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Some Scottish Sources on Militias, Fencibles and Volunteer Corps.

1793 – 1830

Professor Arnold Morrison

INTRODUCTION

Scotland has a long tradition of auxiliary forces - Militias, Fencibles and Volunteers - which were raised for internal defence. From the 1690's until 1746 regiments of Fencibles or Militias were deployed during actual or threatened Jacobite risings, and then later during the Seven Years War and the American War of Independence. However, the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars between Britain and France and their respective allies, which lasted, with two brief intervals, from 1793 to 1815, not only caused a dramatic increase in auxiliary forces raised for internal defence but also led to major changes in their nature and organisation, among them the creation of a Scottish Militia and the formation of numerous Volunteer Corps. The Militia and some of the Volunteer Yeomanry Corps persisted after the ending of the conflicts in 1815, leading eventually to a closer association of these and later auxiliary forces with regular regiments of the British Army and after 1907 to the development of the Territorial Army which exists to the present day.

Numerous records of officers and other ranks have survived from the late 17th. Century onwards, but are particularly abundant for the 1793 - 1830 period. They contain information on men from all classes of Scottish society, but with a preponderance of those from the agricultural and urban labouring classes. They include men who were deemed liable for service as well as those who were actually enlisted, thus embracing a large sector of the adult male population. And they contain personal and background as well as service information. Consequently, these records are invaluable

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sources for family historians, serving on the one hand to supplement the parish registers, kirk session papers and other sources for the period and sometimes providing information on the common people, which is unobtainable elsewhere. They are important too in giving insights into parish and county life and the attitudes of people from different classes of Scottish Society. And lastly, they contribute to a wider view of the political and military events of the times and how these affected the Scottish people.

This booklet aims to demonstrate the importance of the records of Fencibles, Militias and Volunteers to those family and local historians who may wish to use them. The first part deals briefly with the historical background to these auxiliary forces and with their recruitment and organisation, as a way of appreciating the kinds of records that were created. The second part describes the information that may be found and its uses by family and local historians, before going on to discuss the factors affecting the present diverse locations of records, with examples of records incorporated in the text. There is then a substantial listing of the records and their locations, followed by references and an index. The emphasis throughout will be on the late Eighteenth and early Nineteenth centuries, but it should be borne in mind that records of auxiliary forces exist from before and after that period.

THE HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

. One of the many consequences of the Union of 1707 and the loss of Scotland's parliamentary independence was the increasing involvement of Scots in the political, dynastic and colonial policies and conflicts of the dominant partner in that Union - England. The 18th.Century was characterised by wars of dynastic succession, continental and colonial conflicts between Great Britain and France and Spain, and the American Revolutionary War. The final years of the century and the beginning of the 19th.Century saw the conflicts with France and Spain at their height during the Revolutionary/Napoleonic Wars.

Despite Scotland’s involvement in two world wars it still comes as a surprise to realize that Britain was almost continuously at war with France and her

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allies for twenty two years between 1793 and 1815 - with the Regular Army stretched to its limits in home defence and foreign campaigns, French naval vessels and privateers off the Scottish coast, the threat of invasion of the United Kingdom and the fear of internal subversion from the spread of republican and radical ideas from France. And if these were not enough to contend with, the unhappy Irish rebelled in 1798 and a small French invasion force joined them. Ireland in fact continued to be a persisting source of armed insurrection and civil disorder long after the defeat of France and her allies in 1815, and a major drain on military resources. The Napoleonic Wars created an unprecedented demand for military manpower. This was met in part by a great expansion of regular forces, but the government also had to devise policies for raising large auxiliary forces for internal defence. These policies changed over time, shifting from dependence in the earlier years on voluntary recruitment for Fencibles and Volunteers to selective conscription for the Militia, and from government support for the formation of units by individual landowners and local associations to the creation of a Scottish and Local Militias. Consequently, a very large number of units of different kinds were created, all keeping records of one kind or another.

Little can be gauged at first hand about the reactions of the ordinary people in their Highland settlements and Lowland farms or of the workers in the mills and factories to the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars with France and Spain - for they had little or no voice in political affairs or in the newspapers of the time. Many no doubt were carried along by the patriotic fervour of the times, but others were sympathetic to revolutionary ideas from France. However, whether patriotic, disaffected or simply ignorant or indifferent to political events, there was no burning zeal for enforced military service, even in home-based and part-time auxiliary forces, amongst most of the ordinary people.

However, there is no doubt that a mixture of patriotism and self-interest seized the political establishment, the landowning interests and the commercial and professional classes, which on the one hand, saw them readily involved in raising and directing auxiliary forces and on the other, ensured that landowners encouraged their tenants and others to serve. It can

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be flavoured in the minutes of Lieutenancy Courts, the proclamations of landowners to their tenants and labourers and the national and local press.

Among Earl Fife's papers for 1797 there is a preamble to a list of his tenants and estate workers - but hardly penned by them - which reads:

"Considering that this county is threatened by an invasion of our enemies, and that it becomes us as men impressed with sentiments of loyalty to our most gracious sovereign, a love of our country, and who entertain a sense of the inestimable blessings enjoyed under the present happy Constitutution, to come forward for their support, protection and defence, do hereby declare our determination to repel by every means in our power the attacks of all enemies foreign and domestic, and for that purpose to turn out upon the shortest notice, to stand by one another and act within the county under the Lord Lieutenant of the County " .....

The propertied classes were not only concerned with the foreign enemy, but felt much unease at the prospect of internal disorder provoked by radical ideas among the working classes who might not be so appreciative of the "inestimable blessings enjoyed under the present happy Constitution"! In the event their fears were much exaggerated and when popular disturbances did arise in 1797 they had more to do with hostility to a form of conscription than with radical ideas, although those were present too.

THE ORGANISATION OF AUXILIARY FORCES

Fencible Regiments. Initially, the traditional practice of raising Fencible Regiments continued. When Britain went to war with France in 1793 several great Scottish landowners petitioned the King to raise fencibles and seven regiments were embodied at that time, among them The Grant, Strathspey or First Highland Fencible Regiment, The Argyleshire Fencible Regiment, The West Lowland Fencibles and The Breadalbane Fencibles. Many other regiments were raised subsequently. The men were voluntarily enlisted, normally for service in any part of Scotland, and in England if invaded, but not overseas, received a bounty, were disciplined paid, armed and clothed on the same footing as soldiers of the Regular Army and in the case of Highland Regiments wore full

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Highland dress. Although the Fencibles were raised primarily for Scottish and English service, the outbreak of the Irish Rebellion in 1798 led to many regiments being sent there to suppress the rebels and counter a French invasion force. The Angus, Argyll, Sutherland Breadalbane, Loyal Tay, Fraser, Elgin, Glengarry and Reay Fencibles and the Midlothian Fencible Cavalry Regiment were among the fencible forces in Ireland during the rebellion and its aftermath. Also, the Argyll Fencibles served in Gibraltar. A change in government policy led to the disbanding of Fencible Regiments between 1799 and 1802. There were several reasons, among them: the creation of the Scottish Militia, the reduced need for their services in Ireland, their restricted terms of service, lack of recruits and the temporary cessation of hostilities with France, with the Peace of Amiens between 1802-3. Although the war resumed in 1803 the government now relied upon the Militia and Volunteer Corps for internal defence.

Volunteer Corps.

To All Gentlemen Royal Volunteers

Whose generous souls burn with the thirst of attaining immortal glory in defence and support of the Crown

and the dignity of the best of Kings

(extract from Stirlingshire notice) ***************

Hey Volunteers, are ye waken yet? Ho! Jolly lads, are ye ready yet? Are ye up? are ye drest? Will ye all do your best To fight Bonaparte in the morning?

Now, brave Volunteers, be it day, be it night, When the Signal is given that the French are in sight, Ye must haste with your brethren in arms to unite To fight Bonaparte in the morning.

Dunfermline Volunteers)

(Verses from marching song of the

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The outbreak of war in 1793 had led to a remarkable proliferation of Volunteer Corps of infantry, yeomanry (cavalry) and artillery. These were local associations fostered by noblemen, gentry and leading figures in burghs with the purpose of providing defence in case of invasion of their local areas. There was no set period of service, they formulated their own policies (To quote from the rules of one Association, "we are not liable to drill but when convenient to ourselves"), and were variously equipped and trained. Since service in these corps was not onerous, amounting to little more than occasional paid drills and parades and an annual camp, recruitment proved easy. The names of long- forgotten units remind one of the military fervour of the local gentry and the commercial, professional and trades classes of the times - the Cambuslang Yeomanry, the Mearns Volunteers, the Clandonachy Volunteers , the Glasgow Grocers' Corps, the Cromdale Volunteers, the Roxburgh Yeomanry, the Maybole Volunteers, the Midlothian Artillery, the Glengarry, Morar and Letterfindlay Volunteers and so forth. Sir Walter Scott was Quartermaster and Secretary of the Royal Edinburgh Volunteer Light Dragoons, for whom he wrote the words for the regimental song, and Robert Burns served in the Royal Dumfries Volunteers and was given a military funeral by them, his sword and cocked hat on the coffin.

Some contemporary observers did not regard the Volunteer Corps as very satisfactory, one commenting that there was "No control over men who think they do us and the public a favour". Also, whilst the populace might well enjoy watching the Volunteers on parade, they didn’t always take them very seriously. In Glasgow, Kirkman Finlay’s Volunteers were known as “The Yowes” and the Grocers’ Corps as “The Sugaraloes”. The flexible and limited terms of service, the often indifferent equipment and training and the lack of a coherent national policy clearly limited their value in resisting invasion by the French. Nevertheless, they served an immediate need and perhaps more importantly demonstrated the future possibilities of part-time soldiers as adjuncts to the regular army.

An 1808 Militia Act led to most of the Volunteer Corps being disbanded or re- formed as Local Militia, under firmer government control and with a uniform organisation throughout Scotland. However, some corps of Volunteer Yeomanry (Cavalry) continued after 1815, officered by country gentlemen,

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manufacturers and professional men. Now, their role lay more in local affairs

than in defence against an outside enemy, for in default of adequate civil policing in the burgeoning industrial and urban centres they were called upon from time to time by the manufacturing interests and civic authorities to suppress disorders among the working classes who were protesting in favour of better conditions, civil liberties and political rights. So, some of the Yeomanry Corps continued, and with the revival of the Rifle (Infantry) Volunteers in the 1850’s, once more constituted a major part-time force, becoming Volunteer Battalions to regiments of the British Army.

The Scottish Militia.

In 1794 the Government took a significant step towards a more effective policy on the provision of properly equipped and disciplined forces for home defence and maintenance of civil order. County Lieutenancies were established on a permanent footing, with a Lord Lieutenant and Deputes. Initially the Lords Lieutenant were responsible to the Home Office London for promoting local Volunteer Corps, but in appointing them the government created the influential local organisation needed to raise and direct a Scottish Militia and Local Militias. Following the 1797 Militia Act the Lords Lieutenant presided over Lieutenancy Courts charged with these responsibilities - although in practice the work was done by the Vice- Lieutenants, the Deputies and their Clerks.

The Militia Act Scotland 1797. The Scottish Militia Act of 1797 provided for a Scottish Militia of six thousand men. This Act (and later ones) varied in some specifics, such as age-range of liable men, but the principal features were:

The creation of County or combined County Regiments. ( Orkney and Shetland were excluded,

being predominantly seafaring communities with a major liability for impressment into the Navy).

The raising of men by ballot - although men could volunteer

Annual training or embodied service in wartime

Service primarily in Scotland

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Fixed term of compulsory service for five years.

 

Military discipline

Arrangements for Substitutes or payment of a penalty of ten or later twenty pounds.

Exemptions - seamen, ministers of the Gospel, professors, articled clerks and apprentices, schoolmasters, peace officers, poor men with more than two children, persisting illness or physical disability. Members of Volunteer Corps in service before the 1797 Act were also exempt.

Allowances for Dependants.

 

The Militia Act of 1797 provoked widespread opposition among the working

and middle classes. There were not only those who saw it as an infringement of liberty and, as Earl Grey said many years later, “a partial and unequal tax” upon the lower orders, but also those who recognised it as legislation which might and would be used against dissident expression. Others distrusted the government's intentions, fearing that they might be sent overseas or drafted into regular regiments. Rumour-mongering was rife, some of it deliberately fostered. Minimising these rumours was no easy task for the Lieutenancies, not least in Gaelic-speaking areas. In one instance, that of the Lieutenancy Court in Inverary, an early minute in 1797 reads: "The meeting having understood that in many parts of Scotland ill-disposed persons had been at pains to mislead the lower orders of the people by a misconstruction of the

Act of Parliament ...........

the

Clerk was therefore directed

to

explain

 

", ..

these concerning particularly, balloting procedures, penalties for failing to serve, exemptions and the prohibition against militiamen being forcibly enlisted in the Regular Army. No doubt, however, much of the detestation arose basically from the arbitrariness of the ballot system and the disruption of the working and family lives of the able young men of the counties and burghs.

Initial resistance took many forms. Rioting was widespread in the mid/ late summer of 1797 in the Borders, Central Scotland and the Southern Highlands. The Duke of Atholl reported to the Lord Advocate that there was a

 

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riotous spirit in every parish in Perthshire, orchestrated by Angus “King” Cameron and James Menzies. Crowds intimidated Deputy Lieutenants, Ballot meetings were broken-up and parish ballot lists were destroyed. In Braemar, for example, a riot led to the minister throwing the militia lists out of the window to the crowd below. Families refused to co-operate with or abused the luckless schoolmasters who had to compile the parish lists of men for the ballot and men fled from their parishes. In the parish of Dull in Perthshire, Donald Fleming the schoolmaster was paraded bareback through the streets of Aberfeldy until he surrendered the session book and a mob marched on Castle Menzies where they demanded the repeal of the Militia Act. And, writing many years later in the 1840's, the minister of New Kilpatrick

reported that: "the Parochial Registers are imperfect, part of them being destroyed in 1797, at the first balloting of the militia. On that occasion a considerable mob assembled which was not dispersed until troops arrived from Glasgow, by whom several prisoners were made. Some of the mob having entered the schoolmaster's house, seized on the register of baptisms and tore out a number of the leaves, that they might not be evidence against

them of their liability to serve". However, the worst of the riots occurred at Tranent when troops had to be brought in to quell the mob and several were killed or wounded.

Opposition to militia service did not end with the disorders of 1797. Instead, men sought to avoid service, partly by using the appeals system to gain exemption on grounds of ill-health or disability, but more strikingly by exploiting the provision within the legislation either to pay a stiff penalty of ten pounds or more for refusing to serve or to find a substitute to serve on one's behalf. And, evasion did not end there, since a considerable proportion of men who were enlisted then deserted. Thus, in the early 1800’s some ten to sixteen percent of men in the Stirlingshire Militia deserted. Some men took out personal insurance as a means of paying the potential penalty, while others joined Militia Societies. Both practices became extensive. For example, Messrs.Sievwright and Greig of the Lucky Lottery Office in Edinburgh would for a premium of one guinea per annum, "relieve you from the effects of all ballots that may take place for the Ordinary Militia

of Scotland

either

by finding a substitute or paying the penalty of fifteen

pounds

"

 

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who were insured in September 1807 will be paid the balance of twelve shillings and threepence on producing their receipts or they may be insured again by paying two pounds,ten shillings and ninepence. Others will be insured by paying three guineas".

Militia Societies were formed in burghs and rural districts. As examples, there

is a list of fifty odd signatories of men in the parish of Holywood in Dumfriesshire who agreed to subscribe a sum against being drawn in the militia ballot. A similar list exists for men in Inverary parish. Perth had the

Tibbermuir Society, Glasgow

the

New

Militia

Society;

and there

was

a

flourishing Society in Stirling, whose

preses regularly

sent

one

of

the

members down to Glasgow to find substitutes for members unlucky in the

ballot.

In consequence, a very high proportion of the men attested for militia service were substitutes - of the militia men in Stirlingshire in 1808 only five of two hundred and twenty men were actually principals, and the great majority of sixty odd Attestation Oaths for Angus militia men, held in Montrose Library, are for substitutes - and this is to be found repeatedly in the records to be discussed later. So, those who could pay - typically tenants, merchants, tradesmen and the professional and clerical classes - evaded service, with the major burden falling upon the poorer classes, either because they could not afford insurance or pay the penalty, or because they offered themselves as substitutes through need for themselves and their families, attracted by the bounty on enlistment, payment for their service and the small dependants' allowance for wives and children.

The Militia System – Recruitment and Service.

 

The system for recruiting to and administering the Militia Regiments involved many agencies and individuals - a key reason for the range of information to be found in records. In each county the Lieutenancy Court was responsible for operating the procedures according to the prevailing Militia Act. Parish schoolmasters or burgh constables were required to compile lists of able-bodied men between certain ages (the age range was gradually extended but was typically 18 - 45).These lists give an interesting

 

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insight into the relevant male populations in parishes. In mid-Argyll, for example, nine parishes give a total of 1595 eligible men and a 119 exempt.

At the same time, county and parish quotas of those required to serve were established by the Government. Thus, early quotas set for militiamen to be furnished by counties in the Borders and South West were: Dumfries 247; Roxburgh 150; Stewartry of Kirkcudbright 125; Wigton 90; Peebles 51; and Selkirk 25.

The Lieutenancy Court then conducted a ballot in which names were put on pieces of paper, screwed-up, placed in a barrel or bag and then drawn until the quota had been satisfied. Any appeals for exemption would be considered and where the quota was not met other names would be drawn. This top-up procedure had also to be used when men drawn in the ballot failed to appear for attestation - and such men must have been unpopular since some other unfortunate in the parish would be levied. And, of course, many substitutes would replace original names. An excellent example of the whole procedure, including parish lists, quotas, balloting and appeals, is to be found in the minutes of the Lieutenancy Court at Inverary, kept in the Argyll and Bute Council Archives in Lochgilphead.

The levied principals or their substitutes would then take the Oath and join their regiments wherever they were stationed and serve for several years, the actual terms being specified in the Militia Acts (usually five years). This was a particularly onerous and disruptive commitment during the wars, when they were more or less permanently embodied and constantly on the move. Thus, between 1798-1812 the Royal Perthshire Militia was stationed in Glasgow, Fort George, Aberdeen, Banff, Perth, Dunbar, Haddington, Ramsgate, Ashford, Canterbury, Dover, Edinburgh, Penicuick and Edinburgh. However, following the cessation of hostilities in 1815 the County Militias moved onto a peacetime footing, assembling only periodically for training and exercises.

Once in a Militia Regiment on service, the militiaman was systematically recorded for presence, pay and allowances and promotion - and perhaps for indiscipline, sickness or desertion. Meanwhile, his family was often left in

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straitened circumstances, only relieved by the introduction of the small dependants' allowance mentioned earlier, which meant formal applications and a process involving his commanding officer, the submission of family information, the parish minister and elders, parish treasurer and the Justice of the Peace. Then on discharge he simply returned home to pick up the threads of his life, only a few senior non-commissioned officers being pensioned or officers granted half-pay. For some officers and men, however, Militia service led in turn to voluntary enlistment in the Regular Army. .

THE RECORDS OF MILITIAS, FENCIBLES AND VOLUNTEERS.

The policies adopted for recruiting and organising Militias, Fencibles and Volunteers created abundant records. Imperfect, even fragmented, as the surviving records are, they constitute a very substantial body of information.

Many are now held in the National Archives of Scotland (formerly the Scottish Record Office), the National Library of Scotland, local reference libraries and archives departments and privately-held

collections. Others, which fall outwith the scope of this booklet, are held in the Public Record Offices and County Record Offices in other parts of the British Isles. The information they contain varies considerably, being generally more detailed for Fencibles and Militias than for Volunteers. Furthermore, the surviving records for some parishes, counties and particular units are better than for others. This section deals with the major types of records and other sources.

Parish Lists of Militia-Liable Men.

The Militia Acts required schoolmasters or constables to produce lists of men liable for militia service. These lists typically give the county, parish, name, place of abode and occupation of the men in the age group. Usually they are simply written-out lists, perhaps incorporated in Lieutenancy Court minutes, but printed questionnaires sent to burgh householders might be used, in which case they give the name and address of the householder and the names of the men.

These listings are,

of course, occasional rather than chronologically

continuous in the period under discussion and many have not survived or yet

 

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been identified. Forfarshire, Argyllshire, Ross-shire, Borders and South West Parishes and the Burgh of Perth are good examples of those that have survived, while those for counties such as Stirlingshire, Ayrshire and Fife have yet to be identified or may have been destroyed. Where they do survive they are invaluable in giving sightings of many thousands of individuals - perhaps men whose names do not appear elsewhere because of incomplete or non-existent parish registers - identify old settlements and, of course, offer mini-censuses of that age group of males and the occupational structure in particular parishes. Example. The Lieutenancy Papers for Argyllshire contain extensive parish lists. These give place, name and occupation (sometimes with a comment such as "servant or apprentice to…."). For example, an extract from the list for the parish of Glassary gives the following settlements, names and occupations:

Barnakill

Hugh Graham

Labourer

Upper Rudil

John Campbell

Herring Fisher

Nether Rudil

Neil Campbell Alex. Livingstone

Farmer Apprentice Surgeon

Lochgilphead

James Fisher

Shopkeeper

An 1803 list for the parish of North Knapdale contains the names, places and occupations of some two hundred and seventy men. A breakdown of occupations shows that 32% were tenants, 37% labourers, 20% tradesmen, 4% fishers/mariners ( but, the herring fishing was seasonal and an earlier 1798 list includes more men described as "north herring fishers") , and the remainder, merchants, drovers, a preacher and a surveyor. These men came from some seventy or more settlements or farms in the parish, many of which, such as Arichonan, Kilbride and Gartnagreanoch, are now ruins. Bellanoch near Crinan was the main centre, where there are recorded two merchants, a smith, a carpenter, a shoemaker, a weaver, a preacher and a surveyor.

Records of Enlisted Men.

The actual numbers of men enlisted in Militias were, of course, much smaller

than those contained in the original parish lists. Nevertheless, when they are

 

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combined with those who served in Fencible and Volunteer Regiments they run into many tens of thousands over the period in question.

Apart from those who joined the less-regulated Volunteer Corps, where the main data are names and ranks in muster rolls and paylists (although there are some units with fuller records), information on militiamen and fencibles can be invaluable and sometimes quite unobtainable elsewhere. Generally - although varying in content - the most informative types of records are Attestation Oaths, Enlistment Lists/Regimental Returns and Applications for Dependants' Allowances.

Attestation Oaths and Enlistment Lists/Regimental Returns.

 

These documents are a mine of information on men in the Scottish and Local Militias and the Fencibles. The Oaths, entered on standard forms, usually give the name of the principal or substitute, his regiment, age, occupation, parish and county of birth and signature or mark. Enlistment Lists usually contain similar information. These various records may, however, have the added bonus of a physical description. Example. The (published) records of the officers and other ranks of the Strathspey Fencibles give names, ranks, ages, occupations and parishes of birth, together with comments. Thus, Andrew Waddell: "he is such a worthless drunken fellow though a most excellent drummer". Or, Sergeant Peter Mackay, a 39 year old farmer in Kingussie: "Previously Sergeant in the 42nd. and in the 55th.Regt". - an interesting note from which one might be able to trace Peter's earlier career as a Regular soldier.

William Morrison takes the Oath on enlisting in Major Balfour's Fencible Regiment of Foot on the 7th June 1795. He puts his mark since he cannot write. He comes from the parish of Gamrie in the County of Banff, he is 20 years of age, a labourer, 5ft 5ins tall, with a dark complexion, brown hair and blue eyes - followed by the signature of the surgeon.

And,

in Edinburgh

City Archives there

is

a superb volume,

with

many

thousands of men from all over Scotland who enlisted in the first half of the

Ninieteenth Century

in regiments of Militias,

Fencibles and the Regular

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Army, with regiment, name, occupation, parish, county, complexion, colour of eyes, colour of hair, age and height. At present its value is limited because it is unindexed, but there are plans to put it on database when resources permit.

Applications for Dependants' Allowances.

However, the most remarkable records from a genealogical point of view are the Dependants' Allowances, some of which survive, for example, for the Inverness Militia, Glasgow militiamen and militiamen in the South West counties, amongst others. The applications for allowances for militiamen in Glasgow give name, parish for which serving, name of wife, names of children under ten, parish where residing, date of application, sum awarded to wife and children and the name of the Justice of the Peace and Commanding Officer. These records, held on a computer database in Glasgow City Archives, are easy to search. In some cases the original four-part printed schedules for Dependants' Allowances can be inspected. Schedules for the Inverness Militia, for example, contain name of man, regiment, commanding officer, name of wife, names of children, date, parish for which serving, (if a substitute, also the name of the principal), names of parish minister and elders, name of J.P. or other signatory, name of parish treasurer and amount of weekly allowance for the wife and children.

Example. On the 17th.January 1812, John Chisholm, a private in the Inverness-shire Militia, made a Declaration "Having a Wife or Family in a State of Indigence". His Wife is Elspeth MacDonald and they have two children under ten: Sophie, aged 3 and Hellen aged 2. and they reside in the Parish of Langbryde in the County of Elgin. The Declaration is signed by John Chisholm, Sergeant Major Robertson and James Tulloch, major commanding the Inverness Militia. The parish minister, William Leslie, certifies the accuracy of the Declaration, with endorsing signatures by Thomas Duncan, farmer, Alexander Scott and Alex.Anderson, Elders, (two further signatures, probably of Elders). And then, William Leslie, J.P. (presumably the Minister) orders James Donald the Parish

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Treasurer to make a weekly allowance of one shilling each for Elspeth, Sophie and Hellen.

Taken together, then, the Oaths/Enlistment Lists/Regimental Returns and the Applications for Dependants' Allowances can provide substantial information on ordinary men, with the family detail helping particularly to discriminate among individuals. Nor should one neglect the value of the information on the parish itself for those particularly interested in community study.

Sources for Commissioned Officers of the Auxiliary Forces.

By imposing property qualifications, increasing with the officer’s rank, the government sought initially to ensure that commissioned officers came largely from the politically reliable landowning classes. However, during the course of the Napoleonic Wars it became increasingly difficult to find sufficient officers from these backgrounds and recruitment had to extend increasingly to the substantial tenantry and the commercial, manufacturing and professional classes. Consequently, the possibilities of finding forebears who held commissions increase.

Whilst the records of private soldiers and non-commissioned officers can offer substantial information about them, their families and their communities, less is available for those holding commissions. In one respect officers may be initially easier to trace, since published Official Lists of Militia, Fencible and Volunteer Corps Officers, akin to the Army Lists for Regulars, were produced, giving name, rank and regiment. Beyond these one has to search the County Lieutenancy Papers and correspondence in collections of Gifts and Deposits for warrants of commissions issued by Lords Lieutenant, requests for commissions and occasional lists of officers of regiments. And aspects of their service may well be recorded in local newspapers as the regiments moved from one town to another. But on the whole these are relatively thin and fortuitous pickings as compared to what survives for other ranks.

Miscellaneous Sources.

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Beyond the principal kinds of information there is an extraordinary miscellany of items of interest. The minutes of the Lieutenancy Courts provide a valuable record of their proceedings. Items such as regimental order books and letter books, clothing accounts, billeting lists, exemption certificates, the minutes of Militia Societies, the correspondence of landowners and so forth provide extensive background material and sometimes the names of individuals. For example, the Minute Book of the Stirling Militia Society contains over five hundred names of members, with their occupations and dues.

Newspapers frequently carry reports of regimental movements and activities, social events involving Militia officers and local incidents in which soldiers are embroiled, and display advertisements on Militia Societies, insurance companies and recruitment. Thus, in the summer and autumn of 1797 the Glasgow Courier contains accounts of disturbances in Cadder, Campsie Balfron, Selkirk, Jedburgh and Eccles ( where the mob interrupted a meeting of the Lieutenants in Eccles church, shouting “No militia! No militia!” and forced them and other gentlemen to sign a paper calling for a delay in the execution of the Act); lists of appointments of officers in which various regiments are mentioned – The Loyal Thurso Defensive Band, the Royal Montrose Volunteers, the North Uist Volunteers, the Saltcoats Infantry Volunteers, and so on; and regular notices of parades of the 1st Regiment of Royal Glasgow Volunteers:

First Regiment of Royal Glasgow Volunteers

The Corps will parade in George’s Square on Tuesday

next,

At half past 11 o’clock in the scarlet uniform and side

arms.

By command of Lt. Col. Corbett. Wm. Maxwell, Adj. 1 st Regt RGV.

Undoubtedly, however, the voluminous correspondence found in family papers between members of the nobility and gentry about the affairs of Fencibles, Militias and Volunteers is a remarkable source for both local

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background and detail

-

letters

about

the

Militia

riots

of

1797,

recommendations on the appointment of officers,

descriptions

of

local

recruiting problems, accounts for clothing men, and so forth. Examples. Correspondence between the Earl of Rosslyn, the Magistrates and the Adjutant of the Fife Militia concerning the Adjutant's inaction during a riot when he was said to have taken to his bed.

The correspondence of the Duke of Atholl and other major landowners concerning the Perthshire militia riots.

The accounts for clothing of drummers of Lord Macdonald's Regiment of the Isles, where among others Chalmers Macdonald received two pairs of shoes at thirteen and sixpence, one pair of stockings at two and sixpence and one pair of pantaloons and jacket at ten and eightpence.

Or, the anonymous letter sent to Earl

Fife

by

"One of

the Multitude"

complaining at the Earl awarding five hundred lashes to an unfortunate private in the Invernessshire Militia, and warning him that such treatment of

men might make the regiment less than zealous if they were sent to Ireland.

 

SEARCHING THE RECORDS.

 

When embarking upon a search for forebears and associated family and community information it is important to bear in mind that:

1. The intimate involvement of the nobility and gentry in the raising and organisation of this array of auxiliary forces, whether in official capacities such as Lords Lieutenant and their Deputies, as commanding or other officers of regiments or in their private capacities as landowners, affected the subsequent location of records, but not in a simple, systematic manner. Because many of the records could be viewed as official and dealing with county and perhaps burgh affairs they found their way into the holdings of Sheriff Courts and County and Burgh Councils. Many others, however, were retained among the private papers of estate owners. Yet others were deposited with local lawyers, and a few found their way to the Court of Session, as Productions in legal cases.

 

18

19

  • 2. Having said that the records have found their way into many different

series, they are also now held in many repositories. In those cases where they are bundled with other Sheriff Court and County Council papers, many are now held in the National Archives of Scotland. It is also possible, however, that they are to be found in local archives or reference libraries. Also, because army reforms in the latter part of the Nineteenth Century led to regiments becoming Volunteer or Militia battalions of regular regiments, some of their historical records may now be held in regimental archives, as is the case for some Ross-shire and Inverness-shire Lieutenancy/ Militia papers held at Fort George near Inverness.

A similarly diverse situation exists for records which went into private collections. Some are still held by their owners but very many others have become Gifts and Deposits held in the National Archives of Scotland, National Library of Scotland, local Archives Departments, reference and university libraries.

  • 3. Other points to note are: catalogue entries are often sparse, perhaps

saying no more than "papers", and only by examining the actual records is it possible to determine their extent and relevance; searches for named individuals may be time-consuming since there are usually no nominal indexes to collections; although the general nature and locations of the great bulk of these records are known it is probable that others have yet to be found; and in the nature of the somewhat haphazard distribution of records it is always possible that those dealing with a particular county or regiment may be found in more than one collection.

The situation, then, is somewhat complicated and it is therefore important to

adopt fairly systematic strategies in searching for information. Several such search routes are suggested below and it may be necessary to use more than one, depending on the kinds of records one hopes to find.

SEARCH ROUTES.

Before beginning the search one should think about the information at hand:

the likely county, parish and place of the forebear; his age (militiamen were generally between 18 and 45); any indication of a wife and children (but not

19

20

necessarily their names); and any further information from later civil records or family tradition which might point to a possible connection with a regiment. Also, it is useful to find out the names of local nobility and gentry, and here Loretta Timperley's "Landownership in Scotland c. 1770", minutes of meetings of Commissioners of Supply and Statistical Accounts may be helpful.

It is most important when trying to narrow down searches to the records of a particular regiment of Militias, Fencibles or Volunteers to formulate hypotheses about the territorial background of the forebear and the likely regiment in which he served. Generally speaking, where a man served in a Local Militia regiment or Volunteer Corps he would be a local man. Thus, a Sutherland man would be most likely to serve in the Sutherland Local Militia or Sutherland Volunteers. However, this may not be the case for members of Fencible or Scottish Militia Regiments. Although Fencible regiments tended to recruit from the estates of the great landowners who promoted them and from surrounding areas, the shortage of local recruits might well mean that some enlisted men came from other parts of Scotland. Similarly, the Scottish Militia Regiments contained men who had no particular county associations, often because they were substitutes drawn from the major burghs. Thus, a Glasgow man might substitute for a principal who came from a distant parish or a Fife man enlist in another county Militia. It is in these situations that there is an urgent need for nominal indexes for Scottish Militia and Fencibles Regiments so that ready access could be made to their records. However, the priority should be to search in the first instance the local and county regiments of all kinds and if that is unsuccessful it may be necessary to check regiments in other areas. Lists of the Fencible Regiments which existed in 1796 and of the Scottish Militia Regiments in the early 1800's appear at the end of this booklet.

Knowledge of a forebear's civilian occupation may also help in focussing research. The majority of militiamen came from the poorer rural and urban classes; many because they could not evade enlistment or because they were substitutes. Many fencibles had similar backgrounds. However, Volunteers often came from the tenantry (especially Yeomanry Volunteers) and from among the professional, commercial and clerical classes and skilled

20

21

tradesmen. And, of course, landowners, substantial tenants and members of the upper commercial and industrial classes often held officers' commissions. Consequently, occupation and social status may suggest initial searching in the records of a local Volunteer Regiment for a tenant farmer, a Scottish or local Militia Regiment for a labourer, or a List of Officers of the Militia and Volunteers for a landowner or his relatives.

The National Archives of Scotland.

Having considered the initial information and hypetheses outlined above, the best general search route is through the resources of the National Archives of Scotland. There are several possible starting points:

a. Search the catalogues of the appropriate Sheriff Courts, County and Burgh Councils for references to "Lieutenancy" or "Militia", and occasionally records appear under the "Miscellaneous" heading. Items can then be ordered up and examined for minute books, parish lists of men liable for militia service, lists of enlisted men, regimental rolls, dependants’ allowances and so forth. Several Sheriff Court holdings in the National Archives of Scotland, such as Portree, Dornoch, Kirkcudbright and Linlithgow, contain Lieutenancy Minutes and/or Parish Lists. County Council and Burgh holdings can be rewarding. Since some of these records are now with local Archives one will discover that this is so and where they are to be found.

b. Where the names of nobility and gentry in the area are known, then go to the Summary Catalogue to see whether their records are among the Gifts and Deposits and if they are then note the appropriate GD reference. Use that to look at the catalogue which is kept on open shelf. Increasingly, these catalogues have been put into the CLIO database and can be examined there, but this database is useful in another way, in that one can scan the whole contents by keying in "Militia", "Fencibles", "Volunteers" or "Yeomanry". Thus keying in "Militia" produces numerous references to various collections and there are many others for Fencibles and Volunteers. Lastly, not all Gifts and Deposits came directly from landed proprietors; in some cases they have come from lawyers, among others. On occasion, lawyers’ collections are remarkably rewarding; that for Blackwood and Smith

21

22

WS contains an excellent set of Lieutenancy papers, parish lists and regimental returns for Peebles-shire and Berwickshire.

c. Another approach can be made through the Military Source Lists now available at the National Archives of Scotland. These list references to military material (regular and auxiliary forces) in various collections held there. The index to regiments provides a means of identifying those regiments with records in one or more private collections. Thus, there is material on the 6th. Aberdeen Regiment of North British Militia in the Leven and Melville Papers (GD.26) and in the Huntly Muniments (GD.312); on the Royal Perthshire Militia in GDs 13, 24 and 174; and the Breadalbane Fencibles appear in the papers of Campbell of Balliveolan, the Airlie Papers, the Dalguise Papers, the John MacGregor Collection, the Breadalbane Papers and others.

d. If the catalogue searches suggested above are unsuccessful, then reference should be made to the index and source lists of the National Register of Archives (Scotland). These volumes are kept on open shelf in the National Archives of Scotland. The NRA(S) is a register of all the Scottish archives which have been surveyed and includes many collections which are actually held in local archives departments, central and local reference libraries, museums or still in private hands. The Index and Source List 1 identify appropriate collections and where they are held - although the Source List entry may be very sparse, perhaps no more than “Militia Papers 1807-12” The NRA(S) is also held on microfiche in the NAS and once the reference number to the collection has been obtained the appropriate microfiche can be examined. The NRA(S) may indicate that the records one wishes to examine are open to inspection in a local Archives or library, but in many cases they will still be in private hands or institutional hands. In these cases it is necessary in the first instance to apply to The Registrar, National Register of Archives (Scotland), HM General Register House, Edinburgh, EH1 3YY to see the records. The Registrar will then contact the holder, who may or may not give permission, and then subsequently inform the applicant of the decision. Permission to see a privately-held collection may well be given, although in some cases a charge

22

23

will be made. Lastly, it should be noted that not all collections still in private hands have been surveyed and entered in the NRA(S).

The National Library of Scotland.

The Department of Manuscripts and Rare Books holds many large and small collections of estate and other records, some of which, such as the Sutherland, Delvine and Airth papers, contain valuable material on Militias and Volunteers. There is a set of printed catalogues, with indexes, and various typescript indexes.

Local Archives and Reference Libraries

Because the county and parish communities were so closely bound up with the organisation of Fencibles, Militias and Volunteers a quite remarkable amount of records and publications has been deposited in reference libraries and archives departments throughout Scotland. Consequently, if searches in the National Archives of Scotland are unproductive then attention should be directed to the various holdings in the area of Scotland in which one is interested. Of course, the extent of local holdings varies considerably, especially where major series of documents have found their way to the National Archives of Scotland or to the National Library of Scotland. However, there are some excellent examples of locally-held records. The Ewart Library in Dumfries has Lieutenancy Minutes, Applications for Dependants’ Allowances, Muster Rolls and Officers’ Commissions. Perth District Archives has the Returns of a household census of Militia-Liable men in the Burgh of Perth, lists of men in the Militia and several Volunteer Corps in Perthshire, Receipts for Dependants’ Allowances and considerable miscellaneous correspondence. Elgin, Dundee and Borders Archives hold substantial records and Aberdeen University Library has Earl Fife’s Papers which contain parish lists, names of Volunteers and much correspondence. But whether or not a local library or archives department holds substantial records, their other resources are invaluable - books on local and regimental history, newspapers, bills and advertisements, directories and so forth. Consequently, where a forebear can be traced in a militia ballot list or in a regimental document these other resources can be used to put him and perhaps his family and his regiment into a broader context.

23

24

Journals. The journals and other publications of family history societies may include articles or transcribed records on auxiliary forces. For example, the Aberdeen and North East of Scotland FHS has published parish lists for Lower Deeside, while the Borders Family History Society has included parish lists in its series of booklets on parish graveyards. Also, the Journal of the Scottish Military Historical Society has relevant articles, some giving particularly interesting information on uniforms and equipment. Military and Other Museums.

The Scottish United Services Museum in Edinburgh Castle and Regimental Museums in various parts of Scotland are, generally speaking, most useful for publications or memorabilia concerning auxiliary forces – books, uniforms, weapons and equipment. However, documents may be held, the SUSM, for example, having such items as rolls, order books, letters and recruiting notices for some Fencible and Volunteer Corps. Other museums may have occasional items of much interest. Thus, Glasgow Art Gallery and Museum Service has a rare and fine example of a Volunteer Corps uniform – The Markinch Loyal Volunteers – dating from about 1800.

Search Routes Outwith Scotland.

Whilst this booklet is concerned with Scottish sources there are two circumstances in which it may be necessary or desirable to look further afield. Firstly, because central government in London was ultimately responsible for these forces, substantial records are now in the Public Record Office, principally in War Office series containing regimental muster and payrolls Consequently, where records in Scottish repositories on particular counties and regiments are sparse it may be important to see the PRO holdings. This involves either visiting the Public Record Office or employing a record agent who does searches there. The PRO will on request provide a list of such record agents. Secondly, some Scots served as officers or other ranks in county regiments outwith Scotland and their records will be held in the

24

 

25

Public Record Office or County Record Offices. In these cases, it will be necessary to know in which unit they served - which is not too difficult for officers since they will appear in the indexes to Lists of Officers of Militias, Fencibles and Volunteers and their regiments can be identified.

The Public Record Office has published a useful guide entitled Records of the Militia and Volunteer Forces 1757-1945 by William Spencer. Militia Lists and Musters 1757-1876 by J. Gibson and M. Medlycott, published by the Federation of Family History Societies, is a directory of archival holdings in the British Isles as a whole.

 

USES OF THE RECORDS.

 

Genealogy.

 

Depending on the kinds of records that have survived they may be useful,

even invaluable, in the following ways:

 
  • a. In providing sightings of possible forebears. For example, where parish

registers are defective or non-existent a known or hypothesised forebear may be noted in various of these records - Parish Lists, Enlistments, Applications for Dependants’ Allowances, Muster Rolls and Pay Lists. Sometimes the information given will be no more than a name and rank in a particular regiment, which is usually the case with Muster Rolls and Pay Lists. But other records, especially parish lists or lists of tenants, may also identify places and occupations . Such sightings may then provide a basis for searching other military and/or civil records.

  • b. In giving family relationships. Some records may contain the names of

wives and children, occasionally the names of other relatives or employers, and other important information such as parishes, places and ages. This information could be used in two ways. Firstly, the immediate family may be identified, perhaps confirming the connection with the known later generation. Secondly, having established that one has the right man in the records, the information on him and perhaps his family can then be used to search earlier parish registers or perhaps other records for their marriage, baptism and parentage, so working back to the previous generation.

  • c. In giving personal details. Records may include not only information on

ages,

places

and occupations

but also

in

the

case

of

other ranks a

 

25

26

personal description of all or some of the following: height, colour of hair and eyes and type of complexion. This is exceptional information from a period when there was no photography and ordinary people could not afford paintings.

Family and Community.

Here the documentary and published sources can be immensely useful to family historians who are looking for information about the community in which a forebear and his family lived.

  • a. Parish Lists and other records can be used to throw light on members of

the community - neighbours and their occupations and the kinds of

settlements where people lived - and by extension to local landowners, ministers and elders, schoolmasters and others.

  • b. Having obtained this information from the records, published sources such

as Statistical Accounts, books on local history and newspapers can be used to flesh out accounts of the community and perhaps the ways in which it was affected by the raising of auxiliary forces.

Biographies.

Where a forebear can be traced in a parish list and then enlists in the Militias,

Fencibles or Volunteers the records and published sources can be used to develop a biographical account, including his background, previous occupation, personal description, family, the regiment he joined, his rank and where he served - all embellished by wider descriptions of the community from which he came and how it was affected by war, the regiment and his fellow soldiers and perhaps particular incidents in which he and his comrades were involved during their service.

4. Military History. Interest in a forebear may well develop into a wider account of the history of particular regiments. There are some regimental histories of Militias, Fencibles and Volunteers already published so it is as well in the first instance to check library catalogues. However, there is plenty of scope for further work, especially on the earlier histories of regiments. Enlistment and

26

27

regimental returns, applications for allowances, regimental order and letter books, clothing accounts, commissions for officers, estate correspondence and newspapers can produce information on the raising of the regiment, who the officers and men were and where they came from, where the regiment served, and much detailed information on such matters as dress, training, discipline, billeting and so forth.

LISTINGS OF RECORDS.

As is always the case in researching family history there is no guarantee that the appropriate records have survived to the present day. The records of some counties are much better than others. Also the general lack of nominal indexes may make searches time-consuming. However, with such a wide involvement of Scottish society in the organisation, recruitment and membership of auxiliary forces in the late Eighteenth and first quarter of the Nineteenth Century these remarkable records deserve far more attention than they have been given by family historians.

The following lists of records of Militias, Fencibles and Volunteers are compiled from catalogues and source lists in the National Archives of Scotland and other archives, libraries and museums. Catalogue entries may be very brief, so it is essential to look at the actual records. An index to regiments and places can be found at the end of this booklet.

Also, it should be noted that the most recent reorganisation of Local Government in Scotland has had significant consequences for some Archives Services, affecting the designation/ location of Archives and/or their holdings. A current list of addresses is appended.

MILITIA, FENCIBLE AND VOLUNTEER RECORDS LISTED IN THE CATALOGUES OF REPOSITORIES IN SCOTLAND.

27

 

28

1. LOCAL

ARCHIVES

DEPARTMENTS, REFERENCE LIBRARIES AND

MUSEUMS.

 

LOCATION

 

TYPE

COMMENTS

 

Argyll and Bute Council

Lieutenancy Minutes for

Lists

and

statistics

Archives.

Argyll

Parish

Lists

engrossed in Minute

1799,

1801,

1803-4.

Books. Many hundreds

Balloted men and Appeals. Militia Quotas.

of men, places and occupations

Scottish

Borders

Lieutenancy Minutes for

Extensive range

of

Archive

Roxburgh-shire,

documents including

and

Local

History

Selkirkshire and

some Dependants’

Centre.

Berwickshire.Parish

Allowances.

 

Also

Lists, Exemption Certificates, Officers' Commissions.

Volunteer Yeomanry records.Copies of the various Militia Acts.

Dumfries and Galloway

Lieutenancy Minutes for

Records

 

of

Archives.

Dumfriesshire.

Dumfries,Wigton

and

Dependants'

Kirkcudbrightshire.Man

Allowances 1809 – 16.

y

Applications

for

Officers' Commissions,

Dependants'

 

Muster Rolls and Pay Lists. Volunteers in Tinwald Parish., 1803.

Allowances.

Aberdeen

University

Parish

Lists

for

Earl

 

Library.

Fife's

estates

in

Moray/Banffshire

in

1797 and 1798. Papers

 

on

Banffshire

Volunteers 1795.

 

Dundee City Archives.

Lieutenancy Papers for

Extensive records.

 

Forfarshire.

 

Parish Lists 1797 and

 

1823.

Quotas and District

 

Returns. Officers' Commissions.

 

Angus Archives.

Oaths of Militiamen

in

Oaths

cover

many

Forfarshire, 1822.

Angus parishes but no

Correspondence

physical

descriptions

 

and

only

about

sixty

 

28

 

29

 

men

Edinburgh

City

Rolls

of men recorded

The Rolls

(in

a

bound

Archives.

in Edinburgh

for

volume)

 

are

auxiliary

and

regular

marvellous. Thousands

forces 1796 – 1857.

 

of

men

with

physical

Parish

Lists

1802.

descriptions

 

Oaths

of

Unfortunately there

is

Militiamen.Miscellaneou s material.

no nominal index.

Regimental

Museum

Lieutenancy Minutes for

List

supplied

by

Fort George.

Ross-

shire, 1827 –

Curator.

 

31.

Returns of Ross Militia

 

1798

1854.

Description Book 1803 -

1820

for

Inverness

Militia.

Other

regimental material.

 

Moray

Council

Local

Lieutenancy Minutes

 

Heritage Services.

and Dependants'

Allowances

 

for

Inverness Militia

1810 – 12.

 

Glasgow City Archives. Lists of men in the

A

splendid

resource

Militia in Glasgow who

containing

exceptional

applied for dependants'

detail,

and

best of

all,

allowances, 1810-11

there

is

a

Militia

and 1813-16.Papers of

database indexed by

the Glasgow New

name

for hundreds of

Militia Society 1807.

men and their families.

 

Roll

of

Roll

of

Allegiance

Allegiance,Glasgow

contains

nearly

500

Sharpshooters Corps, 1803.

signatures.

 

Orkney Archives.

No Scottish Militia.

Extensive

material

on

Oaths

for

1795

for

Fencibles

and

Colonel

 

Volunteers.

 

Balfour's

Regt.

of

Fencibles.

 

Highland

Council

Lieutenancy Minutes for

Inverness-shire

 

Archive.

Ross, Cromarty and

Fencibles

 

Nairn.

In

Baillie

of

Dunain

Lists of conscripts to

Papers.

 

Ross-shire Militia

 

1803.Garrison Order

 

29

 

30

 

Book

of Ross-shire

 

Militia

1813-14.

Records of Nairnshire

Volunteers 1798,

1808.

Records

of

Inverness-

Shire Fencibles.

 

Clan Donald Centre,

Various

papers

from

Armadale, Skye.

Lord

Macdonald's

Estate

 

dealing

with

the

Regiment

of

The

Isles.

Perth

and

Kinross

Household

returns

of

Excellent

material

for

Council Archive.

Men liable for Militia for

the

burgh and county

 

the Burgh

of

Perth.

parishes

 

Applications,vouchers,

of Perthshire.

Very

receipts

and

accounts

good

for

regimental

of

monies

paid

to

and

parish

records

of

dependants

of

men

in

Dependants'

 

the

Perthshire

Allowances for various

Militia,1800,1803,180

Militia

and

Volunteer

9,1821

units.

 

Correspondence,

 

Lieutenancy

Minutes,

 

etc. for

Kinross-shire,

1803-

 

1917.

Clothing

Allowance

 

Book,

Kinross-shire

 

Yeomanry

Cavalry, 1817-28.

 

Records

of

Royal

 

Strathearn

Volunteers,Atholl

 

Volunteer

Light

 

Infantry

and

Breadalbane

Volunteers.

Stirling

Council

Militia Society for the

Some

 

Lieutenancy

Archives

Parish

of Stirling

Minutes

 

Services.

(names

and

with

a

few

occupations

of

names/parishes of

subscribers and names

militiamen,1816-20,are

of substitutes)

 

in

the

Murray

of

 

30

31 Copy of 1802 Militia Polmaise Papers. Act. Officers' Minute Book of Loyal Stirling Volunteers. Shetland
31
Copy of
1802 Militia
Polmaise Papers.
Act.
Officers' Minute Book of
Loyal
Stirling
Volunteers.
Shetland Archives.
Shetland
Has
typescript
of
D.
No Scottish Militia.
Rollo’s
“The
Story
of
the
Orkney and
Shetland
Volunteers
and
Territorials,
1793
1957”.
Falkirk
Council
Archives.
Some papers in Forbes
of Callendar Collection.
Material on 1797 Militia
Act disturbances.
Stirlingshire.
Kintyre
Antiquarian
Return
of
Men
from
Society,
Argyle who had joined
Campbeltown.
the 1st.North British
Militia 1799.
Blair
Castle
Archive,
Blair
Atholl.
Correspondence
militia
ballots, Perthshire.
on
Hawick Museum
(Hawick and Jedburgh
Collections).
Roxburgh Yeomanry
Quartermaster's
Accounts,
1795, 1799, 1831.
Register
of Men
and
Horses
of the Roxburgh and
SelkirkshireLightDra
goons,
1794-99.
Enrolment List
of
Hawick
Association
of
Infantry,
1799.
Inverary Castle Archive.
Militia
Correspondence
and
papers
for
Fencibles,1795,
Argyllshire.
31
 

32

Perth Museum.

Minutes

of

the

Tibbermuir

Militia

 

Society,1805-31.

 

Diary of Thomas Muire

 

of

Perth

on

movements, etc. of

Perthshire

Militia,

 

1798-1801.

 

Montrose Museum.

 

Forfarshire

Militia

 
 

Payroll,

1803.

Renfrew

Library,

Orderly

Book

of

the

Paisley.

Royal

Paisley

Volunteer

 

Corps,

1798-1801.

 

Stewartry Museum,

Muster

Rolls,

Returns

 

Kirkcudbright.

and

Accounts,1804-36, for the

 

Kirkcudbright

 

Gentlemen

 

and

Yeomanry Cavalry.

 

Hornel

library,

Account

Book

of

Pay

Kirkcudbright.

and

Subsistence,1809-12,

 

for Kirkcudbright Militia.

Argyll and Sutherland

Nominal

Roll,

Officers and N.C.Os.

Highlanders Museum,

Stirlingshire

 

Order Book gives day-

Stirling.

Militia, 1798-1800.

 

to-day

Regtl.

Order

Book,

Account of Regiment.

1801-4.

University

of

St.

Muster

Rolls

1794-

Loyal

Tay

Fencible

Andrews

1801, and

Regiment

records

on

Library.

Order

Book,

1800-02,

microfilm.

Loyal

Tay

Fencible

Regiment.

 

Muster

Roll,

1797-99,

 

East

District,

Fife

Volunteer

 

Infantry.

 

32

 

33

Mitchell

Library,

Parish

Lists,

Cadder

Lanarkshire.

 

Glasgow.

Parish, 1813,14.

 

Ms. 70.

Stirling

Reference

List

of

the

Loyal

List

has names,

Library.

Stirling

occupations,

 

Volunteers, 1800 -04.

places

and

heights.

 

Forms

part

of

a

long

article

on

the

Corps in

the

Stirling

 

Roll

of

the

East

St.

Antiquary,Vol. 3, 1904.

Ninians Company of the

Names,

places

 

and

Bannockburn

 

occupations of men and

Volunteers, 1803.

general information, in the Stirling Antiquary, Vol. 5, 1906.

National Trust

for

Militia

Liable

Lists

for

Names, parishes, some

Scotland, Drum Castle Archives.

Lower Deeside, 1798.

 

Settlements. Lists have been transcribed by

2. The National Archives of Scotland.

David Walker and published by the Aberdeen and North East Family History Society.

COLLECTION REF.

RECORDS

 

COMMENTS

 

GD247

Brodie,

Papers of the Dalkeith

 

Cuthbert And Watson WS papers

Volunteers 1800-1

GD13 Campbell of

Return

of

Recruits

to

Balliveolan Papers.

the Reay Fencibles,1801.

 

GD1/395

Regtl. Letter Books

of

Riddell

of

1st.

Ardnamurchan and

Argyll

Local

Militia,

 

Sunart.

1809-11.

 

GD112

Records

 

of

Extensive material on

Breadalbane

Breadalbane

Perthshire and parts of

Muniments.

Fencibles and lists of

Argyllshire.

 

33

34 tenants on the Earl of Breadalbane’s Estates, 1793-99. Paylists and Returns of Argyllshire Volunteers 1807-8.
34
tenants on
the Earl
of
Breadalbane’s
Estates,
1793-99.
Paylists and Returns of
Argyllshire
Volunteers 1807-8.
GD174
Muster Roll of Major
Mull
McLaine
of
Lochbuy
McLaine's
Co.
5th.
Papers.
Fencible
Regt.
Lists
of
Highlanders
in Argyle Regt. 1794.
List
of
Militia-Liables
for
Torosay (and Unfit)
Men on Lochbuy
estate
1790's
,
and
Volunteers for a
Company
at
Ballimeanach,
1820.
Insurance taken
out by
Lochbuy Tenants.
GD26
Rolls,
returns
and
Leven and Melville
Muniments.
papers for
Extensive collection of
papers on County
Loyal
Tay
Militia
Regiments.
Fencibles,1796-8.
Mostly
War
Office
Monthly returns of the
5th.Regt.of Scots
Militia,
correspondence, orders
and statistical returns.
Papers
of
Loyal
Tay
(Fifeshire) 1802.
Bundles of papers
Fencibles
contain
for
Royal Lanark Militia
muster rolls for 1796.
Also, interesting record
and
other
counties,
of
a
general
court
1797-1813.
martial.
Various
Volunteer
Units.
GD1/136
List
of
subscribers
in
Misc.Accessions.
parish
of
Holywood,
Dumfries-
shire,
against
being
drawn
for militia
-
50
names.
GD1//49
List
of
men
liable for
Kirkness Papers.
militia
34
 

35

 

in parish of Portmoak,

 

Kinross,1820.

 

GD219

Officer's

Commission

 

Murray

of

for

John

Murray,

Murraythwaite.

Younger , of Tundergarth, theDumfries-shire Local Militia.

in

CS229/Misc.15/5.

List

of

Officers,

Men

From

printed Court of

 

and

Session Productions.

 

Recruits,

 

Dumfriesshire

 

Fencible

 

Cavalry,

 

1794-98.

 

CS237/Misc.12/1.

 

Paymaster's Journals of

From

printed Court of

 

Aberdeen

Fencibles,

Session Productions.

 

1795 -

1800.

CS232/Misc. 17/6.

 

Nominal Roll of men in

From

printed

 

Fraserburgh Regiment of Militia,

CS.Productions Gives names, dates of

1808.

enrolment,age, height,place of birth, former service, place of residence, occupation.

GD18

Accounts,

 

paybills,

Clerk of Penicuick.

 

returns

and

letters

 

relating to 2nd.

 

Regt. Midlothian Local Militia.1813-20.

 

GD302

LieutenancyMinutes,18

ItemsE.Lothian

 

East

Lothian

10,21.Muster rolls and

Volunteer

Militia,

Antiquarian

and

Field

papers

for militias,

Dunbar Volunteer

 

Naturalists'

Society

yeomanry

 

and

Infantry,

East

Papers.

Volunteers,1797-1838,

Lothian

East Lothian

 

Yeomanry Haddington Volunteer Militia.

and

GD44

Papers

of

the

“History

of

the

Gordon

Castle

Northern

Fencibles,

Northern Fencibles”,

Muniments.

1776-1817.

Papers

on

H.B.Mackintosh.

 

the Militia

and

on

the

Militia Club. Volunteers

 
 

35

 

36

 

in

Aberdeen-

shire,

1794-1811.

 

GD224

Militia,

Fencibles

and

Extensive

 

Buccleuch Muniments.

Volunteer

papers,

inc.

records,including

 

South

Fencible

Enrolment

 

Book

for

Regt.,Edinburgh

 

10th.NB

 

Regt.

of

Militia,

Militia,

1798-1802,

Edinburgh

County

and an

Militia, Dumfries Militia, 1788-1879.

 

1809 Description Book of the

1st.FencibleLightDra

Edinburgh

 

Regt. of

goons,1794-1800.

 

Militia

 

Musselburgh

 

giving

Volunteers,

name,age,size,place

 

GD21 Cuninghame of

1797-8.

of

birth

of

soldiers,

Thorntoun Papers.

wives and children.

 

Other

papers

on

 

Pay and recruiting lists

Volunteers

 

and

in

Stirlingshire

and

correspondence for

Dumfries.

 

Prince of Wales Own Fencible

A substantial collection.

Regiment, 1798-9.

Includes

a

 

return

of

Paylists,

women

 

returns correspondence,

and

and children of the PWOFR,

Ayrshire

1801.

 

Volunteers,1803-6.

 

GD248

Enrolments,

 

etc.for

See

Seafield Papers.

1st.Regt.

 

book,

H.B.Mackintosh's “The Grant,

Fencible Highlanders

Strathspey

 

or

1st.

and

Highland

Regt.

of

Inverness

 

and

Fencibles.”

Strathspey

 

This contains returns of

Militia

 

and

officers

and

other

Volunteers,

 

ranks, with

1794-8.

annotations on conduct

Musters

 

for

and

1st.Fencibles,

1793-

previous/future service.

98.

Cromdale Volunteers

 

and

Grantown/Strathspe y Volunteer Company.

 

GD1/400

Muster

roll

of

Reay

 

36

 

37

D.Murray Rose Papers. Fencibles,1795.

 

GD16

Paylists and muster

Panmure

 

and

Airlie

Airlie Muniments.

rolls, 1793-1824 for

items not

 

1st. Bn.

dated.

Breadalbane

 

Fencibles. Names of Panmure tenants likely to join the Yeomanry. List of Airlie Troop.

 

GD46

Papers 2nd.Regiment

Includes

a

list

of

the

Seaforth Muniments.

North

BritishMilitia,

men of

1797-1800,

 

Ross

aged

15-60

and

1st.Ross-shire

balloted as

 

Local

Militia,1799-

militiamen, 1797-1800.

1865.

Set

of

Acts

of

Wigtonshire

Local

Parliament

relating

to

Militia

Rolls

and

Local Militias 1807 – 13

Papers,

1808-16. Lists

and

interesting

of

officers

and

men,

collection of War Office

and

an

officer’s

instructions on the new

commission

issued

by

Local Militias.

Earl of Galloway.

 

GD38

List of Dalguise tenants

 

Dalguise Muniments.

and

cottars,

1798.

Regimental List for "my

regiment", 1817. Enrolment Certificates of

Loyal Clandonachie

Volunteers, 1804. 1793 List of Officers of the

Breadalbane

 

Fencibles.

 

GD150

Muster

rolls

of

Morton Muniments.

Midlothian

 

Yeomanry

Cavalry,1798-1807.

 

Returns

of

Officers

of

the Fifeshire Regt. of

 

Militia, 1802-22.

 

GD35

Kincardine

Militia

Returned

to

owner

in

Dundas

of

Ochtertyre

Papers,

1992.

Papers.

1799-1803.

 
 

37

 

38

GD293

Lieutenancy

Papers,

An excellent collection

Blackwood

and

Smith

muster

rollsfor

of

W.S.

PeeblesMilitia,1799,

 

records for Peebles-

1800,

1803,

1806,

shire.

1812-14,

 

1819-22,

contains

1825-31.

 

Also substantial

Parish Lists 1813.

 

records

for

Muster

Rolls

and

Pay

Berwickshire

Lists

and Selkirkshire.

for

Selkirkshire

Yeomanry Cavalry, 1809-13,

 

Tweedale Volunteers, 1799-

1800,

and

Peebles-

 

shire Yeomanry Cavalry.

 

GD136

Papers

of Freswick

 

Sinclair

of

Freswick

and

Papers.

Dunbeath

 

Volunteers,

 

1800-18,

 

and

 

Rothesay and Caithness Fencibles.

GD132

Return

of

the

Atholl

Robertson

of

Lude

Volunteers, 1801.

 

Papers.

Papers Clandonachy Volunteers, 1807-10.

of

GD128

Muster

Roll

of

a

Fraser

Mackintosh

Company

 

Papers.

of the Culloden Bn. of

 

Volunteer

 

Infantry,

1807.

Papers on Inverness-

 

shire

Volunteers,

1797-

 

1807.

GD228

Muster

Roll

of

Findlay

of

Carnell

volunteers

transferred

 

Papers.

to Captain Somerville's

Company

of

Ayrshire

Militia.

GD240

Pay Lists of Buteshire

 
 

38

 

39

Bruce and Kerr W.S.

Regt.of Local Militia,

 

1809-12.

 

GD126

Muster

Books

of

the

Balfour-Melville Papers.

Royal FifeshireYeomanryCa valry, 1820-38.

 

GD58.

Carron

400 employees of the

Company.

Subscribers

 

to

Carron Company with

proposed

Corps

of

ages and

Artillery, 1803.

 

occupations

 

Stirlingshire.

GD45

Return of men, women

1822.

Not

examined.

May

Dalhousie Muniments.

and

have

children in the military

militiamen.

 

settlements in Perth, Richmond and Lanark,

 

GD305

Parish

Lists,

Ross-shire

 

Cromartie Muniments.

Lochbroom,

 

1826-27.

 

GD152

Members

 

of

the

Hamilton Bruce Papers.

Stratheden Troop of

 

Yeomanry,1838.

 

B56

Muster Roll of North

 

North Berwick Burgh.

Berwick Volunteers,

1801.

SC24

Parish

Lists

 

for

Cromarty.

Cromarty, Resolis and Kilmuir,

 

Co.Cromarty,1814,18

20-21,

1825-26,

1828

and 1831.

 

Militia

Enrolment

Lists

 

for County of 1809 - 91.

Cromarty,

B48

List

of

men

17-55

in

See

also,

SC41/96/1

Linlithgow Burgh.

 

Dalmeny,West

39

which

has

over

300

Lothian,

family

allowances

 

1803.Militia Enrolment

recorded

in

Linlithgow,

1809-15,

most

for

Lists for Queensferry,

theBerwickshire Militia.

Bathgate and Linlithgow, 1816-

 

40

 

20.

Receipts for Family Allowances. Parish List for Livingston, 1808.

 

SC47

Parish

Listsfor

Includes a n.d. list for

Forfarshire.

Forfarshire,

Dundee.

1799,1801,1807,1816-

23.

SC64

Militia

Enrolment

Lists

Various

 

records

Clackmannanshire.

for

concerning

Clackmannanshire,

Liables,

 

recruits,

1801-14.

Family

families

and

misc.

allowances

items.

1808-13.

SC16

Mixed

Parish

and

An excellent collection

Kirkcudbrightshire.

Enrolment

Lists,

with

hundreds

of

Kirkcudbrightshire,

names

in

parish

lists

1802-31.Several Muster

and ordinary and local

Rolls

for

militia

enrolments.

As

Kirkcudbrightshire

well

as

name,

place

Volunteer Infantry.

and

occupation

there

 

are

a

considerable

number

 

of personal

descriptions.

SC33

Militia Enrolment Lists,

 

Stornoway.

1833-57. Lewis.

SC9

Militia Enrolment and

Substantial records.

 

Sutherland.

Parish Lists, etc. 1798-

 

1831,

Sutherland

 

E 327

Records of Payments to

Gives

regiments,

Wives and Children in Midlothian, 1803-15.

names of wives, and number of children, sometimes with names and ages.

SC29

Applications for Family

Inverness-shire.

 

Inverness.

Allowances, 1805.

 

GD345

Papers

on Volunteers

Aberdeenshire.

 

Monymusk Papers.

on the Monymusk Estate.

 
 

40

 

41

JC26

Account of Militia Riots in

Justiciary Court papers.

Braemar,1798

 

SC.32

Parish

Lists

for Skye,

Give

considerable

Portree Sheriff Court.

1810-20.

detail, including reasons for many exemptions. Particularly

 

valuable

returns

because of the later start of some of the parish registers.

CO6

Militia

musters,

Substantial

records,

Aberdeenshire.

Enrolments in Turriff,

some

Ellon, Garioch and

including

occupations,

New

Machar,

Volunteer Lists, Assessment Book

places and other information. Also,

for

Order Book

of

the

Militia Families,1790's,

Aberdeen

1803-10, 13.

Volunteers,

1745

-

 

1803.

B1

Lieutenancy Minute

Aberdeen Burgh.

Books, 1827-31 List for Parish of Old Machar, 1828.

CO10

Lieutenancy

Books,

Forfarshire.

1797-

 

1831,Forfarshire.Reco

 

rds

of

Militia

Names,

1823-29.

 

Lieutenancy Books, 1800-02, 1828-41.

Letter

CO11

Lieutenancy

Minute

Dunbartonshire.

Book for

 

Dumbarton,Bonhill,

 

Cardross

 

and

Kilmaronock

1816-37.

 

CO7

Lieutenancy

Minute

East Lothian.

Books

 

and

Nominal

Rolls,

1797-1831,

East

 

41

 

42

 

Lothian.

Ex.CS231/Misc./2

 

Loyal

From

Printed

CS

 

BerwickshireFencible

Productions.

Rangers

-

Ledgers,Clothing, Expenses Allowances,

and

1795-6.

GD139

Papers on Caithness

 

Sutherland

of

Forse

Militia,

Papers.

1790's-1815. List of recruits to Caithness Legion.

GD157

Lists

of

Mertoun

Scott of Harden.

 

Volunteers,

 
 

Berwickshire,

 

1803.

CS40/5/25

Bounty Book,1793,

 

From

Printed

CS

Cameronian

Productions.

Volunteers

 

CS236/C.13/1

Clothing

Account.

From

Printed

CS

Recruits,

Productions.

1798-1801,Princess

 

Charlotte

of

Wales'

Loyal

McLeod

Fencible

 

Regt.

GD156

Militia

Papers,

1693-

Lord Elphinstone.

 

1807,

 

Dunbartonshire.

 

GD96

Letters

and Papers

 

Sinclair of Mey Papers.

about

Militias and Volunteers,

 

1794,

1800-

1815,Caithness.

GD5

Papers on Lanarkshire

Include records of pay

Bertram of Nisbet.

 

Fencible Cavalry,

and subsistence

of

 

1794-1800.

 

men.

GD23

Lieutenancy

Minute

Parish

Lists

for

Bught Papers.

Book for

mainland

and

isles

of

Inverness-shire,

Inverness-shire.

700

 

42

 

43

 

1797-1801.

 

names,with places and

Return

 

of

Inverness-

occupations and some

shire

employers or fathers.

men

in

Argyllshire

150

Argyllshire

Militia, 1800.

 

Militiamen, names, dates of attestation.

GD188

Militia papers - returns

Guthrie of Guthrie.

 

for

 

Forfarshire

and

Lanark-

 

shire, 1794-1816.

 

GD25

Papers

 

on

Ayrshire

 

Ailsa Muniments.

 

Cavalry,

 
 

1794,

and

Maybole

 

Volunteers,

1797-

1803.

 

GD47

Papers on Militia, 1798-

Includes

a

list

of

Ross

Estates

1808.

 

persons in

Muniments.

 

the parish of Drymen

GD24

liable for Militia service, and lists of Volunteers.

Abercairney

 

Papers on Yeomanry and

Muniments.

Volunteers

 

in

 

Perthshire and various regiments in Fife, 1805-7.

 

GD50

Papers

and letters

on

Includes lists of officers

John

MacGregor

the

Collection.

 

raising

 

of

the

 

Breadalbane Fencibles, 1793-6

GD57

Papers

 

on

Royal

Messrs

Burnett

and

Aberdeen-

Reid.

shire

 

Volunteers,

 

1795-1828.

 
 

A

few

entries

of

GD51

Account

 

Book,

men/women

 

Argyllshire

Militia,

concerning

1813.

 

maintenance payments

SC54

List

of

Militia

Society

Names,

occupations

 

43

 

44

 

members in parish

of

and places of 200 men.

 

Inverary.

 

RH4/171/63,64

Accounts

for

Militia

In Kirk Session records.

 

(CH2/1209/9)

Families

 

Leuchars, Fife, 1809-

 

13.

RH1/2/781

List of persons in parish

Prepared

in

case

of

of

French

Larbert, Stirlingshire, 1803.

 

Invasion.

3. THE NATIONAL LIBRARY OF SCOTLAND

 

Ms.10896

List

of

Militia

Liables,

Many

names,

1803,

occupations and places.

List

of

Volunteers

in

Good

background

Airth

Parish,

1803,

material.

Local

Militia papers for

 

East Stirlingshire.