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HVAC
Simplified
Solutions Manual
© 2006, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and AirConditioning Engineers, Inc. (www.ashrae.org). HVAC Simplified Solutions Manual. For personal use only. Additional reproduc tion, distribution, or transmission in either print or digital form is not permitted without ASHRAE's prior written permission.
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About the Author
Stephen P. Kavanaugh, PhD, Fellow ASHRAE, has been a professor of mechanic al engineering at The Univer sity of Alabama since 1985, where he teaches HVAC and is faculty advisor for the ASHRAE Student Chapter as well as a Habitat for Humanity Student Affiliate. Kavanaugh is coauthor of GroundSource Heat Pumps—Design of Geothermal Systems for Commercial and Institutional Buildings, published by ASHRAE in 1997. He has presented over 100 engineering seminars for more than 2,500 designers on the topics of energy efficiency, groundsource heat pumps, and HVAC. He maintains the Web site www.geokiss.com, where there is more information about HVAC and groundsource heat pump design tools. He is past chair and current handbook subcommittee chair of ASHRAE Technical Committee 6.8, Geothermal Energy, as well as past chair of ASHRAE Technical Committee 9.4, Applied Heat Pumps and Heat Recovery. Kavanaugh is also a Fellow of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and a board member and past president of Habitat for Humanity—Tuscaloosa.
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Any updates/errata to this publication will be posted on the ASHRAE Web site at www.ashrae.org/publicationupdates.
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HVAC
Simplified
Solutions Manual
Copyright ASHRAE Provided by IHS under license with ASHRAE No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS
Stephen P. Kavanaugh
American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and AirConditioning Engineers, Inc.
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ISBN 9781933742090
©2006 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and AirConditioning Engineers, Inc. 1791 Tullie Circle, NE Atlanta, GA 30329 www.ashrae.org
All rights reserved.
Printed in the United States of America
ASHRAE has compiled this publication with care, but ASHRAE has not investigated, and ASHRAE expressly disclaims any duty to investigate, any product, service, process, procedure, design, or the like that may be described herein. The appearance of any technical data or editorial material in this publication does not constitute endorsement, warranty, or guaranty by ASHRAE of any product, service, process, procedure, design, or the like. ASHRAE does not warrant that the information in the publication is free of errors, and ASHRAE does not necessarily agree with any statement or opin ion in this publication. The entire risk of the use of any information in this publication is assumed by the user.
No part of this book may be reproduced without permission in writing from ASHRAE, except by a reviewer who may quote brief passages or reproduce illustrations in a review with appropriate credit; nor may any part of this book be repro duced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any way or by any means—electronic, photocopying, recording, or other—without permission in writing from ASHRAE.
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Contents
. Nomenclature—HVAC Terms, Abbreviations, and Subscripts Author’s Note to . . . . . . . . . . . . 
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vii .ix 

Solutions to Chapter 2—HVAC Fundamentals: Refrigeration 
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1 
Solutions to Chapter 3—HVAC Fundamentals: Heat Transfer 
5 

Solutions to Chapter 4—HVAC Fundamentals: 
11 

Solutions to Chapter 5—HVAC Equipment, Systems, and Selection 
17 

Solutions to Chapter 6—Comfort, Air Quality, and Climatic Data 
25 

. Solutions to Chapter 8—Cooling Load and Heating Loss Calculations and Analysis Solutions to Chapter 7—Heat and Moisture Flow in Buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
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29 35 

Solutions to Chapter 9—Air Distribution System Design 
41 

Solutions to Chapter 10—Water Distribution System 
47 

Solutions to Chapter 11—Motors, Lighting, and Controls 
51 

Solutions to Chapter 12—Energy, Costs, and Economics 
55 

v 
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Author’s Note to Users
Several of the solutions in this manual incorporate the use of the spreadsheet pro grams that are provided with HVAC Simplified, such as EPipelator.xls, EDuctulator.xls, HVACSysEff.xls, PsychProcess.xls, or TideLoad.xls. These programs are updated period ically; the most current version can be obtained for free from the ASHRAE Web site at www.ashrae.org/publicationupdates. The solutions in this text correspond to the 2006 ver sions of these programs.
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vii
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Nomenclature—HVAC Terms, Abbreviations, and Subscripts
alternating current, air cooled, or aircon ditioning apparatus dew point Air Diffusion Performance Index adjustablespeed drive (a.k.a. variable speed drive, VSD) brake horsepower
Btu/h heat rate unit (British thermal units per hour)
adp
ADPI
ASD
AC
bhp, BHP
c cooling
C
C _{v}
loss coefficient (duct fittings) flow coefficient (flow in gpm that results in Δp = 1.0 psi)
CF correction factor
CFC chlorofluorocarbon (refrigerants)
cfm cubic feet per minute (airflow rate)
CLF cooling load factor
CLTD cooling load temperature difference (°F)
COP coefficient of performance (watts/watt)
Δ
Δh, ΔH
Δp, ΔP
D
dB
delta (difference)
differential head
differential pressure
diameter decibel (sound power or pressure) or dry bulb (temperature) dry bulb (temperature)
db, DB
dp dew point or differential pressure
E energy (electrical ≡ kWh or thermal ≡ Btu)
EER energy efficiency ratio (Btu/W·h or MBtu/kWh)
ESP external static pressure (in. of water)
f frequency (Hz, cycles per second)
FCU fancoil unit
FPVAV fanpowered variable air volume
ft feet (distance or unit of head [ft of water])
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gpm
η
h heating (Btu/h, kW), head of liquid (ft), specific enthalpy (Btu/lb), heat transfer coefficient (Btu/h·ft ^{2} ⋅°F)
heat (Btu, J); enthalpy (Btu) highdensity polyethylene (piping material) heat recovery unit unit of power (horsepower = 0.746 kW) or heat pump heating, ventilating, airconditioning frequency unit (cycles per second) indoor air temperature
K turbine flow meter constant (cycles per gallon)
HDPE
HRU, hru
hp, HP
H
gallons per minute efficiency
HVAC
Hz
IAT (t _{i} )
kW kilowatt (unit of power or heat rate)
kWh kilowatthour (unit of electrical energy)
kW/ton electrical demand per unit cooling capac
L, l
^{L}
_{p}
^{L}
_{w}
^{i}^{t}^{y} ^{(}^{k}^{W} refrig. ^{/}^{k}^{W} elect. ^{)}
latent heat or liter sound pressure level (dB) sound power level (dB)
LMTD logmean temperature difference (°F)
MBtu/h heat rate unit (British thermal units per hour × 1000)
MERV minimum efficiency reporting values (for air filters)
μ
NC
OA
OAT (t _{o} )
ODP ozone depletion potential
psi pounds per square inch (unit of pressure)
psia pounds per square inch, absolute
psig pounds per square inch, gage
fluid viscosity (lb/ft·s) noise criteria outside air (a.k.a. ventilation air) outdoor air temperature
ix
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HVAC Simplified Solutions Manual
q
Q
R
R _{a}
Re
RH
RTU
rpm, RPM
ρ
s
S
SC
SCL
SHR
t, T
TC
heat rate (Btu/h or kW) 
TH 
volumetric flow rate (gpm, cfm, Lps, m ^{3} /s) 
ton 
thermal resistance (a.k.a. Rvalue ≡ h·°F·ft ^{2} /Btu, °C·m ^{2} /W) gas constant for air (ft·lb _{f} /lb _{m} ·°F) 
TP 
Reynolds number (Re = ρDV/μ) 
TSP 
relative humidity (%) 
u 
rooftop unit 
U 
revolutions per minute 
V 
density (lb/ft ^{3} ) 

specific entropy (Btu/lb·°F) 

entropy (Btu/°F) 
VAV 
shade coefficient 
VSD 
solar cooling load factor (Btu/h·ft ^{2} ) 
w, W 
sensible heat ratio 
wb, WB 
temperature (°F, °C) 
w.c. 
total cooling (capacity) 
x 
total heating (capacity)
cooling capacity (12,000 Btu/h, rate required to freeze 2000 lb of water (32°F) in 24 hours)
total pressure (also p)
total static pressure (also p _{s} )
specific internal energy (Btu/lb)
internal energy (Btu)
velocity (fps, fpm, m/s) and in some cases volumetric airflow (ASHRAE Standard 62.1) variable air volume (airflow rate) variablespeed drive (a.k.a. ASD) power (kW) wet bulb (temperature) water column (inches of water head)
mole fraction
x
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Solutions to Chapter 2— HVAC Fundamentals: Refrigeration
Problem 2.1
Solution
Find the Carnot COP and the ideal COP for a system that uses R134a refriger ant at an evaporating temperature of 45°F and a condensing temperature of 120°F. Find the suction pressure and discharge pressures in psia and psig and the temperature of the refrigerant leaving the compressor (assuming the ideal cycle conditions).
_{C}_{a}_{r}_{n}_{o}_{t}
COP _{c}
(460° + 45°F)°R
500
=  _{=}  = 6.73
120°F – 45°F
75
Ideal COP (Using Figure B.1 in Appendix) Point 1: Saturated vapor @ 45°F, h _{1} = 110 Btu/lb (s _{1} = 0.222 Btu/lb·°F) Point 2: Superheated vapor @ ~190 psia (the saturation pressure for 120°F) and s _{2} = s _{1} = 0.222 Btu/lb·°F, h _{2} = 121 Btu/lb Point 3: Saturated liquid @ 120°F, h _{3} = 52.5 Btu/lb Point 4: Mixture @ t = 45°F and h _{4} = h _{3} = 52.5 Btu/lb
Ideal
COP _{c}
^{h} 1
–
^{h} 4
110 – 52.5
_{=}_{=}  _{=} _{5}_{.}_{2}

^{h} 2
–
^{h} 1
121 – 110
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HVAC Simplified Solutions Manual
Problem 2.2 
A scroll compressor (Table 2.3) with R134a refrigerant operates with a 45°F evaporating temperature and a 120°F discharge temperature. Find the cooling capacity (20°F suction superheat and 15°F liquid subcooling), compressor input power, EER, suction pressure, and discharge pressure (psig). 

Solution 
@ t _{e} = 45°F, t _{c} = 120°F, SH = 20°F, and SC = 15°F q _{r} = 28.9 MBtu/h (25,900 Btu/h), w _{c} = 2.25 kW (2,250 W) 

EER = q _{c} /w _{c} = 28.9/2.25 = 12.8 MBtu/kWh (= 28,900/2250 = 12.8 Btu/Wh) Interpolating between P = 50 psia @ 40.3°F and P = 75 psia @ 62.2°F to P @ 45°F 

P 
(suction) ≈ 55.4 psia = 40.7 psig 

Interpolating between P = 175 psia @ 115.8°F and P = 200 psia @ 125.3°F to 

P @ 120°F 

P 
(discharge) ≈ 186 psia = 171.3 psig 

Problem 2.3 
What increase in capacity and EER can be expected if the superheat is lowered to 10°F and the condensing temperature is lowered to 100°F? What is the disad vantage of doing this? 

Solution 
@ t _{e} = 45°F, t _{c} = 100°F, SH = 20°F, and SC = 15°F q _{r} = 32.3 MBtu/h, w _{c} = 1.77 kW (@ SH = 20°F) q _{r} (@ SH = 10°F) = 32.3 MBtu/h × (ρ @ SH = 10°F/ρ @ SH = 20°F) 

= 
32.3 MBtu/h × (ρ @ p ≈ 55 psia and t = 55°F/ρ @ p ≈ 55 psia and t = 65°F) 

32.3 MBtu/h × (1.11 lb/ft ^{3} ÷ 1.09 lb/ft ^{3} ) = 32.8 MBtu/h EER = 32.8 ÷ 1.77 = 18.5 Btu/Wh = 

This represents a 13% increase in capacity and a 45% increase in efficiency. The dis advantage of doing this is that the condenser will most likely have to be cooled with water to lower the temperature to 100°F, and the 10°F lower superheat provides a smaller margin of error to prevent liquid refrigerant from entering the compressor. 

Problem 2.4 
Sketch the atomic makeup of R22, R12, and R123. 

Solution 
Refrigerant numbering system = R[Carbons–1] [Hydrogens+1][Fluorine] For R22 (which is really 022) Number of carbon atoms – 1 = 0, thus number of carbon atoms = 1 Number of hydrogen atoms + 1 = 2, thus number of hydrogen atoms = 1 Number of fluorine atoms = 2 
Since the structure of the single carbon atom permits four atoms and there are two flu orine atoms and only one hydrogen, the remaining bond is filled with a chlorine atom. For R12: Carbon = 1, Hydrogen = 0, Fluorine = 2, Chlorine = 4 – 0 –2 = 2 For R123: Carbon = 2 (6 bonds now available), Hydrogen = 1, Fluorine = 3, Chlorine = 6 – 1 –3 = 2
2
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Problem 2.5
Solution
Problem 2.6
Solution
Chapter 2—HVAC Fundamentals: Refrigeration
How can you determine if a refrigerant has chlorine in its structure from the Rxxx designation?
If the R number of the refrigerant has only two digits (which means the first digit of the threedigit designation is 0), the sum of the remaining two numbers [(H + 1) and (F)] must be 5 to ensure chlorine is not present. If the first digit of the threedigit des ignation is 1, the sum of the remaining two numbers [(H + 1) and (F)] must be 7 to ensure chlorine is not present.
Compare the ideal COP of R134a and R22 at an evaporating temperature of 40°F with 20°F superheat and a condensing temperature of 120°F with 15°F sub cooling with the actual compressor COPs calculated from the manufacturer’s performance tables.
For R134a using the Ph diagram (Figure B.1):
@ t _{e} = 40°F (~50 psia) and SH = 20°F, t _{1} = 60°F and h _{1} = 113 Btu/lb To find point 2, follow a line of constant entropy (s) to p =190 psia (saturated pressure for t _{c} = 120°F), h _{2} = 126 Btu/lb. To find point 3, follow a line of constant pressure (p = 190 psia) to the left, cross the saturated liquid line, and go to a point 15°F below the saturated tempera ture (120°F), or t _{3} = 105°F, h _{3} = 47 Btu/lb. To find point 4, follow a line of constant enthalpy (h) downward to t _{e} = 40°F (~50 psia), h _{4} = h _{3} = 47 Btu/lb.
Ideal
COP _{c}
–
^{h} 1 ^{h} 4
113 – 47
_{=}_{=}  _{=} _{5}_{.}_{1}

–
^{h} 2 ^{h} 1
126 – 113
From Table 2.3 @ t _{e} = 40°F and t _{c} = 120°F, q _{r} = 25.9 MBtu/h and w _{c} = 2.27 kW. Thus, EER = 25.9 ÷ 2.27 = 11.4 MBtu/kWh = 11.4 Btu/Wh and COP = EER ÷ 3.412 Btu/Wh = 11.4 Btu/Wh ÷ 3.412 Btu/Wh = 3.34.
For R22, using the Ph diagram (Figure B.2):
Point 1: (t _{e} = 40°F), p _{1} ≈ 83 psia, t _{1} = 60°F, and h _{1} = 111 Btu/lb. Point 2: (t _{c} = 120°F), p _{2} ≈ 275 psia, t _{2} ≈ 160°F, and h _{2} = 124 Btu/lb. Point 3: (t _{c} = 120°F), p _{3} ≈ 275 psia, t _{3} = 105°F, and h _{3} = 42 Btu/lb. Point 4: t _{4} = t _{e} = 40°F, p _{4} = p _{1} ≈ 83 psia, h _{4} = h _{3} = 42 Btu/lb
Ideal
COP _{c}
–
^{h} 1 ^{h} 4
111 – 42
_{=}_{=}  _{=} _{5}_{.}_{3}

–
^{h} 2 ^{h} 1
124 – 111
From Table 2.4 @ t _{e} = 40°F and t _{c} = 120°F, q _{r} = 32.4 MBtu/h and w _{c} = 2.74 kW. Thus, EER = 32.4 ÷ 2.74 = 11.8 MBtu/kWh = 11.8 /Wh and COP = EER ÷ 3.412 Btu/Wh = 11.8 Btu/Wh ÷ 3.412 Btu/Wh = 3.47.
Problem 2.7
Solution
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A set of pressure gauges on a manifold (see figure in “Refrigerant Charging” insert above) read 35 psig and a thermometer placed in close contact with the compres sor inlet reads 67°F. The discharge pressure is 200 psig with an outdoor tempera ture of 95°F, and the refrigerant is R134a. Is this system properly charged? If not, what range of temperature should be expected for these pressures?
@ 35 psig, t _{e} = 40°F for R134a Check @ p = 14.7 + 35 = 49.7 psia, t _{e} ≈ 40°F (as shown in Table 2.1) Superheat = t _{1} – t _{e} = 67°F – 40°F = 27°F
The unit appears to be undercharged since proper operation typically dictates that the superheat be in the 10°F to 20°F range when nearly fully loaded, as indicated with the 95°F outdoor air temperature.
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HVAC Simplified Solutions Manual
Problem 2.8 
A manufacturer recommends that their R22 equipment operate with a suction pressure of 72 psig and a return gas temperature of 53°F with a specified air tem perature (75°F) and flow rate (400 cfm/ton). What are the corresponding evapo rating temperature and superheat? 
Solution 
P _{1} = 72 psig = 84.7 psia The pressure gauge shown in Figure 2.12 indicates t _{e} @ 72 psig ≈ 43°F. Thus, SH = t _{1} – t _{e} = 53°F – 43°F = 10°F. 
Problem 2.9 
With regard to the use of refrigerant mixtures as substitutes for CFCs, explain the difference between azeotropes and zeotropes. What is “glide”? 
Solution 
Azeotropes are refrigerant mixtures that behave as pure substances. When the refriger ant exists in a mixture of vapor and liquid, the lines of constant temperature are paral lel with the lines of constant pressure with changing vaporliquid fraction on a Ph diagram. Both lines are horizontal in the domeshaped region of the chart bounded by the saturated liquid and saturated vapor lines. Zeotropes are refrigerant mixtures whose components evaporate and condense at a “gliding” temperature that depends on both the pressure and vaporliquid fractions. The lines of constant temperature within the “vapor dome” region of a Ph diagram are not perfectly horizontal. 
Problem 2.10 
A refrigerant has an ASHRAE Standard 34 designation of A2 and B2. What does this mean? It also has an ODP of 0.75. Is this good, acceptable, or unac ceptable? 
Solution 
The A2 designation indicates a low level of toxicity (A being nontoxic and B being toxic). The value of 2 indicates a low lower flammability limit (LFL) with 1 being no propagation in air and 3 having a high LFL. An ODP (ozone depletion potential) of 0.75 is unacceptable since many of the CFCs that have been banned have ODPs around 1.0. 
4
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Solutions to Chapter 3— HVAC Fundamentals: Heat Transfer
Problem 3.1
Solution
A stream of water flowing at 25 gpm must be cooled from 80°F to 70°F with chilled water at 50°F flowing at 20 gpm in a coaxial counterflow heat exchanger with an overall Ufactor of 450 Btu/h⋅ft ^{2} ⋅°F and 1.25 in. diameter inner tube. Calculate the required length of heat exchanger tubing.
q = mc _{p} ^{(}^{t} _{w}_{o} ^{–} ^{t} _{w}_{i} ) = ρQc _{p} (t _{w}_{o} – t _{w}_{i} )
For hot fluid side, water at 75°F, ρ = 62.3 lb/ft ^{3} ,
q (Btu/h) = (62.3 lb/ft ^{3} × 1.0 Btu/lb·°F × 60 min/h ÷ 7.48 gal/ft ^{3} ) Q (gal/min)
^{c} p
= 1.0 Btu/lb·°F:
× (t hwo – t hwi )°F
= 500 × Q (gal/min) × (t _{h}_{w}_{o} – t _{h}_{w}_{i} )°F = 500 × 25 (gal/min) × (70 – 80)°F
= –125,000 Btu/h Rearrange the equation to find the cold fluid out temperature:
t _{c}_{w}_{o} = t _{c}_{w}_{i} + q ÷ [500 × Q (gpm)] = 50°F + {125,000* ÷ [500 × 20 (gpm)]}
= 62.5°F,
Δt _{2} = 80 – 62.5 = 17.5°F
Note the sign of q is changed from – to + since the energy balance convention has changed to the cold side and the addition of heat to the cold stream will result in an increase in temperature.
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HVAC Simplified Solutions Manual
Problem 3.2
Solution
Problem 3.3
Solution
Rearrange Equation 3.18:
^{A} o
q
==

^{U} o
LMTD
q

Δt _{1} – Δt _{2}

ln
)
^{U} o
(
Δ
t
1
⁄ Δ
^{t} 2
=
125,000 Btu/h

⎛
450 ⎝
(20 – 17.5)°F
 
Btu
h·ft
2 ·°F
⎞
⎠
ln(20 ⁄ 17.5)
^{A} o
L = A _{o} ÷ πD _{o} = 14.8 ft ^{2} ÷ π(1.25 in. ÷ 12 in./ft) = 45.2 ft
= πD _{o} L, thus:
=
125, 000 450 × 18.7

=
14.8
ft ^{2}
Find the overall heat transfer coefficient for a schedule 40 steel pipe (d _{o} = 1.9 in.,
= 1.61 in., k = 41 Btu/h⋅ft⋅°F) with an internal heat transfer coefficient of 48 Btu/h⋅ft ^{2} ⋅°F and an external coefficient of 20 Btu/h⋅ft ^{2} ⋅°F.
^{d} i
^{U} o
^{U}
o
^{U} o
1
1.9/2 in.
1.61/2 in.
_{=}  _{:} _{r} _{o} _{=}  _{=} _{0}_{.}_{0}_{7}_{9}_{2} _{f}_{t} _{:} _{r} _{i} _{=}  _{=} _{0}_{.}_{0}_{6}_{7}_{1} _{f}_{t}
 ^{r} o + ^{r} i ^{h} i
o
r _{o} ln 
i

k
r
r
1
+ 
^{h} o
_{1}_{2} in./ft
_{1}_{2} in./ft
1
_{=} 
0.0792 ft ln
 +  _{+} 
0.0671 ft
Btu/h·ft ^{2} ·°F
⎛
⎝
0.0792 ft ⎞

0.0671 ft ⎠
0.0792 ft
1
×
48 Btu/h·ft
2
·°F
41 Btu/h·ft·°F
20
=
13.3 Btu/h·ft
2 ·°F
A wall is made of a 4 in. thick layer of masonry (0.9 Btu/h⋅ft⋅°F) and a 1 in. layer of insulation (k = 0.03 Btu/h⋅ft⋅°F). Find the overall thermal resistance if the inner and outer surfaces have heat transfer coefficients of 5.0 Btu/h⋅ft ^{2} ⋅°F.
^{R} ov
^{R} ov
^{R} ov
=
=
=
R
i
+
R
mas ' ry
1

Btu/h·ft ^{2} ·°F
5
R
++
ins
R
o
=
1

^{h} i
+
Δ
^{x} mas ' ry

^{k} mas ' ry
Δ
^{x} ins
1
++ 

^{k} ins
^{h} o
4 in.

12 in./ft
1 in.

12 in./ft
1
++  _{+} 
Btu/h·ft ^{2} ·°F

0.9 Btu/h·ft·°F
0.03 Btu/h·ft·°F
5
0.2 +++0.37
2.78
0.2
=
3.55 h·ft
2 ·°F/Btu
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Problem 3.4
Solution
Problem 3.5
Solution
Chapter 3—HVAC Fundamentals: Heat Transfer
Repeat problem 3.3 if an added layer of ½ in. plywood (0.2 Btu/h⋅ft⋅°F) covers 50% of the wall and the remaining 50% is covered by ½ in. thick additional insu lation.
Based on 1 ft ^{2} (A _{w}_{a}_{l}_{l} = 1.0 ft ^{2} ) and rearranging Equation 3.16 to solve for R _{o}_{v} :
^{R}
^{R}
ov
ov
^{R} ov
⎛
= ⎜
^{A} wall
1 ft
2
= ×
1
Δ ^{x} mas' ry

^{k} mas '
_{r}_{y} ^{A} wall
1
× 1 ft ^{2}
0.5 in.

Δ ^{x} ins

++
Δ ^{x} ply&ins
1
⎞
⎟
⎠
⎝
 +
^{h} i ^{A} wall
⎛
⎜
⎜
⎝
^{k} ins
^{A} wall

^{0}^{.}^{5}^{k} ply ^{A} wall
+ ^{0}^{.}^{5}^{k} ins ^{A} wall
× 1 ft ^{2}
1 in.

12 in./ft
0.03 Btu/h·ft·°F
5
1
Btu/h·ft ^{2} ·°F
×
+ 
^{h} o ^{A} wall
4 in.

12 in./ft
 +  _{+} 
× 1 ft ^{2}
5 Btu/h·ft ^{2} ·°F
0.9 Btu/h·ft·°F
0.03
3.91 h·ft
⎞
⎟
⎟
⎠
+  12 in./ft _{+} 
1 ft ^{2}
=
0.5 
× 0.2 Btu/h·ft·°F1 ft 
2 + 
0.5 
× 

0.2 ++++0.37 2.78 0.36 0.2 
= 
Btu/h·ft·°F1 ft ^{2}
2 ·°F/Btu
A condenser is to be fabricated from the heat exchanger tubing described in Problem 3.1 for a compressor that flows 950 lb/h of R134a refrigerant. Find the total required heat transfer rate, the heat required to desuperheat the gas, and the required length of tubing if the overall Ufactor is 500 Btu/h⋅ft ^{2} ⋅°F, the tem perature leaving the compressor is 200°F, and the pressure is 185 psig. The con denser exit is saturated liquid at 185 psig and the water temperatures entering and leaving the condenser are 70°F and 80°F, respectively.
Find refrigerant enthalpy at inlet (h _{2} ), saturated vapor (h _{s}_{a}_{t} ), and outlet (h _{3} ). h _{2} is a superheated vapor @ 185 psig (~200 psia), h _{2} = 139 Btu/lb. For a saturated vapor @ 200 psia (125°F), h _{s}_{a}_{t} = 119 Btu/lb. For a saturated liquid @ 200 psia, h _{s}_{a}_{t} = h _{3} = 54 Btu/lb.
q _{r} = m _{r} (h _{2} – h _{3} ) = 950 lb/h × (139 – 54) Btu/lb = 80,750 Btu/h
Heat required to desuperheat:
q _{r}_{(}_{d}_{s}_{)} = m _{r} (h _{2} – h _{s}_{a}_{t} ) = 950 lb/h × (139 – 119) Btu/lb = 19,000 Btu/h
Heat required to condense from saturated vapor to saturated liquid:
q _{r}_{(}_{c}_{o}_{n}_{d}_{)} = m _{r} (h _{s}_{a}_{t} – h _{3} ) = 950 lb/h × (119 – 54) Btu/lb = 61,750 Btu/h
To size condenser, break into two sections so that LMTD can be calculated for both sections.
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HVAC Simplified Solutions Manual
Condensing section: q _{r}_{(}_{c}_{o}_{n}_{d}_{)} = 61,750 Btu/h
Recall that for water q (Btu/h) = mc _{p} (t _{w}_{o} – t _{w}_{i} ) ≈ 500 Q (gpm) (t _{w}_{o} – t _{w}_{i} ) (°F) Thus: t _{w}_{o} = t _{w}_{i} + q _{r}_{(}_{c}_{o}_{n}_{d}_{)} ÷ 500 gpm = 70°F + 61,750 ÷ (500 × 16 gpm) = 77.7°F
^{L}^{M}^{T}^{D} cond
=  _{=} (125  – 70) – (125 – 77.7) = 51.1°F
Δ
ln 
Δ
^{t}
1
^{t}
2
2
ln
(125 – 70) (125 – 77.7)

Δ
^{t} 1
– Δ
^{t}
^{A} cond
=
^{q} cond

U _{o} LMTD
=
61,750 Btu/h
 =
500
Btu/h·ft ^{2} ·°F × 51.1°F
2.42 ft ^{2}
For desuperheating section:
LMTD _{D}_{S}
Δ
^{t} 2
– Δ
^{t} 3
(125 – 77.7) – (200 – 80)
=  _{=}  = 78.1°F
ln Δ
^{t} 2
⁄ Δ
^{t} 3
ln
(125 – 77.7) (200 – 80)

^{A} DS
=
^{q} r ( ds )

U _{o} LMTD
=
19, 000 Btu/h
 =
500
Btu/h·ft ^{2} ·°F × 78.1°F
0.49 ft ^{2}
L = A _{o} ÷ πD _{o} = A _{c}_{o}_{n}_{d} + A _{D}_{S} ÷ πD _{o} = (2.42 + 0.49) ft ^{2} ÷ π(1.25 in. ÷ 12in./ft) = 8.9 ft
Problem 3.6 
Hot waste water flowing at 20 gpm at 200°F is used to heat 15 gpm of incoming water at 85°F to 125°F in a coaxialcounterflow heat exchanger. The copper (k = 220 Btu/h⋅ft⋅°F) inside tube has an outer diameter of 1.125 in. and inside diameter of 1.00 in. Compute the required length of tube for an internal heat transfer coefficient of 750 Btu/h⋅ft ^{2} ⋅°F and an outer heat transfer coefficient of 900 Btu/h⋅ft ^{2} ⋅° F. 
Solution 
q = mc _{p} (t _{w}_{o} – t _{w}_{i} ) = ρQc _{p} (t _{w}_{o} – t _{w}_{i} ) For cold fluid side, 15 gpm water at 85°F heated to 125°F: 
q (Btu/h) ≈ 500 × Q (gal/min) × (t _{h}_{w}_{o} – t _{h}_{w}_{i} )°F = 500 × 15 (gal/min) × (125 – 85)°F = 300,000 Btu/h Rearrange the equation to find the hot fluid outlet temperature:
t _{c}_{w}_{o} = t _{c}_{w}_{i} + q ÷ [500 × Q (gpm)] = 200°F – {300,000* ÷ [500 × 20 (gpm)]} = 170°F, for counterflow: Δt _{1} = 200 – 125 = 75°F and Δt _{2} = 170 – 85 = 85°F
Find U _{o} :
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^{U} o
^{U}
o
^{U} o
=
1
 : r
 ^{r} o + ^{r} i ^{h} i
r _{o} ln ^{r} ^{o}

^{r} i
k
1
 _{+} 
^{h} o
o
⎛
⎝
1.125
 ^{⎞} in.
2
⎠

== 12 in./ft
1
0.0469
ft
:
r _{i}
⎛
⎝
1.0
 ^{⎞} in.
2
⎠
_{=}  _{=} _{0}_{.}_{0}_{4}_{1}_{7} _{f}_{t}
12 in./ft
_{=} 
=
⎛
⎝
0.0469 ft

0.0417 ft
⎞
·°F ⎠
×
750 Btu/h·ft
2
379 Btu/h·ft
2 ·°F
`,,``,`,,,`,,`,````,`,`,,,,``,``,,`,,`,`,,`
0.0469 ft ln
⎛
⎝
0.0469 ft ⎞
0.0417 ft ⎠

1
+  _{+} 
Btu/h·ft ^{2} ·°F
220 Btu/h·ft·°F
900
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Copyright ASHRAE Provided by IHS under license with ASHRAE No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS
Chapter 3—HVAC Fundamentals: Heat Transfer
Rearrange Equation 3.18:
^{A} o
q

== U _{o} LMTD
q

^{U} o
^{t} 2

Δ
^{t} 1
ln
⎛
⎝
– Δ
t
Δ

Δ ^{t} 2 ⎠
⎞
1
=
300, 000 Btu/h

377
Btu/h·ft ^{2} ·°F  (75 – 85)°F
ln
⎛
⎝
75

85 ⎠
⎞
^{A} o
L = A _{o} ÷ πD _{o} = 9.96 ft ^{2} ÷ π(1.125 in. ÷ 12 in./ft) = 33.8 ft
= πD _{o} L, thus:
=
300, 000 377 × 79.9

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=
9.96 ft ^{2}
9
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Solutions to Chapter 4— HVAC Fundamentals: Psychrometrics
Problem 4.1
Solution
Problem 4.2
Solution
A sling psychrometer measures the air temperatures to be 85°F dry bulb and 72°F wet bulb. Find: relative humidity, dewpoint temperature, humidity ratio (in lbmv/lbma and grains), specific volume, and enthalpy. Show results on a chart and verify with the program PsychProcess.xls (on the accompanying CD). Assume sea level elevation.
Tdb1 
85 
°F 
Twb1 
72 
°F 
Elevation 
0 
ft. 
AtmPress 
14.70 
psia 
APinHg 
29.92 
in Hg 
HRatio1 
0.0139 
lbw/lba 
97.0 
Grains 

RelHum1 
53.7 
% 
SpHt1 
0.246 
Btu/lb°F 
Enal1 
35.6 
Btu/lb 
SpVol1 
14.04 
cu.ft./lb 
DewPt1 
66.4 
°F 
lbpCuFt 
0.000988 
lb _{w} /ft ^{3} 
Air flowing at 4000 cfm is heated from 70°F (RH = 40%) at rate of 95,000 Btu/h. Find the outlet air conditions (db, RH, wb, υ). Sketch the process on a psychro metric chart.
q =
 Q × 60 (min/h) × c
υ
p
× (
^{t}
2
–
t
1
)
Thus,
^{t} 2
2
qυ
95, 000 (Btu/h)
×
13.47 (ft
/lb)
== +  70 _{+}  _{=} _{9}_{2}_{.}_{2}_{°}_{F}
^{t} 1
60Qc _{p}
60
(min/h)
×
4000 (ft ^{3}
/min) × 0.24 (Btu/lb·°F)
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HVAC Simplified Solutions Manual
Problem 4.3
Solution
Problem 4.4
Solution
A gas furnace produces 60,000 Btu/h with an airflow of 1400 cfm heated air with an inlet condition of 65°F (RH = 45%). Find the outlet air conditions (db, RH, wb, υ). Sketch the process on a psychrometric chart.
^{t} 2
=
3
+  qυ
60, 000 (Btu/h)
×
13.3 (ft
/lb)
t 1 = 65 _{+}  _{=} _{1}_{0}_{4}_{.}_{6}_{°}_{F}
60Qc _{p}
60
(min/h)
×
1400 (ft ^{3}
/min) × 0.24 (Btu/lb·°F)
From psychrometric chart, RH _{2} = 13%, t _{2}_{w}_{b} =67.5°F, υ _{2} = 14.3 ft ^{3} /lb.
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Problem 4.5
Solution
Chapter 4—HVAC Fundamentals: Psychrometrics
Outside air (95°F/75°F) flowing at 2500 cfm is mixed with return air (75°F/63°F) at 7500 cfm. Find the mixed air conditions (db, RH, wb, υ, and h). Sketch on the psychrometric chart.
1 – 3
=
^{Q}
2
^{Q} 1
+
1 – 2 
^{Q} 2
=
2.05 in.
 2500 cfm = 0.51 in.
7500 cfm + 2500 cfm
Point 3 is on a line drawn from point 1 to point 2 at a distance of 0.51 in. from point 1. Note that point 3 will be closer to the condition (point 1) with the larger flow rate.
From psychrometric chart, t _{3} = 79.8°F, t _{3}_{w}_{b} = 66.5°F, RH _{3} = 49%, υ _{3} = 13.8 ft ^{3} /lb, h _{3} = 30.9 Btu/lb
Problem 4.6
Solution
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A quantity of 1600 cfm of air at 80°F/67°F enters an evaporator coil with a 0.12 bypass factor and a 45°F apparatus dew point. Find the outlet air conditions (db, wb, RH, h), the sensible cooling capacity, the latent cooling capacity, total cooling capacity, and the SHR of the coil. Sketch on the psychrometric chart.
Q = 1600 cfm, t _{1} = 80°F, t _{1}_{w}_{b} = 67°F, t _{a}_{d}_{p} = 45°F, BF = 0.12 t _{2} = BF(t _{1} – t _{a}_{d}_{p} ) + t _{a}_{d}_{p} = 0.12(80 – 45) + 45 = 49.2°F
A line is drawn on the psychrometric chart from point 1 [80°F (db)/67°F (wb)] to t _{a}_{d}_{p} = 45°F, which is located on the saturation (RH = 100%) line. Point 2 is located on the intersection of this line and the line for t _{2} = 49.2°F.
From psychrometric chart, t _{2}_{w}_{b} = 48°F, RH _{2} = 92%, h _{2} = 19.3 Btu/lb.
q _{s} (Btu/h) ≈ 1.08 · Q (cfm) · (t _{2} – t _{1} )°F = 1.08 · 1600 cfm · (80 – 49.2) = 53,200 Btu/h q _{L} (Btu/h) ≈ 4680 · Q (cfm) · (W _{2} – W _{1} ) lb _{w} /lb _{a} = 1.08 · 1600 cfm · (0.0110 – 0.007) ≈ 30,200 Btu/h q = q _{s} + q _{L} = 53,200 + 30,000 = 83,200 Btu/h SHR _{c}_{o}_{i}_{l} = q _{s} ÷ q = 53,200 ÷ 83,200 = 0.64
13
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HVAC Simplified Solutions Manual
Problem 4.7
Solution
A 500 cfm outdoor air heat recovery unit (HRU) has a total effectiveness of 75% (both sensible and latent are equal). If the exhaust and makeup airflow rates are equal, find the conditions of the air (db, wb, h) leaving the HRU and entering the room when outdoor conditions are 94°F/77°F and the room air entering the HRU is 75°F/63°F. What is the capacity of this unit?
Since ε _{s} = ε _{L} , ε _{T} = ε _{s} = ε _{L} = 0.75
Since exhaust and inlet flows are equal, m _{m}_{i}_{n} /m _{s} = 1.0 h _{h}_{r}_{u} = h _{o} – ε _{T} · (m _{m}_{i}_{n} /m _{s} ) · (h _{o} – h _{r} )
@ t _{o} = 94°F (db) and 77°F wet bulb, h _{o} = 40.3 Btu/lb
@ t _{r} = 75°F (db) and 63°F wet bulb, h _{r} = 28.4 Btu/lb
h _{h}_{r}_{u} = h _{o} – ε _{T} · (m _{m}_{i}_{n} /m _{s} ) · (h _{o} – h _{r} ) = 40.3 – 0.75 · 1.0 · (40.3 – 28.4) = 31.4 Btu/lb
t _{h}_{r}_{u} = t _{o} – ε _{T} · (m _{m}_{i}_{n} /m _{s} ) · (t _{o} – t _{r} ) = 94 – 0.75 · 1.0 · (94 – 75) = 79.8°F
t _{h}_{r}_{u}_{}_{w}_{b} = 67°F from psychrometric chart
^{q} hru
=
Q × 60 (min/h)

υ
× (
^{h} o
–
^{h} hru
)
_{=}
500 (ft ^{3} /min) × 60 (min/h)
 × (40.3 – 31.4) Btu/lb
14.3
(ft ^{3} /lb)
q _{h}_{r}_{u} = 18,700 Btu/h or q _{h}_{r}_{u} (Btu/h) ≈ 4.4 · Q (cfm) · (h _{o} – h _{h}_{r}_{u} ) (Btu/lb) = 4.4 · 500 · (40.3 – 31.4) ≈ 19,600 Btu/h (Discrepancy results since 4.4 in the above equation assumes room air conditions)
Results using PsychProcess06.xls
Problem 4.8
Solution
A sensible heat recovery unit (HRU) with 80% efficiency draws in 1000 cfm of outside air at –10°F and exhausts an equal amount of room air at 70°F. Calculate the air temperature leaving the HRU and entering the room. What is the capac ity of this unit? What is the capacity for 40°F outside air? Calculate the EER (= capacity in Btu/h ÷ power input in W) for both conditions if two fans that draw 700 W each are used.
@ t _{o} = –10°F
t _{h}_{r}_{u} = t _{o} – ε _{T} · (m _{m}_{i}_{n} /m _{s} ) · (t _{o} – t _{r} ) = –10 – 0.80 · 1.0 · (–10 – 70) = 54°F
@ t _{o} = 40°F
t _{h}_{r}_{u} = t _{o} – ε _{T} · (m _{m}_{i}_{n} /m _{s} ) · (t _{o} – t _{r} ) = 40 – 0.80 · 1.0 · (40 – 70) = 64°F
@ t _{o} = –10°F, q _{s} ≈ q _{h}_{r}_{u} ≈ 1.08 · Q (cfm) · (t _{o} – t _{r} )°F = 1.08 · 1000 · (–10 – 54) = 69,100 Btu/h
EER = q ÷ W = 69,100 Btu/h ÷ (2 · 700 W) = 49.4 Btu/Wh
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@ t _{o} = 40°F
q _{h}_{r}_{u} ≈ 1.08 · 1000 · (40 – 64) = 25,900 Btu/h EER = q ÷ W = 25,900 Btu/h ÷ (2 · 700 W) = 18.5 Btu/Wh
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Chapter 4—HVAC Fundamentals: Psychrometrics
Problem 4.9 
A quantity of 2500 cfm of air at 82°F/70°F enters an evaporator coil with a 0.08 bypass factor and a 45°F apparatus dew point. Find the outlet air conditions (db, wb, RH, h), the sensible cooling capacity, the latent cooling capacity, total cooling capacity, and the SHR of the coil. Sketch on the psychrometric chart. 

Solution 
Q = 2500 cfm, t _{1} = 82°F, t _{1}_{w}_{b} = 70°F, t _{a}_{d}_{p} = 45°F, BF = 0.08 t _{2} = BF(t _{1} – t _{a}_{d}_{p} ) + t _{a}_{d}_{p} = 0.08(82 – 45) + 45 = 48°F 

A line is drawn on the psychrometric chart from point 1 [82°F (db)/70°F (wb)] to t _{a}_{d}_{p} = 45°F, which is located on the saturation (RH = 100%) line. Point 2 is located on the intersection of this line and the line for t _{2} = 48°F. 

From psychrometric chart, t _{2}_{w}_{b} = 48°F, RH _{2} = 98%, h _{2} = 19.2 Btu/lb 

q _{s} (Btu/h) ≈ 1.08 · Q (cfm) · (t _{2} – t _{1} )°F = 1.08 · 2500 cfm · (82 – 48) = 91,800 Btu/h q _{L} (Btu/h) ≈ 4680 · Q (cfm) · (W _{2} – W _{1} ) lb _{w} /lb _{a} = 1.08 · 2500 cfm · (0.013 – 0.007) 

≈ 
69,600 Btu/h 

q = q _{s} + q _{L} = 91,800 + 69,600 = 161,400 Btu/h 

SHR _{c}_{o}_{i}_{l} = q _{s} ÷ q = 91,800 ÷ 161,400 = 0.57 



Problem 4.10 
A room at 75°F/63°F has a 36,000 Btu/h total capacity with a room SHR of 0.90 and an outdoor air (95°F/75°F) requirement of 400 cfm. Find the required sensi ble capacity and total cooling capacity of a unit to handle the building and out door air loads. 

Solution 
t _{1} = 75°F (db) and 63°F (wb), h _{1} = 28.4 Btu/lb q _{r}_{o}_{o}_{m} = 36,000 Btu/h, SHR _{r}_{o}_{o}_{m} = 0.9 q _{s}_{(}_{r}_{o}_{o}_{m}_{)} = SHR _{r}_{o}_{o}_{m} · q _{r}_{o}_{o}_{m} = 0.9 · 36,000 = 32,400 Btu/h q _{L}_{(}_{r}_{o}_{o}_{m}_{)} = q _{r}_{o}_{o}_{m} – q _{s}_{(}_{r}_{o}_{o}_{m}_{)} = 36,000 – 32,400 = 3,600 Btu/h 
q _{s}_{(}_{O}_{A}_{)} ≈ 1.08 · Q _{O}_{A} (cfm) · (t _{o} – t _{i} )°F = 1.08 · 400 cfm · (95 – 75) = 8,600 Btu/h q _{L}_{(}_{O}_{A}_{)} ≈ 4680 · Q _{O}_{A} (cfm) · (W _{o} – W _{i} ) Btu/lb = 4680 · 400 cfm · (0.0142 – 0.0096)
≈ 8,600 Btu/h
Required equipment size to handle the room load and the outdoor air load:
q _{s} = q _{s}_{(}_{r}_{o}_{o}_{m}_{)} + q _{s}_{(}_{O}_{A}_{)} = 32,400 + 8,600 = 41,000 Btu/h
q _{L} = q _{L}_{(}_{r}_{o}_{o}_{m}_{)} + q _{L}_{(}_{O}_{A}_{)} = 3,600 + 8,600 = 12,200 Btu/h
q = q _{(}_{r}_{o}_{o}_{m}_{)} + q _{(}_{O}_{A}_{)} = 41,000 + 12,200 = 53,200 Btu/h
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HVAC Simplified Solutions Manual
Problem 4.11
Solution
Air flowing at 1500 cfm is heated from 65°F (RH = 35%) at a rate of 50,000 Btu/h. Find the outlet air conditions (db, RH, wb, υ). Sketch the process on a psychro metric chart.
q =
 Q × 60 (min/h) × c
υ
p
× (
^{t} 2
–
t
1
)
Thus,
^{t} 2
3
qυ
50, 000 (Btu/h)
×
13.3 (ft
/lb)
== +  65 _{+}  _{=} _{9}_{5}_{.}_{8}_{°}_{F}
^{t} 1
60Qc _{p}
60
(min/h)
×
1500 (ft ^{3}
/min) × 0.24 (Btu/lb·°F)
Problem 4.12
Solution
Air flowing at a rate of 2000 cfm at 78°F/65°F enters a cooling unit with a total capacity (TC) of 60,000 Btu/h and a sensible heat ratio (SHR) of 0.75. Calculate the dry bulb, wet bulb, and relative humidity of the air leaving the coil. Deter mine the apparatus dew point and the bypass factor.
Q = 2000 cfm, t _{1} = 78°F, t _{1}_{w}_{b} = 65°F, q _{c}_{o}_{i}_{l} = 60,000 Btu/h h _{1} = 30.0 Btu/lb, W _{1} = 0.0103 lb _{w} /lb _{a} q _{s}_{}_{c}_{o}_{i}_{l} = SHR _{c}_{o}_{i}_{l} · q _{c}_{o}_{i}_{l} = 0.75 · 60,000 = 45,000 Btu/h
t _{2} (°F) ≈
^{t} 1
h _{2} (Btu/lb) ≈
q _{s}_{}_{c}_{o}_{i}_{l} (Btu/h)
45, 000 Btu/h
_{–}  = 78°F _{–}  = 57.1°F
1.08
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