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Introduction

A PROJECT REPORT ON SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT IN INDIAN FMCG INDUSTRY

SUBMITTED BY PRAMOD B. PATIL

MASTER IN FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT 3rd Year

JBIMS,Mumbai

Supply Chain Management in Indian FMCG Industry

Introduction

JBIMS, PART-TIME MASTERS DEGREE IN MANAGEMENT

CERTIFICATE FROM GUIDE

This is to certify that the project entitled SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT IN INDIAN FMCG INDUSTRY has been successfully completed by PRAMOD B.PATIL, under my guidance during the Third year i.e. in the 2009-2012 in partial B.PATIL, fulfillment of his course, Master Degree in Financial Management under the University of Mumbai through the JBIMS, JBIMS,

Name of Project Guide: PROF. RAMBABU Address of Guide:

Tel. No.:

Signature of Project Guide: Date:

Supply Chain Management in Indian FMCG Industry

Introduction

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The satiation and euphoria that accompanied the successful completion of the project would be incomplete without the mention of the people who made it possible. So within immense gratitude, I acknowledge all those whose guidance and encouragement crowned my efforts with success. I sincerely thank, Prof. Rambabu for being excellent project guide to me. Despite his demanding schedule, he made all possible resources available and gave the much needed direction, and inputs to me at various stages of the project.

Supply Chain Management in Indian FMCG Industry

Introduction

CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION OF SCM.. 2. RESEARCH MTHODOLOGY 3. SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT... 2.1 What is Supply Chain? : Definition .. 2.2 SCM as Management Philosophy . 2.3 SCM as Activities . 2.4 SCM as set of Management Process 2.5 Key Components of Supply Chain Management . 2.6 Typical Benefits of Successful SCM 2.7 Five Stages to an agile SCM 2.8 Balanced Supply Chain 2.9 The 7 Principles of Supply Chain Management 2.10 Link between SCM and Financial Management 4. BULL WHIP EFFCET 4. Supply Chain Management in Indian FMCG Industry 32 3.1 Implementation of SCM Practices in Indian FMCG Industry 32 3.2 SCM in Indian Business Scenario .. 32 3.3 Indian Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) Industry 33 3.4 Synthesis of Supply Chain Management Literature 34 3.5 SCM as a Management Philosophy 35 3.6 SCM as a Set of Activities 35 3.7 SCM as a Set of Management Process 36 3.8 SCM Practices in Indian FMCG Industry 36 3.8.1 The Research Construct 39 3.8.2 The Sampling Plan .. 39 3.8.3 Data Collection Methodology 40 3.8.4 Non-response Bias .. 41 3.8.5 Common Method Bias 41 3.9 Analysis and Interpretation 41 3.9.1 Reliability Analysis . 41 3.9.2 Factor Analysis 42 5. Modern Technology used in SCM .. 44 4.1 The technological evolution of SCM . 44 4.1.1 The Business Benefits Technology can deliver ... 45 4.1.2 Making the Right Choice 45 4.1.3 The Outsourcing Solution ... 45 1 1 4 4 7 8 11 11 16 16 19 20 21

Supply Chain Management in Indian FMCG Industry

Introduction

CONTENTS 4.2 New techniques adopted by FMCG firms to improve efficiency46 4.2.1. RFID in the FMCG SCM Application .48 4.2.2 System Solution .48 4.2.3 RFID in FMCG Supply Chain ..49 4.2.4 RFID in Manufacturing Chain ..49 4.2.5 RFID in Distribution and Retail ...50 4.2.6 RFID has brought convenience to customer 50 4.2.7 RFID cold chain .. 50 4.3 GREEN SCM 52 5. Future of Supply Chain Management 5.1 A new approach essential to survival in the 21st century 87 - An interview with David Simchi-Levi by Penny Guyer 5.2 Rural Supply Chain Networks: The Future .. 92 5.2.1 Introduction ... 5.2.2 The Rural Supply Chain Network . 93 5.2.3 Reinventing the Supply Chain ... 95 5.2.4 Value Delivery Process in the IRSN . 95 5.2.5 Production of Basic Agriculture Products (Farming) ... 96 5.2.6 Rural Retailing ... 5.2.5 Small Scale Industries in Rural Areas .. .96 5.2.5 Conclusions 6. Conclusion .. REFERENCES ..

Supply Chain Management in Indian FMCG Industry

Introduction

1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 A brief History of Supply Chain Management:
The post-World War II supply chain was a set of linear, individualized processes that linked manufacturers, warehouses, wholesalers, retailers and consumers together in the form of a human/paper chain. "People and paper physically connected all of the tiers of the chain together," which often created miscommunication between the front- and backend processes. The syncing of procurement, demand planning and forecasting, inventory management, shipping and tracking was far from a definitive science. However, as manufacturing and economic growth flourished during the 1950s, there developed a greater interest in the need for SCM. The 1960s saw the birth of the first inventory management software systems, which were typically customized, to aid inventory control in the manufacturing sector. In the 1970s, SCM innovations brought forth Material Requirements Planning (MRP) a system that phases out the release of production and purchase orders to ensure that the flow of raw materials and in-process inventories matches the manufacturer's production schedules for finished products. By the 1980s, Manufacturing Resources Planning (MRP-II) was developed, bringing with it systems that could be used for planning all manufacturing resources, including those related to operational planning, financial planning, business planning, capacity requirements planning, and master production scheduling. It was MRP-II's extension into the business enterprise that evolved into an entirely new information technology sector: Enterprise Resource Planning, or ERP. In 1988, SCM took a significant leap of its own. Sanjiv Sidhu, founder of Dallas, Texasbased i2 Technologies and a former artificial intelligence expert with Texas Instruments, developed a new breed of software that was based upon the "theory of constraints." Sidhu's product would allow a "company's factories (to) communicate internally, with each other, and with headquarters to improve the flow of materials and orders." By 1997, this software had become Internet-enabled. Other firms have since developed expertise in either specific industries, such as consumer goods and process industries, or very specific niches of the supply chain, such as execution and tracking. SCM has taken on additional names, such as business-to-business or B2B. Its processes and capabilities have also allowed for more focused, "one-on-one" extensions namely exchanges. An exchange is a two-sided marketplace where buyers and suppliers negotiate prices and fulfill online transactions between one another and are either private or public. For example, a private exchange would involve Company a selling widgets to Supply Chain Management in Indian FMCG Industry

Introduction Company B, meeting together on a secure web site to place and fulfill orders exclusively and by invitation only; a public exchange is more of an auction or bidding place for prequalified subscribers or members.

Management is on the verge of a major breakthrough in understanding how industrial company success depends on the interactions between the flows of information, materials, money, manpower, and capital equipment. The way these five flow systems interlock to amplify one another and to cause change and fluctuation will form the basis for anticipating the effects of decisions, policies, organizational forms, and investment choices. Forrester introduced a theory of distribution management that recognized the integrated nature of organizational relationships. Because organizations are so intertwined, he argued that system dynamics can influence the performance of functions such as research, engineering, sales, and promotion. He illustrated this phenomenon utilizing a computer simulation of order information flow and its influence on production and distribution performance for each supply chain member, as well as the entire supply chain system. More recent replications of this phenomenon include the Beer Game simulation and research covering the Bullwhip Effect (Lee, Padmanabhan, and Whang 1997). Discussing the shape of the future, Forrester (1958, p. 52) proposed that after a period of research and development involving basic analytic techniques, there will come general recognition of the advantage enjoyed by the pioneering management who have been the first to improve their understanding of the interrelationships between separate company functions and between the company and its markets, its industry, and the national economy. Though his article is more than forty years old, It appears that Forrester identified key management issues and illustrated the dynamics of factors associated with the phenomenon referred to in contemporary business literature as Supply Chain Management (SCM). The term supply chain management has risen to prominence over the past ten years (Cooper et al. 1997). For example, at the 1995 Annual Conference of the Council of Logistics Management, 13.5% of the concurrent session titles contained the words supply chain. At the 1997 conference, just two years later, the number of sessions containing the term rose to 22.4%. Moreover, the term is frequently used to describe executive responsibilities in corporations (La Londe 1997). SCM has become such a hot topic that it is difficult to pick up a periodical on manufacturing, distribution, marketing, customer management, or transportation without seeing an article about SCM or SCM-related topics (Ross 1998). There are many reasons for the popularity of the concept. Specific drivers may be traced to trends in global sourcing, an emphasis on time and quality-based competition, and their respective contributions to greater environmental uncertainty. Corporations have turned increasingly to global sources for their supplies. This globalization of supply has forced companies to look for more effective ways to coordinate the flow of materials into and out of the company. Key to such coordination is an orientation toward closer Supply Chain Management in Indian FMCG Industry

Introduction relationships with suppliers. Further, companies in particular and supply chains in general compete more today on the basis of time and quality. Getting a defect-free product to the customer faster and more reliably than the competition is no longer seen as a competitive advantage, but simply a requirement to be in the market. Customers are demanding products consistently delivered faster, exactly on time, and with no damage. Each of these necessitates closer coordination with suppliers and distributors. This global orientation and increased performance-based competition, combined with rapidly changing technology and economic conditions, all contribute to marketplace uncertainty. This uncertainty requires greater flexibility on the part of individual companies and supply chains, which in turn demands more flexibility in supply chain relationships. Despite the popularity of the term Supply Chain Management, both in academia and practice, there remains considerable confusion as to its meaning. Some authors define SCM in operational terms involving the flow of materials and products, some view it as a management philosophy, and some view it in terms of a management process (Tyndall et al. 1998). Authors have even conceptualized SCM differently within the same article: as a form of integrated system between vertical integration and separate identities on one hand, and as a management philosophy on the other hand (Cooper and Ellram 1993). Such ambiguity suggests a need to examine the phenomena of SCM more closely in order to clearly define the term and concept, to identify those factors that contribute to effective SCM, and to suggest how the adoption of a SCM approach can affect corporate strategy and performance. The purpose of this paper is to examine the existing research in an effort to understand the concept of supply chain management. Various definitions of SCM and supply chain are reviewed, categorized, and synthesized. Definitions of supporting constructs of SCM and a framework are then offered to establish a consistent means to conceptualize SCM. Antecedents and consequences of SCM are identified, and the boundaries of SCM in terms of business functions and organizations are proposed. A conceptual model and definition of SCM are then presented that indicate the nature, antecedents, and consequences of the phenomena. The model is accompanied by a series of managerial and research implications.

Supply Chain Management in Indian FMCG Industry

Supply Chain Management

2. SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT

2.1 What is SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT?

Figure 1: Supply Chain Management It has been noted that discussions of SCM often use complicated terminology, thus limiting managements understanding of the concept and its effectiveness for practical application (Ross 1998). This section is, thus, dedicated to reviewing, classifying, and synthesizing some of the widely-used definitions of supply chain and supply chain management in both academia and practice. The goal of this discussion is the development of one, comprehensive definition upon which managers and future researchers can build.

Defining the Supply Chain


The definition of supply chain seems to be more common across authors than the definition of supply chain management (Cooper and Ellram 1993; La Londe and Masters 1994; Lambert, Stock, and Ellram 1998). La Londe and Masters proposed Supply Chain Management in Indian FMCG Industry

Supply Chain Management that a supply chain is a set of firms that pass materials forward. Normally, several independent firms are involved in manufacturing a product and placing it in the hands of the end user in a supply chainraw material and component producers, product assemblers, wholesalers, retailer merchants and transportation companies are all members of a supply chain (La Londe and Masters 1994). By the same token, Lambert, Stock, and Ellram define a supply chain as the alignment of firms that brings products or services to market. Note that these concepts of supply chain include the final consumer as part of the supply chain. Another definition notes a supply chain is the network of organizations that are involved, through upstream and downstream linkages, in the different processes and activities that produce value in the form of products and services delivered to the ultimate consumer (Christopher 1992). In other words, a supply chain consists of multiple firms, both upstream (i.e., supply) and downstream (i.e., distribution), and the ultimate consumer. Given these definitions, for the purposes of this paper, a supply chain is defined as a set of three or more entities (organizations or individuals) directly involved in the upstream and downstream flows of products, services, finances, and/or information from a source to a customer. Encompassed within this definition, we can identify three degrees of supply chain complexity: a direct supply chain, an extended supply chain, and an ultimate supply chain. A direct supply chain consists of a company, a supplier, and a customer involved in the upstream and/or downstream flows of products, services, finances, and/or information (Figure 1a). An extended supply chain includes suppliers of the immediate supplier and customers of the immediate customer, all involved in the upstream and/or downstream flows of products, services, finances, and/or information (Figure 1b). An ultimate supply chain includes all the organizations involved in all the upstream and downstream flows of products, services, finances, and information from the ultimate supplier to the ultimate customer. Figure 1c illustrates the complexity that ultimate supply chains can reach. In this example, a third party financial provider may be providing financing, assuming some of the risk, and offering financial advice; a third party logistics (3PL) provider is performing the logistics activities between two of the companies; and a market research firm is providing information about the ultimate customer to a company well back up the supply chain. This very briefly illustrates some of the many functions that complex supply chains can and do perform. Although we will address this point in greater depth later in this paper, it is important to realize that implicit within these definitions is the fact that supply chains exist whether they are managed or not. If none of the organizations in Figure 2 actively implements any of the concepts discussed in this paper to manage the supply chain, the supply chainas a phenomenon of businessstill exists. Thus, we draw a definite distinction between supply chains as phenomena that exist in business and the management of those supply chains. The former is simply something that exists (often also referred to as distribution channels), while the latter requires overt management efforts by the organizations within the supply chain.

Supply Chain Management in Indian FMCG Industry

Supply Chain Management Given the potential for countless alternative supply chain configurations, it is important to note that any one organization can be part of numerous supply chains. Wal-Mart, for example, can be part of the supply chain for candy, for clothing, for hardware, and for many other products. This multiple supply chain phenomenon begins to explain the network nature that many supply chains possess. For example, AT&T might find Motorola to be a customer in one supply chain, a partner in another, a supplier in a third, and a competitor in still a fourth supply chain. Note also that within our definition of supply chain, the final consumer is considered a member of the supply chain. This point is important because it recognizes that retailers such as Wal-Mart can be part of the upstream and downstream flows that constitute a supply chain.

TYPES OF CHANNEL RELATIONSHIPS

FIGURE 2a DIRECT SUPPLY CHAIN

FIGURE 2b EXTENDED SUPPLY CHAIN

FIGURE 2c ULTIMATE SUPPLY CHAIN

Figure 2: Types of Channel Relations


Although definitions of SCM differ across authors (see Table 1 for a representative sample), they can be classified into three categories: a management philosophy, implementation of a management philosophy, and a set of management processes. The alternative definitions and the categories they represent suggest that the term supply chain management presents a source of confusion for those involved in researching the phenomena, as well as those attempting to establish a supply chain approach to management. Research and practice would be improved if a single definition were adopted.

Supply Chain Management in Indian FMCG Industry

Supply Chain Management

AUTHORS & DEFINITIONS OF SUPPLYCHAIN MANAGEMENT


Monczka, Trent, and Handfield (1998) SCM requires traditionally separate materials functions to report to an executive responsible for coordinating the entire materials process, and also requires joint relationships with suppliers across multiple tiers. SCM is a concept, whose primary objective is to integrate and manage the sourcing, flow, and control of materials using a total systems perspective across multiple functions and multiple tiers of suppliers. La Londe and Masters (1994) Supply chain strategy includes: Two or more firms in a supply chain entering into a long-term agreement; the development of trust and commitment to the relationship; the integration of logistics activities involving the sharing of demand and sales data, the potential for a shift in the locus of control of the logistics process. Stevens (1989) The objective of managing the supply chain is to synchronize the requirements of the customer with the flow of materials from suppliers in order to affect balance between what are often seen as conflicting goals of high customer service, low inventory management, and low unit cost. Houlihan (1988) Differences between supply chain management and classical materials and manufacturing control: 1) The supply chain is viewed as a single process. Responsibility for the various segments in the chain is not fragmented and relegated to functional areas such as manufacturing, purchasing, distribution, and sales. 2) Supply chain management calls for, and in the end depends on, strategic decision making. Supply is a shared objective of practically every function in the chain and is of particular strategic significance because of its impact on overall costs and market share. 3) Supply chain management calls for a different perspective on inventories which are used as a balancing mechanism of last, not first, resort. 4) A new approach to systems is requiredintegration rather than interfacing. Jones and Riley (1985) Supply chain management deals with the total flow of materials from suppliers through end users Cooper et al. (1997) Supply chain management is An integrative philosophy to manage the total flow of a distribution channel from supplier to the ultimate user.

2.2 SCM as a Management Philosophy


As a philosophy, SCM takes a systems approach to viewing the supply chain as a single entity, rather than as a set of fragmented parts, each performing its own function (Ellram and Cooper 1990; Houlihan 1988; Tyndall et al. 1998). In other Supply Chain Management in Indian FMCG Industry

Supply Chain Management words, the philosophy of supply chain management extends the concept of partnerships into a multifirm effort to manage the total flow of goods from the supplier to the ultimate customer (Ellram 1990; Jones and Riley 1985). Thus, SCM is a set of beliefs that each firm in the supply chain directly and indirectly affects the performance of all the other supply chain members, as well as ultimate, overall supply chain performance (Cooper et al. 1997). SCM as a management philosophy seeks synchronization and convergence of intra firm and inter firm operational and strategic capabilities into a unified, compelling marketplace force (Ross 1998). SCM as an integrative philosophy directs supply chain members to focus on developing innovative solutions to create unique, individualized sources of customer value. Langley and Holcomb (1992) suggest that the objective of SCM should be the synchronization of all supply chain activities to create customer value. Thus, SCM philosophy suggests the boundaries of SCM include not only logistics but also all other functions within a firm and within a supply chain to create customer value and satisfaction. In this context, understanding customers values and requirements is essential (Ellram and Cooper 1990; Tyndall et al. 1998). In other words, SCM philosophy drives supply chain members to have a customer orientation. Based upon the literature review, it is proposed that SCM as a management philosophy has the following characteristics: 1. A systems approach to viewing the supply chain as a whole, and to managing the total flow of goods inventory from the supplier to the ultimate customer; 2. A strategic orientation toward cooperative efforts to synchronize and converge intra-firm and inter-firm operational and strategic capabilities into a unified whole; and 3. A customer focus to create unique and individualized sources of customer value, leading to customer satisfaction.

2.3 SCM as a Set of Activities to Implement a Management Philosophy


In adopting a supply chain management philosophy, firms must establish management practices that permit them to act or behave consistently with the philosophy. As such, many authors have focused on the activities that constitute supply chain management. This previous research has suggested various activities necessary to successfully implement a SCM philosophy

SCM ACTIVITIES
1. Integrated Behavior 2. Mutually Sharing Information 3. Mutually Sharing Risks and Rewards 4. Cooperation 5. The Same Goal and the Same Focus on Serving Customers 6. Integration of Processes 7. Partners to Build and Maintain Long-Term Relationships Supply Chain Management in Indian FMCG Industry

Supply Chain Management Bowersox and Closs (1996) argued that to be fully effective in todays competitive environment, firms must expand their integrated behavior to incorporate customers and suppliers. This extension of integrated behaviors, through external integration, is referred to by Bowersox and Closs as supply chain management. In this context, the philosophy of SCM turns into the implementation of supply chain management: a set of activities that carries out the philosophy. This set of activities is a coordinated effort called supply chain management between the supply chain partners, such as suppliers, carriers, and manufacturers, to dynamically respond to the needs of the end customer (Greene 1991). Related to integrated behavior, mutually sharing information among supply chain members is required to implement a SCM philosophy, especially for planning and monitoring processes (Cooper et al. 1997; Cooper, Lambert, and Pagh 1997; Ellram and Cooper 1990; Novack, Langley, and Rinehart 1995; Tyndall et al. 1998). Cooper, Lambert, and Pagh emphasized frequent information updating among the chain members for effective supply chain management. The Global Logistics Research Team at Michigan State University (1995) defines information sharing as the willingness to make strategic and tactical data available to other members of the supply chain. Open sharing of information such as inventory levels, forecasts, sales promotion strategies, and marketing strategies reduces the uncertainty between supply partners and results in enhanced performance (Adel 1997; Lewis and Talalayevsky 1997; Lusch and Brown 1996; Salcedo and Grackin 2000). Effective SCM also requires mutually sharing risks and rewards that yield a competitive advantage (Cooper and Ellram 1993). Risk and reward sharing should happen over the long term (Cooper et al. 1997). Risk and reward sharing is important for long-term focus and cooperation among the supply chain members (Cooper et al. 1997; Cooper, Lambert, and Pagh 1997; Ellram and Cooper 1990; Novack, Langley, and Rinehart 1995; Tyndall et al. 1998). Cooperation among the supply chain members is required for effective SCM (Ellram and Cooper 1990; Tyndall et al. 1998). Cooperation refers to similar or complementary, coordinated activities performed by firms in a business relationship to produce superior mutual outcomes or singular outcomes that are mutually expected over time (Anderson and Narus 1990). Cooperation is not limited to the needs of the current transaction and happens at several management levels (e.g., both top and operational managers), involving cross-functional coordination across the supply chain members (Cooper et al. 1997). Joint action in close relationships refers to carrying out the focal activities in a cooperative or coordinated way (Heide and John 1990). Cooperation starts with joint planning and ends with joint control activities to evaluate performance of the supply chain members, as well as the supply chain as a whole (Cooper et al. 1997; Cooper, Lambert, and Pagh 1997; Ellram and Cooper 1990; Novack, Langley, and Rinehart 1995; Spekman 1988; Tyndall et al. 1998). Joint planning and evaluation involve ongoing processes over multiple years (Cooper et al. 1997). In addition to planning and control, cooperation is needed to reduce supply chain inventories and pursue supply chain-wide cost efficiencies (Cooper et al. 1997; Dowst 1988). Furthermore, supply chain members should work together on new product development and product portfolio decisions (Drozdowski 1986). Finally, design of quality Supply Chain Management in Indian FMCG Industry

Supply Chain Management control and delivery systems is also a joint action (Treleven 1987). La Londe and Masters proposed that a supply chain succeeds if all the members of the supply chain have the same goal and the same focus on serving customers. Establishing the same goal and the same focus among supply chain members is a form of policy integration. Lassar and Zinn (1995) suggested that successful relationships aim to integrate supply chain policy to avoid redundancy and overlap, while seeking a level of cooperation that allows participants to be more effective at lower cost levels. Policy integration is possible if there are compatible cultures and management techniques among the supply chain members. The implementation of SCM needs the integration of processes from sourcing, to manufacturing, and to distribution across the supply chain (Cooper et al. 1997; Cooper, Lambert, and Pagh 1997; Ellram and Cooper 1990; Novack, Langley, and Rinehart 1995; Tyndall et al. 1998). Integration can be accomplished through crossfunctional teams, in-plant supplier personnel, and third party service providers (Cooper et al. 1997; Cooper, Lambert, and Pagh 1997; Ellram and Cooper 1990; Manrodt, Holcomb, and Thompson 1997; Novack, Langley, and Rinehart 1995; Tyndall et al. 1998). Stevens (1989) identified four stages of supply chain integration and discussed the planning and operating implications of each stage: Stage-1 Represents the base line case. The supply chain is a function of fragmented operations within the individual company and is characterized by staged inventories, independent and incompatible control systems and procedures, and functional segregation. Stage-2 Begins to focus internal integration, characterized by an emphasis on cost reduction rather than performance improvement, buffer inventory, initial evaluations of internal trade-offs, and reactive customer service. Stage-3 Reaches toward internal corporate integration and characterized by full visibility of purchasing through distribution, medium-term planning, tactical rather than strategic focus, emphasis on efficiency, extended use of electronics support for linkages, and a continued reactive approach to customers. Stage-4 Achieves supply chain integration by extending the scope of integration outside the company to embrace suppliers and customers. Effective SCM is made up of a series of partnerships and, thus, SCM requires partners to build and maintain long-term relationships (Cooper et al. 1997; Ellram and Cooper 1990; Tyndall et al. 1998). Cooper et al. believe the relationship time horizon extends beyond the life of the contract perhaps indefinitelyand, at the same time, the number of partners should be small to facilitate increased cooperation. Gentry and Vellenga (1996) argue that it is not usual that all of the primary activities in a chain inbound and outbound logistics, operations, marketing, sales, and service will be performed by any one firm to maximize customer value. Thus, forming Supply Chain Management in Indian FMCG Industry

Supply Chain Management strategic alliances with supply chain partners such as suppliers, customers, or intermediaries (e.g., transportation and/or warehousing services) provides competitive advantage through creating customer value (Langley and Holcomb 1992).

2.4 SCM as a Set of Management Processes


As opposed to a focus on the activities that constitute supply chain management, other authors have focused on management processes. Davenport (1993) defines processes as a structured and measured set of activities designed to produce specific output for a particular customer or market. La Londe proposes that SCM is the process of managing relationships, information, and materials flow across enterprise borders to deliver enhanced customer service and economic value through synchronized management of the flow of physical goods and associated information from sourcing to consumption. Ross defines supply chain process as the actual physical business functions, institutions, and operations that characterize the way a particular supply chain moves goods and services to market through the supply pipeline. In other words, a process is a specific ordering of work activities across time and place, with a beginning, an end, clearly identified inputs and outputs, and a structure for action (Cooper et al. 1997; Cooper, Lambert, and Pagh 1997; Ellram and Cooper 1990; Novack, Langley, and Rinehart 1995; Tyndall et al. 1998). Lambert, Stock, and Ellram (1998) propose that, to successfully implement SCM, all firms within a supply chain must overcome their own functional silos and adopt a process approach. Thus, all the functions within a supply chain are reorganized as key processes. The critical differences between the traditional functions and the process approach are that the focus of every process is on meeting the customers requirements and that the firm is organized around these processes (Cooper et al. 1997; Cooper, Lambert, and Pagh 1997; Ellram and Cooper 1990; Novack, Langley, and Rinehart 1995; Tyndall et al. 1998). Lambert, Stock, and Ellram suggest the key processes typically include customer relationship management, customer service management, demand management, order fulfillment, manufacturing flow management, procurement, and product development and commercialization.

2.5 Key Components of Supply Chain Management


Supply chain management is an enormous topic covering multiple disciplines and employing many quantitative and qualitative tools. Within the last few years, several textbooks on supply chain have arrived on the market providing both managerial overviews and detailed technical treatments. For examples of managerial introductions to supply chain see Copacino (1997), Fine (1998) and Handfield & Nichols (1998), and for logistics texts see Lambert, Stock, Ellram, & Stockdale (1997) and Ballou (1998). For more technical, model-based treatments see Silver et al. (1998) and Simchi-Levi, Kaminsky, & Simchi-Levi (1998). Tayur, Magazine, & Ganeshan (1999) is an extensive collection of research papers while Johnson & Pyke (2000b) is a collection papers on teaching supply chain management. Also, there are several casebooks that give emphasis to global management issues Supply Chain Management in Indian FMCG Industry

Supply Chain Management including Taylor (1997), Flaherty (1996), and Dornier, Ernst, Fender, & Kouvelis (1998). Introductory articles include Cooper, Lambert, & Pagh (1997b), Davis (1993), Johnson (1998a), and Lee & Billington (1992). To help order our discussion, we have divided supply chain management into twelve areas.4 We identified these twelve areas from our own experience teaching and researching supply chain management, from analysis of syllabi and research papers on supply chain, and from our discussions with managers. Each area represents a supply chain issue facing the firm. For any particular problem or issue, managers may apply analysis or decision support tools. For each of the twelve areas, we provide a brief description of the basic content and refer the reader to a few research papers that apply. We also mention likely Operations Research based tools that may aid analysis and decision support. We do not provide an exhaustive review of the research literature, but rather provide a few references to help the reader get started in an area. For a more detailed review of recent research and teaching in supply chain management see Ganeshan, Jack, & Magazine (1999) and Johnson & Pyke (2000a) respectively.

The twelve categories we define are


Location Transportation and logistics Inventory and forecasting Marketing and channel restructuring Sourcing and supplier management Information and electronic mediated environments Product design and new product introduction Service and after sales support Reverse logistics and green issues Outsourcing and strategic alliances Metrics and incentives Global issues

Location pertains to both qualitative and quantitative aspects of facility location decisions. This includes models of facility location, geographic information systems (GIS), country differences, taxes and duties, transportation costs associated with certain locations, and government incentives (Hammond & Kelly (1990)). Exchange rate issues fall in this category, as do economies and diseconomies of scale and scope. Decisions at this level set the physical structure of the supply chain and therefore establish constraints for more tactical decisions. Binary integer programming models play a role here, as do simple spreadsheet models and qualitative analyses. There are many advanced texts specially dedicated to the modeling aspects of location (Drezner (1996)) and most books on logistics also cover the subject. Simchi-Levi etal. (1998) present a substantial treatment of GIS while Dornier et al. (1998) dedicate a chapter to issues of taxes, duties, exchange rates, and other global location issues (Brush, Maritan, & Karnani (1999)). Ballou & Masters (1999) examine several software products that provide optimization tools for solving industrial location problems. Supply Chain Management in Indian FMCG Industry

Supply Chain Management The transportation and logistics category encompasses all issues related to the flow of goods through the supply chain, including transportation, warehousing, and material handling. This category includes many of the current trends in transportation management including vehicle routing (Bodin (1990), Gendreau, Laport, & Seguin (1996), and Anily & Bramel (1999)), dynamic fleet management with global positioning systems, and merge-in-transit. Also included are topics in warehousing and distribution such as cross docking (Kopczak, Lee, & Whang (1995)) and materials handling technologies for sorting, storing, and retrieving products (Johnson & Brandeau (1999) and Johnson (1998b)). Because of globalization and the spread of outsourced logistics, this category has received much attention in recent years. However, we will define a separate category to examine issues specifically related to outsourcing and logistics alliances. Both deterministic (such as linear programming and the travelling salesman problem) and stochastic optimization models (stochastic routing and transportation models with queuing) often are used here, as are spreadsheet models and qualitative analysis. Recent management literature has examined the changes within the logistics functions of many firms as the result of functional integration (Greis & Kasarda (1997)) and the role of logistics in gaining competitive advantage (Fuller, O'Conor, & Rawlinson (1993)). Inventory and forecasting includes traditional inventory and forecasting models. Inventory costs are some of the easiest to identify and reduce when attacking supply chain problems. Simple stochastic inventory models can identify the potential cost savings from, for example, sharing information with supply chain partners (Lee & Nahmias (1993)), but more complex models are required to coordinate multiple locations. A few years ago, multi echelon inventory theory captured most of the research in this area that would apply to supply chains. However, in nearly every case, multi echelon inventory models assume a single decision-maker. Supply chains, unfortunately, confront the problem of multiple firms, each with its own decision maker and objectives. Of course there are many full texts on the subject such as Silver et al. (1998) and Graves, Rinnooy Kan, & Zipkin (1993)). Useful managerial articles focusing on inventory and forecasting include Davis (1993) and Fisher, Hammond, Obermeyer, & Raman (1994). Clark & Scarf (1960) perform one of the earliest studies in serial systems with probabilistic demand. They introduce the concept of an imputed penalty cost, wherein a shortage at a higher echelon generates an additional cost. This cost enables us to decompose the multi echelon system into a series of stages so that, assuming centralized control and the availability of global information, the ordering policies can be optimized. Lee & Whang (1999a) and Chen (1996) both propose performance measurement schemes for individual managers that allow for decentralized control (so that each manager makes decisions independently), and in certain instances, local information only. The result is a solution that achieves the same optimal solution as if we assumed centralized control and global information. Marketing and channel restructuring includes fundamental thinking on supply chain structure (Fisher (1997)) and covers the interface with marketing that emerges from having to deal with downstream customers (Narus & Anderson (1996)). While the Supply Chain Management in Indian FMCG Industry

Supply Chain Management inventory category addresses the quantitative side of these relationships, this category covers relationship management, negotiations, and even the legal dimension. Most importantly, it examines the role of channel management (Anderson, Day, & Rangan (1997)) and supply chain structure in light of the well-studied phenomena of the bullwhip effect that was noted in the introduction. The bullwhip effect has received enormous attention in the research literature. Many authors have noted that central warehouses are designed to buffer the factory from variability in retail orders. The inventory held in these warehouses should allow factories to smooth production while meeting variable customer demand. However, empirical data suggests that exactly the opposite happens. (See for example Blinder (1981), and Baganha & Cohen (1998).) Orders seen at the higher levels of the supply chain exhibit more variability than those at levels closer to the customer. In other words, the bullwhip effect is real. Typically causes include those noted in the introduction, as well as the fact that retailers and distributors often over-react to shortages by ordering more than they need. Lee, Padmanabhan, & Whang (1997) show how four rational factors help to create the bullwhip effect: demand signal processing (if demand increases, firms order more in anticipation of further increases, thereby communicating an artificially high level of demand); the rationing game (there is, or might be, a shortage so a firm orders more than the actual forecast in the hope of receiving a larger share of the items in short supply); order batching (fixed costs at one location lead to batching of orders); and manufacturer price variations (which encourage bulk orders). The latter two factors generate large orders that are followed by small orders, which imply increased variability at upstream locations. Some recent innovations, such as increased communication about consumer demand, via electronic data interchange (EDI) and the Internet, and everyday low pricing5 (EDLP) (to eliminate forward buying of bulk orders), can mitigate the bullwhip effect.6 In fact, the number of firms ordering, and receiving orders, via EDI and the Internet is exploding. The information available to supply chain partners, and the speed with which it is available, has the potential to radically reduce inventories and increase customer service.7 Other initiatives can also mitigate the bullwhip effect. For example, changes in pricing and trade promotions (Buzzell, Quelch, & Salmon (1990)) and channel initiatives, such as vendor managed inventory (VMI), coordinated forecasting and replenishment (CFAR), and continuous replenishment (Fites (1996), Verity (1996), Waller, Johnson, & Davis (1999)), can significantly reduce demand variance. Vendor Managed Inventory is one of the most widely discussed partnering initiatives for improving multi-firm supply chain efficiency. Popularized in the late 1980s by Wal-Mart and Procter & Gamble, VMI became one of the key programs in the grocery industrys pursuit of efficient consumer response and the garment industrys quick response. Successful VMI initiatives have been trumpeted by other companies in the United States, including Campbell Soup and Johnson & Johnson, and by European firms like Barilla (the pasta manufacturer). In a VMI partnership, the supplierusually the manufacturer but sometimes a reseller or distributormakes the main inventory replenishment decisions for the consuming organization. This means the supplier monitors the buyers inventory levels (physically or via electronic messaging) and makes periodic resupply decisions regarding order quantities, shipping, and timing. Transactions customarily initiated by the buyer (like purchase orders) are initiated by the supplier instead. Indeed, the purchase order acknowledgment from the supplier may be the first indication that a Supply Chain Management in Indian FMCG Industry

Supply Chain Management transaction is taking place; an advance shipping notice informs the buyer of materials in transit. Thus the manufacturer is responsible for both its own inventory and the inventory stored at is customers distribution centres (Figure 2).

Figure 3: Typical VMI implementation (adapted from Waller et al.(1999)). Because many of these initiatives involve channel partnerships and distribution agreements, this category also contains important information on pricing, along with anti-trust and other legal issues (Train (1998)). These innovations require interfirm, and often intrafirm, cooperation and coordination that can be difficult to achieve. While marketing focuses downstream in the supply chain, sourcing and supplier management looks upstream to suppliers. Make/buy decisions (Venkatesan (1992), Carroll (1993), Christensen (1994), Quinn & Hilmer (1994), Kelley (1995), and Robertson & Langlois (1995)) fall into this category, as does global sourcing (Little (1995) and Pyke (1994)). The location category addresses the location of a firms own facilities, while this category pertains to the location of the firms suppliers. Supplier relationship management falls into this category as well (McMillan (1990) and Womack, Jones, & Roos (1991)). Some firms are putting part specifications on the web so that dozens of suppliers can bid on jobs. GE, for instance, has developed a trading process network that allows many more suppliers to bid than was possible before. The automotive assemblers have developed a similar capability; and independent Internet firms, such as Digital Market, are providing services focused on certain product categories. Other firms are moving in the opposite direction by reducing the number of suppliers, in some cases to a sole source (Helper & Sako (1995) and Cusumano & Takeishi (1991)). Determining the number of suppliers and the best way to structure supplier relationships is becoming an important topic in Supply Chain Management in Indian FMCG Industry

Supply Chain Management supply chains (Cohen & Agrawal (1996), Dyer (1996), Magretta (1998), and Pyke (1998)). Much of the research in this area makes use of game theory to understand supplier relationships, contracts, and performance metrics. See, for instance, Cachon & Lariviere (1996); Cachon (1997); and Tsay, Hahmias, & Agrawal (1999). The information and electronic mediated environments category addresses longstanding applications of information technology to reduce inventory (Woolley (1997)) and the rapidly expanding area of electronic commerce (Benjamin & Wigand (1997) and Schonfeld (1998)). Often this subject may take a more systems orientation, examining the role of systems science and information within a supply chain (Senge (1990)). Such a discussion naturally focuses attention on integrative ERP software such as SAP (Whang, Gilland, & Lee (1995)), Baan and Oracle, as well as supply chain offerings such as i2s Rhythm and Peoplesofts Red Pepper. The many supply chain changes wrought by electronic commerce are particularly interesting to examine, including both the highly publicized retail channel changes (like Amazon.com) and the more substantial business to business innovations (like the GE trading process network). It is here that we interface most directly with colleagues in information technology and strategy, which again creates opportunities for crossfunctional integration (Lee & Whang (1999b)).

2.6 Typical Benefits of Successful Supply Chain Management


There is further evidence to support the idea that key industry sectors have achieved significant performance improvements in the areas of inventory and time to customer For example, in Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG), retailers and consumers enjoy wide choice, relatively low prices and good customer service. Retailers have seen inventory levels cut from 10 weeks to 2-3 weeks. Order to delivery lead times for ambient products have typically been reduced from 7 days to 48 hours and for chilled products, delivery lead times can be as short as 4 hours. This is due to an overall reduction in supply costs over the last 15 years, made possible by a clear SCM strategy that supports the business objectives, efficient managed supply chains, improved IT systems and electronic communications. In Hi-tech and Electronics, market conditions require many organizations to adopt a mass customization business model. To maintain customer service levels, companies produce sub- assemblies based on forecast and complete the final configuration when an exact order is placed. This process demands close alignment of manufacturing sites to forecast and customer demand signals. Reported benefits of SCM include reduced global planning cycle time from 28 to 14 days; a switch from weekly to daily scheduling; reduced manufacturing time from more than 5 days to less than 1 day; and improved delivery performance by 130%.

2.7 Five Stages to an Agile Supply Chain


Externally integrated, Internet-enabled supply chains are highly complex. They will only deliver benefits if the supply chain strategy is aligned with overall business strategy. This cant happen overnight but should progress in manageable steps to allow Supply Chain Management in Indian FMCG Industry

Supply Chain Management the organization to buy into and become familiar with the changes that will occur. We view the design and delivery of successful supply chain management initiatives in 5 stages. The different stages of this approach are shown in the table below, and summarized in the following paragraphs.

A PRACTICAL APPROACH TO SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT Figure 4: A practical approach to Supply Chain Management

Stage 1 - Strategy
Starting out, you must consider how SCM will support and contribute to achievement of business strategy and goals. That means assessing your current supply chain operation and carrying out relevant audits and analyses internally and externally amongst partners and customers, enabling you to assemble the business case for investment in supply chain management initiatives and start to assess technical solutions. Supply Chain Management in Indian FMCG Industry

Supply Chain Management

Stage 2 Scope
The next step is to map out the business objectives into a series of plans that lay the foundations on which advanced SCM can be developed and implemented. This will include outlining the delivery Vehicles - systems, processes and people, the standards that need to be adopted, defining the parameters of change and selecting the project team. Key to any successful change project is the identification of key sponsors who can help drive and draw commitment to change through the organization. With the complete SCM solution mapped out, you need to understand the measurements and Key Performance Indicators on which the project will be measured, and on which performance improvement will be assessed. At the same time you will need to have a clear idea of the impact that the project will have on the rest of the business - particularly for the people within your organization, customers and partner organizations - so contingencies can be planned as necessary.

Stage 3 - Integration
At this stage all planning has been completed and the organization and partners now need to be prepared for the changes about to take place. The measurement system will need to be checked and reconfirmed. Building a test scenario is fundamental to any major project and helps to iron out the creases before go live takes place. Consider setting up a formal operating plan to manage alliances and trading relationships in order to ensure long term success.

Stage 4 - Delivery
Go Live is more than just switching on a system. It is the time for final tuning, familiarizing users with the system and getting their understanding and commitment to using it. It is also time to communicate the changes to customers and shareholders in terms of the benefits and improvement they will experience from your organization.

Stage 5 - Evolution
Finally, the project is implemented but it certainly doesnt end there. Once your SCM initiative is up and running there needs to be an ongoing process of measurement, monitoring, feedback and improvement to ensure that SCM delivers against the original objectives and continues to evolve in line with business changes and delivers customer satisfaction.

Supply Chain Management in Indian FMCG Industry

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2.8 Balanced Supply Chain

Figure 5: The Balanced Supply Chain This should begin with the identification of the critical areas of your business that must be controlled in order to realize the business objectives of SCM. Responsibility for these areas is then allocated to teams and individuals and benchmarked performance targets set. However, it is important that performance-based management is approached holistically. In other words, change and improvement must be integrated and supported by the entire business and by supporting partners in order for the full benefits to be realized. Managers must carefully consider what they are trying to achieve within their market and their business, and how to integrate business processes, staff skills and technology systems in order to increase business value over the long term. It requires high levels of co-operation and team working internally and externally, and timely availability of accurate enterprise wide information, often enabled by the companys ERP system. Adopting a performance management approach is not without difficulty. Individuals may feel threatened by the transparency of performance information and by the changes in their remuneration and bonus structure necessary to encourage appropriate business decisions that support strategy realization. For these reasons, it is often advisable to seek support from people whose independence makes them better able to tackle the sacred cows which often constrain an organizations ability to increase business performance.

Supply Chain Management in Indian FMCG Industry

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2.9 The 7 Principles of Supply Chain Management


The most requested article in the 10-year history of Supply Chain Management Review was one that appeared in our very first issue in the spring of 1997. Written by experts from the respected Logistics practice of Andersen Consulting (now Accenture), The Seven Principles of Supply Chain Management, layed out a clear and compelling case for excellence in supply chain management. The insights provided here remain remarkably fresh ten years later. By David L. Anderson, Frank F. Britt, and Donavon J. Favre -- Supply Chain Management Review, 4/1/2007 Principle 1: Segment customers based on the service needs of distinct groups and adapt the supply chain to serve these segments profitably. Principle 2: Customize the logistics network to the service requirements and profitability of customer segments. Principle 3: Listen to market signals and align demand planning accordingly across the supply chain, ensuring consistent forecasts and optimal resource allocation. Principle 4: Differentiate product closer to the customer and speed conversion across the supply chain. Principle 5: Manage sources of supply strategically to reduce the total cost of owning materials and services. Principle 6: Develop a supply chain-wide technology strategy that supports multiple levels of decision making and gives a clear view of the flow of products, services, and information. Principle 7: Adopt channel-spanning performance measures to gauge collective success in reaching the end-user effectively and efficiently. Translating Principles into Practice Reaping the Rewards

Managers increasingly find themselves assigned the role of the rope in a very real tug of warpulled one way by customers' mounting demands and the opposite way by the company's need for growth and profitability. Many have discovered that they can keep the rope from snapping and, in fact, achieve profitable growth by treating supply chain management as a strategic variable.

These savvy managers recognize two important things:


1. They think about the supply chain as a wholeall the links involved in managing the flow of products, services, and information from their suppliers' suppliers to their customers' customers (that is, channel customers, such as distributors and retailers).

Supply Chain Management in Indian FMCG Industry

Supply Chain Management 2. They pursue tangible outcomesfocused on revenue growth, asset utilization, and cost. Rejecting the traditional view of a company and its component parts as distinct functional entities, these managers realize that the real measure of success is how well activities coordinate across the supply chain to create value for customers, while increasing the profitability of every link in the chain. Our analysis of initiatives to improve supply chain management by more than 100 manufacturers, distributors, and retailers shows many making great progress, while others fail dismally. The successful initiatives that have contributed to profitable growth share several themes. They are typically broad efforts, combining both strategic and tactical change. They also reflect a holistic approach, viewing the supply chain from end to end and orchestrating efforts so that the whole improvement achievedin revenue, costs, and asset utilizationis greater than the sum of its parts. Unsuccessful efforts likewise have a consistent profile. They tend to be functionally defined and narrowly focused, and they lack sustaining infrastructure. Uncoordinated change activity erupts in every department and function and puts the company in grave danger of dying the death of a thousand initiatives. The source of failure is seldom management's difficulty identifying what needs fixing. The issue is determining how to develop and execute a supply chain transformation plan that can move multiple, complex operating entities (both internal and external) in the same direction. To help managers decide how to proceed, we revisited the supply chain initiatives undertaken by the most successful manufacturers and distilled from their experience seven fundamental principles of supply chain management.

Principle 1: Segment customers based on the service needs of distinct groups and adapt the supply chain to serve these segments profitably.
Segmentation has traditionally grouped customers by industry, product, or trade channel and then taken a one-size-fits-all approach to serving them, averaging costs and profitability within and across segments. The typical result, as one manager admits: We don't fully understand the relative value customers place on our service offerings. But segmenting customers by their particular needs equips a company to develop a portfolio of services tailored to various segments. Surveys, interviews, and industry research have been the traditional tools for defining key segmentation criteria. Viewed from the classic perspective, this needs-based segmentation may produce some odd couples. For the manufacturer in Exhibit 1, innovators include an industrial distributor (Grainger), a do-it-yourself retailer (Home Depot), and a mass merchant (Wal-Mart).

Supply Chain Management in Indian FMCG Industry

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Research also can establish the services valued by all customers versus those valued only by certain segments. Then the company should apply a disciplined, cross-functional process to develop a menu of supply chain programs and create segment-specific service packages that combine basic services for everyone with the services from the menu that will have the greatest appeal to particular segments. This does not mean tailoring for the sake of tailoring. The goal is to find the degree of segmentation and variation needed to maximize profitability. All the segments in Exhibit 1, for example, value consistent delivery. But those in the lower left quadrant have little interest in the advanced supply chain management programs, such as customized packaging and advance shipment notification, that appeal greatly to those in the upper right quadrant. Of course, customer needs and preferences do not tell the whole story. The service packages must turn a profit, and many companies lack adequate financial understanding of their customers' and their own costs to gauge likely profitability. We don't know which customers are most profitable to serve, which will generate the highest long-term profitability, or which we are most likely to retain, confessed a leading industrial manufacturer. This knowledge is essential to correctly matching accounts with service packageswhich translates into revenues enhanced through some combination of increases in volume and/or price. Only by understanding their costs at the activity level and using that understanding to strengthen fiscal control can companies profitably deliver value to customers. One successful food manufacturer aggressively marketed vendor-managed inventory to all customer segments and boosted sales. But subsequent activity-based cost analysis found that one segment actually lost nine cents a case on an operating margin basis. Most companies have a significant untapped opportunity to better align their investment in a particular customer relationship with the return that customer Supply Chain Management in Indian FMCG Industry

Supply Chain Management generates. To do so, companies must analyze the profitability of segments, plus the costs and benefits of alternate service packages, to ensure a reasonable return on their investment and the most profitable allocation of resources. To strike and sustain the appropriate balance between service and profitability, most companies will need to set prioritiessequencing the rollout of tailored programs to capitalize on existing capabilities and maximize customer impact.

Principle 2: Customize the logistics network to the service requirements and profitability of customer segments.
Companies have traditionally taken a monolithic approach to logistics network design in organizing their inventory, warehouse, and transportation activities to meet a single standard. For some, the logistics network has been designed to meet the average service requirements of all customers; for others, to satisfy the toughest requirements of a single customer segment. Neither approach can achieve superior asset utilization or accommodate the segment-specific logistics necessary for excellent supply chain management. In many industries, especially such commodity industries as fine paper, tailoring distribution assets to meet individual logistics requirements is a greater source of differentiation for a manufacturer than the actual products, which are largely undifferentiated. One paper company found radically different customer service demands in two key segmentslarge publishers with long lead times and small regional printers needing delivery within 24 hours. To serve both segments well and achieve profitable growth, the manufacturer designed a multi-level logistics network with three full-stocking distribution centers and 46 quick-response cross-docks, stocking only fast-moving items, located near the regional printers. Return on assets and revenues improved substantially thanks to the new inventory deployment strategy, supported by outsourcing of management of the quick response centers and the transportation activities. This example highlights several key characteristics of segment-specific services. The logistics network probably will be more complex, involving alliances with third-party logistics providers, and will certainly have to be more flexible than the traditional network. As a result, fundamental changes in the mission, number, location, and ownership structure of warehouses are typically necessary. Finally, the network will require more robust logistics planning enabled by real-time decision-support tools that can handle flowthrough distribution and more time-sensitive approaches to managing transportation.

Principle 3: Listen to market signals and align demand planning accordingly across the supply chain, ensuring consistent forecasts and optimal resource allocation.

Supply Chain Management in Indian FMCG Industry

Supply Chain Management Forecasting has historically preceded silo by silo, with multiple departments independently creating forecasts for the same productsall using their own assumptions, measures, and level of detail. Many consult the marketplace only informally, and few involve their major suppliers in the process. The functional orientation of many companies has just made things worse, allowing sales forecasts to envision growing demand while manufacturing second-guesses how much product the market actually wants. Such independent, self-centered forecasting is incompatible with excellent supply chain management, as one manufacturer of photographic imaging found. This manufacturer nicknamed the warehouse the accordion because it had to cope with a production operation that stuck to a stable schedule, while the revenue-focused sales force routinely triggered cyclical demand by offering deep discounts at the end of each quarter. The manufacturer realized the need to implement a cross-functional planning process, supported by demand planning software. Initial results were dismaying. Sales volume dropped sharply, as excess inventory had to be consumed by the marketplace. But today, the company enjoys lower inventory and warehousing costs and much greater ability to maintain price levels and limit discounting. Like all the best sales and operations planning (S&OP), this process recognizes the needs and objectives of each functional group but bases final operational decisions on overall profit potential.

Excellent supply chain management, in fact, calls for S&OP that transcends company boundaries to involve every link of the supply chain (from the supplier's supplier to the customer's customer) in developing forecasts collaboratively and then maintaining the required capacity across the Supply Chain Management in Indian FMCG Industry

Supply Chain Management operations. Channel-wide S&OP can detect early warning signals of demand lurking in customer promotions, ordering patterns, and restocking algorithms and takes into account vendor and carrier capabilities, capacity, and constraints. Exhibit 2 illustrates the difference that cross supply chain planning has made for one manufacturer of laboratory products. As shown on the left of this exhibit, uneven distributor demand unsynchronized with actual end-user demand made real inventory needs impossible to predict and forced high inventory levels that still failed to prevent out-of-stocks. Distributors began sharing information on actual (and fairly stable) end-user demand with the manufacturer, and the manufacturer began managing inventory for the distributors. This coordination of manufacturing scheduling and inventory deployment decisions paid off handsomely, improving fill rates, asset turns, and cost metrics for all concerned.

Principle 4: Differentiate product closer to the customer and speed conversion across the supply chain.
Manufacturers have traditionally based production goals on projections of the demand for finished goods and have stockpiled inventory to offset forecasting errors. These manufacturers tend to view lead times in the system as fixed, with only a finite window of time in which to convert materials into products that meet customer requirements. While even such traditionalists can make progress in cutting costs through setup reduction, cellular manufacturing, and just-in-time techniques, great potential remains in less traditional strategies such as mass customization. For example, manufacturers striving to meet individual customer needs efficiently through strategies such as mass customization are discovering the value of postponement. They are delaying product differentiation to the last possible moment and thus overcoming the problem described by one manager of a health and beauty care products warehouse: With the proliferation of packaging requirements from major retailers, our number of SKUs (stock keeping units) has exploded. We have situations daily where we backorder one retailer, like Wal-Mart, on an item that is identical to an in-stock item, except for its packaging. Sometimes we even tear boxes apart and repackage by hand!

Supply Chain Management in Indian FMCG Industry

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The hardware manufacturer in Exhibit 3 solved this problem by determining the point at which a standard bracket turned into multiple SKUs. This point came when the bracket had to be packaged 16 ways to meet particular customer requirements. The manufacturer further concluded that overall demand for these brackets is relatively stable and easy to forecast, while demand for the 16 SKUs is much more volatile. The solution: make brackets in the factory but package them at the distribution center, within the customer order cycle. This strategy improved asset utilization by cutting inventory levels by more than 50 percent. Realizing that time really is money, many manufacturers are questioning the conventional wisdom that lead times in the supply chain are fixed. They are strengthening their ability to react to market signals by compressing lead times along the supply chain, speeding the conversion from raw materials to finished products tailored to customer requirements. This approach enhances their flexibility to make product configuration decisions much closer to the moment demand occurs. The key to just-in-time product differentiation is to locate the leverage point in the manufacturing process where the product is unalterably configured to meet a single requirement and to assess options, such a postponement, modularized design, or modification of manufacturing processes that can increase flexibility. In addition, manufacturers must challenge cycle times: Can the leverage point be pushed closer to actual demand to maximize the manufacturer's flexibility in responding to emerging customer demand?

Principle 5: Manage sources of supply strategically to reduce the total cost of owning materials and services.

Supply Chain Management in Indian FMCG Industry

Supply Chain Management Determined to pay as low a price as possible for materials, manufacturers have not traditionally cultivated warm relationships with suppliers. In the words of one general manager: The best approach to supply is to have as many players as possible fighting for their piece of the piethat's when you get the best pricing. Excellent supply chain management requires a more enlightened mindset recognizing, as a more progressive manufacturer did: Our supplier's costs are in effect our costs. If we force our supplier to provide 90 days of consigned material when 30 days are sufficient, the cost of that inventory will find its way back into the supplier's price to us since it increases his cost structure. While manufacturers should place high demands on suppliers, they should also realize that partners must share the goal of reducing costs across the supply chain in order to lower prices in the marketplace and enhance margins. The logical extension of this thinking is gain-sharing arrangements to reward everyone who contributes to the greater profitability. Some companies are not yet ready for such progressive thinking because they lack the fundamental prerequisite. That is, a sound knowledge of all their commodity costs, not only for direct materials but also for maintenance, repair, and operating supplies, plus the dollars spent on utilities, travel, temps, and virtually everything else. This fact-based knowledge is the essential foundation for determining the best way of acquiring every kind of material and service the company buys. With their marketplace position and industry structure in mind, manufacturers can then consider how to approach supplierssoliciting short-term competitive bids, entering into long-term contracts and strategic supplier relationships, outsourcing, or integrating vertically. Excellent supply chain management calls for creativity and flexibility.

Principle 6: Develop a supply chain-wide technology strategy that supports multiple levels of decision making and gives a clear view of the flow of products, services, and information.
To sustain reengineered business processes (that at last abandon the functional orientation of the past), many progressive companies have been replacing inflexible, poorly integrated systems with enterprise-wide systems. Yet too many of these companies will find themselves victims of the powerful new transactional systems they put in place. Unfortunately, many leading-edge information systems can capture reams of data but cannot easily translate it into actionable intelligence that can enhance real-world operations. As one logistics manager with a brand-new system said: I've got three feet of reports with every detail imaginable, but it doesn't tell me how to run my business. This manager needs to build an information technology system that integrates capabilities of three essential kinds. (See Exhibit 4.)

Supply Chain Management in Indian FMCG Industry

Supply Chain Management

o For the short term, the system must be able to handle day-to-day transactions and electronic commerce across the supply chain and thus help align supply and demand by sharing information on orders and daily scheduling. o From a mid-term perspective, the system must facilitate planning and decision making, supporting the demand and shipment planning and master production scheduling needed to allocate resources efficiently. o To add long-term value, the system must enable strategic analysis by providing tools, such as an integrated network model, that synthesize data for use in high-level what-if scenario planning to help managers evaluate plants, distribution centers, suppliers, and third-party service alternatives. Despite making huge investments in technology, few companies are acquiring this full complement of capabilities. Today's enterprise wide systems remain enterprise-bound, unable to share across the supply chain the information that channel partners must have to achieve mutual success. Ironically, the information that most companies require most urgently to enhance supply chain management resides outside of their own systems, and few companies are adequately connected to obtain the necessary information. Electronic connectivity creates opportunities to change the supply chain fundamentallyfrom slashing transaction costs through electronic handling of orders, invoices, and payments to shrinking inventories through vendor-managed inventory programs.

Principle 7: Adopt channel-spanning performance measures to gauge collective success in reaching the end-user effectively and efficiently.

To answer the question, How are we doing? most companies look inward and apply any number of functionally oriented measures. But excellent supply chain managers take a broader view, adopting measures that apply to every link in the supply chain and include both service and financial metrics. Supply Chain Management in Indian FMCG Industry

Supply Chain Management First, they measure service in terms of the perfect orderthe order that arrives when promised, complete, priced and billed correctly, and undamaged. The perfect order not only spans the supply chain, as a progressive performance measurement should, but also view performance from the proper perspective, that of the customer. Second, excellent supply chain managers determine their true profitability of service by identifying the actual costs and revenues of the activities required to serve an account, especially a key account. For many, this amounts to a revelation, since traditional cost measures rely on corporate accounting systems that allocate overhead evenly across accounts. Such measures do not differentiate, for example, an account that requires a multi-functional account team, small daily shipments, or special packaging. Traditional accounting tends to mask the real costs of the supply chain focusing on cost type rather than the cost of activities and ignoring the degree of control anyone has (or lacks) over the cost drivers. Deriving maximum benefit from activity-based costing requires sophisticated information technology, specifically a data warehouse. Because the general ledger organizes data according to a chart of accounts, it obscures the information needed for activity-based costing. By maintaining data in discrete units, the warehouse provides ready access to this information. To facilitate channel-spanning performance measurement, many companies are developing common report cards. These report cards help keep partners working toward the same goals by building deep understanding of what each company brings to the partnership and showing how to leverage their complementary assets and skills to the alliance's greatest advantage. The willingness to ignore traditional company boundaries in pursuit of such synergies often marks the first step toward a pay-forperformance environment.

Translating Principles into Practice


Companies that have achieved excellence in supply chain management tend to approach implementation of the guiding principles with three precepts in mind:

Orchestrate improvement efforts


The complexity of the supply chain can make it difficult to envision the whole, from end to end. But successful supply chain managers realize the need to invest time and effort up front in developing this total perspective and using it to inform a blueprint for change that maps linkages among initiatives and a well-thought-out implementation sequence. This blueprint also must coordinate the change initiatives with ongoing day-to-day operations and must cross company boundaries.

Supply Chain Management in Indian FMCG Industry

Supply Chain Management The blueprint requires rigorous assessment of the entire supply chainfrom supplier relationships to internal operations to the marketplace, including customers, competitors, and the industry as a whole. Current practices must be ruthlessly weighed against best practices to determine the size of the gap to close. Thorough cost/benefit analysis lays the essential foundation for prioritizing and sequencing initiatives, establishing capital and people requirements, and getting a complete financial picture of the company's supply chainbefore, during, and after implementation.

A critical step in the process is setting explicit outcome targets for revenue growth, asset utilization, and cost reduction. (See Exhibit 5.) While traditional goals for costs and assets, especially goals for working capital, remain essential to success, revenue growth targets may ultimately be even more important. Initiatives intended only to cut costs and improve asset utilization have limited success structuring sustainable winwin relationships among trading partners. Emphasizing revenue growth can significantly increase the odds that a supply chain strategy will create, rather than destroy, value.

Remember that Rome wasn't built in a day


As this list of tasks may suggest, significant enhancement of supply chain management is a massive undertaking with profound financial impact on both the balance sheet and the income statement. Because this effort will not pay off overnight, management must carefully balance its long-term promise against more immediate business needs. Advance planning is again key. Before designing specific initiatives, successful companies typically develop a plan that specifies funding, leadership, and expected Supply Chain Management in Indian FMCG Industry

Supply Chain Management financial results. This plan helps to forestall conflicts over priorities and keeps management focused and committed to realizing the benefits.

Recognize the difficulty of change


Most corporate change programs do a much better job of designing new operating processes and technology tools than of fostering appropriate attitudes and behaviors in the people who are essential to making the change program work. People resist change, especially in companies with a history of change-of-the-month programs. People in any organization have trouble coping with the uncertainty of change, especially the real possibility that their skills will not fit the new environment. Implementing the seven principles of supply chain management will mean significant change for most companies. The best prescription for ensuring success and minimizing resistance is extensive, visible participation and communication by senior executives. This means championing the cause and removing the managerial obstacles that typically present the greatest barriers to success, while linking change with overall business strategy. Many progressive companies have realized that the traditionally fragmented responsibility for managing supply chain activities will no longer do. Some have even elevated supply chain management to a strategic position and established a senior executive position such as vice president-supply chain (or the equivalent) reporting directly to the COO or CEO. This role ignores traditional product, functional, and geographic boundaries that can interfere with delivering to customers what they want, when and where they want it.

Reaping the Rewards


The companies mentioned in this article are just a few of the many that have enhanced both customer satisfaction and profitability by strengthening management of the supply chain. While these companies have pursued various initiatives, all have realized the need to integrate activities across the supply chain. Doing so has improved asset utilization, reduced cost, and created price advantages that help attract and retain customersand thus enhance revenue.

2.10 Link between SCM and Finance Management


In many companies, financial, information and physical flows are often not synchronised. Managers take decisions from an operational or financial point of view and do not recognise the impact of supply chain management on financial performance or vice versa. Growth, profitability and capital utilisation are better optimised through information, financial and physical supply chains integration. There is a strong interdependency. Operations and finance departments have to collaborate to reach common objectives.

Supply Chain Management in Indian FMCG Industry

Supply Chain Management Both operations and finance managers have to be bilingual and understand each others language. They must speak a common business language. The first step in developing this dual competency is a better understanding of how various concepts (in operations) and financial accounts are interrelated. Better links between supply chain and finance The value of supply chain initiatives should be measured in terms of impact on cash flow and market value, and on key internal financial performance metrics such as economic profit (EVA), return on capital, return on equity, working capital, etc. This objective can be reached by a three-step approach that provides a comprehensive vision of the existing relationship between companies operational and financial performance. Understanding the answers to three key questions provides the basis for the approach. 1) How does operational performance impact the components of the financial statement (income statement and balance sheet)? 2) What is the impact of the operations in term of profitability, asset utilisation and financial leverage efficiency? 3) What is the impact of the operations on the real profit that takes into account the cost of capital? The financial impact of the supply chain components can be identified on the income statement and balance sheet. The income statement reflects the operating activities of the company during the year. It provides financial analysts and investors with key measures of profitability: revenue, expenses and net income. This approach links the company strategy to the operational performance. If the company wants to increase its sales, or reduce its cost, it will act on different components of the supply chain. For example if the companys strategic priority is to increase its market share and therefore its revenue, it will focus on leverage parameters such as perfect order fulfillment, order fulfillment cycle time, and so on. In order to optimise the overall performance of the company, it is important to help establish the link between effective supply chain management and improved financial performance.

Supply Chain Management in Indian FMCG Industry

Supply Chain Management in Indian FMCG Industry

BULL WHIP EFFECT The Bullwhip Effect (or Whiplash Affect) is an observed phenomenon in forecastdriven distribution channels. The concept has its roots in J Forrester's Industrial Dynamics (1961) and thus it is also known as the Forrester Effect. Since the oscillating demand magnification upstream a supply chain reminds someone of a cracking whip it became famous as the Bullwhip Effect. Customer demand is rarely perfectly stable, businesses must forecast demand to properly position inventory and other resources. Forecasts are based on statistics, and they are rarely perfectly accurate. Because forecast errors are a given, companies often carry an inventory buffer called "safety stock". Moving up the supply chain from end-consumer to raw materials supplier, each supply chain participant has greater observed variation in demand and thus greater need for safety stock. In periods of rising demand, down-stream participants increase orders. In periods of falling demand, orders fall or stop, thereby not reducing inventory. The effect is that variations are amplified as one moves upstream in the supply chain (further from the customer) Case Study Barilla S.p.A Barilla S.p.A is a major Italian and European food company founded in 1877. It produces several kinds of pasta and it is the world's leading pasta maker with 40-45% of the Italian market and 25% of the US market. The company sells to a wide range of Italian retailers, primarily through third party distributors. During the late 1980s, Barilla suffered increasing operational inefficiencies and cost penalties that resulted from large week-to-week variations in its distributors order patterns.

Supply Chain Management in Indian FMCG Industry

Causes for Demand Fluctuations Transportation discounts Volume discount Promotional activity No minimum or maximum order quantities Product proliferation Long order lead times Poor customer service rates Poor communication

Supply Chain Management in Indian FMCG Industry

To address this problem, the director of logistics suggests the implementation of Justin-Time Distribution (JITD), with Barillas distributors. Under the proposed JITD system, decision-making authority for determining shipments from Barilla to a distributor would transfer from the distributor to Barilla. Specifically, rather than simply filling orders specified by the distributor, Barilla would monitor the flow of its product through the distributors warehouse, and then decide what to ship to the distributor and when to ship it.

Implementation Issues Resistance from the Distributors


Managing stock is my job; I dont need you to see my warehouse or my figures. I could improve my inventory and service level myself if you would deliver my orders more quickly; I would place my order and you would deliver within 36 hours. We would be giving Barilla the power to push products into our warehouse just so that Barilla can reduce its costs.

Implementation Issues Resistance from Sales and Marketing


Our sales levels would flatten if we put this program in place. How can we get the trade to push Barilla product to retailers if we dont offer some sort of incentive? If space is freed up in our distributors warehouses, the distributors would then push our competitors product more than ours. It seems that the distribution organization is not yet ready to handle such a sophisticated relationship. We run the risk of not being able to adjust our shipments sufficiently quickly to changes in selling patterns or increased promotions. We increase the risk of having our customers stock out of our product if we have disruption in our supply process. We wouldnt be able to run trade promotions with JITD. It is not clear that costs would even be reduced.

Solutions the Implementation Problems.


Demonstrate that JITD benefits the distributors (lowering inventory, improving their service levels and increasing their returns on assets); Run experiment at one or more of Barillas 18 depots Middle Management needs to look at JITD not as a logistics program, but as a company-wide effort; Get top management closely involved. Built Trust among all liked entities such as distributors, sales team, retailers.

Supply Chain Management in Indian FMCG Industry

Weekly Demand for Barilla Dry Products from Corteses Northeast Distribution Center to the Pedrignano CDC, 1989.

Supply Chain Management in Indian FMCG Industry

Causes for Demand Fluctuations Transportation discounts Volume discount Promotional activity No minimum or maximum order quantities Product proliferation Long order lead times Poor customer service rates Poor communication

To address this problem, the director of logistics suggests the implementation of Justin-Time Distribution (JITD), with Barillas distributors. Under the proposed JITD system, decision-making authority for determining shipments from Barilla to a distributor would transfer from the distributor to Barilla. Specifically, rather than simply filling orders specified by the distributor, Barilla would monitor the flow of its product through the distributors warehouse, and then decide what to ship to the distributor and when to ship it.

Implementation Issues Resistance from the Distributors


Managing stock is my job; I dont need you to see my warehouse or my figures. I could improve my inventory and service level myself if you would deliver my orders more quickly; I would place my order and you would deliver within 36 hours. We would be giving Barilla the power to push products into our warehouse just so that Barilla can reduce its costs.

Implementation Issues Resistance from Sales and Marketing


Our sales levels would flatten if we put this program in place. How can we get the trade to push Barilla product to retailers if we dont offer some sort of incentive? If space is freed up in our distributors warehouses, the distributors would then push our competitors product more than ours. It seems that the distribution organization is not yet ready to handle such a sophisticated relationship.

Supply Chain Management in Indian FMCG Industry We run the risk of not being able to adjust our shipments sufficiently quickly to changes in selling patterns or increased promotions. We increase the risk of having our customers stock out of our product if we have disruption in our supply process. We wouldnt be able to run trade promotions with JITD. It is not clear that costs would even be reduced.

Solutions the Implementation Problems.


Demonstrate that JITD benefits the distributors (lowering inventory, improving their service levels and increasing their returns on assets); Run experiment at one or more of Barillas 18 depots Middle Management needs to look at JITD not as a logistics program, but as a company-wide effort; Get top management closely involved. Built Trust among all liked entities such as distributors, sales team, retailers.

Supply Chain Management in Indian FMCG Industry

Methods of Coping with BULL WHIP EFFCET


Methods for Coping with the Bullwhip Effect Our ability to identify and quantify the canes of the but bullwhip effect lead to a number of suggestions for reducing the bullwhip effect or for eliminating its impact. These include reducing uncertainty. reducing the satiability of the customer demand process, reducing lead times, and engaging in strategic partnerships. These issues are discussed briefly below. 1. Reducing uncertainty: One of the most frequent suggestions for decreasing or eliminating the bullwhip effect is to reduce uncertainty throughout the supply chain by centralizing demand information, that is,by providing each stage of the supply chain with complete information on actual customer demand. The results presented in the previous subsection demonstrate that centralizing demand information can reduce the bullwhip effect. Note, however, that even if each stage uses the same demand data, each may still employ different forecasting methods and different buying practices. both of which may contribute to the bullwhip effect. In addition, the results presented in the previous subsection indicate that even when each stage uses the same demand data. the same forecasting method, and the same ordering policy, the bullwhipeffect will continue to exist. 2. Reducing variability: The bull whip effect can be diminished by reducing the variability' inherent in the customer demand process. For example, if we can reduce the variability of the customer demand seen by the retailer, then even if the bull whip effect occurs. the variability of the demand seen by the wholesaler will also be reduced. We can reduce the variability of customer demand through, for example. the use of an -everyday low pricing- (EDIT) strategy. When a retailer uses EDI.P, it offers a product at a single consistent price, rather than offering a regular price with periodic price promotions. By eliminating price promotions, a retailer can eliminate many of the dramatic shifts in demand that occur along these promotions. Therefore, everyday low pricing strategies can lead to much more stablethat is, less variablecustomer demand patterns. 3.Lead-time reduction: The results presented in the previous subsections clearly indicate that lead times serve to magnify the increase in variability due to demand forecasting. We haw demonstrated the dramatic effect that increasing lead times can have on the variability at each stage of the supply chain. Therefore. lead-time reduction can significantly reduce the bull whip effect throughout a supply chain. Observe that lead times typically include two components: order lead times (i.e.. the time it takes to produce and ship the item and inform lead time i.e.. the time it takes to process an order). This distinction is important since order lead times can he reduced through the use of cross-docking while information lead time can be reduced through the use of electronic data interchange(EDI). 4. Strategic partnership: The bull whip effect can be eliminated by engaging in any of a number of strategic partnerships. These strategic partnerships change the way information is shared and inventory is managed within a supply chain, possibly

Supply Chain Management in Indian FMCG Industry eliminating the impact of the bull whip effect. For example, in vendor managed inventory .the manufacturer manages the inventory of its product at the retailer outlet, and therefore determines for itself how much inventory to keep on hand and how much to ship to the retailer in every period. Therefore, in VMI the manufacturer does not rely on the orders placed by a retailer, thus avoiding the bullwhip effect entirely. Other types of partnerships are also applied to reduce the bull whip effect. The previous analysis indicates, for example. that centralizing demand information can dramatically reduce the variability seen by the upstream stages in a supply chain. Therefore, it is clear that these upstream stages would benefit from a strategic partnership that provides an incentive for the retailer to make customer demand data available to the rest of the supply chain.

Supply Chain Management in Indian FMCG Industry

3. Supply Chain Management in Indian FMCG Industry

3.1 Implementation of SCM Practices in Indian FMCG Industry


In recent years, the basis for global competition has changed. No longer are organizations competing against other organizations, but rather supply chains are competing against supply chains. The success of an organization is now invariably measured neither by the sophistication of its products nor by the size of the market share. It is usually seen in the light of the ability, sometimes forcefully and deliberately harnesses its supply chain and to opt for innovative approaches of supply chain flows such as single-piece-flow, to deliver responsively to the customers as and when they demand it. This paper tries to identify and analyze the importance and adoption of various SCM practices in Indian FMCG industry. The paper is based on empirical study conducted by the author in Indian FMCG industry and various SCM practices are clubbed in different factors through Factor analysis. It is rightly said that manufacturers now compete less on product and quality which are often comparable and more on inventory turns and speed to market (John Kasarda, 1999). This statement shows the beliefs that supply chain management will increasingly be the principal determinant of the ability to compete. Every link in it can add up to a competitive advantage. There was time when companies looked at their supply chains the upstream part of their value chain from the companys perspective as a means of focusing on their own core competencies, and of leveraging those of vendors and lowering their cost to increase their responsiveness towards consumers . Those goals can not be swept away by supply chain but they will be superseded by a single super objective as to compete on the basis of how well organization manage its supply chain thus the competitive advantage is shifting from the shop floor. The question arises why it is so important to optimize the supply chain. It is so because inefficiencies in the supply chain leads to higher inventories at all points of the chain. This adds costs related to wastages, blocked funds and risk of holding obsolete products with chances of quality depletion.

3.2 SCM in Indian Business Scenario


Indian organizations are still juggling among the Material Resource Planning (MRPII), Enterprises Resource Planning (ERP), Logistics and Supply Chain Management (SCM). However, it is quite evident that Indian corporate sector is fast recognizing the need of SCM, which can integrate all other practices and processes. SCM in India offers one of the fastest growth areas in revenues as well as employment. According to ETIG, there is no reliable estimate of the market opportunities for supply chain and its components exist in India today. Even though, ETIG estimates the Indian market value for supply chain / logistics at 13 percent of GDP is more than US $50 billion, a lions share of which is accounted for by transportation and warehousing.

Supply Chain Management in Indian FMCG Industry India started a little late for restructuring and reformulating the strategies related with supply chain. However, there is no doubt that Indian industries are fast catching and gearing up for meeting the new business environment. A study of available literature related with Indian business practices after 1991s liberalization policies shows that organizations are concerned about their value chain and identifying that competition is shifting towards the efficiency and effectiveness of entire supply chain activities. The traces of SCM adoption by Indian organizations are given as: Until 1990, logistics was treated as the management of transportation, inventories and warehousing and organizations had to perform these activities individually in an efficient manner. Before opening of Indian market, Indian business giants were enjoying the solo play with continuous expansion of capacities. Later on when they heard the music of competition, they found themselves with excess capacities with huge cost burdens. This forced organizations to control the cost factor for the survival at marketplace. At the same time of 1990s, Indian organizations got fascinated by Business Process Re-engineering (BPR). Organizations treated BPR as remedy of their illness across the organizations processes and functions by eliminating the non-value adding activities and streamlining the operations with a promise of higher returns. Later on, the emergence of Enterprises Resource Planning (ERP) gave boost to BPR. For the first time, organizations could have an integrated view of the various silos that existed in their businesses, giving an opportunity to rationalize, remove duplication and speed up the processes. Rapid growth and improvement of telecommunication networks and wide spread of information technology tools and techniques after mid 1990s posed the biggest challenge in handling well-informed customers. Nevertheless, these changes also provided the biggest boost to Indian industries because organizations found themselves able to reach out vendors or suppliers on one end, and customers to the other. Due to this revolution only, ERP-II integrated the internal departments into a seamless organization, whereas, SCM attempts to integrate the external factors and processes into the internal processes. Changes can be implemented easily when tough times reign. Companies in India have been looking at ways of cutting costs and improving process efficiencies, in their quest to become globally competitive through taking initiatives for supply chain management practices because SCM recognizes that distinct functions like purchases, inventory management, distribution and production planning work best when integrated. At the same time, supply chain management in India seems to be following the path of more advanced industrial countries, involving not only the customers, manufacturers, and vendors but also the third party service providers, consultants, software providers etc.

3.3 Indian Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) Industry

Supply Chain Management in Indian FMCG Industry

Indian Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) industry has a long history. However, the Indian FMCG industry began to take shape only the last fifty years. Even today, the Indian FMCG industry continues to suffer from a definitional dilemma as well as the exact estimation of market size. Nevertheless, more than Rs. 43,000 crores ( in organized sector) fast moving consumer goods (FMCG) industry is a critical component of the Indian economy. The actual size of industry is phenomenal, if one adds the turnover of unorganized sector. That is why, this sector has potential to drive growth, enhance quality of life and create jobs. The Indian FMCG sector is primarily a low margin business, where success depends on the volume. Presently, the FMCG sector is one of the largest in the country, which accounts for more than 14.5 per cent of GDP with whooping sum of domestic consumption capacity of nearly 20 billion U.S. Dollar. With the average growth of Indian economy in the range of 6-8% per year will witness a consistence rise in demand and purchasing power of Indian market. Following the trend, the FMCG sector will grow by 5-6% per year in mature categories and 8-10% per year in upcoming categories. However, factors such as low rural penetration, dependence on monsoon, the price sensitivity of the consumers and increased level of competition could result in decreasing profit margins in the industry. The following section examines the different philosophies related to development of SCM. Subsequent sections describe the research construct, which provides details of sample design, design of questionnaire, survey methodology, followed by an analysis of the results and the managerial implications of the study along with the future research directions.

3.4 Synthesis of Supply Chain Management Literature


The concept of supply chain management first appeared in the literature in the mid1980 by Keith and Webber. However, the fundamental assumptions on which SCM rests are significantly older. The management of inter-organizational operations can be traced back to channel research in the 1960s by Bucklin and systems integration research in the 1960s by Forrestter. According to Cooper et.al. (1997), the term supply chain management has risen to prominence over the past ten years. La Londe (1997) identified positions at forty-three different companies that carry supply chain in their titles. By now, SCM has become such a hot topic that it is difficult to pick up any periodicals on manufacturing, marketing, distribution, customer management, or transportation without seeing an article about SCM or its related topics. Despite the popularity of the term supply chain management, managers and researchers have considerable confusion over the actual meaning of the term. Some authors such as Tyndall et.al. (1998) defined SCM in operational terms involving the flow of materials and products. Ellram and Cooper (1990) viewed SCM as management philosophy and still others as La Londe (1997) viewed it in terms of management process. In fact, some have questioned the existence and benefits of the SCM phenomenon, for example, Bechtel and Jayaram (1997) asked Is the concept of SCM important in todays business environment or is it simply a fad destined to die with other short-lived buzzwords? Research in SCM evolved along three separate paths that eventually merged into a common body of literature, with a primary focus on integration, customer satisfaction

Supply Chain Management in Indian FMCG Industry and business results i.e. creation or enhancement of value of the products or services. Jones and Riley (1985) stated that supply chain management deals with the total flow of materials from suppliers through end users. Three differences between supply chain management and classical materials and manufacturing control are identified by Houlihan (1988) as: The supply chain is viewed as a single process. Responsibilities for the various segments in the chain are not fragmented and relegated to functional areas such as manufacturing, purchasing, distribution and sales. Supply chain management calls for and in the end depends on strategic decision making. Supply chain management calls for different perspective on inventories which are used as balancing mechanism of last, not first, resort. A new approach to systems is required integration rather than interfacing.

3.5 SCM as a Management Philosophy


The philosophy of SCM emphasized to extend the concept of partnerships into a multiform effort to mange the total flow of goods from the supplier to the ultimate customer. Ellram and Cooper (1990) emphasized that SCM as a management philosophy takes a systems approach to viewing the channel as a single entity, rather than a set of fragmented parts, each performing its own function. Langley and Holcomb (1992) suggested that the objective of SCM should be the synchronization of all channel activities to create customer value. Mentzer et.al.(2001) proposed that SCM as management philosophy has the following characteristics: y A systems approach to viewing the channel as a whole and to managing the total flow of goods inventory from the supplier to the ultimate customer. A strategic orientation toward cooperative efforts to synchronize and converge intrafirm and inter-firm operational and strategic capabilities into a unified whole and A customer focused orientation to create unique and individualized sources of customer value, leading to customer satisfaction.

3.6 SCM as a Set of Activities


For adopting the supply chain management philosophy, organization has to establish management practices that permit them to act or behave consistently. Bowersox and Closs (1996) argued that to be fully effective in todays competitive environment, firms must expand their integrated behaviour to incorporate customers and suppliers. The philosophy of SCM turns into implementation of supply chain management as a set of activities. According to Greene (1991), the set of activities as a coordinated effort is called supply chain management between the supply chain partners, such as suppliers, carriers and manufacturers to respond dynamically to the needs of the end customer. So supply chain management activities such as mutually sharing information, risks and rewards with chain members (Ellram and Cooper, 1990), integrated behaviour and processes and an effort to build and maintain long term relationship are vital for realization of the management philosophy behind SCM. Gentry and Vellenga (1996) argued that it is not usual that all the primary activities in

Supply Chain Management in Indian FMCG Industry a value chain inbound and outbound logistics, operations, marketing, sales and service are performed by any one of firm to maximize customer value. Thus, forming strategic alliances with channel partners such as suppliers, customers, or intermediaries e.g. logistics service providers, provides competitive advantage through creating customer value (Langley and Holcomb, 1992).

3.7 SCM as a Set of Management Process


Davenport (1993) defined a process as a structured and measured activities designed to produce a specific output for a particular customer or market. La Londe (1997) proposed that SCM is the process of managing relationships, information and materials flow across enterprise borders to deliver enhanced customer service and economic value through synchronized management of the flow of physical goods and associated information from sourcing to consumption. Ross (1998) defined supply chain processes as the actual physical business functions, institutions and operations that characterize the way a particular channel system moves goods and services to market through the supply pipelines. The same idea was reflected by Cooper, Lambert, et al. (1997), a process is a specific ordering of work activities across time and place, with a beginning, an end, clearly identified inputs and outputs and a structure of action. Lambert et al. (1998) suggested that the key processes would typically include customer relationship management, customer service management, demand management, order fulfillment, manufacturing flow management, procurement and product development and commercialization.

3.8 SCM Practices in Indian FMCG Industry


In a low margin and high volume business like FMCG, it requires a very close attention on the planning and operational part of the entire value chain activities because these mini test details can change the fortune of any organization. While branding differentiates the image of the product, the distribution system will determine the faith of the organization up to a very large extent in FMCG industry. The diversity of India and existence of vast untapped markets of rural areas provide the bundle of opportunities to companies. The best price or quality product offerings combined with heavy promotional and advertising budgets will not help the product succeed if one of the major ingredients of the marketing mix as distribution is not properly focused. The table1 shows the types of FMCG outlets are available across the India. Every organization needed to serve a large percentage of these outlets to reap the economies of the scale.

Supply Chain Management in Indian FMCG Industry

TYPES OF OUTLETS Total Outlets Grocer General Store Food Store Cosmetic Store Chemist Paan Bidi Others

PERCENTAGE TERMS (%) 100 34.6 12.8 7.1 4.5 5.9 16 19

Table 1: Types of outlets in Indian FMCG Retail Industry (Source: Org-Marg, 2003)

Supply Chain Management in Indian FMCG Industry

Supply Chain Planning & Management

Contract Manufacturing/Imports

Own Manufacturing

Outbound Transportation Depots

Depots

Carrying & Forwarding Agent

Stockiest / Distributors

Retailer

Customer

Figure 6: The Basic Supply Chain of Indian FMCG Industry The traditional basic structure of FMCG supply chain has not changed over the years. The basic supply chain related with distribution side of FMCG industry is shown in Figure 1. The competitive scenario has changed the importance of each element of the

Supply Chain Management in Indian FMCG Industry chain operation i.e. a detailed planning and analysis of every activity of the chain so that to make the same efficient and effective. Despite the importance and theoretical development of SCM, there is little empirical research on how practitioners define and incorporate SCM practices into overall corporate strategy and functioning. Similarly, little is known about the specific practices or concerns of successful SCM implementation in Indian FMCG organizations. This research paper investigates these issues by means of empirical data.

3.8.1 The Research Construct


Organizations have downsized, focused on core competencies and attempt to achieve competitive advantage be more effectively managing all internal and external valueadding activities under the influence of global competitive market. Many firms have reduced their supply base so they can more effectively manage relationships with strategic suppliers (Tully, 1995). The literature indicates that buying firms are developing cooperative, mutually beneficial relationships with suppliers and virtual extension of their firms (Mason 1996; Copacino 1996). A key element of successful SCM involves the downstream integration of business customers as well as the management of upstream suppliers. It is always beneficial to recognize the specific practices that results in successful SCM implementation while taking into consideration the concerns hindering a successful supply chain. That is why, for the purpose of this study few commonly cited SCM practices and concerns from the literature were identified. These included practices and concerns related to SCM enablement through IT practices, supplier relationships, manufacturing / operations practices, logistics and warehousing practices and customer relationship practices. Since this was an exploratory study, no attempt was made to organize or group various practices into any specific order or category.

3.8.2 The Sampling Plan


The study is focused on the supply chain management practices in fast moving consumer goods (FMCG) sector, so the population for this study is entire organizations operating in India under FMCG sector. A simple random sample has been opted for this study. Out of an initial population of over 120 FMCG companies, 88 companies were selected through simple random sampling followed by convenience and executive judgment at second stage. Consequent upon the response rate fifty-two companies have been selected for study of SCM practices in Indian FMCG industry. The following criteria have been adopted in selecting the sample units as: The companies under sample should have either fully adopted or partially adopted or planned to adopt the Enterprises Resource Planning (ERP) or such other application package.

Supply Chain Management in Indian FMCG Industry

The sample company should have demonstrated potential with regard to business needs and resources to adopt SCM practices or company should be planning the SCM initiative on a systems basis. The company should have a manufacturing / processing / assembly unit headoffice preferably in National Capital Region (NCR) of Delhi and Mumbai and its suburban areas. The sample company should have a turnover of at least 100 crores. Only the firms which fulfilled aforesaid criteria and were willing to participate in the study were selected.

3.8.3 Data Collection Methodology


The methodology of data collection for present research is planned in such manner so that every bit of information pertaining to different aspect of supply chain management (SCM) in Indian FMCG industry has been collected. The following tools have been used in data collection for the research work as: Secondary Data: The secondary data has been tapped to know insight about the Indian FMCG sector and various SCM practices world-over. Some of the sources which helped me are such as: Associated Chambers of Commerce & Industry (ASSOCHAM), New Delhi, Federation of Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industry (FICCI), New Delhi, Confederation of Indian Industry (CII), New Delhi, ETIG Knowledge Series, 2002, Supply Chain Council, www.supply-chain.com, www.indiainfoline.com, www.scmr.org, Council of Logistics Management and various other Libraries as Library of Faculty of Management Studies, Delhi University, Central Reference Library, Delhi University, Ratan Tata Library, DSE, Management Development Institute (MDI), IIT-Delhi etc. Primary Data: The primary data has been collected through structured questionnaire and individual depth interviews. A survey instrument in the form of a structured questionnaire was designed based on constructs previously described. For getting the responses to questionnaire basically, two types of scales were used as Agreement and Adoption to assess the attitudes and opinions of respondents. Five-point Likert or summated scale have been used with a maximum rating of 5 and minimum rating of one with equal interval scale of 1. The questionnaire was pre-tested by 20 supply chain managers for content validity. Protocol analysis was also undertaken to help the respondents in answering the questions, assess their problems in understanding some questions and suggest modifications. A few pre-test questionnaires were also administered by mail wherein comments were also invited from respondents. As a part of de-briefing, some of pretest respondents were also interviewed after they completed the questionnaire in order to identify areas of confusions. Finally, pre-test questionnaire was also sent to two SCM experts to suggest changes in questionnaire with regard to type of questions and scales of measurement used therein. The pretest questionnaires were not used for subsequent analyses.

Supply Chain Management in Indian FMCG Industry

3.8.4 Non-response Bias:


To investigate the possibility of non-response biasness in the data, responses of early and late returned questionnaires were tested separately. The late received questionnaires were considered to be representative of non-respondents (Lambert and Harrington, 1990). Each sample was split into two groups on the basis of early and late survey return times and t-tests were performed on the responses of the two groups. The t-test yielded no statistically significant differences between the early and late response group suggesting that non-response bias was not a problem in this study.

3.8.5 Common Method Bias:


This research collected data from a single respondent from each target FMCG organization, without collecting and cross validating responses from a second informant from the same organization. Some researchers can argue that relying on a single informant to answer complex social judgments about organizational characteristics increases random measurement error in terms of, strong assessment of discriminate validity can not be made. However, the cost associated with stipulated time factor for using multiple informants from each organization is prohibitive. Therefore this research used data from single respondents while attempting to minimize the extent of common method variance by targeting the survey to top level executives or senior managers of the organizations. It was assumed that the senior managers were more objective and knowledgeable with respect to their organizations operations.

3.9 Analysis and Interpretation: 3.9.1 Reliability Analysis


The reliability of the scales used for survey in questionnaire was evaluated using Cronbachs alpha (Cronbach, 1951). For two scales used as Agreement continuum and Adoption continuum, the value of cronbach alpha came greater than 0.75, suggesting that scales are reliable.

3.9.2 Factor Analysis


For each of the two item scales i.e. agreement and adoption continuum, exploratory factor analysis was used to identify a smaller set of factors to represent the relationships among the variables prudently i.e. to explain the observed correlation with fewer factors. In this research, principal component analysis with eigenvalues greater than one was used to extract factors and varimax rotation was used to facilitate interpretation of factor matrix. The Bartlett Test of Sphericity (value = 1919.451 and significance value = 0.000) was used to validate the use of factor analysis. The value of KMO came out less than 0.5 because sample size for research was comparatively small. The reason behind small sample size was that the total size of population as Indian FMCG firms under organized sector is in itself limited to nearly 120 firms. Factor analysis with aforesaid method was applied on agreement continuum and items with factor loading above 0.50 (with a few exceptions) were considered to determine item representation to a single factor.

Supply Chain Management in Indian FMCG Industry

The exceptions are given as: Sharing of real time demand and inventory information with suppliers/dealers, Key suppliers locate personnel within focal firm (JIT-II) and CRM is only 20 percent technology and 80 percent successful involvement of employees Factor 1: Coordination with supply chain partners i.e. suppliers and customers. This factor comprises the eight practices that address collaboration among supply chain partners. This factor accounts for 16.4 percent of the variance in the data. Factor 2: Operational networking with suppliers and logistics service providers. This factor involves the six operating practices related with suppliers and logistics service providers. The factor accounts for 11.6 percent of the variance in the data. Factor 3: Cross functionality in joint action with suppliers and customers. It involves four practices, out of which two are directly related with the involvement of suppliers and customers in new product development process. Rest two are concerned with costing and manufacturing flexibility. This factor accounts for 8.64 percent of the variance in the data. Factor 4: Mechanistic of SCM implementation. This is basically related to strategic outsourcing and it involves three practices, which comprises 8.06 percent of the variance in the data. Factor 5: Collaborative Forecasting and Sales planning: It involves two practices and these two practices account for 7.65 percent of the variance in the data. Factor 6: Leanness of Supply Chain: It involves four practices, which indicate the focal firms willingness to reduce waste and streamline the processes through proper planning. These four practices account for 7.49 percent of the variance in the data. These six factors accounted for a total of 59.88 percent of the total variance in the data shown in table 2. Rotation Sums of Squared Loadings Cumul % of ative Total Variance % 5.085 16.404 16.404 3.608 11.640 28.043 2.680 8.644 36.687 2.498 8.059 44.745 2.370 7.646 52.392 2.322 7.490 59.882

Component Total 7.951 3.683 3.232 2.114 1.890 1.665

Initial Eigen values % of Variance 25.649 11.881 10.427 6.821 6.096 5.369 Cumulative % 25.649 37.530 47.957 54.778 60.874 66.243

1 2 3 4 5 6

Table 2: Total Variance Explained

Supply Chain Management in Indian FMCG Industry The clubbing of various SCM practices of Indian FMCG organizations emerged as few exclusive factors through research study, which were different on agreement continuum and adoption continuum from each other. The result of study revealed that supply chain partnership and supply chain networking are considered to be dominating factors for Indian FMCG organizations. This seems to be quite true with the rapid spread and development of IT and telecommunication tools and techniques throughout India, which is facilitating the bi-directional flow of information and enhanced level of coordination and collaboration. Besides that leanness or operational efficiency factors have high degree of agreement but low level of adoption. The reasons behind the same are basically infrastructural bottlenecks and the presence of unskilled and semi-skilled suppliers at backend and distributors at front end of the supply chain. However, cross functionality and strategic outsourcing are leading on adoption continuum. A truly integrated supply chain requires a huge amount of commitment by all members of the supply chain. The focal firm might require to overhaul the purchasing process and integrate suppliers R&D teams directly into its own decision making processes so as to leverage on its own core competency and partners core capabilities. Integrating the purchasing and logistics processes with other key corporate processes creates a closely linked set of manufacturing and distribution processes. It further allows focal firm to deliver products and services to both internal and external customers in a more timely and effective manner.

Modern Technology used in Supply Chain Management

4. Modern Technology used in Supply Chain Management


4.1 The Technological Evolution of Supply Chain Management
SCM technology has come a long way since the early 60s when systems were mainly based around financial measures. As technology progressed, purchasing and order entry were added, evolving into simple Manufacturing Requirements Planning (MRP) systems. However the organizational model was still firmly based around departmentalization. MRPII (Materials Resource Planning) organizations had realized internal efficiencies the only way to achieve more was to extend the organization, and SCM was born. Progressing to SCM is an evolution, both in terms of technology and organizational culture. There is no doubt that todays SCM systems have the potential to deliver huge competitive advantage in areas such as manufacturing and distribution. However, successfully implementing them can be a significant challenge.

Figure 7: Evolution of Supply Chain Management Technology

Modern Technology used in Supply Chain Management

4.1.1 The Business Benefits Technology Can Deliver


The Internet is bringing SCM to the front line of business management. As well as providing the essential back-office fulfillment for successful eBusiness, organizations are discovering the real benefits of eBusiness where Internet exchanges are streamlining purchasing operations, accelerating procurement cycles and cutting inventories, thus taking significant cost out of key processes. But Internet enabled SCM is having a more dramatic effect on the business model, particularly the way that company performance is being measured. A major challenge is whether your supply chain is nimble enough to accommodate the new customercentric demands for total connectivity with customers and suppliers; increased velocity as a performance measure; greater flexibility to meet rapid shifts in customer demand; and customer-beating service levels.

4.1.2 Making the right choice


When selecting the right SCM/AP S solution for your business, addressing the following questions and issues will pay dividends: Is the solution a specialist stand-alone product or an integrated part of a larger ERP system? Stand-alone may be better if you are running different ERP systems. However, if you are using a single ERP system, the argument to select an APS add-on from the same vendor becomes more compelling. You should also take into account the systems your partners are running. How well does the solution communicate with transactional ERP systems? Does the technical architecture of the solution support scalability, i.e. can it grow as its application in the organization grows? Has the solution been developed organically or by acquisition? Many AP S products, which have grown by acquisition, experience design integration problems. What are the development plans for the product? How much does it cost and what is its value potential? How well does the solution address the specific needs of your industry? Are there current reference sites available showing successful applications of this solution within your industry?

4.1.3 The outsourcing solution


The increasing complexity and cost of maintaining I T systems in-house and the move to focus more on core business activities have sent many organizations down the outsourcing route. Apart from the strategic imperatives of cost, efficiency and shortterm profit performance, outsourcing also provides benefits at an IT level. The complexity of ERP and SCM technologies (which are often in direct proportion to the strategic value of the system to the company), the speed at which technology is

Modern Technology used in Supply Chain Management evolving, and the cost of specialist skills required to support these applications, means outsourcing all or part of the management of an SCM system provides a cost effective and flexible solution.

4.2 New techniques adopted by FMCG firms to improve efficiency Companies looking at 10-20% improvement in production.
Fast moving consumer goods (FMCG) companies are looking at a 10-20 per cent improvement in production and efficiency levels, thanks to adoption of new technologies to track expansion of product portfolio, manufacturing locations, aggregating godowns and shipment warehouses. The new technology adoption by FMCG companies like Eveready, Marico, Emami and Godrej Consumer Products, is expected to ensure faster access to shared information, seamless integration, accuracy, cost-control and ease at the factory and warehouse level. FMCG companies will spend around 10-15 per cent of net profit on technology implementation and upgrade. Over the last few years, most companies have forayed into a diverse portfolio of businesses in FMCG alone, which has not only led to the rapid expansion of the supply chain but has also enhanced its complexities. Emamis recent investment into IT, for instance, has ensured finalisation of its balance sheet in a record 35 days, against the earlier norm of 60 days. We foresee a 10 per cent improvement in production and efficiency levels at Emami. This will be achieved by implementing sales and operation planning, demand management and distribution resource planning, which will enable system control to forecast sales, check inventories at locations, plan manufacturing resources and logistics to meet the customer schedules. It will also enable us to keep track of and monitor finished goods inventories as our products are seasonal in nature, according to Manish Goenka, director, Emami Group. Emami has implemented Wi-Fi at its corporate office. Also, for unified communications, Cisco products like call manager and IP phones are under evaluation and trial runs are on to connect the Emami corporate office with two factories in Kolkata and Guwahati. This is expected to be implemented soon. A video conference (VC) system has already been implemented at Emami corporate office. We have implemented SAP ECC 5.0 in all functions, including manufacturing and supply chain that results in seamless integration of all business functions. This brings about faster access to shared information, cost control and complete sales information, Goenka said. It also helps in monitoring the inventory norms, no over stocking, MRP-generated purchase requisition, control on finished goods from manufacturing date, as well as secondary sales automation to get data instantly.

Modern Technology used in Supply Chain Management Emami is also introducing bar-coding at the warehouse for product identification, traceability and managing finished good inventory. Eveready, on its part, is investing close to Rs 3.5 crore, with a return-on-investment (RoI) period of two years, to implement primary enterprise resource planning (ERP) software and disaster recovery solutions from Hewlett-Packard. While the infrastructure is being built by H-P, the implementation will be by IBM. We had diversified into new businesses like CFL and home light. We needed advanced supply chain management software that would take care of end-to-end demand management and market forecast and accordingly plan module for delivery and despatch chain, said Arup Choudhury, senior general manager (IT), Eveready. Eveready currently has 34 warehouses in India and is looking to consolidate operations into six mother warehouses, as a means to bring down overall costs. We expect to reduce inventory time to 10 days from 15 days right now. We also intend to consolidate our warehouses into six, from 34 right now. Each mother warehouse covers an area of 15-25,000 sq ft, Choudhury said. At Marico, the biggest challenge became its conventional financial management processes and traditional methods of budgeting and strategic planning. The existing system was not capable or flexible enough to incorporate the drastic surge in business. Finance teams faced a number of problems when it came to collating data, managing various budget versions and reporting, leaving Marico with a vast increase in manual work, no time for critical analysis, and a strong need for an automated budgeting, planning and reporting solution. V Subramanyam, vice-president (information management), IBM Software Group (India and South Asia), said: Marico found that IBM Cognos TM1 helped take the time and weight of collating, aggregating and reconciling data off their shoulders, had a marked increase in flexibility and was easy to use. Employees found that they had more time to analyse financial performance, identify opportunities and influence better business outcomes, giving them a significant edge in the area of financial performance management. Godrej Consumer Products, on its part, has outsourced its information technology (IT) requirements to Hewlett-Packard (HP). H K Press, vice-chairman of Godrej Consumer Products, said: We have retained the core team of close to 7 people, the remaining (around 23 people) have been shifted to H-P payrolls. H-P will take care of both our software and hardware requirements for all kinds of operations. In the short-term, Godrej Consumer would be looking at reworking its supply chain and logistics costs once goods and services tax (GST) is implemented from April 2010, and CST is phased out from 4 per cent to nil. The company also intends to consolidate the FMCG companies in the Godrej Group and so, post-GST implementation, it would be looking at how the group FMCG companies can get together to use common depots and supply chain. This would not only reduce cost of operations but also enable reduction of inventory levels.

Modern Technology used in Supply Chain Management 4.2.1 RFID in the FMCG Supply Chain Management Application The 20th century, the automatic identification industry can be said that the world of bar code technology, since the 70 in the 20th century to promote the application of the global bar code system of goods (that is, EAN-UPC system) Since the birth of bar code technology in a rapidly developing situation occupation from the business-toindustry, from warehousing to the flow of almost all data management applications, can be said that the bar code technology on supply chain management, from the commodity production, management and circulation is an important contribution to the development of modern logistics, providing management, lower management costs and the promotion of global economic integration process of laying a solid foundation. However, with the changing times and technology, constantly updated, bar-code technology has been unable to meet existing Enterprise applications. Such as fastmoving consumer goods supply chain management, as a result of the special nature of the industry, short-cycle circulation of goods for goods in real-time transmission of information requirements. The existing bar code technology within a short time from a large number of commodities of goods to obtain information, the only way to be man-made one-on-one on the way to complete the scan. Wal-Mart & RFID program & The implementation of RFID is no doubt that in the fast-moving consumer goods supply chain management in the development of a powerful fulcrum. At present, many businesses have been aware of RFID in the FMCG industry, the necessity of application of the domestic fast-moving consumer goods enterprises in Guizhou Maotai Group has also launched a wine-based anti-counterfeiting RFID technology research and application of RFID technology in supply chain management applications. At the same time, as a fast-moving consumer goods supply chain management is an integral part of the development of cold chain logistics needs of the RFID technology more strongly.

4.2.2 System Solutions


To EPC Global standards for RFID smart label wireless Radio Frequency wave through the issue, so that a new automatic identification technology breakthrough, in a short period of 1 second, 200 commodities can read information, and through wireless Internet data model to update. This technology into the entire supply chain of enterprises, it will solve the existing bar code technology is not possible to identify a number of product issues, the smallest unit for each of the flow of goods, the establishment of a global symbol in order to achieve the entire supply goods chain in real-time tracking and management. At the same time, greatly increased the fastmoving consumer goods supply chain, the progress of the entire process.

System basic configuration:


(1) packaging using rf Tags: Smart Label sticker model, 915MHZ, ISO18000-6/EPC standards, paste fixed position in the commodity. (2) required RFID equipment: EPC Globe standards to support the two-standardscompliant reader, and have the network interface; fixed reader; handheld terminals.

Modern Technology used in Supply Chain Management (3) software systems: label distribution system (including device drivers), authentication system, the local database system and the local ERP system. (4) other equipment: site computers and wireless Internet equipment. 4.2.3 RFID in the FMCG supply chain management applications in specific aspects of To soft drinks as an example, manufacturers of RFID in the context of the production line, the use of shipping links; in logistics and distribution sectors of warehousing, distribution, transportation applications, as well as the shelves at the retail chain management, order management, sales management, etc. applications. Soft drinks cans in each package are the use of a RF tag. Tags size in each tab has a sand equivalent of an electronic chip and antenna. In this tab of the micro-chip storage of the electronic product code, or EPC. Cans of soft drink each have a unique EPC code. 4.2.4 RFID applications in the manufacturing chain. Carried out in the beverage filling lines, the lines at various locations on the RF tag reading equipment will be automatically sent the data read command, and receive feedback from the label. The data collected by the production control systems and records, and further into the enterprise production management system, automatic counting and tracking database product. At the end of lines, canned drinks have been put into the box, in the same box with a RF tag, when a box of finished beverage packaging and production control system of RF would be label printer driver (a special electronic chip to write data, printers, usually at the same time the existing functions of barcode printers), will be detailed information on the box (Transport bar, production date, etc.) to write to this tab, at the same time, data storage management system into production in. These boxes, stored in the warehouse when he was placed in the tray, each tray also has a RFID label. Delivery platform in the top of the door there is a RFID reader device, when the tray through the door, the read-wave radio equipment, the activation of these labels. At this point, the label wake up over and began to send their EPC, a reader only a label statement. It will be followed by rapid opening and closing of these labels, until the entire label reading so far. Mature technology on the current view, every second, RFID reader equipment can successfully read the RFID tags 200. First of all, this information was passed to the software system, and then in the local area network or the Internet service system to resolve the object (ONS), search with the EPC-related commodities, like the Internet, like the registration, ONS role is the software system data into the enterprise database, and retrieve objects Network. Data for each product will be a physical markup language (PML) to store, similar to the popular XML, can perform some tasks common enterprise. Tag reading equipment and systems, will receive EPC data transfer, while the follow-up drive system. The system via the Internet (objects networking) to the Object Name Service (ONS) database to send information, the database is like a reverse telephone directory service, that is, according to numbers provided by the address received; ONS server EPC encoding and there are a large number of the product information that matches the server address, the data all over the world not only for the use of software systems, and software systems can be automatically added to the data; PML (Physical Markup Language) server, storage of the data integrity of the plant products, in the example, it identified the EPC code is received by a certain company canned drinks Cherry Hydro. Software system as a result of inquiries to know the orders issued by the

Modern Technology used in Supply Chain Management location of the reader, so that it now also know which manufacturers can drink it, if there is the issue of product quality, with this information can be easily traced back to the source of the problem in order to achieve the tracking of products. 4.2.5 RFID in distribution and retail part of the application. Now, the whole of the soft drinks packaging is transported to a distribution centre, located in front of the loading dock platform RFID reader to work, will be packing all of the beverages out of the EPC code to read. Because RFID can be collected non-contact, or even read through the box, so there is no need for the loading dock to get checked out of the box with the real information and the number of packaged goods. Tag read device data obtained by the introduction of software systems, objects in the whole network, then drink a change in location information. After the distribution centre business processes, goods were delivered to retail outlets, in the ship on the platform, RF tags are read once, when entering the warehouse when the retail outlets, RF tags are read again, read the course of these two to verify the accuracy of the process of logistics and transport, while the location of the new information reflected in the complex network. Beverages served on the warehouse, the retail outlets of goods inventory information was changed, so that shopping mall computer system of the soft drinks will be able to achieve real-time monitoring of inventory to ensure that goods. Similarly, the shelves of shopping malls also integrates the RF tag reading equipment, when a staff member to the shelf replenishment, the use of hand-held reader will drink the corresponding information is recorded in the shelf inventory. At this point, a customer bought 6 cans of beverages, to the shopping centre shelf replenishment will be issued a news system, the system is based on real-time inventory information (and warehouse shelves in the number of goods) to determine whether to order, if the stock of goods on the shelf down to a certain extent, but also to the staff to send replenishment information. 4.2.6 RFID has brought convenience to customers. RFID technology also the convenience of our customers. Customers can in the supermarket to the RFID device in the pre-understanding of a variety of information products, including manufacturers, production dates, such as product quality. In addition, customers do not need to wait a long time to pay bill, just pushing through the selected items, together with the door tag reading equipment on the list. The door of the reader through the goods EPC, to identify the shopping cart items and automatically complete the checkout, customers simply swipe card or credit card payment can be left. Drinks were brought home in their refrigerator when the refrigerator on the same label reader will automatically record these commodities, which constitute a small inventory management system; when removed from the refrigerator can drink it, it will be that was finished, when the refrigerator inventory change. Such as inventory management has continued to the next, the refrigerator will provide a copy of its outof-stock list. RFID is the home refrigerator. Finally, the beverage cans to complete its mission, was sent to recycling centers, RF tags in the Recycling Center are automatically sorted into the appropriate re-use categories. 4.2.7 RFID cold-chain logistics in the application Cold-chain logistics management refers to the temperature-sensitive products in the production, storage and transportation, marketing, to consumption in every aspect of the former is always

Modern Technology used in Supply Chain Management provided for low-temperature environment, in order to ensure the quality of goods and reduce wear and tear of a logistics systems engineering, is frozen Technology-based refrigeration technology as a means of low-temperature logistics process. Fast-moving consumer goods in the dairy products, cold drinks, aquatic products, meat and other fresh foods have to be cold-chain transport. Fast-moving consumer goods supply chain as an important part, cold-chain logistics applications of RFID more intense. The original cold-chain logistics management tool monitoring techniques is the largest technology lags behind the bottleneck at this stage of our technology to the main crux of the matter is: artificial measurement and paper records; unified data systems support; real-time poor, out of line monitoring; evidence of the difficulties can not be determined responsibility; no warning, such as the loss rate is high. In this regard, the industry hopes will be the introduction of advanced RFID technology needs proper temperature management of the logistics management and production process management, temperature changes will be recorded in the "zone of the RF temperature sensor label on the fresh products, the quality and meticulous , realtime management. Temperature sensor with RF tags and applications areas can do is: RF tag data storage capacity, can be reused, the use of low cost, easy to operate, within 30 meters in distance learning. At the same time, RF tags provide the ID code, and continuous record of temperature data, there are accurate time records, easier to define liability for retrospective information, you can quickly grasp the fresh degree of management of the most important transit temperature conditions, and to promote the flow of the process management of the fresh degree of improvement. If necessary, RFID can also expand the grounds of the establishment of enterprises or Union-wide cold chain cold chain monitoring centre processes data platform. In fact, RFID system works is very simple. Will be collected as long as the temperature of temperature sensor into the timing of the chip RFID tags, RF tags when the RFID reader antenna receiving the signal, it will be the temperature inside the RFID chip data upload to the RFID reader by the back-end system. The system can be managed in a real-time monitoring of temperature change material, to achieve real-time monitoring, early warning management. Can also read all the point-to-point one-time supply chain temperature data, to generate static temperature charts, simply complete the supply chain of temperature regulation. With the RFID technology is getting more mature, if the supplier RF tags can further reduce the price to domestic supermarkets to accept the price of RFID also the relevant domestic policies introduced, then the full realization of the domestic supermarket just around the corner of the application of RFID is still, after all, RFID technology for all to see. RFID applications is the future of information highlights the areas of systems integration, RFID in the application of fast-moving consumer goods industry is bound to raise the fast-moving consumer goods supply chain efficiency, reduce inventory, reduce costs and improve consumer satisfaction. Which in the cold-chain logistics RFID applications and RFID solutions for food safety issued, it is bound to give reassuring consumers of food and medicine for the human to make new contributions to the well-being.

Modern Technology used in Supply Chain Management

4.3 GREEN Supply Chain Management


The climate change is happening faster and will bring bigger changes quicker than anticipated. Ironically, market and the nature hitting the wall at once, is a sign that we need to find better ways to be more sustainable options. Whether the drive is to comply with the government regulations or to meet the customers expectations companies are finding motivation to go green. Going green does not just impact companys thinking and strategy but influences supply chain as well. Righteously, the focus is not just to attain cleaner water consumption and alternative energy sources for server farms, but to make supply chains more environmentally friendly. Yet, despite the potential for significant gains, most supply chain managers are still not focusing on environmental concerns. Typical to any supply chain are the following processes and functions, which support the complete cycle of material flows. Each of these functions has a profound impact on the environment. Environment Management System: After adopting the Green Supply Chain Management (GCSM), next in line are EMSs or Environment Management Systems. Although the role coincides with the GCSM, EMSs are strategic management approaches that define how an organization will address its impact on the natural environment. More than 88,800 facilities worldwide had certified their environmental management systems (EMS) to ISO 14001, the global EMS standard, and thousands more had adopted uncertified EMSs6. An EMS consists of a collection of internal policies, assessments, plans and implementation actions affecting the entire organization and its relationship+s with the natural environment. Although the specific institutional features of EMSs vary across organizations, all EMSs involve establishing an environmental policy or plan; undergoing internal assessments of the organizations environmental impacts (including quantification of those impacts and how they have changed over time); creating quantifiable goals to reduce environmental impacts, providing resources and training workers; checking implementation progress through systematic auditing to ensure that goals are being reached; correcting deviations from goal attainment; and undergoing management review7. EMSs are intended to help organizations embed environmental practices deep within their operational frameworks so that protecting the natural environment becomes an integral element of their overall business strategy. EMSs implementation requires companies to get ISO 14001 certified. ISO 14001 adoptions requires certification by an independent third party auditor who helps to ensure that the EMS conforms to the ISO 14001 standard. Once certified, the ISO 14001 label indicates that the organization has implemented a management system that documents the organizations pollution aspects and impacts, and identifies a pollution prevention process that is continually improved over time7. For example, Federal Foam Technologies, Inc., a Minnesota-based company, adopted an EMS and certified it to ISO 14001. By relying on its EMS structure, the firm reduced its annual landfill use by 40 percent, and decreased its associated disposal costs and liability risks7. Although organizations have been using EMSs to be more environmentally sustainable, issue is that EMSs do not require organizations to improve their environmental performance, instead focus on creating and documenting environmental policies and procedures. EMSs therefore may represent only symbolic efforts to improve an organizations image.

Modern Technology used in Supply Chain Management The relationship between EMSs and GSCM practices has potentially complementary and significant implications for an organizations environmental sustainability because together they offer a more comprehensive means of defining and establishing sustainability among networks of business organizations7. However, when EMSs are adopted in the absence of GSCM, environmental benefits are likely to diminish. This is because the organizations supply chain network does not share its environmental goals and environmental sustainability of any organization is impossible without incorporating GSCM practices. Case Study 1: A large Chicago-based electric utility company, with annual revenues of approximately $7 billion, demonstrated that electric utilities and other companies can successfully and substantially reduce their costs and environmental burdens with innovative accounting practices. Analyses of the total cost of managing materials and equipment revealed that the costs related to environmental management were often overlooked. In the first phase of life cycle management activities, company minimized the chemical inventories at generating stations. After realizing its successes, company launched a formal Life Cycle Management (LCM) initiative. Since then a small, dedicated LCM staff has formed effective partnerships with the operating divisions to systematically assess life cycle costs and benefits. This initiative has not only reduced waste volume but also provided over $50 million in financial benefits. These gains include improvements in supply chain management, facility management, and other business processes, accruing to the supply chain activities.

Case Study 2: As the largest manufacturer of wood windows and patio doors in North America, the company achieved substantial financial and environmental benefits when it began incorporating environmental considerations into its purchasing, materials handling, inventory and disposition decisions. Started as a directive to the staff to reduce emission levels of toxic chemicals; soon became a Corporate Pollution Prevention Team whose mission was to eliminate the use, release and transfer of hazardous chemicals. The team conducted a waste accounting project, developed waste reduction goals, and justified waste reduction projects by developing several business cases that quantified environmental and other cost savings. For example, the team justified the purchase of an improved system for mixing paints at point-of-use based on the savings from improved material usage rates and reduced waste. Based on their initial success, company managers recognized that a more systematic implementation of environmental accounting techniques would improve their ability to make strong business cases for a wide range of projects. Accordingly, they developed procedures for environmental cost assessments for a number of supply chain management activities. The process leads to more comprehensive and lucid business cases, including detailed Internal Rate of Return (IRR) schedules that incorporate savings from increased material efficiency and reduced waste streams.

Modern Technology used in Supply Chain Management

Conclusion With companies waking up to an environmentally aware world, whether its about the competitive advantage or for regulatory reasons, greening the supply chain has become a necessity. Greening the supply chain is not a onetime exercise, nor can it be done overnight. Its a journey that not only requires the four major functions purchasing and in-bound logistics, production, distribution and out-bound logistics, and reverses logistics- to be the drivers, but also requires organizations to adopt an EMS system. EMS and GSCM adoption may not just provide a vehicle for organizations to signal to market participants that their environmental strategies adhere to or exceed generally accepted environmental standards but also lead to greater acceptance of the organizations strategic approach and insulate organizations from competitors criticisms.

5. Future of Supply Chain Management


5.1 A new approach essential to survival in the 21st century - An interview with David Simchi-Levi by Penny Guyer
Supply chain strategies and management have, of course, always been a vital part of any manufacturers or distributors profit picture. Despite this obvious fact, until recently they were generally left to an ad hoc method of planning and execution. Coordination and long-range planning were rarely part of the landscape for managers in warehousing and shipping. There was certainly no full-fledged academic approach to logistics management. That is hardly the case today. There now exist full-scale programs at major universities for studying logistics and supply chain management. Although these programs have existed for awhile, it is really only with the explosive growth of the Internet that these formal study opportunities have attracted companies attention. One of the nations leading programs is the Centre for Transportation Studies (CTS) Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). CTS recently held its annual Affiliates Day Event in Louisville, Kentucky, hosted by UPS. One of the featured speakers was David Simchi- Levi, a professor of Engineering Systems at MIT, who discussed the trends in e - commerce and supply chain management. Professor Simchi-Levi is prominent in the field of logistics and supply chain management. He has co-authored a prize-winning book, Designing and Managing the Supply Chain, on the subject and teaches these topics at the undergraduate, graduate and the executive levels. Simchi-Levi is also a technology entrepreneur and is founder and chairman of LogicTools Inc. (www. logic-tools.com ), a software development company focusing on tools for logistics and supply chain management. LogicTools

Modern Technology used in Supply Chain Management software, LogicNet, a decision support system that facilitates strategic planning for distribution systems, was featured in the April 2000 issue of Parcel in the article Designing Perfect Distribution Channels. During the fall of 2000, once-mighty dot-coms were dropping faster than the leaves. Most of the demises were a result of the disenchantment of investors and they had a good reason: the companies were simply not making money. Why not? Primarily because the companies supply chains were not functioning well, resulting in ongoing operating losses as well as many dissatisfied customers. It is becoming clear to those in Internet-based commerce as well as the traditional brick-and mortar businesses that a brand new approach to supply chain management is essential to survival in the 21st century. The following is a conversation with David Simchi-Levi on his view of the future of supply chain management.

Let s start with the basics. What is your definition of supply chain management?
Supply chain management is efficient integration of suppliers factories, warehouses and stores, so that merchandise is produced in the right quantities and distributed to the right location at the right time, so as to minimize total system cost while satisfying service requirements. The primary objective is to reduce total costs - not just inventory or transportation costs. In an efficient supply chain strategy, the firm will, for instance, increase transportation costs but will be able to reduce total costs by reducing inventory costs. This implies the firm needs to integrate all areas: purchasing, manufacturing, warehousing and customers. In order to do this, you have to overcome their conflicting objectives.

Conflicting objectives?
Suppliers typically want manufacturers to commit themselves to purchasing large quantities in stable volume requirements with flexible delivery times. Of course, manufacturers like buying in large quantities, since this implies all sorts of volume and transportation discounts, as well as the ability to implement long production runs that reduce production costs. Unfortunately, manufacturers also need flexibility so that if customer demand is that much higher than anticipated, they can receive more raw materials from the suppliers. But, on the other hand, if customer demand is much smaller than anticipated, the manufacturer wants the ability to return inventory. Hence, the suppliers objectives are in direct conflict with the manufacturers desires for flexibility. Note that the manufacturers objective of implementing long production runs typically implies large inventory, which conflicts with the warehouses objectives. In fact, warehouse managers wish to keep their inventories low, but with quick replenishment capabilities. These goals, of course, increase transportation costs but greatly reduce inventory costs. And finally, the customers want the best of all worlds: they want a short order lead time instant gratification. They want their suppliers to have large stocks on hand

Modern Technology used in Supply Chain Management with a huge variety of products ready to ship immediately. And naturally, they want low prices. Each of these areas has a laudable goal. Whats needed, however, is integration; the objective must be to reduce total cost and increase service levels. In that process, the firm may have to increase inventory or transportation costs. However, by integrating supply, manufacturing and logistics activities and by strategically optimizing the performance of each, overall costs can be reduced. This is exactly why many companies are engaged in strategic partnering and alliances with both customers and suppliers. These strategies allow supply chain partners to deal with conflicting objectives and efficiently integrate the supply chain.

In your presentation, you mentioned the bullwhip effect as a result of nonintegration of supply chain links. Can you explain?
The bullwhip effect is a term coined by Procter and Gamble to describe a problem they observed in the supply chain for Pampers, its disposable diapers. Babies use a pretty steady number of diapers daily. (Editors note: unless the father decides to feed a six-month-old an eight-ounce bottle of prune juice, as in the case of the editors daughter). But the orders placed by retailers to distributors showed a good deal of variability. The orders from the distributors to the suppliers were even wider in their swings. The farther up the supply stream you go, the wider the swings in order quantities. In the end, Procter and Gambles manufacturing plants were receiving orders that were far out of proportion to customer demand. The bullwhip effect stems from a number of sources. First, traditional inventory management techniques practiced at each level of the supply chain lead to the bullwhip effect. This is due to the need of each level in the supply chain to forecast demand. An important characteristic of all forecasts is that the more data we receive the more we modify the forecast and therefore the inventory policy, leading to an increase in variability. Second, volume discounts, transportation discounts and promotional activities tend to destroy the structure of customer demand, forcing retailers to order less frequently than customer demand, and therefore increase variability in the supply chain. Finally, the longer the lead-time in the supply chain the larger the increase in variability. Obviously, the bullwhip effect has important consequences. As variability in the supply chain increases, inventory levels must increase, or alternatively, service levels decrease. In addition, the increase in variability makes it very difficult for warehouses and manufacturing plants to manage resources effectively. That is, it is not clear whether resources should be managed based on peak demand or average demand. Either way, cost is going to increase. For instance, if transportation capacity is managed based on average demand, during peak demand the firm will need extra capacity, which comes at a premium.

Modern Technology used in Supply Chain Management

But you see e-business as the means of changing that?


Yes. E-business can eliminate the bullwhip effect, thus reducing costs and increasing profits but also increasing service levels and flexibility. Here, I am focusing on providing each stage of the supply chain with complete information on customer demand, so-called supply chain visibility. Supply chain visibility can reduce the bullwhip effect: if customer demand information is shared among supply chain partners, each stage of the supply chain can the use actual customer demand to create more accurate forecasts, rather than relying on orders received from the previous stage, which can vary more than customer demand.

Is e-business just another term for Internet commerce?


No, e-business is far more than e-commerce. E-commerce is defined as the ability to perform transactions electronically. Thus, e-commerce is a part of e-business. Ebusiness, on the other hand, is the process of redefining a business model using the Internet to improve the extended enterprise performance. Thus, the focus in e-business is on using the Web to improve intra-organizational, B2B and B2C processes and transactions.

So, you see e-business changing the supply chain?


Definitely, In fact e-business suggests a shift from the traditional push supply chain strategy to a new supply chain model called push/pull strategy. A push system is a traditional supply chain where production and distribution are based on forecasts. The problem with that is that forecasts are always wrong. You can be close but never precisely on the mark. It is difficult to predict customer demand and therefore difficult to match supply and demand. And the farther out the forecast, the less accurate it is. Thus, a push system is very susceptible to the bullwhip effect. In the early days of the Internet and the dot-com companies, many believed that the Internet suggested a completely different supply chain strategy, a pull system. In a pull strategy, customer, rather than forecast, demand drives production and distribution. That is, in just a pure pull system, the firm does not hold any inventory and only produces to order. These systems are intuitively very attractive since they allow the firm to eliminate inventory , reduce the bullwhip effect, increase service levels, etc. Unfortunately, it is very difficult to implement a pull supply chain strategy if there are long lead times in the supply chain. Similarly, a pull strategy does not take advantage of economies of scale, since production and distribution are in response to specific customer demand, and therefore batch production or fully loaded trucks are hard to achieve. These advantages and disadvantages of push and pull supply chains have led companies to look for a new supply chain strategy that takes advantage of the best of both worlds; enter a hybrid of the two systems, that is, push /pull supply chain systems.

Modern Technology used in Supply Chain Management

How does that work?


Consider a PC manufacturer. Typically, a PC manufacturer builds to stock and thus makes all production and distribution decisions based on forecast. This is a typical push system. In a push/pull strategy, the manufacturer will build to order. This implies that component inventory is managed based on forecast, but the final assembly is made in response to a specific customer request. So, the push part is part of the manufacturers supply chain prior to assembly, while the pull part is the part of the supply chain that starts with assembly and is based on actual customer demand. Dell Computers is an excellent example of the impact the push / pull system has on supply chain performance. The book industry is a good example of the evolution of supply chain strategies from push to pull and then to push /pull. Barnes and Noble, for example, has a typical push supply chain. When Amazon.com started about four years ago, its supply chain was a pure pull system with no warehouses and no stock. Actually, Ingram Books filled orders to meet customer demand. But this arrangement simply did not work well. Today, Amazon.com has seven warehouses around the country where it stocks most of the titles it sells. Thus, inventory at the warehouses is managed based on a push strategy (based on forecast) while demand is satisfied based on individual request, a pull strategy. The online grocery industry is another excellent example. When Peapod was founded 11 years ago, the idea was to establish a pure pull strategy with no inventory and no facilities. When a customer ordered groceries, Peapod would pick up the products at a nearby supermarket. Unfortunately, stock-out rates at the supermarkets were very high. In the last few years, Peapod changed its business model to a push / pull strategy, adding a number of warehouses; stock out rates are now less than 2%. Of course, in this industry there are other challenges, especially reducing transportation costs. The problem is that no online grocer has the geographic density of customers that will allow them to control transportation costs and therefore compete with traditional supermarkets.

So, this sounds as though online distributors need to have an infrastructure of, yes, good old warehouses and distribution centres around the country or world.
Precisely, In that respect, brick-and-mortar to click-and-mortar companies (those that have added an Internet shopping to their services) have a huge advantage over the pure Internet companies. They already have distribution and warehousing infrastructure in place. Wal-Mart, KMart, Target and Barnes and Noble, as a few examples, have all established virtual retail stores, serviced by their existing warehousing and distribution structures. As a result of going online, click-and-mortars have now changed their approaches to stocking their various warehouses. High volume products or products for which the demand can be matched with supply, are stocked locally in the stores, while low volume products are stocked centrally for online purchasing.

Modern Technology used in Supply Chain Management

Can brick-and-mortar companies take advantage of the Internet in other ways?


Yes. One important strategy used by retailers and suppliers is called collaborative planning, forecasting and replenishment (CPFR). CPFR is a process in which supply chain partners coordinate plans to better match supply and demand. This strategy was first developed and implemented successfully by Wal-Mart in collaboration with Warner-Lambert in early 1995. The CPFR process, as implemented by these companies, requires buyers and sellers to: 1. Establish a front-end agreement and a joint business plan (collaborative planning). 2. Create a sales forecast, identify and resolve exceptions (collaborative forecasting). 3. Create an order forecast (collaborative replenishment).

How do these new supply chain strategies affect the parcel industry?
The new developments in supply chain strategies mean good news for the parcel industry. Both the pull and the push/pull system rely heavily on individual parcel shipments rather than bulk shipments. This is especially true in the B2C area where a new term has been coined: e-fulfillment. Another impact of e-fulfillment on the parcel industry is the significant increase in reverse logistics. Indeed, in the B2C arena, e-fulfillment typically means that the supplier needs to handle many returns, each of which consists of a small shipment. Parcel shipping is already set up to handle these returns, a major issue in B2C and in B2B commerce. E-fulfillment logistics requires short lead times, global dispersion and the ability to reverse the flow easily from B2C to C2B. Only parcel shipping can do all that. Thus, the future looks promising for the parcel shipping industry. This will be especially true for those carriers and consolidators who work to modify their own systems in order to integrate them with their customers supply chains.

7.2 Rural Supply Chain Networks: The Future


Rural supply chains are the next big issue for researchers and businesses in India and China. The reasons are simple: the urban areas are congested with deteriorating quality of life and saturated markets. Nearly 60 per cent of Indias population live in rural areas, and forecasts indicate that these numbers will remain the same, even in 2050. There would be 800 million people living in Indian rural areas in the 2040-50s, providing the scale and the markets for commodity supply chains to thrive. Thus, there is a need for transforming rural India into a group of sophisticated vibrant activity centres. Innovations in every layer products, processes, business models, and service models are fundamental for this transformation process to happen. Businesses need to be reinvented with high technology tools that can provide employment and services for millions of rural dwellers at an affordable cost. In this article, we provide an integrated framework, and also a glimpse of those technologies and models that might work in rural scenarios. 7.2.1 Introduction

Modern Technology used in Supply Chain Management What is global, urban, and rural? The difference between urban centres and rural areas may seem so obvious. The criteria used include population size and density, and availability of services such as communication, education, healthcare and finance. Different population thresholds are used for different countries: for African nations, it is 5,000 inhabitants, while for Latin American and European nations, it is 2,000 or 2,500, or even less. A large proportion of settlements classified as rural in China and India would fall within the urban category, if these population thresholds are adopted. Investments in services and infrastructure tend to concentrate on urban areas. MNCs choose cities with good logistics and IT, educational and financial infrastructure, and power and water facilities for FDI. As a consequence, investments for betterment of rural areas are generally done by governments. Thus, rural supply chains dealing with agro-products, handicrafts, toys, textiles and apparels emanate from villages and small towns with not so sophisticated infrastructure and lifestyles. The rural areas host the tail-end of very important food and apparel supply chain networks, whether they are rural, urban or global. Global supply chains cross countries and can originate either in urban or rural areas, depending on the product. For example, American and European retailers source fruits, vegetables, meat, leather and apparel products from rural areas in low-cost countries. Also, supply chains migrate from local to global, urban to rural, and vice-versa. The first wave of supermarket revolution occurred extremely fast in urban areas, with high sales growth rates. The second wave starts with diffusion into second tier areas and the third wave starts when super markets move in to rural areas. Rural retailing is portrayed as the next sunrise segment in retailing space. Strategies and development initiatives have been implemented all across the world to alleviate rural areas from these inflictions by formulating revenue generating programmes. For example, in the US, agricultural prospects of different regions have been identified and a cluster mechanism has been adopted. In South Africa, policy measures have been taken to alleviate the Negro community by providing agricultural lands on grant basis. In Thailand and Japan, the concept of One Village One Product has evolved, which improved the prosperity of rural communities in these countries. The model of Grameen Banks in Bangladesh gave birth to the concept of Micro-credit. In India, there were several public and private sector initiatives in the areas of agriculture, aquaculture, and also for supplying farm inputs to the farmers. For example, the Bharat Nirman project, with an allocation of Rs. 1.76 trillion aims to build roads, provide electricity to 100,000 villages, extend irrigation to 10 million hectares, or 24.7 million acres, and build 6 million houses by 2009. Across the country, companies like HLL, Godrej Aadhar, DCM Hariyali Kisaan Bazaar, Triveni Khushhali, ITC Sagar Choupal and Tata Kisan Sansar are helping farmers earn a better livelihood. The Indian rural areas host two kinds of supply chains: food products and apparel; and furniture, leather items and toys. In agri-business sector, the food processing industry is small and factories are located nearer to demand centres, i.e., in big cities or their outskirts. Integrating the agribusiness and SME sectors into the global value chain is high priority item for India for the following reasons: India has 12.4 million SMEs, contributes 7 per cent of GDP, 35 per cent of exports, over 29.5 million employed. In India, 51 per cent is cultivable land. India is ranked in the top-fi ve list in many agricultural produce like vegetables, fruits, milk, animal husbandry, etc. But the revenue generated from these resources does not match its optimal potential. With

Modern Technology used in Supply Chain Management growing importance for processed foods, the food processing industry in India still remains at 1.6 per cent, while in countries like Thailand and Brazil, it is 65-75 per cent. The wastage that goes into the agri-produce is almost 30 per cent. Retail in India is another vibrant story that is least saturated with global markets. Currently there are 12 million retail outlets employing 21 million (7 per cent of total work force) people, and these provide no entry barriers for big players. Organised retail segment in India is small now, but has tremendous market size in urban and rural areas. Thus, the priority in India today is to develop its local rural and urban supply chains and integrate them into the global value stream. 7.2.2 The Rural Supply Chain Network Figure 15 presents an Input-Output representation of a rural supply chain. An integrated rural supply chain network (IRSN) (see Figure 16) is a group of independent companies, often located in different regions, forming a strategic alliance with the common goal of designing, manufacturing, and delivering rightquality products and services to customer groups, faster than others. They compete with similar cooperating networks. The IRSN is an integration of three different well designed sub-networks for handling transfer of goods, information and funds: a logistics network, an information technology network and a financial network. The logistics network provides a streamlined material flow among all partners, cutting down lead time and cost of moving raw materials, sub-assemblies, and fi nished goods to their destinations. An extranet a secure and reliable communications network linking all companies of the enterprise provides information integration enabling efficient logistics and effective decision-making. There is also a secure financial network that connects financing, insurance and creditrating agencies, and all other stakeholders and financial institutions. Thus, we see that the eco-system that enables an agile rural supply chain has players from farming,

Figure 16: InputOutput Representation of Rural Supply Chain Network

Modern Technology used in Supply Chain Management We need to reinvent rural supply chain networks using high technologies, keeping in mind the inefficiencies and constraints imposed by the infrastructure and economic environment. manufacturing, retailing, financing and finally from the customers. This is an ideal rural supply-demand-financial chain and the current state of the Indian rural chains is far from it. Currently in India, there are attempts to connect stakeholders information networks through messaging, wireless phones, Internet kiosks, etc., but these attempts are for supply of information rather than for efficient control of the supply chain or for supply demand matching. The logistics network is the one that is often blamed for bad roads, lack of cold chain, manual handling, slow transport such as bullock-carts or tractors. Rural financial networks exist with the support of organisations such as the World Bank. The aim of rural supply chain in India is to reach the ideal described above, using Internet and other technologies, to create agility in networks. The rural supply chain stakeholders and researchers can learn from the well developed industrial goods supply chains. The idea is to transform the way agriculture works and create a business orientation among farming community.

7.2.3 Reinventing the Rural Supply Chain We need to reinvent rural supply chain networks using high technologies, keeping in mind the inefficiencies and constraints imposed by the infrastructure and economic environment. To do this, we have identified two value-delivery processes in the food supply chain for re-engineering: the production and sale of commodities by farmers, and rural retail network. First, we present a decomposition of rural food supply chain into its component value delivery processes. 7.2.4 Value Delivery Processes in the IRSN: Operationally, the IRSN has four core value delivery processes. It is important that all four processes are managed to work in harmony for the entire supply chain to be competitive. The core business processes in a rural production organisation are as follows: Procurement (procurement of farm inputs, procurement of fresh produce) Production of basic agriculture products (farming and non-farming) Processing (processing of fresh produce grains, fruits, vegetables) Retailing (rural and urban retailing) The support processes assisting the above core business processes can be identified as follows: technology, transportation including coldchain, mobile communications technology, knowledge processes pre-harvesting and post-harvesting techniques, handling, packaging, and processing techniques, resource management and marketing, and finally financial services.

Modern Technology used in Supply Chain Management

Figure 17: Integrated Rural Supply Chain Network 7.2.5 Production of Basic Agriculture Products (Farming): A New Model The ISB Kisan bandhu (IKB) model has been developed by the faculty of Centre for Global Logistics and Manufacturing Strategies (GLAMS). A proof of concept experiment and also a total supply chain design study are currently underway at the Centre. The primary function of IKB is to enable farmers to sell their produce at a fair price. It consists of a cyber intermediary (information and business exchange), a commodity exchange, and logistics provider, quality grading teams, finance and insurance agencies. The cyber intermediary maintains an updated database of registered farmers, logistics providers, brokers, retailers, mandi managers, food manufacturers and exporters. It also has real-time market information, commodity exchanges information trading different goods, and other marketing information useful to the farmer. The IKB is a sophisticated exchange, with natural language processing capabilities, and farmer can deal directly using his cell phone and transact in his native language. The farmer can get feedback on processing of the transaction on TV channel at prescribed timings. The IKB can also be used for procurement of inputs for farming. 7.2.6 Rural Retailing In India, rural retailing can get support from omnipresent post office. The rural retail group places an order with the call centre via post office, which communicates the order to the State Distribution Centre (SDC). The SDC will pass on the details of the order to the district/local distributor located near the village. Depending upon the type of order, goods can be delivered. All consumer durables can be delivered by post office mobile vans. Perishable and FMCG goods can be delivered by road transport to the post office, who can distribute it to the village retail group. The payment for goods

Modern Technology used in Supply Chain Management will be handled by post office. Thus, IT enabling the post office, which is both a delivery channel, as well as bank, will provide much needed supply chain visibility in rural supply chain networks, in general, and retail networks, in particular. 7.2.7 Small Scale Industries in Rural Areas There are several garment manufacturing and export centres Ludhiana, Tiruppur, Bangalore, Mumbai, Chennai, Jaipur and Delhi exporting to USA, UAE, UK, Germany, France and other EU countries. Major competitors are China, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Pakistan and other Southeast Asian countries. There is a huge opportunity both in exports and domestic markets for textile SMEs in Punjab, provided there is attention to supply chain aspects like knowledge and information, services like logistics and finance, and resource management. The Orchestrator model (figure 17) is a widely popular model, based on the supply chain practice of several MNCs, with a strong hold in the businesses of export sourcing, distribution and retailing. In the above model, groups of SMEs, with competencies in several production activities, necessary for manufacture of garments, fabrics, etc., partner and coordinate with the product cycle. The supply and demand sides are bridged by an orchestrator, who will pool the customer requirements and monitor production activity, ensuring that there is appropriate matching between market needs and supply.

Figure 18: Orchestrator Business Model

Conclusion

8. Conclusion
The clubbing of various SCM practices of Indian FMCG organizations emerged as few exclusive factors through research study, which were different on agreement continuum and adoption continuum from each other. The result of study revealed that supply chain partnership and supply chain networking are considered to be dominating factors for Indian FMCG organizations. This seems to be quite true with the rapid spread and development of IT and telecommunication tools and techniques throughout India, which is facilitating the bi-directional flow of information and enhanced level of coordination and collaboration. Besides that leanness or operational efficiency factors have high degree of agreement but low level of adoption. The reasons behind the same are basically infrastructural bottlenecks and the presence of unskilled and semi-skilled suppliers at backend and distributors at front end of the supply chain. However, cross functionality and strategic outsourcing are leading on adoption continuum. A truly integrated supply chain requires a huge amount of commitment by all members of the supply chain. The focal firm might require to overhaul the purchasing process and integrate suppliers R&D teams directly into its own decision making processes so as to leverage on its own core competency and partners core capabilities. Integrating the purchasing and logistics processes with other key corporate processes creates a closely linked set of manufacturing and distribution processes. It further allows focal firm to deliver products and services to both internal and external customers in a more timely and effective manner. The future belongs to rural supply chains. With more than four billion people living in rural areas, there is a tremendous need to focus attention on issues of product designs, production, marketing and retail of food, and other electric and communication items in rural areas at affordable prices. India has a huge opportunity to become a leading global food supplier, as well as global garment suppliers, if correct strategies are put in place and encouraged. As the Case Study of Supply Chain Management, explains us the reason why Marico Ltd is considered as Indias one of the top most FMCG Company. If we look at current position then: Marico has Indias Most Trusted Brands Reaching over 25lacs Retail Outlets Rs. 23.9 billion (USD 478 million) Turnover In Beauty & Wellness Solution Enjoying Leadership Position Overseas Consumer Product Franchise among the Largest for Indian Company All this becomes possible because of effective supply chain management in Marico Ltd.

Conclusion REFERENCES BOOKS/ eBOOKS / RESEARCH REPORTS / ARTICLES / PUBLICATION


Managing The Supply Chain David Simchi-Levi, Philip Kaminsky & Edith Simchi- Levi mySAP Supply Chain Management at MARICO Marico Industries: mySAP Supply Chain Management By Janat Shah and Angeline Pantages (IIM Bangalore) Defining Supply Chain Management by Journal of business logistics Vol.22.No.2,2001 Advanced Planning & Scheduling and Supply Chain Management by Brendan McGettrick, Richard Sewell, Claire Sivills, PLAUT The Future of SCM an interview with Devid Simchi-Levi By Penny Guyer Supply Chain Management by Eric Johnson & David F. Pyke RFID in FMCG Supply Chain Management Application Insights : ECS Private Ltd Implementation of SCM Practices in Indian FMCG Industry by Ashutosh Mohan ISB Insight Jun 2007:Supply Chain Delivering Value : Rural Supply Chain Networks : The Future by N Vishwanadham Seven Principles of Supply Chain Management by David L. Anderson, Frank F Britt & Donavan J. Favre SCM Review 4/1/2007 Internet Based Supply Chain Management by Sarvanan Raju, Pradeep Rajendran & Vishveshwara Rao Kotapalli

WEB

www.supplychainlink.com www.tutorialsto.com www.logictools.com www.scmr.com www.sap.com www.supplychainmanagement.in www.supplychainonline.com www.supplychains.in www.iimm.org www.metricstream.com