, surrounded by car parking.

Client: Disney Development Company, Euro Disney S.C.A. Planning: Cooper Robertson & Partners Size: 660 hectares When: Completion ca. 2017

4 Val dEurope, design concept


Courtesy: Cooper, Robertson & Partners

5 Residential quarter quartier du parc


Courtesy: Cooper, Robertson & Partners

6 Square at Val dEurope station with access to shopping centre


Courtesy: Cooper, Robertson & Partners

2010

#9 Alternatives to Suburban Sprawl

London

p. 1

2010

#9 Alternatives to Suburban Sprawl

London

p. 2

East / Witherford Watson Mann / Gustafson Porter / Allies & Morrison

Woolwich Town Centre


Models for urban renaissance

Woolwich Town Centre in SouthEast London is an important area for growth. It is well known as the former location of the biggest ammunition factory of the British Empire, the Royal Arsenal. The area has become more attractive for investment because of enhanced public transport connections. A total of approx imately 3,700 new units are planned on the former factory site alone. A variety of newly designed open spaces will make Woolwich Town Centre more attractive for pedestrians and stitch together old and new parts of the urban fabric.

Project: Woolwich Town Centre (fig 13) Client: London Borough of Greenwich / Greenwich Waterfront Regeneration Agency / GLA Group incl. Design for London Planning: Framework Study (fig 1): East Architecture Landscape Urban Design / Sergison Bates Architects Public Realm (fig 2 & 3): Witherford Watson Mann Architects / Gustafson Porter When: 20072012

Project: Royal Arsenal (fig 4) Client: London Borough of Greenwich / GLA Group / Berkely Homes Architect: Allies and Morrison Architects When: Since 2008
1 Woolwich Framework: urban regeneration projects in Woolwich
Courtesy: East Architecture Landscape Urban Design / Sergison Bates Architects

2 Overview of public realm to connect Woolwich town centre with the Royal Arsenal development area
Courtesy: Witherford Watson Mann Architects

3 Woolwich Town Centre: new landscaping


Courtesy: Witherford Watson Mann Architects

2010

#9 Alternatives to Suburban Sprawl

Chicago

p. 1

William Johnson, Peter Lidsay / Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP

Prairie Crossing
Sustainable urban sprawl

The development of Prairie Crossing, which refers to itself as a conservation community, is a residential area located in the outer fringe of the metro politan regions of Chicago and Milwaukee, Wisconsin. It con sists of only 359 houses, one school, an organic farm and a community centre. The original plan to develop the centre of the community with medium density residential buildings and shops was only partly realised. Special attention was given to an energy efficient construction technique, sustainablysourced materials and sensitive integration into the local landscape and ecology.

1 1 Prairie Crossing Masterplan


Courtesy: Crossing Institute

2 New development set into nature reserve


Photo: Barbara Schnig

Client: Prairie Holdings Corporation Architects: William Johnson, Peter Lidsay (Masterplan) with Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP
When: 19982004

Size: 274 hectares

2010

C hapter #10

2010

#10 The Green City

B erlin

p. 1

Senate Department for Urban Development, Berlin

Tempelhofer Feld
a Park for Pioneers

The Green City


1 & 2 Tempelhofer Feld opened as a public park in 2010
Photo: Cordelia Polinna

3 Masterplan for Tempelhofer Feld


Courtesy: Senatsverwaltung fr Stadtentwicklung Berlin

Green spaces are enjoying a renais sance in the metropolitan areas of Europe and the US. Brownfield sites are being turned into new urban quarters with large parks; gardens and parks of various scales are key requirements in planning policy. They increase attractiveness and value. Berlins former Tempelhof Airport is currently available for temporary uses, seen as part of a phased and participatory approach to planning. Chicagos Meigs Field Airport has been turned into a park in recent years. The development of the Lower Lea Valley in London for the 2012 Games will include a vast new urban park. The study Le Grand Pari(s) also suggests the redevelop ment of old industrial and port areas into new parks. Allotments and urban agriculture are playing an increasing role. Urban ag riculture in Chicago is used for food production and social integration. Berlin has developed ideas about how these businesses can offer leisure and entertainment as well as food retail. Making public green spaces multifunctional has become a key aim of city councils and park operators.

Climate change and global loss of bi odiversity give urban green space a new meaning. New policies demand increases in green space, living roofs and green walls.
1

In addition to the large green space projects led by local government, bottomup community greening, such as guerrilla gardening initia tives, are contributing to the green ing of our cities. Urban policy has begun to recognise the importance of these unplanned projects. We are not doing this because it is fashionable, but because it makes sense. It improves the public health, makes the city more beautiful, increases the quality of life, saves money and will leave a legacy for generations to come.

The Mayor of Chicago Richard Daley on sustainable urban development and green roofs, September 2006

A strategy for the reuse of the large area of the former airport Tempelhof (386 hectares) was agreed in the mid 1990s. The former airfield was to remain a meadow with development to be allowed only along the fringes. One aspect of the open landscape competition Parkland scape Tempelhof (Parklandschaft Tempelhof) which took place in 2010 was to clarify future management of the park despite decreasing investment from the authorities. The design of the open spaces is to culminate in an international garden exhibition in 2017.

Client: Senate Department for Urban Development, Berlin Planning: Ideas Workshop: raumlaborberlin / Studio UC Klaus Overmeyer / Michael Braum und Partner
International competition: six teams were invited to develop ideas, among them: Topotek1 Landschafts rchitek en a t (Berlin) / Drig Architekten (Zurich) / gross. max. Landscape Architecture / Sutherland Hussey Architects (Edinburgh)

When: Ideas Workshop: 2006


International competition: 2010 International Garden Exhibition IGA: 2017

Size: 386 hectares Budget: Costs to make the former airport site accessible to the public in 2010: ca. 800,000 Euro
estimated costs of IGA: 50.5 million Euro estimated costs to turn Tempelhof airport into a park: ca. 61.5 million Euro

2010

#10 The Green City

P aris

p. 1

2010

#10 The Green City

L ondon

p. 1

LIN Finn Geipel & Giulia Andi

Witherford Watson Mann Architects

Grand Pari(s)
Multifunctional Landscapes

Bankside Urban Forest

As part of their contribution to the study Grand Pari(s), LIN propose that habitation, water retention, food production, protect ion of biodiversity and energy production should all be able to coexist in equal measure in the multifunctional landscapes. The architects suggest inserting green poles and ecological microcentres into a number of sparsely populated suburbs of Paris. These could become the link between residential areas, small eco logical businesses and agricultural zones. Additionally, LIN propose the idea of market lanes, where community members can buy fresh produce from local farmers.

1 Vision of the mature state of Bankside Urban Forest with a rich diversity of green and open spaces
Courtesy: Witherford Watson Mann Architects

2 Sketch for the redesign and pedestrianisation of Flatiron Square


Courtesy: Witherford Watson Mann Architects

Client: French government, study Le Grand Pari(s), 2008 Planning: LIN Finn Geipel & Giulia Andi When: since 2007

1 Urban agricultural zones with intersecting market roads


Courtesy: LIN Finn Geipel & Giulia Andi

2 Multifunctional landscapes, with a co-existing variety of different programmes


Courtesy: LIN Finn Geipel & Giulia Andi

The open space strategy, Bankside Urban Forest, will improve the quality of public realm in the Bankside area south of the River Thames. This area has a lack of green space and is crisscrossed by railway via ducts and busy roads. The Urban Forest establishes a network of clearings, mean dering paths and mysterious spaces along the railway viaducts. Footpaths and bicycle lanes will be extended and upgraded, tree planting will make the area greener and serene gardens will make the area more attractive for residents.

Client: London Borough of Southwark / Design for London / London Development Agency / Council / Better Bankside / Tate / Architecture Foundation / Cross River Partnership Planning Startegy: Witherford Watson Mann Architects
Architect Flatiron Square: Witherford Watson Mann Architects

When: since 2007

2010

#10 The Green City

L ondon

p. 2

2010

#10 The Green City

L ondon

p. 3

5th Studio / Jonathan Cook Landscape Architects / Churchman Landscape Architects

Lea River Park


(The Fatwalk)

4 4 Lea River Park, 3D view


Courtesy: 5th Studio

5 The Fatwalk in Three Mills Green, 3D view


Courtesy: 5th Studio

6 Fatwalk Poplar Reach Bridge, 3D view


Courtesy: 5th Studio

3 Lea River Park, overall view


Courtesy: 5th Studio

The Lea Valley is the largest regeneration area in London. Together with the 2012 Olympic Park, the Lea River Park will fi nally realise a 26mile connection first envisaged in the Greater London Plan of 1944 between Londons Green Belt and the River Thames. The Fatwalk is the primary project in the realisation of the Lea River Park. It will form a generous walking and cycling route between the River Thames and the Olympic Park, as well as creating new crossvalley connect ions linking surrounding communities to the River Lea for the first time. Initial works will establish a continuous route as the backbone of the future park and projects therefore address physical severances and obstructions with new bridges, a new

lift connection and green links. These early pieces of infrastructure are regarded as catalysts for converting what is currently land used for gas storage, sewage pump ing and transport infrastructure into diverse park spaces of the Lea River Park: turning what is today an industrial back water into the foreground of a new pub lic space which people can start to access, use and enjoy

Client: London Thames Gateway Development Corporation / Lea Valley Regional Park Authority / Design for London / London Development Agency Planning: 5th Studio / Jonathan Cook Landscape Architects
Three Mills Green: Churchman Landscape Architects

When: Phase 1: 20082012

2010

#10 The Green City

hicago C

p. 1

2010

#10 The Green City

Chicago

p. 2

Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP / Frank O. Gehry

JJR Landscape Architecture / Studio Gang Architects

Millennium Park

Northerly Island Park


Re-development of an airport close to the city centre

3 Northerly Island, formerly Merill C. Meigs Field Airport, aerial perspective


Courtesy: Chicago Park District / JJR Architects

4 Northerly Island, plan


Courtesy: Chicago Park District / JJR Architects

Millennium Park completes the historic layout of Grant Park designed by Daniel Burnham. As with Grant Park, it was necessary that transport infrastructure in this case a railway station and car park was sunk below grade to make room for the new park. The exciting land scape features several recreational facili ties and stages, sculptures and fountains. The Jay Pritzker Pavilion and the BP Pedestrian Bridge, both designed by Frank Gehry, are particularly notable. Chicago City Council provided $270 million and private donors gave $205 million for the development of the park.

Client: City of Chicago Architects: Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP / Frank O. Gehry (J. K. Pritzker Pavilion) When: 19982004 Size: 10 hectares Budget: 475 million US Dollar

1 Aerial photo, June 2006


Photo: Okrent Associates Inc. / Lawrence Okrent

2 Millennium Park, location plan


Courtesy: Chicago Park District

According to local newspapers Chicagos Mayor Richard Daley arranged to demol ish the runway of Merill C. Meigs Field Airport on the night of 30th March 2003 in what some would describe as a cloak and dagger operation and in breach of a contract with federal airport authorities. Since then, the area has been open to the public. Open air events are being held and former airport buildings and open areas are being converted into a new park. A themed landscape design was proposed in 2010 showcasing princi ples of nature conservation and sustain ability as part of a development framework.

Client: Chicago Park District Architects: JJR Landscape Architecture / Studio Gang Architects When: Development framework 20102035 Size: 37 hectares

2010

C hapter #11

2010

#11 Renewal of Working Class Neighbourhoods

Berlin

p. 1

Renewal of Working-Class Neighbourhoods


Pockets of social and economic dep rivation have developed in many cities as a consequence of the decline of the urban industrial sector in Europe and America. These areas often function as testing grounds for the coexistence of different ethnic groups, while challenges posed by the transition to a primarily post industrial economy are endemic. Former workingclass areas are often characterised by highdensity housing and redundant postindustrial brownfield sites. They are often close to the revitalised urban centre. An increasing number are becoming attractive residential areas for the re urbanised upper middle classes. Both gentrification and revitalisation can have negative impacts, such as dis placement of existing residents and business owners. Versatile support programmes address the problems of former workingclass areas with varying suc cess. Since the 1980s the modern isation of residential buildings has turned Berlin into a model of gentle urban regeneration. For the past ten years support has been focused on improving social structures while issues surrounding urban planning and housing policy took a back seat. It is only now that regeneration projects are progress ing with the aim of strengthening the neighbourhood centres of problem atic quarters. In London, much focus has been placed on schemes that emphasise cultural, social and spatial conditions. Important aspects of the future of our metropolitan regions are being deter mined within these innercity former workingclass areas. They become a benchmark for weaknesses as well as opportunities and strengths in terms of diversity and social inclusion. Due to their density, mix of uses and good public transport, these quarters can become a model for the sustain able city.

Jahn, Mack & Partner

Revitalisation of the Local Centre Mllerstrae

The rundown district centre of Mllerstrae is located in Wedding, a former workers quarter. In 2008 planning con sultants Jahn, Mack & Partner presented a development pro posal with the slogan rediscover Wedding at the Mllerstrae (An der Mllerstrae den Wedding neu entdecken). The proposal seeks to revitalise the hidden treasures of the district centre: the historic Leopoldplatz, the new areas of Rathausplatz and Mllerstrae, an extension of the existing library and the main arterial road. The concept is funded by Active Town Centres, a Federal State programme.

1 Action plan

Value what is there. Nurture the possible. Define what is missing.


muf architecture/art and J&L Gibbons LLP in Making Space in Dalston, 2009

Courtesy: Senatsverwaltung fr Stadtentwicklung Berlin / Jahn, Mack & Partner

Client: Senate Department for Urban Development, Berlin Borough of Mitte Architects: Jahn, Mack & Partner (fig 1) Haberlandarchitekten (fig 2) When: since 2008

2 The extension of the local public library, section and location plan
Courtesy: Berlin Borough of Mitte / Haberland Architekten

2010

#11 Renewal of Working Class Neighbourhoods

Berlin

p. 3

2010

#11 Renewal of Working Class Neighbourhoods

London

p. 3

Plus 4930 Architektur

muf architecture/art / J&L Gibbons LLP

Campus Rtli CR

Making Space in Dalston

5 Making Space in Dalston, examples of projects


Courtesy: muf architecture/art / J&L Gibbons LLP

6 Principles of Making Space in Dalston


Courtesy: muf architecture/art / J&L Gibbons LLP

7 Dalston Eastern Curve Garden, 2010


Courtesy: muf architecture/art / J&L Gibbons LLP

Client: Senate Department for Urban Development in co-operation with the Berlin Borough of Neuklln Architects: Plus 4930Architektur won the 1st prize in a competition in 2009

When: Planning: 20082010 Size: ca. 47,900 m Budget: ca. 24 million Euro

6 Campus Rtli, 3D visualisation


Courtesy: Plus 4930 Architektur

7 Campus Rtli, plan


Courtesy: Plus 4930 Architektur

In 2006, in the wake of teachers protest ing about abusive behaviour by students at the RtliSchule in Neuklln, an event which caused something of a media storm in Germany, an ambitious regen eration project was started. The project, which proposes to cluster education and welfare institutions, is led by the Zukunft Berlin Trust (Future Berlin) and the local council in Neuklln. A masterplan com petition took place in May 2009, but entries were unable to fulfil the briefs vision for a new and wellconnected innercity district centre.
7

Dalston, in the London Borough of Hackney, is a vibrant and dynamic neigh bourhood. As a relatively affordable neighbourhood that is close to Central London, there is increasing development pressure on the area culminating in the development around the new East London Line Station. In close collaboration with residents a network of high quality open spaces has been created to ensure the community benefit from the transform ation processes. One of the key projects is the Eastern Curve community garden, a temporary project built on a disused railway cutting.

Client: London Borough of Hackney / Design for London / London Development Agency Architects: J&L Gibbons Landscape Architects and muf architecture/art When: since 2009

2010

#11 Renewal of Working Class Neighbourhoods

London

p. 1

2010

#11 Renewal of Working Class Neighbourhoods

London

p. 2

David Gallagher Associates

Brick Lane Cultural Trail

2 2 Entrance gate to Banglatown at the south end of Brick Lane, 2010


Photo: Cordelia Polinna

3 Bilingual street signs in English and Bengali, Brick Lane, 2009


Photo: Cordelia Polinna

4 Brick Lane Cultural Trail Spitalfields, orientation map


Courtesy: London Borough of Tower Hamlets

Bordering the City of London to the east is the culturally rich urban quarter of Spitalfields, which has become a centre for the BangladeshiSylheti community and has traditionally been an area where immigrants first settle in London. Brick Lane, in particular, is famous for its curry houses and has been branded Bangla town. The booming popularity of Brick Lanes street market and the influx of loft dwellers, fashionable shops, bars, cafs, restaurants and creative businesses however is rapidly changing the areas character. Extensive improvements to

historic buildings and the public realm have been carried out since the end of the 1990s to make the area more attractive for businesses and tourists. The public spaces and streets have been made more pedestrianfriendly. A culture trail includ ing information boards and an illuminated Minaretlike structure has been imple mented in 2010 to make the multicultural background of the area more accessible and visible.

Client: London Borough of Tower Hamlets Architects: Minaret-like structure: David Gallagher Associates When: Brick Lane Cultural Trail opened in 2010

2010

C hapter #12

2010

#12 Housing Estate Renewal

Berlin

p. 1

Bro Stadt Akzent

Housing Estate Renewal


After almost a century of investment in stateled social housing programmes, large housing estates of the post war period in Europe and the United States continue to present many urban challenges and some severe problems. In France, England and the US, they have in some extreme instances become the slums they were intend ed to eradicate. Many social housing buildings have lacked necessary maintenance and witnessed the closure of critical social and cultural facilities despite being well thought out, designed and constructed. De industrialisation, job losses and fall ing household incomes exacerbated problems. Those with better incomes often move to other neighbourhoods and are replaced by immigrants, often with low levels of education. Similar trends can be seen in the vast housing areas of Berlin, the banlieues in Paris, the council housing estates in London and the projects in Chicago. All four cities developed spatial, social and economical programmes to de liver the framework for estate regen eration ranging from refurbishment to demolition. Each city has enjoyed some success, mostly addressing spatial, rather than social conditions. New quarters often include real streets and places, better linkages with the urban fabric and a focus on greater mix of tenure. While these are sensible objectives, they hardly constitute a solution for the problems of the spatiallyisolated, most de prived parts of society. The significant housing problem of the 21st century which includes Londons severe shortage of afford able housing, the rapidly increasing number of households brought about by demographic change, and the need for housing to help tackle climate change issues has yet to become an integral, substantial part of todays discourse in urban planning in the way it was earlier in the century. Nowadays urban policies tend to turn towards areas of opportunity, rather than areas simply in need. A change in political priorities would be seen as a return to oldfashioned socialism and wealth redistribution with neg ative impacts on economic growth. Metro, boulot, dodo (commute, work hard, kip)

Regenerating Marzahn Nord: Ahrensfelder Terrassen

The Ahrensfelder Terrassen in Marzahn, East Berlin, is Germanys largest residential estate built with prefabrication techniques during the GDR era. Today, the estate is considered a successful part of the urban regeneration of East Berlin. Originally in cluding 1,670 flats in eleven storey build ings, the development was reduced to 409 rented and 38 privatelyowned flats in buildings that ranged from three to six stories. The large roof terraces are ex tremely popular, but the public open spaces remain a cause for concern and the overscaled and cardominated streets are even less attractive when surrounded by buildings of reduced height.

Awarding Authority: Federal State of Berlin Client: Wohnungsbaugesellschaft Marzahn / DEGEWO-Gruppe Planning: Bro Stadt Akzent When: 20022004

Size: size of original scheme: 78,900 m size of new scheme: 27,900 m Budget: ca. 31.5 million Euro

1 Ahrensfelder Terrassen after redevelopment, 2010


Photo: Thomas Spier

2 Ahrensfelder Terrassen prior to redevelopment


Courtesy: DEGEWO Photo: Jens Rtzsch

3 Redevelopment of housing estates in Marzahn and Hellersdorf building to be demolished uilding to be reduced b in height
Courtesy: Planergemeinschaft Dubach Kohlbrenner Plan: Bezirksamt Marzahn-Hellersdorf von Berlin (Editor): Im Wandel bestndig. Stadtumbau in Marzahn und Hellersdorf, Berlin 2007, p. 23

Graffito dating back to 1968 as a reaction to building large housing estates in France. Translated from Hartmut Huermann in: Nicht pendeln, nicht malochen, nur noch pennen, Die Zeit, 10 November 2005

2010

#12 Housing Estate Renewal

Paris

p. 1

2010

#12 Housing Estate Renewal

London

p. 2

Atelier Xavier Bohl

Rebuilding Le Plessis-Robinson

AHMM / muf / Peter Barber / East / Sergison Bates amongst others

Revitalising Barking Town Centre

6 1

Le PlessisRobinson, a social housing estate on the inner fringe of the southern banlieue of Paris, is a classic garden city. The first garden city on this site, built between 1924 and 1939, was demolished in the late 1980s following steady decline. It was replaced in 200609 with a new version of the Garden City based on a masterplan by Xavier Pohl, including a mixeduse city centre. Mayor Philippe Pemezec, a member of the conservative UMP party led by President Nicolas Sarkozy and key champion of the re development, was keen to recreate a trad itional settlement in the suburbs (banlieue) of Grand Paris, an area dominated by highrise development.

Client: City of Plessis-Robinson Planning: Atelier Xavier Bohl When: Planning: 20062009

Barking Town Centre, once blighted by neglected public spaces and council housing following the decline of local manufacturing is now benefiting from a series of integrated urban design and public space proposals and projects and 8,000 new homes. The revitalisation of Barking Town Centre improves quality of life and creates a sense of coherence and identity for the local population.

Client: London Boroughs of Barking und Dagenham / GLA Group incl. Design for London Architects: Town Square Development: Alford Hall Monaghan Morris / muf architecture/art
Tanner Street: Peter Barber Architects Framework Plan: East Architecture Landscape Urban Design 7

When: since 2005

1 Le Plessis-Robinson Masterplan, 2000


Courtesy: Atelier Xavier Bohl

4 New mixed-use development including a library and residential flats, 2010


Photo: Paul Clarke

6 Tanner Street Quarter has been rebuilt after the demolition of a post-war housing estate
Courtesy: Peter Barber Architects Photo: Morley von Sternberg

2 Garden city Le Plessis-Robinson, 2008


Courtesy: Atelier Xavier Bohl Photo: Michel Einsenlohr

5 New town square with arboretum, 2010


Courtesy: muf architecture/art

7 Overview of urban regeneration projects in Barking, 2004


Courtesy: East Architecture Landscape Urban Design / Sergison Bates

2010

#12 Housing Estate Renewal

Chicago

p.1

Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP (Park Boulevard, CHA)

Park Boulevard / Stateway Gardens Masterplan

With CHAnge Plan for Transformation the Chicago Housing Authority launched a programme to demolish more than 18,000 apartments in the citys large housing estates in 1999, widely known as centres of extreme social deprivation. They are to be replaced by residential areas with a more diverse social and functional mix in a traditional layout. The Robert Taylor Homes (4,230 units) and Stateway Gardens (1,644 units) form a long band along the South Side of Chicago and border the renowned Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT). This area is to become the renamed Legends South and Park Boulevard settlements. The former will include 851 social housing, 800 affordable and 800 units for the private market, the latter a further 439 social housing, 437 affordable and 438 private market flats.

1 Park Boulevard / Stateway Gardens Masterplan. From left to right: plan in 1949; plan in 2001; current layout, 20052010
Courtesy: Skidmore Owings & Merrill

2 & 3 Replace Stateway Gardens Housing Project with a mixed income neighbourhood Demolition and new buildings
Courtesy: Skidmore Owings & Merrill

Client: Chicago Housing Authority CHA


3

Planning: Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP (Park Boulevard, CHA) When: since 1999

2010

C hapter #13

2010

#13 New City Centre

Berlin

p. 1

New City Centre Mirror of the City Region


In Europe and the US most city centres are going through a highly visible urban renaissance which significantly alters their shapes and functions. This is particularly true of cities such as Berlin, London and Chicago, where the city centres lost some of their vitality in the postwar period although Paris was perhaps an exception prior to a post industrial renaissance. Recent thinking in urban planning has played an important role in the renaissance of city centres. Many public spaces have been redesigned to become more pedestrianfriendly rather than caroriented. Waterfront locations like the South Bank in London have benefitted from investment. New parks are being developed which can help to mitigate climate change and add attractiveness. Chicagos Millennium Park is a good example. After decades of indifference, historic assets which make cities special and unique are once again in demand. Historic buildings and spaces are conserved or reconstructed and, as in Berlin, historic urban plans are be ing recreated. While some unpopular modern buildings from the postwar period have been demolished excit ing new landmark developments are becoming symbols for the innovative strength of metropolitan regions, but are quite often controversial. The renewal of urban centres also has a social impact. Tourists are attract ed by the recreational qualities of the enhanced centres and there is a gold rush atmosphere to invest private capital. This effect was seen in Berlin when the Wall came down and is still evident in London, even after the 2008 Credit Crunch and record prices are still being achieved for developments with global appeal. This effect can result in rushed and unsympathetic designs of key, central sites, as well as increasing privatisa tion and control of public spaces. Successful urban centres need not only be beautiful, rich in history and culture, pedestrian and cyclefriendly, but must also be socially diverse and inclusive. The creation of dynamic town centers that include a mix of housing, offices, stores, civic buildings, and theaters all in a pedestrianfriendly setting is one of the most important trends in real estate and planning today.

David Chipperfield Architects / Franco Stella

Museum Island and Humboldt Forum

The masterplan of Berlins Museum Island (Museumsinsel) proposes the redevelopment of the Northern Island in the River Spree (Spreeinsel) in the citys historic centre. The exist ing buildings (Altes Museum, Neues Museum, the Pergamon museum, Alte Nationalgalerie and BodeMuseum) will be re furbished, modernised and con nected through a newly created Archaeological Promenade for 1.5 billion. The controversial reconstruction of the Humboldt Forum on the other side of the Lustgarten (Pleasure Garden) park on the island, envisaged as an international forum for art, culture and science, will add another 552 million to the overall cost. These projects will strengthen Mitte, Berlins central district, as an international cultural destination.

1 2 4 3 6 5

1 Masterplan Museum Island: Underground Archeological Promenade


Courtesy: Planungsgruppe Museumsinsel

4 James Simon Gallery


Visual: Stiftung Preussischer Kulturbesitz / Imaging Atelier

Client: Museum Island: Stiftung Preuischer Kulturbesitz


Humboldt-Forum: Stiftung Berliner Schloss Humboldtforum

When: 19982015 Size: Museumsinsel: around 1 km Budget: Museum Island: around 1,5 billion Euro, Humboldtforum: 552 billion Euro

2 Neues Museum, central staircase and Egyptian courtyard


Courtesy: David Chipperfield Architects / Stiftung Preuischer Kulturbesitz Photo central staircase: Ute Zscharnt Foto Egyptian courtyard: Christian Richters

5 Visualisation of HumboldtForums, viewn from Liebknecht bridge


Courtesy: Stella / Stiftung Berliner Schloss Humboldt-Forum

6 View from the inner courtyard to the historic portal


Courtesy: Stella / Stiftung Berliner Schloss Humboldt-Forum

Planning: Masterplan: international competition in 1993


Museum Island: Hilmer & Sattler, Heinz Tesar, HG Mrz, Head: David Chipperfield Architects Humboldt-Forum: international competition won by Franco Stella, 2008

3 View of Museum Island with planned James Simon Gallery


Visual: Stiftung Preussischer Kulturbesitz / Imaging Atelier

Charles C. Bohl in: Place Making. Developing Town Centers, Main Streets, and Urban Villages, Washington D.C. 2002

2010

#13 New City Centre

Berlin

p. 2

2010

#13 New City Centre

Berlin

p. 4

David Chipperfield Architects / Graft / Kiefer Landschaftsarchitekten

Projektgemeinschaft City West / Christoph Mckler Architekten / SAQ

Vision for Berlins Town Hall Forum

New Heart of the City West

9a

12

9b

The future of the huge parcel of land between Berlins Fernsehturm (TV Tower) and the River Spree is highly contested. Proposals for the site range from recon structing the medieval urban fabric to a massive water basin. Any substantial development will have to wait until 2017 however, as there are underground rail way works underway. This redeveloped Old Centre is to become a symbol of 800 years of vibrant history and act as an important spatial connector between East and West as well as North and South Berlin.

Client: Visionary concepts (fig 9): Senate Department for Urban Development Planning: Bernd Albers (without commission, fig 8): Proposal for new city quarter on historic street layout
Visionary concepts of the Senate Department for Urban Development (fig 9): David Chipperfield Architects, Graft, Kiefer Landschaftsarchitekten

13

14

9c

When: 2017 onwards Size: around 14 hectares

7 Aerial picture of large open space in Berlins historic centre


Photo: Philipp Meuser

8 New quarter proposed between TV Tower and River Spree


Courtesy: Bernd Albers

9ac Proposals for Future space historic centre: city stage / beach terraces / city green Project team: David Chipperfield Architects, Graft, Kiefer Landschafts-architekten
Courtesy: Client: Senatsverwaltung fr Stadtentwicklung Berlin

City West, the centre of West Berlin, has been in economic decline since re unification. This became apparent when mainline trains no longer stopped at the local Zoologischer Garten station and the permanent site for Berlins film festival was moved to Potsdamer Platz. Planning guidance for City West, developed in 2009, attempts to address this decline. At the heart of City West is Breitscheidplatz (Breitscheid Square) which will soon be framed by new buildings. Amongst them is an interesting building, the Zoofenster, a 118m tall skyscraper by architect Christoph Mckler.

Client: City West Design Code: Senate Department for Urban Development
Zoofenster: Harvest United Enterprises, Abu Dhabi Bikini Berlin: Bayerische Bau- und Immobiliengruppe

When: Zoofenster: Completion mid 2011 Size: Zoofenster: ca. 53,420 m gross floor area
Bikini Berlin: ca. 90,000 m net floor area

12 Bikini Berlin, Redevelopment of the Bikinihaus, 3D visualisation


Courtesy: SAQ

13 Location plan showing development sites at City West in red


Courtesy: Senatsverwaltung fr Stadtentwicklung Berlin

Architects: City West: Projektgemeinschaft City West: Urbanizers Bro fr stdtische Konzepte, Planungsgruppe Stadt + Dorf, consultants: Prof. Luise King
Zoofenster (fig 14: Prof. Christoph Mckler Architekten Bikini Berlin (fig 12): SAQ Studio

Budget: Zoofenster: ca. 150200 million Euro Bikini Berlin: ca. 100 million Euro

14 Zoofenster
Courtesy: Prof. Christoph Mckler Architekten

2010

#13 New City Centre

Paris

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2010

#13 New City Centre

London

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David Mangin / Groupe SEURA / Patrick Berger / Jacques Anziutti

William Whitfield / Allies & Morrison amongst others

Forum des Halles

Paternoster Square and St Pauls Environs

1 Forum des Halles, aerial view perspective


Courtesy: La Canope: Patrick Berger et Jaques Anziutti architectes Perspective: Studiosezz Aerial photo: Philippe Guiguard Air images

4 Paternoster Square, St. Pauls Cathedral, Millennium Bridge and Tate Modern, aerial view, April 2010
Courtesy: Sky Eye Aerial Photography Ltd

2 Forum des Halles, Masterplan


Courtesy: SEURA J.-M. Fritz, D. Mangin

5 St. Pauls Churchyard: Enhancement of landscaping in proximity of St. Pauls Cathedral (planning in progress)
Courtesy: City of London

6 View of Paternoster Square. The column also acts as a vent shaft for the car park below.
Photo: Cordelia Polinna

The Forum des Halles replaced Paris famous central wholesale market demol ished in 1971 and is now the busiest local commuter interchange in Europe. Consid ered to be confusing and unattractive, the planning process for its second transfor mation started in 2004. The group SEURA / David Mangin was commissioned for the masterplan and landscape design. Architects Patrick Berger and Jacques Anziutti won the international competition in 2007 for a large building La Canope which will replace the aboveground buildings. The redesign of the Forum des Halles will bring more visibility to the market and become the main gateway for Paris.

Client: City of Paris Planning: Masterplan: David Mangin, Jean-Marc Fritz, Groupe SEURA / Patrick Berger, Jacques Anziutti
Landscape design: Groupe SEURA with Philippe Raguin Playgrounds: Henri Marque, Imaginal Ingnierie, AEP architectes paysagistes

When: 20092015 Budget: 760 million Euro

One of the longestrunning architectural debates, in which Prince Charles became involved, came to a close with the re development of Paternoster Square in the City of London in 2003. The new office quarter, assembled around a public square adjacent to St Pauls Cathedral, was built in accordance with a masterplan created by William Whitfield. The archi tecturally controversial design embodies a significant change in direction from a rather dull financial quarter to a mixed use, multifunctional centre, albeit still dominated by major office buildings,

which now also attracts a good number of tourists. More recently the area has been revitalised through high quality landscape improvements led by the city of London and Jean Nouvels new shop ping centre One New Change.

Client: MEC / Corporation of London St. Pauls Environs is one of 36 selected projects in the Mayors Great Spaces Initiative, which is part of Londons Great Outdoors programme Planning: Masterplan: William Whitfield
individual buildings by: MacCormac Jamieson Prichard, Eric Parry Architects / Sheppard Robson, Allies and Morrison, Whitfield Partners with Sidell Gibson

When: 1996 2003, St Pauls Environs: since 2009

2010

#13 New City Centre

London

p. 1

2010

#13 New City Centre

London

p. 2

Herzog & de Meuron / Vogt / Foster and Partners / ARUP

Tate Modern and the Millennium Bridge

The development of the Tate Modern and the Millennium Bridge, two projects financed through the Millennium Lottery Fund, led to the radical transformation of the South Bank of the River Thames which had been in decline for several decades, following the closure of the nearby docks on both sides of the river. Since the opening of the Tate Modern in the disused Bankside Power Station and the Millennium Bridge, the area has turned into a desirable real estate location, popular tourist destination and wellused public space. It has also become an icon of aspirational planning in London. A dra matic new extension of Tate Modern is under construction on site.

Project: Tate Modern / Transforming Tate Modern Client: Tate Foundation Architects: Bankside Power Station: Sir Giles Gilbert Scott Tate Modern / Transforming Tate Modern: Herzog & de Meuron / Vogt Landschaftsarchitekten When: Bankside Power Station: 19471963 Tate Modern: 19952000 Transforming Tate Modern: 20062012

Project: Millennium Bridge Client: Competition 1996: Financial Times and London Borough of Southwark Architects: Foster and Partners / Arup / Anthony Caro When: 199962002

2 Transforming Tate Modern and adjacent new developments, aerial visualisation


Courtesy: Herzog & de Meuron / Vogt Landschaftsarchitekten

3 Sketch of the connection Paternoster Square Southbank with Tate Modern


Courtesy: Norman Foster

2010

#13 New City Centre

London

p. 4

2010

#13 New City Centre

Chicago

p. 1

East

Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP

Farringdon Urban Design Study

Chicago Central Area Planning

7 Public realm strategy for Farringdon


Courtesy: East Architecture Landscape Urban Design / Design for London / LDA

8 Turn Farringdon outside in: opening of restricted access areas


Courtesy: East Architecture Landscape Urban Design / Design for London / LDA

9 Decks over the railway tracks in Farringdon create new public spaces and sports facilities
Courtesy: East Architecture Landscape Urban Design / Design for London

In 2018, when Crossrail, the new major railway link through Central London, will be completed, the urban quarter of Farringdon will become a key focus of regeneration. The specific character of the area located in the Northern fringe of the City will be preserved with the aid of a spatial strategy, which will also help steer the expected

momentum for growth. The railway tracks that run through the area and are parallel to the subterranean River Fleet are to be partially decked over to make room for new public spaces and create a better visual connection with St. Pauls Cathedral.

Client: City of London / Crossrail / GLA Group / London Borough of Camden / London Borough of Islington Architects: East Architecture Landscape Urban Design When: 20092029

The Central Area Plan of Chicago, supplemented in 2009 with the Central Area Action Plan, provides guidance for the development of the city centre in three categories: land use and spatial design; waterfront and public realm; and public transport. It seeks to strengthen the city centre by attracting business, de veloping more office space, creating a science hub and improving cultural attractions. The adjacent former industrial quarters will be developed with middle income housing, parks and attractive public open spaces.

Client: City of Chicago (Department of Planning and Development in co-operation with Department of Transportation and Department of Environment) Planning: Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP When: 2000 ongoing 2

1 Proposal for decking over of Kennedy Expressway


Courtesy: Skidmore, Owings & Merrill

2 Chicago Central Area Plan, vision image


Courtesy: Skidmore, Owings & Merrill

2010

hapter #14 C

2010

#14 The Strategic Plan

Berlin

p. 1

Senate Department for Urban Development, Berlin

Berlins Strategic Areas

The Strategic Plan


Zukunftsraum Tegel
Forschungs- und Industriepark Zukunftstechnologien im Landschafts- und Naturraum

STRATEGIERUME
Buch - Medizin im Park
Gesundheits- und Wissenschaftsstandorte Wohnen im Grnen Erholung

Today, the strategic plan is consid ered a magic wand in urban planning; the answer to all new challenges fac ing major cities in Europe and the US. Competition, quality of life and sustainability are catchwords found in most strategic plans. How these plans are produced, their targets implemented and who is involved differs widely. The plans identify opportunity areas that should be given development priority. Economic, social, ecological and cultural goalposts are also de fined. Major topics in Berlin, Paris, London and Chicago are the demise of the industrial sector, how to increase the ability of locations to compete, as well as a focus on the environment and how to dampen the blow of these transformations. The implementation of these aims focuses on carefully selected strategic pilot projects. Paris, London and Chicago are prime examples of the new renaissance in strategic planning. The London Plan is the central planning tool of the Mayor of London. The study, Le Grand Pari(s), was initiated on a national level as a project for the city region. In Berlin strategic planning is mainly the duty of the city council. The US plan Chicago: Metropolis 2020 was not commissioned by

the government but by the Commercial Club, a consortium of 300 members from business, politics, civil society and science backgrounds, which had also commissioned the Plan of Chicago 1909. A strategic plan needs expert political guidance, which selfconfidently com municates a clear vision supported by a competent administration. A strategic plan also needs close cooperation between representatives from politics, administration, civil society, eco nomics and science. This coop eration demands a public discussion around common targets and projects. [] London will not only lengthen its lead as the greatest city on earth. It will come to be seen as the best big city on earth, the best big city to live in. I believe these strategies will help us to achieve that ambition.
London Mayor Boris Johnson, foreword to the Draft Replacement London Plan, 2009

Innovative urbane Milieus


Kreative Branchen Quartiersmanagement Innerstdtisches Wohnen Zukunftsraum Tegel

Wohnen mit Weitblick


Stadtumbau Vielfltiges Wohnungsangebot Zwischennutzungen

Innenstadt Herz der Metropole


Regierungs- und Cityfunktionen Wirtschaft und Medien Internationalitt und Headquarters Innerstdtisches Wohnen Umfeld Hauptbahnhof
Historische Mitte City West Gleisdreieck Medienstadt
1

Innovation und Entertainment am Spreeufer


Medienstandorte kreative Branchen Stadtumbau Zwischennutzungen

Wirtschaft im Westen
Industrielle Kerne, Hafen

Tempelhofer Feld

Landschaftsraum Spree - Dahme


Freizeit, Kultur Wohnen am Wasser

Schaufenster am Westkreuz
Messe, Events

Wissenscampus Dahlem
Forschungs- und Bildungsstandorte Wirtschaft und Wissenschaft

Wissenschaftsstadt Adlershof

Entwicklungsachse Innenstadt - Flughafen BBI


Flughafenumfeld BBI Wissenschaft und Wirtschaft Verkehr und Logistik Wohnen und Soziale Stadt

Transformationsraum Sdkreuz - Gleisdreieck


Verkehrsknoten Sdbahnhof Innerstdtischer Naturpark Wohnen und Arbeiten am Park Flughafen BBI

Senatsverwaltung fr Stadtentwicklung, Abteilung Stadtund Freiraumplanung, 2006 - Aktualisierung: Dezember 2009 Graphik: Studio UC / Unverzagt. Visuelle Kommunikation / bit-better visualisierungen

In 2006 the Senate Department for Urban Development presented a plan covering the entire city, pointing out areas of stra tegic significance. The plan shows that the new Berlin Brandenburg International Airport will significantly change the hier archy of Berlins urban quarters. South east Berlin will gain in importance while the northern section will lose its econ omic advantage. The map sets out the vision of the political leadership, its prior ities and where to steer development. It plays an important role in promoting investment in strategic areas.

Client: Senate Department for Urban Development, Berlin Planning: Senate Department for Urban Development, Berlin When: Planning: 20062010

1 Berlins strategic areas


Courtesy: Senatsverwaltung fr Stadtentwicklung Berlin

2010

#14 The Strategic Plan

London

p. 1

2010

#14 The Strategic Plan

Paris

p. 1

Mayor of London / Greater London Authority

LIN Finn Geipel & Giulia Andi

The London Plan

Paris Soft Metropolis

1 The new metropolitan region, birds eye view 3D visualisation


Courtesy: LIN Finn Geipel & Giulia Andi

One of the main tasks for the Mayor of London is to produce a spatial develop ment strategy for London which defines a strategic approach for all pressing issues in the metropolitan region. One of the central ideas is to absorb the large projected population growth within the existing footprint of London, i.e. to avoid the expansion of the urban area into the green belt. The London Plan itself lacks detailed spatial plans but is supplemented with a number of guidance documents. It can be seen as the benchmark for plan ning strategies in metropolitan areas in the 21st Century. Design for London has been instrumental to communicating and developingthe Mayors spatial strategies.

Project: Spatial Planning Strategy London Plan Author: Mayor of London / Greater London Authority When: 2004 onwards

1 Town Centres showing the Central Activities Zone and International, Metropolitan und District Centres
Courtesy: Design for London / LDA

2 Map of London High Streets


Courtesy: Gort Scott

3 Map showing the Opportunity Areas, Areas of Regeneration, Areas of Intensification and the wider development area Thames Gateway
Courtesy: Design for London / LDA

4 Map showing the Green Grid and Parks


Courtesy: Design for London / LDA

The French President Nicholas Sarkozy is keen to turn the metropolitan region of Paris into a sustainable postKyoto landscape with the focus of reducing the emission of greenhouse gases. In 2008, under the label Le Grand Pari(s), ten teams led by architects and planners were commissioned to develop ideas of how to achieve this goal. The team LIN Finn Geipel & Giulia Andi proposes that

existing residential and mixeduse hubs should be intensified. Wetlands along the numerous rivers in the region and green spaces should be protected and re naturalised. Given that there are eight Dpartements and 1,281 local authorities in the Region le de France it will be a challenge in the realization to overcome the fragmented structure of local authority.

Client: French government, study Le Grand Pari(s), 2008 Planning: LIN Finn Geipel & Giulia Andi When: since 2007

2010

#14 The Strategic Plan

Chicago

p. 1

Chicago Metropolis 2020 Development Plan

In 1999, the Commercial Club of Chicago, a consortium of 300 members from business, politics, civil society and science backgrounds, published the strategic development plan, Chicago Metropolis 2020. The document argues that urban sprawl is reducing Chicagos competitive edge by dispersing the benefits of agglomeration which cities thrive on. The proposed solution calls for sustain able regional development strategies and political reforms. The Commercial Club founded the nonprofit organisation, Chicago Metropolis 2020, to promote its ideas.

Client: Commercial Club of Chicago Implementation: Chicago Metropolis 2020 When: 19992020

1 Choices for the Chicago Region


Courtesy: Chicago Metropolis 2020

Credits

Berlin exhibition

(October December 2010) Hosted by Museum of Architecture of the Berlin University of Technology Initiators Harald Bodenschatz (Professor for Sociology of Planning and Architecture at the Berlin University of Technology) and Hans-Dieter Ngelke (Head of the Museum of Architecture of the TU Berlin) in cooperation with Harald Kegler (Bauhaus University Weimar) and Wolfgang Sonne (Dortmund University of Technology) Curated by Christina Grwe (Kuratorenwerkstatt)

London Exhibition
Curated by Cordelia Polinna (TU Berlin/Think Berl!n), Tobias Goevert and Kalin Coromina (Design for London) Editorial support Lee Mallett, Jeremy Melvin (Urbik), David Dunster Exhibition design Axel Feldmann, Siaron Hughes, Niki Lampaski (objectif) Contributors Harald Bodenschatz (TU Berlin), Dorothee Brantz (TU Berlin), Sonja Dmpelmann (University of Maryland), Dieter Frick (TU Berlin), Simone Goevert, Christina Grwe (Kuratorenwerkstatt), Aljoscha Hofmann (TU Berlin), Corinne Jaquand (Ecole nationale suprieure darchitecture de Clemont-Ferrand), Harald Kegler (Bauhaus University Weimar), Hans-Dieter Ngelke (TU Berlin), Cordelia Polinna (TU Berlin/Think Berl!n), Barbara Schnig (TU Darmstadt), Wolfgang Sonne (TU Dortmund), Design for London team including Mark Brearley, Paul Clarke, Eleanor Fawcett, Tobias Goevert, Eva Herr, Tim Rettler, Edmund Bird, Alison Mayor, Charlotte Khatso in cooperation with Regula Lscher (Director of the Senate Department for Urban Development Berlin), Senate Department for Urban Development Berlin, Borough of Berlin-Mitte. Sponsors

City Visions 1910 | 2010 has been organised by


The Museum of Architecture, Berlin University of Technology Design for London

Funded by
German Federal Ministry of Transport, Building and Urban Development Office for Building and Regional Planning Design for London / London Development Agency Barratt Homes John McAslan + Partners British Council

Supported by
Mayor of London London Development Agency Transport for London London Borough of Hackney Hackney Access Project Open Dalston