Sie sind auf Seite 1von 123

edAÁmeft,ltqudk

ax&0g'½IaxmihfrSavhvmokH;oyfjcif;

q&mawmf OD;"r®yd, Ph.D.

NIBBĀNA IN THERAVĀDA PERSPECTIVE


by

Sayadaw U Dhammapia, Ph.D.

t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyefonf
twGif;zkH;ax½kyÜwåd

a'gufwm "r®yd,q&mawmfonf jrefrmEdkifiHü zGm;jrifonf/ toufudk;ESpfwGif omraPjyKNyD;


ESpfq,ft½G,fü ax&0g'&[ef;awmf jzpfvmonf/ 1980 jynfhESpfwGif ygVdusrf;*efrsm; (wwf
ajrmufjcif;)jzihf omoe"Z"r®mp&d,bGJU&&SdcJhonf/ xdkESpfwGifyif &efukefNrdKU? r[mpnfomoemh
&dyfomü 0dyóemur®|mef;w&m; tm;xkwfcJhonf/
1982 wGif r[mpnfomoemh&dyfü tNrJoDwif;okH;&[ef;awmf jzpfvmonf/ þ&dyfomü
oDwif;okH;pOf &[ef; omraP oDv&Sif a,m*Drsm;tm; 0dyóemur®|mef;udk oifMum;ay;NyD;
jrefrmEdkifiH NrdKUe,ftrsm;tjym;ü w&m;pcef;rsm;udk OD;pD;zGifhvSpfay;cJhonf/
1986 wGif rav;&Sm;EdkifiH? yDeefNrdKU? rav;&Sm;Ak'¨bmomw&m;&dyfom (MBMC) ü oDwif;
okH;aexdkif&ef q&mawmfOD;y@dwmbd0Ho (y@dwm&mrq&mawmf) \ wm0efay;tyfjcif;cH&
onf/ yDeefwGifoDwif;okH;pOf a'ocHESihfjynfya,m*Drsm;tm; w&m;jyNyD; q&mawmf OD;y@dwm-
bd0Ho\"r®c&D;wGif puFmyl? xkdif;? eDayg? ,lau? *smreD? MopaMwvs? uae'gESifh tar&duef
jynfaxmifpkEdkifiHrsm;odkY vdkufygcJhonf/
1992 wGif tar&duefjynfaxmifpk? umvDzdk;eD;,m;jynfe,f? qef[dkaq; (San Jose) NrdKU?
wxm*ww&m;&dyfom ausmif;xdkifq&mawmftjzpf yihfzdwfjcif;cH&NyD; 0dyóemur®|mef;½IrSwf
enf;udk ñTefMum;jyoonf/ aEG&moDausmif;ydwf&ufrsm;ü vli,frsm;tm; Ak'¨bmom ,Ofaus;
rItajccHrsm;udk oifMum;ay;onf/
þw&m;&dyfomü oDwif;okH;pOf 1997 wGif bDat (bmomw&m;rsm; EIdif;,SOfavhvmrI)
bGJUESihf 1998 wGif qef[dkaq;pwdwf,leDAmpDwDrS trfat ('óeduaA') bGJUwdkYudk &&SdcJhonf/
1999 wGif q&mawmfonf umvDzdk;eD;,m;jynfe,f? z&D;armifh (Fremont) NrdKUü arwåmeE´
0d[m&"r®&dyfomtrnf&Sd ur®|mef;Xmetopfwpfck wnfaxmifcJhonf/ a,m*Dtopfrsm;ESihf
w&m;tm;xkwfNyD;a,m*Drsm;tm; 0dyóemur®|mef;udk qufvufoifMum;ay;NyD; vli,frsm;
tm; Ak'¨bmomtajccHoifwef;rsm; zGif;vSpfydkYcsay;onf/ q&mawmf\ &efukefNrdKU ig;usrf;jyef
omoemh&dyfomüvnf; ,if;vli,foifwef;enf;twdkif;yif ydkYcsay;onf/ omoemjyKvkyfief;
rsm;udk tm;oGefBudK;yrf;ae&if;uyif q&mawmfonf 2003 ckESpfwGif qefz&efppöudkNrdKU? umvD
zdk;eD;,m;odyÜHausmif; (California Institute) rS a'gufwmbGJUudk NyD;ajrmufatmifjrifcJhonf/
q&mawmf\ udk,fusKd;pGefYaqmif½GufrIaMumihf tar&duefjynfaxmifpk? jrefrmESihf tjcm;
aomEdkifiHrsm;rS w&m;tm;xkwfolrsm;pGmwdkY w&m;"r®tESpfom&udk cHpm;EdkifMuonf/

2
aemufausmzk H;

]..usrf;jyKolonf pmzwfoltm; rdrdESihftwl tvG,fwul ac:aqmifoGm;Edkif&ef &Sif;vif;NyD;


b0ifusavmufatmif a&;om;xm;onf ..} (q&mawmf OD;oDvmeE´\ trSmpmrS)

þavhvmcsufonf Ak'¨0g'DESihf Ak'¨0g'Dr[kwfol ynm&Sifrsm;\ edAÁmeft"dyÜm,faumuf,lykHrsm;


udk a0zefqef;ppf&ef BudK;yrf;rIjzpfonf/ Ak'¨0g'Dynm&SifwdkY\ usrf;pmrsm;rSm pmawGUESihf
vufawGUvnf;jzpfEdkifzG,f&Sdaom avhvmod&SdrIrSwpfqifh ygVdawmfusrf;*efrsm;udk tajccHonf
[k ,lqEdkifonf/ Ak'¨0g'Dr[kwfolrsm;\ usrf;pmrsm;rSmrl ¤if;wdkY\t,l0g'a&;&m ½IjrifrIESihf
'óeqdkif&m csOf;uyfenf;jzihf edAÁmeftaMumif;udkavhvmí em;vnfod&SdrItay:wGif rsm;pGm
tajccHEdkif zG,f&Sdonf/

odkYjzpfí azmfjyygyk*¾Kdvfrsm;\ edAÁmeft"dyÜm,fzGifhqdkrIrsm;ü taumif;jrifESihf tqdk;jrifazmfjy


csufrsm; yg0ifywfoufaeonf/ odkYwap þavhvmcsufonf ,if; Ak'¨0g'DESihf Ak'¨0g'Dr[kwfol
ynm&SifwdkY\ edAÁmeft"dyÜm,fzGifhqdkrIrsm;udk rSm;onf[kjzpfap rSefonf[kjzpfap azmfjy&ef rBudK;
yrf;acs/ wpfzefvnf; ygVdusrf;*efrsm;rSm rsm;jym;vSonhfjyif Ak'¨0g'pmay&if;jrpfrsm; aygrsm;
<u,f0vSojzihf þavhvmcsufü ygVdawmf? t|uxm? #Dum usrf;pmtm;vkH; jynfhjynhfpkHpkH
yg0ifEdkifjcif;r&Sdyg/

3
pmtjrKaw

þbGJU,lusrf;pmonf ygVdawmfusrf;*efrsm;rS edAÁmef,lqcsufudk cJGjcrf;pdwfjzmí a0zefqef;ppfaom avhvmrI


jzpfonf/ ygVdawmfvmenf;vrf;rsm;ESihf enf;rSefus ax&0g'Ak'¨bmom ur®|mef;½IrSwfrIrSwpfqifh &&Sdvmonhf
ur®|mef;tawGYtBuKH wdk;wufrIjzpfpOfwdkYudk pl;prf;xm;onf/ þusrf;\ t"du&nf½G,fcsufrSm Ak'0¨ g'DEiS hf
Ak'¨0g'Dr[kwfol ynm&Sifrsm; azmfjyqef;ppfcJhaom edAÁmeft"dyÜm,fzGifhqdkcsufrsm;udk &Sif;jy&efESihf vGwfajrmufrI
(0drkwåd) vrf;pOftay: ¤if;wdkY\½IjrifykHrsm;udk okH;oyf&efjzpfonf/ ygVdawmfusrf;*efrsm;ü rMumcP awGU&onfh
pepfwus edAÁmeft"dyÜm,f aumuf,lrIrsm; &Sdvifhupm; edAÁmef\ wdus (vufawGUazmfjyEdkif)aom t"dyÜm,fudk
Ak'¨0g'ü azmfjyxm;jcif; r&Sdacs/
þusrf;pmtwGuf udk;um;azmfjyrnfh &if;jrpfusrf;rsm;rSm ax&0g' yd#uwfokH;ykH? ,if;\tzGihf t|uxm
ESihf #Dumusrf;rsm;ESihf t"duoufqdkifonf/ edAÁmeft"dyÜm,fudk &Sif;jy&ef þavhvmrIü ygVdawmfusrf;*efqdkif&m
t"dyÜm,faumuf,lrIrsm;? ur®|mef;½lrSwfrI enf;vrf;rsm;? Ak'¨0g'qdkif&m ur®|mef;tm½kHrSwpfqihf awGUBuKHod&SdrI
rsm;? 'óeenf;vrf;rsm;ESihf pdwfynmqdkif&m cGJjcrf;pdwjf zmrIrsm; vdktyfonf/ edAÁmefudk&SmazGjcif;ü awG;ac:
tqdkjyKrIqdkif&medAÁmefESihf vufawGYedAÁmef[k yifr½IaxmifhESpf&yf yg&Sdrnfjzpfonf/ tqdkjyKedAÁmefonf &Sif;vif;
azmfjyrItajccHrS qif;oufNyD; vufawGYedAÁmefudk awGYBuKHxdk;xGif;odjrifrIjzihf qkH;jzwfonf/ þusrf;ü ur®|mef;
½IrSwfykHenf;vrf;ESihf 0dyóemynm pepfwuswdk;wufrIwdkYudk azmfjyxm;onf/ usrf;jyKolonf vufawGY ur®|mef;
½IrSwfonfhenf;vrf;rsm;udk tokH;jyKjcif;rSm 0dyóemynmESihf avmukwå&mr*ftm;jzihf ydkrdkxufjrufonhf xdk;xGif;
odjrifrItqifhudk &&SdEdkifaMumif; jyqdkonf/ wpfzefvnf; usrf;jyKolonf tqdkjyKrI (oDtkd&D) rsm;udkom avhvm
jcif;rSm edAÁmefudk vkH;0xdk;xGif;odjrif&ef rvkHavmufaMumif; wdkufwGef;xm;onf/ owdy|mefur®|mef; vufawGY
tm;xkwfrIrSm edAÁmefudk xdk;xGif;odjrif&ef rygrNyD; vdktyfonf/

4
q&mawmf OD;oDvmeE´\ rdwfqufpum;

OD;"r®yd,onf Ak'¨0g'wGif cufcJaomt&mjzpfonhf edAÁmeftaMumif; (okawoejyKcsuf)udk pGrf;pGrf;wrH aqmif


½GufvdkufNyDjzpfonf/ usrf;jyKolonf pmzwfoltm; rdrdESihftwl tvG,fwul ac:aqmifoGm;Edkif&ef &Sif;vif;NyD;
b0ifusavmufatmif a&;om;xm;onf/ ed'gef;pum;qdkNyD;aemuf ta&SUtaemufrS Ak'¨0g'DESifh Ak'¨0g'Dr[kwfol
rsm;\ edAÁmeft,ltqudk ½IaxmihfrsKd;pkHrS azmfjyonf/ xdkYjyif t*Fvdyfbmomjzihfr&Ekdifonhf a½Tusifq&mawmf?
v,fwDq&mawmf? awmifykvkq&mawmf? r[mpnfq&mawmf? q&mawmf OD;ao|dvESihf zm;atmufq&mawmf
uJhodkYaom jrefrmq&mawmfrsm;udkvnf; udk;um;azmfjyonf/ trSefyif edAÁmef[lonfudk Ak'¨bk&m;&Sifrsm;? yapöu
Ak'¨grsm;ESihf aAm"dÓPfudk&&SdNyD;jzpfonfh Ak'¨\wynhfom0ursm;om em;vnfEdkifonf/ obm0Oyrmwpfckqdk&rl
edAÁmef[lonf i½kyfoD;ESihf yrmwl\/ i½kyfoD;udk rpm;vQif odkY[kwf pm;onhftcsdefrwdkifrDtxd ,if;\t&omudk
rodEdkifay/ xdktwlyif edAÁmef[lonfudk vufawGYcHpm;zl;rSomvQif jynfhpkHpGm em;vnfEdkifonf/ odkYjzpfí aemuf
qkH;tcef;ü usrf;jyKolu pmzwfoltm; 0dyóemur®|mef; tm;xkwfrIrSwpfqihf edAÁmefodkY ac:aqmifoGm;jcif;jzpf
onf/ usrf;jyKolonf edAÁmefudkodjrifEdkifonhf enf;vrf;udkazmfjy&ef ax&0g'usrf;*efrsm;udk wdkuf½kduf udk;um;
azmfjyonf/ udk,fwdkifawGYBuKHrIjzihf xdk;xGif;íodjrifrSomvQif edAÁmefudkem;vnfvdrfhrnfjzpfonf/
OD;"r®yd,tm; þuJhodkY vdk&if;wdk&Sif;enf;jzifh edAÁmeftaMumif; azmfjyjcif;twGuf *kPfjyKtm;ay;oihfonf/
edAÁmeftaMumif;udk em;vnfvdkolrsm;taejzihf þusrf;pmudk zwf½Ií tusKd;rsm;pGm jzpfEdkifonf[k bkef;BuD; arQmf
vihfygonf/

OD;oDvmeE´
ygarmu©csKyf
tjynfjynfqdkif&m ax&0g'Ak'¨omoemjyK wuúodkvf
"r®ygvukef;ajr? r&rf;ukef;pmwdkuf? &efukefNrdKU/
2004 ckESpf? Zefe0g&D 14 &uf/

5
bmomjyefol\ oabmxm;

þusrf;pmudk jrefrmjyefNyD;aomtcg auseyfESpfoufjcif; tm;&0rf;omjcif;wdkYudk cHpm;&onf/ taMumif;rl usrf;


jyKq&mawmfonf av;eufcufcJonhf taMumif;t&mwpf&yfudk pmzwfolauseyfavmufonhf tajctaeodkY
a&mufatmif ½IaxmihfpkHcsOf;uyfí zGifhqdk&Sif;jyEdkifaomaMumihfjzpfonf/ edAÁmeft,ltqudk jyqdk&mü em*&ZÆKe?
to*FESifh 0okAE¨KuJhodkYaom xif&Sm;vSonhf a&S;acwf r[m,meAk'¨0g'D ynmausmfrsm;ESihf vmaAmvDyl&Sif (La
Vallee Poussin)? pwDAifaumvif;pf (Steven Collins) ESifh rmufpf rlvm (Max Muller) paom ta&SUtaemufrS
acwfopf Ak'¨0g'DESihfAk'¨0g'Dr[kwfolrsm;\ t,ltqrsm;yg0ifonf/ edAÁmefa0g[m&udk cGJjcrf;pdwfjzm&mü ax&0g'
ygVdawmfrsm;ESihf t|uxmusrf;rsm;rS aumufEkwfcsufrsm;udk acwfrD xl;jcm;onhf[efjzihf awG;jrifxm;onf/
þusrf;ü ax&0g'Ak'¨bmom tajccH,kHMunfcsuftm;vkH;jzihf csOf;uyfí edAÁmeft"dyÜm,fudk em;vnfatmif
zGifhqdkonf/ wpfenf;tm;jzihf þusrf;onf edAÁmeftaMumif;okawoejyKcsuf jzpfaomfvnf; Ak'¨0g'tajccH
,kHMunfcsuftm;vkH;udk þusrf;üawGU&onf/ Ak'¨0g'DwdkYonf wrvGefb0ESihf arG;aooHo&mudk ,kHMunfMuonf/
,if;ESihfpyfí uHav;rsKd;? vm;&m*wdig;rsKd;ESihf aocgeD;edrdwfxifrIwdkYudk acwfopfokawoDwdkY\tqdkESihf ,SOfjy
onf/ Ak'¨0g't& þb0aemufwGif owå0gwpfa,muftaejzihf aexkdif&ef ae&mXmeokH;q,hfwpfrsKd;&Sdonf/
þwGif xdkxdkbkHXmewdkYü jzpfEdkifaomyk*¾KdvftrsKd;rsKd; (bkHyk*¾Kdvf&)? i&JBuD;&Spfxyfqif;&JykHtygt0if okH;q,hfwpfbkH
taMumif;ESihf urÇmavmupwifykHESihfqdkifaom Ak'¨0g'usrf;*eftqdkudk acwfopfodyÜHq&mwdkY\t,ltq txl;
ojzihf r[maygufuGJrI (Big Bang) oDtdk&DESihf ñSdjyykHrSm pdwf0ifpm;zG,f aumif;onf/ edAÁmef[lonf xdkbkHXme
okH;q,fhwpfrsKd;rS vGwfajrmufaomw&m;xl; jzpfaMumif;udk azmfjyvdkjcif;jzpfonf/
rdrdwdkY\tjyKtrludktajccHí xdkxdkbkHXme aumif;qdk;r[lwdkYü xyfcgxyfcg jzpf&jcif;rSm qif;&Jonf/ qif;&J
vsuf ,if;odkYjzpfae&jcif;um; t0dZÆm(rodjcif;) wPSm(wyfrufjcif;) taMumif;ESpf&yfaMumihfwnf;/ ,if;odkY
y#dpöorkyÜg'fenf;jzihf taMumif;aMumihfjzpf&aom tusKd;w&m;puf0ef;vnfykHudk &Sif;jyonf/ taMumif;w&m; csKyf
aomf ,if;puf0ef; &yfpJvdrfhrnf/ ,if;aMumif;usKd;jzpfpOf &yfpJjcif;um; 'ku©Nidrf;&m edAÁmefyifwnf;/ ,if; edAÁmef
[lonfudk emrfw&m;rQom&Sdonhf t½lybkHrS tem*grf? &[EÅmyk*¾KdvfwdkY eda&m"ormywf 0ifpm;cdkufESihfwlaMumif;
usrf;*efrS xkwfí azmfjyonf/ eda&m"ormywftckdufwGif emrfw&m;ESifh xGufav0ifav (&SdvQif)wdkY csKyfonf/
edAÁmef[laom razmufrjyefrSefuefonhf w&m;xl;onf avmuDe,fudkvGefí avmukwå&mydkifeuftwGif;
üom wnf&Sdonf/ xdkYaMumihf avuDe,füom&Sdao;olrsm;onf BuHpnfrSef;qjcif; pOf;pm;awG;awmjcif;wdkYjzihf
edAÁmefudk oabmraygufEkdifbJ avmukwå&me,ftwGif;odkY 0ifa&mufEdkifolrsm;om edAÁmefudk odjrifEdkifayvdrhfrnf/
avmukwå&me,fodkY a&muf&efum; 0dóemur®|mef;udk vufawGUtm;xkwf&rnf/ ,if;odkdYtm;xkwf&mü usrf;jyK
yk*¾Kdvfudk,fwdkifu ur®|mef;enf;jyjzpfonhftwdkif; r*¾if;&Spfyg;yGm;rsm;ykH 0dok'¨dckepfyg;jzihf pdwfudk pifMu,fatmif
vkyfykHwdkYudk ykdifEdkifpGm &Sif;jyxm;onf/
usrf;jyKyk*¾Kdvfonf vufawGUorxur®|mef;½IrSwfrIjzihf psmefw&m;udk&&SdykH? ,if;psmefw&m;wdkYudk 0oDabmf
(uRrf;usifrI) ig;rsKd;jzifh 0ifpm;EdkifykHwdkYudk &Sif;jyonf/ psmefrSwpfqifh 0dyóemodkYul;ajymif;íjzpfap cPduorm"d
jzihf 0dyóemyGm;rsm;íjzpfap 0dyómemÓPfESifh ÓPfpOfrsm;&&SdykH? aemufqkH;r*fÓPfzdkvfÓPfwdkYjzihf oHa,m
ZOfrsm;udk y,fNyD;aemuf edAÁmefudk odjrifykHwdkYudk aphpyfaocsmpGm zGifhqdkEdkifpGrf;&Sdonf/
bmom&yfudk uRrf;usifNyD; aphpyfaocsmonfh ygarmu©rsm; ynm&Sifrsm; tBudKufa&;&ojzihf usrf;udk;ao
csmrI? udk;um;csufESihf t"dyÜm,fzGifhqdkykHvdkufzufrIwdkYrSm þusrf;\*kPf&nfudk ydkíwdk;jrifhaponf/ þusrf;jzihf
Ak'¨0g'DwdkY\yef;wdkifjzpfaom ]edAÁmef w&m;awmfjrwf}\ t"dyÜm,fudk wpfaphwpfapmif; em;vnfoGm;Edkif&mygonf/

t&Sifauvmo
0gacgifvjynhf? arwåmtcgawmfaeY? 1366 (Mo*kwf 30? 2004)ckESpf/

6
aus;Zl;pum;

þusrf;pmNyD;ajrmufa&;twGuf yef;wdkifodkYta&muf ulnDcJhMuolrsm;tm; aus;Zl;pum; ajymMum;vdkygonf/


,if;wdkY\ tnDtnDrygbJ þusrf;pm tcsdefrD NyD;ajrmuf&ef rjzpfEdkifay/ þbGJU,lusrf;pm wdk;wufNyD;pD;rIudk
Munfhjcif;jzihf yef;wdkifodkYa&mufonftxd tzdk;wefvSonhf tBuHÓPfay;rIrsm;ESihf wpfenf;enf;jzihf MuifempGm
ulnDtm;ay;cJhMuaom yk*¾Kdvfrsm;tm; vIdufvSJpGm *kPfjyKygonf/
yxrOD;pGm usrf;jyKyk*¾Kdvftm; Ak'¨0g'avhvmrIwGif ryifryef; aumif;rGefpGm oifMum;ay;MuNyD;? bmom
w&m; todÓPfESihf b0tawG;tjrif wdk;wufrIwdkYtwGufta&;ygonhf vufawGUur®|mef;w&m; tm;xkwfrIudk
oihfwihfavsmufywfpGm vrf;ñTefrIay;vsuf bmoma&;b0tay: MoZmanmif;cJhMuaom jrefrmq&mawmfrsm;
tm; aus;Zl;pum; qdkygonf/ avsmufywfpGm vrf;ñTefay;rI? bmomw&m;qdkif&m Mo0g'ESihf MuifemrIay;cJhMu
aom q&mt&Sifrsm;rSm q&mawmfOD;tmpm&mbd0Ho (jrefrm)? q&mawmf OD;y@dwmbd0Ho (jrefrm)? q&mawmf
t&SifoDvmeE´mbd0Ho (USA)ESihf jrefrmEdkifiHrS q&mawmfrsm;jzpfygonf/ &[ef;b0ESihf y&d,wådpmay avhvm
oifMum;rIwGif azmfjyygq&mawmfrsm;\ oifMum;jyorIr&SdbJ þedAÁmeftaMumif; acgif;pOfjzifh usrf;pmjyKpk&ef
,kHMunfcsuf&SdcJhrnf r[kwfacs/
xdkYjyif umvDzdk;eD;,m;odyÜHrS ygarmu© &Dem qD&fum&f (Prof. Rina Sircar) trsKd;orD;\ Muifemtm;ay;rIESihf
¤if;\ ax&0g'Ak'¨bmompmayqdkif&m pmayESihfvufawGY uRrf;usifwwfajrmufrIudk aus;Zl;wif&rnfjzpfonf/
wpfzef ,if;odyÜHausmif;rSyif ygarmu© pwDAif *G'frif (Prof. Steven Goodman) \ uRrf;usifvdr®mrIESifh ñSmwm
axmufxm;jcif;wdkYjzihf ESpfoufzG,f tBuHÓPfay;rI? qef[dkaq; pwdwf,leDAmpDwDrS ygarmu© c&pöwdef *sKd;csdrf;
(Prof. Christian Jochim) \ rSwfom;zG,f jznfhpGuftm;ay;rIESihf aMumif;usKd;qDavsmfonfh wdkufwGef;rIwdkYudkvnf;
txl;trSwf&ygonf/ azmfjyygyk*¾KdvfwdkY\ tultnDrygbJ þusrf;pm yef;wdkifodkY a&mufrnfr[kwfay/
xdkYjyifvnf; umvDzdk;eD;,m;odyÜHrSyif þtu,f'rpfusrf;pmNyD;ajrmufa&;twGuf jzpfEdkifaomenf;vrf;jzihf
Muifemaom tMuHÓPf? tm;ay;ulnDrI ay;cJhMuaom ygarmu©rsm;? tBuHay;olrsm;ESihf ¤if;wdkY\tzGJY0ifrsm;
jzpfMuonhf ygarmu© *sifrf ½kdif,ef (Prof. Jim Ryan)? ygarmu© ,D0l (Prof. Yi Wu)? tJefeD xdcsf (Anne Teich, Ph.D)?
umvDzdk;eD;,m;odyÜHpmMunhfwdkuf ñTefMum;a&;rª;ygarmu© Amref &SD&mZD (Prof. Bahman Shirazi)? ,if;odyÜHrS ½nf
ñTef;usrf;ESihf uwfwavmufa&;&m yl;aygif;aqmif½Gufolrsm;ESihf pmMunhfwdkufrª;rsm;? OD;rsKd;ausmfjrihf (San Jose)
ESihf qpfpf qm&m rwfcfpf (Sis. Sarah Marks, San Jose) wdkYtm;vnf; rSwfwrf;wifygonf/ xkdyk*¾dKvfrsm;\ udk,f
wdkifulnDrIESihf yk*¾Kdvfa&;ESihf pdwfydkif;qkdif&m tm;ay;rIwdkYrSm usrf;jyKoludka&m usrf;jyKol\avhvmrItwGufyg
trSefwu,f cGeftm;jzpfapNyD; tusKd;&Sdojzihf aus;Zl;wifxkdufolrsm;jzpfygonf/
aemufqkH;taejzihf þbGJU,lusrf;pmavhvmrItwGuf aiGaMu;ESihf pdwf"mwfa&;&mtm;jzihf axmufyHhcJh
Muaom Ak'¨bmomolawmfpifrsm;ESihf þusrf;pmESihf ywfoufoa½GU aus;Zl;wifxdkufolrsm;tm; vIdufvSJ0rf;om
pGm aus;Zl;wifygonf/ ¤if;wdkY\ axmufyHhvª'gef;rI? Muifemtm;ay;rIwdkrY &SdbJ þokawoepmwrf; jzpfrvm
Edkifay/ ¤if;wdkYonf þavhvmrIvkyfief;udk NyD;ajrmufatmifaqmif½Guf&mwGif vG,u f lacsmrGwfa&;twGuf ulnD
cJhMuonf/ þavhvmrItwGuf aemufqkH; odkYaomf tenf;qkH;r[kwfonfh MuifemrI? tm;ay;axmufyHhrIESihf
jrwfEdk;rI ay;cJhMuolrsm;onfvnf; þusrf;pmjyKpkol\ teufeJqkH; pdwf"mwfa&;&m cGeftm;rsm;jzpfaMumif;
azmfjyvdkygonf/

7
usrf;udk; twdkaumufrSwfcsuf

A Atthakathā
Ab Abhidhamma-Pitaka
Ab-S Abhidhammattha-sangaha
Ab-S-N Abhidhammattha-sangaha nissaya
Ab-T Abhiddhammattha (sangaha) vibhāvinī-tīka
Ab-B-T Abhidhammattha (sangaha) bhāsa-tīka
Ac-Ab A Comprehensive Manual of Abhidhamma by Bhikhu Bodhi
An-N Anguttara-Nikāya (Vols. I, II, II)
Ap Apadāna
Be Burmese script deitation of PALI Texts (Burma)
BD Buddhist Dictionary, by Nyānatiloka
BPS Buddhist Publication Society (Sri Lanka)
Ch-CD Chattha Sangāyanā CD-ROM: Version 3
Cu Culaniddesa
Dha Dhammapada
Dha-A Dhammasanganī-atthakathā
Di-N Dīghha-Nikāya (Vols. I, II , III)
Di-N-NT A New Translation of the Digha Nikāya, WP
G-M-Ni Gambhīrāgamghira-Mhanibbuta-Dīpanī
It Itivuttaka
Ka Kathāvatthu
Kh-N Khuddaka-Nikāya
Kh-T Khuddaka-tīka
Ma-N Majjhima-Nikāya (Vols. I, II, III)
Aa-N-NT A New Translation of the Majjhima Nikāya, WP
Ma-P-D Mhavagga PALI, Dīgha-Nikāya
Ma-P-V Mahvgga PALI, Vinaya Pitaka
Ne Netti-Pali
Ni-B-F Nirvana and Other Buddhist Felicities
Ni-Di Nibbāna-Dipani
Pa Pariva-Pāli
Pa-ED Pali English Dictionary; PTS, London, 1986.
Pa-Ni Paradox and Nirvana
Pat Patismbhidāmagga
PED Pāli English Dictionary (PTS)
PTS Pali Text Society (Oxford, England)
Pu Pugaalapannatti-Pāli
Q-Mi Qestion of King Milinda (Translation fo Milinda-panna, Be)
Sa-N Samyutta-Nikāya (Vols. I, II, III)
Sa-N-NT A New Traslation of the Samyutta Nikāya Vols. I& II, WP
T Tīkā
Ud Udāna-Pali
Vi-M Visuddhimagga (Vols. I& II, Be)
Vi-M Tran. The Path of Purification, BPS
Vi-P Vinaya-Pitaka (Vols. I, II, III)
Vm Translation of Vimuttimagga, BPS
WP Wisdom Publication (Boston)

rSwfcsuf/ / ygVdawmfrsm;ESihft|uxmusrf;udk;rsm;rSm jrefrmtu©&mjzihfykHESdyfxm;onfh usrf;pmrludk ½nf½G,fonf/

8
rmwdum

pmtjrKaw ... ... ... ... 4


q&mawmfOD;oDvmeE´\ rdwfquf ... ... ... ... 5
bmomjyefol\ oabmxm; ... ... ... ... 6
aus;Zl;pum; ... ... ... ... 7
usrf;udk; twdkaumufrSwfcsuf ... ... ... ... 8

tcef; 1 ed'gef;
a&S;OD; Ak'¨bmomorkdif; tajccH ... ... ... 14
edAÁmefavhvmcsuf enf;rSefust,ltq ... ... ... 18
þokawoejyKrI\ vdk&if;tcsKyf ... ... ... 29

tcef; 2 ½IaxmifhrsKd;pkHrS edAÁmeft,ltq


edAÁmeyk'f\a0g[m&&if;jrpf ... ... ... 24
edAÁmefESihf a&S;OD;Ak'¨0g' t,ltq ... ... ... 25
ygVdawmfvm edAÁmeft"dyÜm,f zGifhqdkcsufrsm; ... ... ... 29
edAÁmeft"dyÜm,f t|uxmzGifhqdkcsufrsm; ... ... ... 30
ax&0g'r[kwfaom Ak'¨0g'Dynm&SifwdkY\ edAÁmeft,ltq ... 33
Ak'¨0g'DESihf Ak'¨0g'Dr[kwfol ynm&Sifrsm;\ edAÁmeft"dyÜm,fzGifhqdkcsufrsm; ... 36
usrf;*efvm enf;vrf;rsm;jzifh edAÁmefudk em;vnfjcif; ... ... 38

tcef; 3 b0 (jzpfwnfrI)ESihf 0db0 (jzpfwnfrIr&Sdjcif;)


b0 (jzpfwnfrI) [lonf tb,fenf; ... ... ... 40
ouf&SdwdkYtwGuf bkHXmet,ltq ... ... ... 43
Ak'¨0g' pMu0Vm t,ltq ... ... ... 48
urÇmavmupwifykH ,lqcsufESpf&yf ... ... ... 52
'k*¾wdbkH wnf&Sdjcif; ... ... ... ... 56
ok*wdbkH wnf&Sdjcif; ... ... ... ... 57
touf&Sifjcif;ESihf aojcif;wdkY\ tusKd;qufrsm; ... ... ... 59
aojcif;w&m;udk wnfNidrfpGm &ifqdkifjcif; ... ... ... 61

tcef; 4 edAÁmefwnf&SdrIudk cGJjcrf;pdwfjzmavhvmjcif;


edAÁmef wnf&Sdygoavm ... ... ... 67
edAÁmef[lonf tb,fenf; ... ... ... 70
edAÁmefonf rnfonhfae&mü wnf&Sdoenf; ... ... ... 72
edAÁmeftrsKd;tpm; rnfrQ&Sdoenf; ... ... ... 75
edAÁmef[lonf tvkH;pkH csrf;ajrUaomt&mavm ... ... ... 79
edAÁmefonf oHo&mü &Sdoavm ... ... ... 80
edAÁmefESihfywfoufí a0zefrIrsm; ... ... ... 84
&[EÅmyk*¾Kdvfrsm;twGuf edAÁmefonf wnf&Sd\ ... ... ... 86

9
tcef; 5 0drkwådudk OD;wnfonhf ur®|mef;bm0em
Ak'¨0g'\vGwfajrmufrI (0drkwåd) t,ltq ... ... ... 88
Ak'¨0g'ur®|mef;½IrSwfrI\ &nf½G,fcsuf ... ... ... 92
tajccH Ak'¨0g'ur®|mef; xkdifenf;rsm; ... ... ... 93
tmemygeur®|mef;jzihf psmefw&m;udk &&Sdjcif; ... ... ... 95
0dyóemur®|mef;jzihf ÓPftjrifudk&Sdjcif; ... ... ... 96
0dyóemur®|mef;ü 0dok'¨dckepfyg; ... ... ... 100
aemufqkH; edAÁmefudkodjrifjcif; ... ... ... ... 103
ed*kH;rSwfcsufrsm; ... ... ... ... 107

aemufqufwGJ (u) ... ... ... ... 110


aemufqufwGJ (c) ... ... ... ... 113
ygVdtbd"mefi,f ... ... ... ... 115
usrf;udk;pm&if; (Bibliography) ... ... ... ... 121

10
tcef; 1

ed'gef;

tbd"r®m[kac:onhf Ak'¨0g'qdkif&m tawG;tac:wGif edAÁmef[lonf tocFw"r®tppftrSefjzpfonf/ tocFw


"r®tppftrSefjzpfívnf; ,if;tppftrSefw&m;udk a0zefokH;oyf&jcif;jzpfonf/ ,if;tppftrSefw&m;ESihf ywf
oufí t"dyÜm,ftrsKd;rsKd;ESihf ½IyfaxG;onhf zGifhqdkcsuftaxGaxGaMumihf aemufqkH;wGif edAÁmeft,ltqonf
Ak'¨0g'ü xif&Sm;onhftaMumif;t&mjzpfvmonf/ þavhvmcsufonf Ak'¨0g'üazmfjyonhf edAÁmeft,ltqESihf
,if;tm; a&S;OD;acwf t"dyÜm,fzGifhqkdrIudk pl;prf;jcif;jzpfonf/ tqdkyg a&S;OD;acwf t"dyÜm,fzGifhqdkrIrsm;ü a0zef
aqG;aEG;zG,ftcsufrsm; yg&Sdaeonf/ oDtkd&DtqdktrdefYESihf vufawGUusifhpOfudk tajccHí þpmwrf;onf edAÁmef
\a&S;OD;acwf t"dyÜm,fzGifhqdkcsuftm; ,if;zGihfqdkcsufESihf qufEG,fonfh enf;vrf;rsm;udk tokH;jyKvsuf OD;wnf
avhvmjcif;jzpfonf/ ygVd ]edAÁme}? ouúw ]ae&fAme}\ t"dyÜm,fudk orkdif;? ygVdpmayESihf,kwådenf;us tcsuf
tvufrsm;rS&&Sdonfh t,ltqtusOf;csKyfudk ygVdESihfjrefrmpmay &nfñTef;usrf;rsm;ESihfonD avhvm&ef &nf½G,f
onf/ þavhvmcsuf\ t"dutpdwftydkif;onf ygVdawmf? t|uxmESihf #Dumusrf;rsm; txl;ojzihf jrefrm
EdkifiH ax&0g'Ak'¨bmomudk &nfñTef;udk;um;í edAÁmef\ t"dyÜm,fzGifhqdkrIudk pkHprf;avhvmrnfjzpfonf/ odkYwap
tcsKdUaom taemufwdkif;Ak'¨pmayrS t"dyÜm,fzGifhqdkrIrsm;udkvnf; xnhfoGif;tm;jznfhxm;onf/ þ okawoejyK
rI\ &nf½G,fcsufrSm vufawGY odkYr[kwf tawGUtMuKH½IaxmifhrS edAÁmef\ usrf;*efxGuft"dyÜm,fudk pkHprf;&SmazG
&efjzpfonf/ awG;ac:ajrmfjrifrIqdkif&m tajccHrsm;udkvnf; aqG;aEG;xm;onf/ xdkYjyif a&S;a[mif; Ak'¨bmom
usrf;pmrsm;\ t"dyÜm,fzGifhqdkcsufESihf Ak'¨bmom0ifESihf Ak'¨bmom0ifr[kwfol ynm&Sifrsm;\,lqcsufrsm;udk
tqifhjrihf odyÜHenf;us cGJjcrf;pdwfjzmí avhvmrnfjzpfonf/
trSefaomf ordkif;pOft& tqifhrD t"dyÜm,fzGihfqdkcsufrsm;onf edAÁmef[lonf rnfodkYaomt&mjzpfonf [l
aomtcsufudk &Sif;vif;pGmem;vnf&ef rvkHavmufbJ&do S nf/ yxrtaMumif;rSm ¤if;wdkYtokH;jyKonfh bmom
pum;\ uefYowfcsufaMumihfjzpfNyD; 'kwd,taMumif;rSm usrf;jyKolrsm;udk,fwkdif edAÁmef\t"dyÜm,fudk zGihfqdkEdkif&ef
vkHavmufonhf usihfBuHtm;xkwfrI r&SdaomaMumifhjzpfEdkifonf/ rnfonhf Ak'¨0g'tpOftvmwGifrS wdusonhf
edAÁmeft"dyÜm,f ed*kH;aumufcsufudk azmfjyrxm;ay/ a,bk,stm;jzihf edAÁmeft,ltqESihfywfoufí xif&Sm;onhf
Ak'¨0g'tpOftvmrsm;twGif;? tpOftvmwpfckwnf;rSmyif wlnDaomajz&Sif;csuf wpfpkHwpf&mudk rawGY&ojzihf
tjcm;bmomw&m;rsm;u edAÁmefudk rnfodkY,lqonf[kqdk&efyif rjzpfEkdifawmhacs/ odkY&mwGif edAÁmef\t"dyÜm,f
ay:vGifap&ef ,ciftqihfjrihf t"dyÜm,fzGifhqdkcsufrsm;udka&m ygVdawmfusrf;*efrsm;\ zGifhqdkcsufrsm;udkyg þ
avhvmcsufü pl;prf;rnfjzpfonf/ edAmÁ ef[lonf rnfonhft&mjzpfaMumif; trSeftwdkif; qkH;jzwf&ef vkHavmuf
pGm r&Sif;vif;EkdifMuaomaMumihf Ak'¨bmomr[kwfol ynm&SiftcsKdUu edAÁmefudk ]ew¬du0g' = b0qkH;jywf csKyfNidrf;
0g'} tjzpf t"dyÜm,fzGifhqdk&ef BudK;yrf;cJhMuonf/ Ak'¨bmom0if r[kwfol ygVdynm&Sif rmufpf rlvm (Max Muller,
1823-1900)u edAÁmef[lonf ]b0qkH;jywfcsKyfNidrf;0g'} jzpfonf[k t"dyÜm,faumuf,lcJhonf/ ¤if;tqdkt& edAÁmef
1
[lonf vkH;0 b0csKyfNidrf;jywfpJoGm;jcif;xufydkí bmrQtxl;t"dyÜg,fr&Sd[k qdkonf / odkY&mwGif tqdkyg b0csKyf
jywfoGm;rI0g'rSm Ak'¨0g'\rl&if;&nf½G,fcsuf r[kwfacs/ ¤if;\ t,ltqrSm Ak'¨0g'ESihf rsm;pGm qefYusifae
aMumif; awGY&onf/
rmufpf rlvmESihfrwlbJ Ak'¨bmomynm&Sif vm aAmvD yl&Sif (La Vallee Poussing, 1866-1962) u ]]edAÁmef
[lonf ]b0qkH;jywfcsKyfNidrf;0g'} jzpfonf[laomtqdkrSm a&S;OD;Ak'¨0g'r[kwfaMumif; uREfkyfwdkY 0efcH&rnf/ ,if;
onf Ak'¨\rlv&nf½G,fcsufr[kwfbJ aemufxGift"dyÜm,f jzpfonf/ ousrkedAk'¨ (odkYr[kwf bk&m;ausmif;) onf
1
Guy Richard Welbon, The Buddhist Nirvana and Its Western Interpreters (Chicago: the University of Chicago Press, 1968), 133.

11
,if;odkYaom vGwfajrmufrIjzihf pwifcJhonfr[kwfay/ tqdkyg t,ltqrSm ¤if; (odkYr[kwf ¤if;wdkY) taejzihf
2
twåvdyfjymaumifwnf&SdrIudk jiif;qdkEkdifatmif taqmwvsif ,lqcJhjcif;jzpfonf}}[k a&;cJhonf / yl&Sifonf
rmufpfrlvm\ usrf;pmüazmfjyonhf edAÁmef[lonf ]b0qkH;jywfcsKyfNidrf;0g'} tqdkrSm;,Gif;aMumif; awGU&SdNyD; ,if;
ESihfrwlbJ usihfMuHtm;xkwfaeol Ak'¨bmomwpfa,muf\ ½IaxmihfrSaeí edAÁmef[lonfudk ]Nidrf;csrf;onhf ae&m
Xme}tjzpf ,lqcJhonf/ odkYwdkifatmifvnf; yl&Siftvdkt& edAÁmeft"dyÜm,fudkazmfjy&ef vkHavmufonhf pum;vkH;
r&Sdacs/ ¤if;u edAÁmeft,ltqudk atmufygtwdkif; txl;jyKazmfjycJhonf –

edAÁmefyk'f\ twdusqkH;ESihf tcdkifvkHqkH; t"dyÜm,fzGifhqdkcsufrSm b0qkH;jywfcsKyfNidrf;oGm;jcif; r[kwfacs/


3
t<uif;rJhvGwfajrmufrI? rnfonfht&mESihfrQ azmfñTef;cGihfr&Sdonhf vGwfajrmufrIjzpfonf /

yl&Sif\ cGJjcrf;pdwfjzmrIt& rl&if; tdE´d,Ak'¨0g'tvdk edAÁmeft"dyÜm,f&Sif;vif;csufonf awG;jrif,lqrI


odkYr[kwf oDtdk&Dt& MuHqrIwdkYtay: rwnfrSDbJ ,if;ajz&Sif;csuf\ vdktyfcsuftjzpf vufawGYcsOf;uyfrI tay:
üomwnfrSDaMumif; azmfjycJhonf/ yl&Sifu ,kHMunfpGmqdkcJhonfrSm ]edAÁmeftaMumif;avhvmcsufonf ,if;\
tajzü rwnfrSDacs/ ,if;jyóemudk jrihfwufapcJhonhf t½IyftaxG;wGif yg0ifjcif;r&SdbJ edAÁmef\ jzpfEdkifzG,f
4
aMumif;usKd;nDñGwfaom ordkif;tawG;udk vG,fulpGm wnfaqmufEdkifonf }[k a&;cJhonf/ yl&SifuJhodkYyif oDtdk'dk
pcsmAmpuD (Theodore Stcherbastsky, 1866-1942) onf Ak'¨bmomynm&Sifwpfa,mufjzpfaomfvnf; ¤if;\
trnfudk taemufwdkif; y&dowftaejzihf tuRrf;r0ifbJ&SdEdkifonf/ odkY&mwGif taemufwdkif;om;rsm;taejzihf
¤if;\ cGJjcrf;pdwfjzm pOf;pm;qifjcifxm;onhf tawG;tjrifrsm;udk aus;Zl;wif&rnfjzpfonf/ ¤if;\ a0zefokH;oyf
csufrsm;udk ¤if;a&; om;onhf ]Ak'¨0g'edAÁmeftjrif (The Conception of Buddhist Nirvana)} usrf;pmü zwf½IEkdifonf/
¤if;txl;jyK azmfjyxm;onfrSm ]vGwfajrmufrIvrf;pOftaejzihf Ak'¨0g'\t"du&nf½G,fcsufudk qufwdkufjzpf
ysufaeonhf "r®tcdkuftwHhrsm;\ jzpfpOftm; xdef;csKyfxm;rItjzpf ½Ijrifonf/ taemufwdkif; t"dyÜm,fzGifhqdkol
trsm;pktzdkY oHo,jzihf zGifhqdkcJhMuykH&onhf b0jzpfwnfrIonf 'ku©opömjzpf\[laom xif&Sm;onhf Ak'¨0g' opöm
w&m;onf pcsmAmpuD\azmfjycsufwGif taumif;qkH;aoma0g[m&zvS,frI wpf&yfjzpfvmonf/ taMumif;rl
5
¤if;u 'ku©yk'fudk 0rf;enf;pdwfysufjcif;[k bmomrjyefbJ rwnfrNidrfjzpfrI[k bmomjyefcJhaomaMumifhwnf; } [l
íjzpfonf/ edAÁme[laoma0g[m&ESihfywfoufí yl&Sifu atmufygtwkdif; qdkcJhonf-

tdE´d,(ynm&Sif)rsm;onf tcsuftvufESihf tawG;tjrif? tawG;tjrifESihf pum;vkH;rsm;tMum; &Sif;vif;


onhf jcm;em;csufwpf&yfudk rjyKvkyfcJhMuay/ ¤if;wdkYonf ½IyfaxG;rI\tajccHudk vkH;0 &Sif;vif;pGm tod
trSwf rjyKcJhMuay/ Ak'¨0g'aqG;aEG;rIonf tudkif;av;ckygonfh tajzrJhjyqdkjcif;rsKd;jzpfonf – edAÁmefonf
wnf&Sd\ odkYr[kwf rwnf&Sd odkYr[kwf wnf&Sdrwnf&SdEpS frsKd;vkH; odkYr[kwf wnf&Sdonfvnf;r[kwf rwnf&Sd
6
onfvnf; r[kwf /

þudpöESihfywfoufí edAÁmef[laoma0g[m&udk ½kyfvGef½IaxmifhrS jiif;qdkEdkifonf/ ]edAÁmefonf r&Sdyg}[l


aom0gusü jiif;qdkcsufavm? trSefaomf jiif;qdkcsufum;r[kwf/ taMumif;rl Ak'¨0g'\rlv&nf½G,fcsufonf
7
jiif;qdkcsufr[kwfaomaMumifhwnf;/ Adbled tufpf ,m'Af(Bibhuni S.Yadav) u atmufygtwdkif; jiif;qdkcJhonf–

2
Ibid, 276.
3
Ibid, 277.
4
Ibid, 280.
5
Ibid, 289-290.
6
K.N. Jayatileke, Early Buddhist Theory of Knowledge (1963; reprint, Delhi; Motilal Banarsiedss Publisher, 1998), 333.
7
Adblwd tufpf ,m'Af (Ph. D., Banaras Hinwdu University) onf wrfy,fvfwuúodkvf (TempleUniversity) bmoma&;Xme
vufaxmuf ygarmu© jzpfonf/ ¤if;\aqmif;yg;rsm;udk Indian Philosophical Jounal wGif ykHESdyfazmfjycJhonf/
12
½kyfvGefynmonf enf;vrf;usonhf pdwful;,OfrI? wnf&Sdonf[kqdkjcif;jzihf wnf&SdvdkrIudk ½IyfaxG;aponhf
ud&d,mwefqmyvm wpfckjzpfonf---½kyfvGef awG;ac:rIonf wnf&Sdonf rwnf&Sd[laom ,kwådqifjcifrI?
8
wpfpHkwpfckonf wnf&Sd\ odkYwnf;r[kwf rwnff&Sd[lonfudk jiif;qdkjcif;ESihf qufEG,fonf /

edAÁmet,ltqtwGif ],if;onf wnf&Sdvsuf rwnf&Sd (&Sdvsufr&Sd)} [laom0gusü 'Gd[t"dyÜm,f yg&Sdae


ojzihf þt"dyÜm,favm xdkt"dyÜm,favm[lonfudk vG,fulpGm em;rvnfEdkifacs/ odkYjzihf edAÁmef\ &Sif;vif;onhf
t"dyÜm,fzGifhqdkcsufonf Ak'¨bmom0ifr[kwfonfh a&S;OD;Ak'¨bmom ynm&SifwdkYtm; r,kHMunfvdkonfh oHo,
rsm;udk jzpfay:aponf/
]edAÁmefESihf tjcm;Ak'¨0g' O'gef;rsm; (Nirvana and other Buddhist Felicities)} pmtkyf tygt0if usrf;pmtrsm;
tjym;a&;om;cJhol acwfopf Ak'¨bmomynm&Sif pwDAifaumvif;pf (Steven Collins)url tjcm;enf;vrf;jzifh
edAÁmef\t"dyÜg,fudk zGifhqdk&ef BudK;pm;cJhonf/ odkY&mwGif aumvif;pfonf xm0&wnf&Sdjcif;ESihf xm0&rwnf&Sd
jcif;t,ltqrsm;udk ajz&Sif;jcif;rjyKcJhacs/ ¤if;onf edAÁmefudk pdwful;,Of edAÁmeftjzpf,lqcJhonf/ qdkvdkonfrSm
¤if;onf edAÁmef\o½kyfoP²mefudk NrdKUawmftjzpf ,lqvdkcJhonf/ edAÁmef\ tajctaeudk ½kyfe,fudkausmfvGef
9
aomtjrif? Ak'¨0g'ESihfoufqdkifonhf xl;jcm;onhf"r®? Ak'¨0g'\ tqkH;pGef&&SdrItjzpf ñTefjycJhonf /
Ak'¨bmomr[kwfolrsm;tzdkY edAmÁ ef[lonf a&S;OD;Ak'¨bmom[k ac:wGifonhf tdE´d,Ak'¨bmom\ em;
rvnfEdkifaom w&m;"r®wpfck jzpfykH&onf/ odkY&mwGif Ak'¨0g'onf ,if;\ ,kwådenf;usw&m;"r®? udk,fusifh
w&m;vrf;ñTefrIESihf ,if;\&nfrSef;csufwdkYaMumifh ta&SUrStaemufodkY jyefYESYHcJhonf/ trSefpifppf edAÁmef\
t"dyÜm,fzGihfqdkcsufESihf ywfoufí Ak'¨bmom0ifESihf Ak'¨bmom0ifr[kwfol ynm&Sifrsm;tzdkY a0zefMuqJ jzpfNyD;
'dGwåt"dyÜm,faumuf,lrIrsm;aMumihf twdtusazmfjy&ef jzpfEdkifbJ&Sdonf/ odkYjzpfí Ak'¨0g'tpOftvmrsm;udk avh
vm&mwGif usrf;*efazmfjycsuft"dyÜg,fESihf ukd,fwdkifod&SdawGUBuKHrIESihf ywfoufonfh &SifoefqJ t"dyÜm,fzGifhqdkrI
wdkYtMum; ñSdEdIif;&efvdkonf/ uefYowfcH t"dyÜg,faumuf,lrIrsm;ESihf aqG;aEG;bdrl vufrcHEdkifonhf oHo,udk
ydkrdkwdk;yGm;aponf[k ,lq&onf/ Ak'¨0g'avhvmusifhokH;rI ½Iaxmifhrq S dkaomf ,if;oHo,0dwufonf 0dyóem
10
ynmwdk;wufrIudk wm;qD;wwfaom eD0&Pw&m;wpfck jzpfvmEdkifonf /
odkY&mwGif aeYpOfb0ü qufoG,fa&;twGuf vlwkdYonhf bmompum;udk tokH;jyKMu&onf/ bmompum;
r&SdbJ awGUBuKHod&SdrI wpfpkHwpf&mudk r&Sif;jyEdkifacs/ t&om? cHpm;rI? pdwfvIyf&Sm;rI? aysmf½TifrIponfudk xkwfazmf
ajymqdk&ef pum;vkH;rsm;vdktyfonf/ odkY&mwGif edAÁmef\t"dyÜm,fudkrl pum;vkH;rQjzihf t"dyÜm,fazmfjy&ef rjzpfEkdif
acs/ taMumif;rl bmompmum;[lonfyif trnfemrwpfckrQom jzpfaomaMumihfwnf;/ "r®t&omESihf edAÁmef\
tESpfom&um; tqkH;pGef y&rw¬w&m;jzpfí bmompum;\ e,fedrdwfudk ausmfvGefonf/ Ak'¨0g'½Iaxmifht&rl
11
tppftrSefw&m;ü trnfowfrSwfrIr&Sd? bmompum;r&Sd /
tppftrSefw&m;ESifh ywfoufí vufawGUusifhokH;rIrS&&Sdonhf tawGUtBuHKtwGuf enf;rSefustrnfemr
rsm;uJhodkYaom awGUBuHKod&SdrIrsm;\ ppfrSefonhft"dyÜm,fudk pum;vkH;rQjzihf azmfjy&efenf;vrf;r&SdaMumif; em;vnf
&onf/ xdke,fy,fü udk,fwdkif awGUBuKHod&SdcHpm;zl;olonfomvQif ,if;pum;vkH;rsm;udk trSefwu,fem;vnf
onf/ todÓPfxl;udk &&SdMuvsuf avmukwå&me,fodkY qdkufa&mufMuNyD;jzpfaom t&d,myk*¾Kdvfrsm;om odjrif
Ekdifonhf edAÁmefum; ,if;odkYaom a0g[m&jzpfonf/ us,fajymeuf½Idif;onhf ur®|mef;bm0em½IrSwfjcif;rS &&Sdonhf
12
r*fÓPf zdkvfÓPfudk&&SdrSom ,if;edAÁmefudk odjrifEdkifNyD; awG;ac:MuHq½kHrQjzihf rodem;rvnfEdkifacs / wpfpkHwpf
a,mufonf awG;ac:ajrmfjrifrI ½Iaxmifhudk tajcjyKNyD; oDtdk&Dt& edAÁmef\t"dyÜm,fudk zGifhqdkEdkifzG,f&Sdonf/
odkYwapvnf; r[mowdy|meokwfudk tajccHonhf owdy|mef0dyóemudk yGm;rsm;tm;xkwfjcif;r&SdbJ 'óe

8
Bibhuti S. Yadav, 'Negation, Nirvana and Nonsense,' Journal of the American Academy of Rleigion 45(1977), 452
9
Steven Collins, Nirvana and Other Buddhist Felicities (New York:; Cambridge University Press, 1998), 33, 224.
10
U Pandita Sayadaw, InThis Very Life (Bsoton: Wisdom Publications, 1992), 71-73.
11
Hsueh-li Cheng, Nagarjuna's Twelve Great Treatise (Boston: D. Reidel Publishing Company, 1982), 21-24.
12
Bhikkhu Bodhi, ed., A Comprehensive Manual fof Abhidhamma (Kandy, Sri Lanka: Buddhist Publication Society, 1993), 258.

13
enf;t& t"dyÜm,fzGifhqdkí edAÁmef\t"dyÜm,frSefukd em;vnf&ef rjzpfEdkifacs/ ,if;,lqcsufESifh ywfoufí azmfjy
csufwpf&yfudk atmufygtwkdif;awGU&onf-

a,m [d aumpd bdu©a0 £ar pwåma&m owdy|mae {0H bma0,s owå0ómed -- owåm[H
13
owå'd0oH zvmeH tnw&H zvH yg#ducø 'da|0 "ar® tnm 0g Oyg'daoao tem*grdwm /
&[ef;wdkY? þowdy|mefav;yg;udk ckepfESpfrQ -- ckepf&ufrQ yGm;rsm;tm;xkwfol rnfolrqdkonf ,ck
b0üyif &[EÅmb0udkjzpfap? tu,fí Oyg"dt<uif;tusef&SdcJhao;vQif tem*grfb0udkjzpfap þtusKd;
14
w&m; ESpfyg;teuf wpfckckudk arQmfvifhEdkifonf /

xdkYjyif yGm;tm;xkwfjcif;r&SdbJ rnfonfhbmompum;jzihfrqdk edAÁmef\t"dyÜm,frSefudk tjynfhtpkH azmfaqmif


Edkifrnfr[kwfacs/ t"dyÜm,fzGifhqdk½kHrQonf wpfcgwpf&Hü zwf½Iavhvmolrsm;tm; t"dyÜm,ftrsKd;rsKd; aumuf,l
vsuf rSm;,Gif;jcif;qDodkY OD;wnfoGm;onf/ trSefpifppf Ak'¨bmom edAÁmeft,ltqudk tokH;jyKaomtcg uefY
owfcH t"dyÜm,faumuf,lcsufESihf tuefYtowfrJh ukd,fwkdifxdk;xGif;odjrifrIESpf&yftMum; uGm[csufudk
ñSdEIdif;&ef vkdtyfonf/ oihfawmfonhf t"dyÜm,fzGifhqdkrIjzihf Ak'¨\ta&;ygonhf tqkH;trudk wnfaqmuf&ef
þokawoe jyKcsufonf ygVdawmfusrf;*efrsm;ESihftnD edAÁmef\rl&if;t"dyÜm,fudk txl;jyKazmfjyoGm;rnfjzpf
onf/ yxr a&S;OD; ygVdawmfusrf;rsm; ordkif;wpfavQmuf wdk;wufcJhykHtaMumif;udk avhvmrnfjzpfonf/
'kwd,taejzihf Ak'¨"r® rl&if;ESihf 'óeqdkif&m enf;vrf;rsm;ESifhywfoufí qufEG,ft"dyÜm,f zGifhqdkcsufrsm;ü
Ak'¨usrf;*efrsm;wGif tokH; jyKonhf usrf;*efvmenf;vrf;rsm; odkYr[kwf ygVdt|uxmenf;vrf;rsm;udk
OD;pm;ay;azmfjyrnfjzpfonf/ aemuf qkH;taejzifh edAÁmef\t"dyÜm,fudk em;vnf&ef ur®|mef;½IrSwfrIü wdkuf½dkuf
tokH;jyKonhf 0dyóemenf;vrf;udk azmf jyrnfjzpfonf/
a&SUwGifqdkcJhonhftwdkif; þavhvmcsufonf rl&if;usrf;*efrsm; qdkvdkonfrSm jrefrmAk'¨bmom usrf;*efrsm;
tygt0if ygVdawmf? t|uxm? #Dumusrf;rsm;ESifhtnD twdtuszGifhqdkrnfjzpfonf/ jrefrmusrf;*efrsm;teuf
þokawoejyKcsufü a½Tusifq&mawmf a&;om;jyKpkonhf *rÇD&m*rÇD&r[medAÁKw'DyeD usrf;ESihf v,fwDq&m
awmf a&;om;jyKpkonfh edAÁme'DyeDESpfusrf;ukd t"duokawoejyK azmfjyrnfjzpfonf/ ,if;ESpfusrf;onf
rl&if;ax&0g'Ak'¨bmom ygVdawmf t|uxm #Dumusrf;rsm;udk tajcjyKa&;om;xm;aom usrf;rsm;jzpfMuonf/

a&S;OD; Ak'¨bmomorkdif; tajccH


Ak'¨bmomonf Ak'¨a[mMumcsufrsm;u ¤if;\wynfhom0ursm;tm; vIHUaqmfay;cJhNyD;aemuf rlvblwtm;jzihf
tdE´d,wGif pwifxGef;um;cJhonf/ odkYjzpfí rl&if;Ak'¨bmom[lonfudk tdEd´Ak'¨bmom[k ac:a0:jcif;jzpfonf/
ueOD;tcsdefwGif Ak'¨0g'onf pHjyjzpfcJhNyD; nDñGwfrI&Sdonf/ odkY&mwGif ESpfwpf&mcefY MumNyD;aemuf bmoma&;
qdkif&mvIyf&Sm;rI wpf&yfaMumihf *kdPf;*P trsKd;rsKd;uGJjym;oGm;onf/ þonfrSm tcsdefumv? ywf0ef;usiftajc
taetrsKd;rsKd;ESihf ,Ofaus;rItaxGaxGwdkYaMumihf jzpfonf/ xdktcsdefrSpí edAÁmef\t"dyÜg,fESifh Ak'¨0g'\yef;wdkif
bmjzpfonf[laom tcsufrsm;tygt0if Ak'¨w&m;awmfrsm;ü a,bk,soabmwlnDcsufr&SdbJ jzpfoGm;onf/
[d&u0 tud& (Hirakawa Akira) yk*¾Kdfvf\tvdkt& tdE´d,Ak'¨bmomwGif a&S;OD;ax&0g'*dkPf;uGJ q,fhESpfck
15
&SdcJhonf / ax&0g'Ak'¨bmomtwGif; tjcm;*dkPf;uGJtrsKd;rsKd; vnf;&Sdao;onf/ odkY&mwGif þokaweojyK
csufonf ax&0g'*dkPf;uGJtrsKd;rsKd; tvkH;pkHudk pmwrf;wpfckwnf;ü azmfjy&efrjzpfEdkifojzihf *dkPf;toD;oD;\ rlv
&if;jrpfudk &SmazGrnfr[kwfacs/ ,if;onf þavhvmcsuf\ e,fy,ftwdkif;twm jyifbufü&Sdonf/ þavhvm
csufü ]Ak'¨0g'ESpfaygif; 2500}usrf;pmvm yDADbywf (P.V. Bapat) tqdkESihftnD ax&0g'*dkPf;uGJrsm;ü oAÁw¬d0g'
(Sthaviravadin) onf t"du*kdPf;uGJjzpfvmonf[laomtqdkudk todtrSwfjyKrnfjzpfonf/ xdkjyif ax&0g'DwdkY
13
r[m0*¾ygVd? 'DCedum, (&efukef? jrefrm? omoema&; OD;pD;Xme? 1993)? 251-252/
14
Maurice Walshe, trans., Te Long Discourses of the Buddha. A Translation of the Digha Nikaya (Boston: Wisdom Publications, 1987), 350.
15
Hirakawa Akira, A History of Indian Buddhism: From Sakyamuni to Early Mahayana (1915; repring, Honolulu; University of Hawaii Press,
1990), 116.

14
onf ygVdudk jrifhjrwfonhfbmompum;? odkYr[kwf ¤if;wdkY0g'\ ygVdawmfqdkif&m bmompum;tjzpf tokH;jyKMu
onf/ ]ygVdpmayüawGY&rnfh a&S;tusqkH;Ak'¨0g'um; tpOftvmudk twdtusvdkufemaom *dkPf;uGJwpfckjzpf
16
onhf ax&0g'jzpf\} / ax&0g'ESihfpyfvsOf;í jrefrmEdkifiHAk'¨bmomudk ax&0g'tpOftvmtjzpf ,lq&
onf/ oD&dvuFmordkif;t& od&d"r®mtaomu rif;w&m;BuD;apvTwfcJhonhf t&SifaomPESihf t&SifOwå&trnf
&Sd &[ef;awmfESpfyg;onf a,bk,stm;jzihf jrefrmEdkifiHtjzpf twnfjyKxm;onhf ok0PÖblrd t&yfwGif Ak'¨0g'udk
17
a[mMum;cJhMuonf / taomuacwf (bDpD 3 &mpk) twGif; Ak'¨omoemjyK vkyfief;rsm;udk oD&dvuFm? jrefrmESihf
xdkif;iHrsm;odkYwdkif jzefYusufcJhonf/ jrefrmEdkifiHordkif;t&rSm atmufygtwdkif;jzpfonf –

a&S;tusqkH; jrefrmEdkifiH (ok0PÖblrd) ax&0g'Ak'b¨ mom taxmuftxm;rSm at'D 5 &mpk ygVdbmom


ausmufpmjzpfonf/ jrefrmEdkifiHü wpfcsdefu r[m,meESifh wEÅ&Ak'¨bmom xGe;f um;cJhaomfvnf; taemf
&xmrif;onf at'D 11 &mpkwGif jrefrmEdkifiHtm; ax&0g'Ak'¨bmomodkY oGwfoGif;cJhonf/ &mpkESpf ESpfck
18
twGif; ax&0g'Ak'¨bmomudk jrefrmEdkifiHü ydkrdkus,fjyefYpGm vdkufemusihfokH;vmcJhonf /

þazmfjycsufudk tajccHíqdk&aomf rsufarSmufacwfwGif jrefrmEdkifiHax&0g'Ak'¨bmomonf &if;jrpftm;


jzihf tdE´d,ax&0g'Ak'¨bmomrS qif;oufcJhonfrSm oHo,jzpfzG,frvkdacs/ Ak'¨bmomynm&Sifrsm;onf Ak'¨\
rlvblwjzpfonhf w&m;awmfrsm;udk ygVdbmomjzihfa&;om;xm;aMumif; ,lqMuonf/ ygVdbmom[lonf Ak'¨
acwf bDpD 5 &mpk0ef;usifwGif r*"EdkifiHtjzpfxif&Sm;cJhonfh tdE´d,tv,fydkif;ü ajymqdkonhf rm*"Dbmom
pum;jzpfzG,f&Sdonf/ ygVdESihf rm*"Dbmompum;ESpf&yftMum; wdkuf½kdufqufoG,frIudk razmfjyEdkifacs/ odkY&mwGif
Ak'¨bmomynm&Sifrsm;onf Ak'¨acwfu rm*"a'owGif aexdkifolrsm;onf ygVdbmom\ rlvblvblwjzpfonhf
rm*"Dbmompum;udk ajymqdkaMumif; ,lqMuonf/ wdyd#uygVdjrefrm tbd"mef twGJ 16? pm-536 wGif rm*"
bmomudk ygVdbmomtjzpf twnfjyKxm;onf/

ok'¨rm*"dumwd rm*a"ok bmom ww¬ 0d'dwm 0g rm*"m? o'´g/ aw {wo®ð awok 0g ed,kwåmwd
19
rm*"dum /
ok'¨rm*"dum[l&mü rm*"wdkif;wGif rlvtm;jzihf pwifcJhNyD; ,if;a'oüaexkdifolrsm; ajymqdkonfh bmom
pum;udk rm*"Dbmompum;[k ac:onf/ rm*"wdkif;om;wdkY\ bmompum;onf o'´genf;t& rm*"D
20
trnfwGifonf /

ordkif;t&qdkaomf yxroH*g,emudk rm*"EdkifiH &mZ*[ (&mZN*ØK[f) NrdKUawmfü usif;ycJhonf/ oH*g,em


wif q&mawmfrsm;onf ygVdbmomudk w&m;0if tokH;jyKcJhMuonf/ ,if;bmompum;onf rm*"DESihf ygVd[k
trnfESpfrsKd;&SdcJhykH&aomfvnf; rl&if;bmompum;rSm twlwlyifjzpfykH&onf/
oHCmhtpnf;ta0;wGif tzGJU0ifoHCmawmfrsm;onf txl;ojzifh ax&0g'[laomtrnfudk tokH;jyKcJhMu
onf/ tb,faMumihf oHCmonf xdktrnfudk okH;cJhMuoenf;/ ygVdbmomwGif ax&0g'[laomtrnfonf
yk'feuft& rax&fBuD;wdkY\vrf;pOf odkYr[kwf rax&fBuD;wdkY\"r®[k t"dyÜm,f&onf/ trSefaomf Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf
onf xdkw&m;"r®rsm;udk OD;pGma[mMum;awmfrlNyD; rax&fBuD;rsm;u jyefvnfa[mMum;vsuf Ak'¨\w&m;"r®rsm;udk
apmihfa&SmifhcJhMuonf/ odkYjzifh ,if;wdkY\a[mMum;csufrsm;udk rax&fBuD;wkdY\0g'[k ac:a0:jcif;jzpfonf/ ygVd
awmf usrf;pmrsm;ü twGJaygif; rsm;pGmyg&Sdonf/ ax&0g'Ak'¨bmom0ifrsm;u ,if;"r®usrf;pmrsm;udk wdyd#u

16
P.V. Bapat, 2500Years of Buddhism (1956; reprint, India; Publications Division, 1994), 89.
17
Ibid, 76.
18
Melford E. Spiro, Buddhism and Society: A Great Tradition and Its Burmese Vicissitudes (New York: Harper & Row Publishers, 1970), 378-
382.
19
Subodhalankara-Tika (Rangoon, Burma: Department of Religious Affairs, 1973), 25.
20
oufqdkif&m edó,usrf;rsm;udkrSDí usrf;jyKyk*¾Kdvf t*Fvdyfbm jyefqdkcJhonf/
15
(jcif;awmif;okH;ck)[k &nfñTef;Muonf/ ]uxH yd#u0aoe wd0d"H? oAÁrÜd apwH 0de,yd#uH okwåEÅyd#uH tbd"r®
yd#uEÅd wdyÜab'ar0 a[mwd - yd#uwfokH;ykH rnfodkYjym;oenf;/ ,if;wdkYrSm 0de,yd#u = pnf;rsOf;jcif;awmif;?
21
okwåyd#u = "r®jcif;awmif;ESihf tbd"r®yd#u = tbd"r®jcif;awmif; wdkYjzpfonf} /
ax&0g'ESihf r[m,meAk'¨bmomtwGif; *dkPf;uGJrsm;pGm&Sdonf/ odkYwap ax&0g'ESihf r[m,me*kdPf;uGJ
trsKd;rsKd;taMumif;udk tao;pdwfazmfjyjcif; þavhvmcsufü yg0ifrnfr[kwfay/ odkY&mwGif tajccHAk'¨0g'tkyfpk
ESpfcktaejcihf cGJjcrf;azmfjycsufudk ykHrSeftokH;jyKxm;onf/ ,if;wdkYrSm ygVdtpOftvmESihf ouúwtpOftvmjzpf
onf/ ax&0g'Ak'¨bmomtjzpfxif&Sm;onhf ygVdtpOftvmwGif oD&dvuFm? jrefrm? ,dk;',m;? uarÇm'D;,m;?
vmtdkEdkifiHwdkYyg0ifonf/ r[m,metjzpfxif&Sm;onhf ouúwAk'¨bmomonf w½kwf? wdAuf? eDayg? blwef?
udk&D;,m;? *syef? xdkif0rfESihf AD,uferfEdkifiHwdkYyg0ifonfh ajrmufydkif;Ak'¨bmomjzpfonf/ þavhvmcsufonf
t"dutm;jzihf ygVdAk'¨bmomtjrifudk tav;ay;azmfjyrnfjzpfonf/ taMumif;rl okawoejyKolonf touf
udk;ESpft½G,frSpí jrefrmEdkifiHax&0g'Ak'¨bmom tqkH;trjzihf oifhwifhonfhavhvmrIESihf avhusifhtm;xkwfrIudk
&&SdcJhaomaMumihfjzpfonf/ xdkYjyif ygVdAk'¨bmomESifh qufEG,fNyD; rdrdudk,fwdkifvdkufemonhf bmoma&;b0ESihf
r[mpnfenf;jzihf 0dyóemtm;xkwfrIwGif ur®|mef;enf;jyq&mtjzpf uRrf;usifoljzpfonf/
ax&0g'Ak'¨bmomusihfpOfwGif eHygwfwpfESihf tvdktyfqkH;aom a&S;OD;Ak'¨bmomtqkH;trrSm Ak'¨&Sifawmf
jrwf "r®puúy0wåeokwfawmfü a[mawmfxm;onhftwdkif; opömav;yg;jzpfonf/ ,if;okwåefwGif Ak'¨\ta&;
22
tygqkH;aom w&m;wpf&yfrSm edAÁmef[laom a0g[m&ESihf y&d,m,fwlonhf 'ku©eda&m"opöm jzpfonf / ygVd
awmf t|xmESihf Ak'¨pmayusrf;*efwdkYü eda&m" odkYr[kwf edAÁme[laom a0g[m&wdkYudk rMumcPawGY&onf/
aemiftcgwGif Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwfonf edAÁmef[laoma0g[m&udk ydkrdkokH;pGJcJhonf/ r[my&dedAÁmeokwfawmfü Ak'¨&Sif
awmfjrwfonf edAÁmef[laoma0g[m&udk wdkuf½dkufokH;pGJcJhonf/

{um,aem t,H bdu©a0 ra*¾g owåmeH 0dok'¨d,m aomuy&da'0geH orwduúrm, 'ku©a'greómeH


23
tw¬*Frm, Ó,ó t"d*rm, edAÁmeó opödud&d,m, ,'d'H pwåma&m owdy|mem /
&[ef;wdkY? owå0gwdkY pifMu,fap&ef aomuy&da'0udk vGefajrmuf&ef 'ku©a'reóudk Nidrf;ap&ef rSefuef
onhf vrf;pOfudk&&Sd&ef edAÁmefudk&&Sd&ef owdy|mefav;yg;onfom wpfaMumif;wnf;aom vrf;pOfjzpf
24
onf /

xdktwlyif edAÁmef[laom a0g[m&udk twGJ av;q,f&Sdonhf ygVdawmfusrf;rsm;ESihf t|uxm#Dumusrf;


wdkYü tBudrfajcmuf&mxufrenf; awGYEdkifonf/ edAÁme[laom a0[m&jzihf ygVdAk'¨bmomwGif wpfcgwpf&H aemuf
25
qkH;vGwfajrmufrI 0drkwåd"r® ('ku©rS tvkH;pkH vGwfajrmufjcif;)tjzpf azmfjyMuonf /
odkY&mwGif ordkif;wpfavQmuf Ak'¨0g'rsKd;pkHwdkY\ rSwfwrf;wdkif;ü edAÁmeft,ltqudk MumjrihfpGmawGY&onf/
tcsdefu edAÁmefESihf tEÅdrtppftrSef[laom pum;vkH;wdkY\ t,ltqtrsKd;rsKd; ay:aygufapcJhonfrSm oHo,
jzpfzG,frvdkacs/ þtcsufESihfywfoufí Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf\ crf;em;vSonhf rlvw&m;awmfvmazmfjycsufrSm
tcsdefumvuGmjcm;csufESihf Ak'¨0g'trsKd;rsKd;ay:aygufvmjcif;wdkYaMumihf arS;rSdefoGm;cJhaMumif; jiif;csufxkwfEdkif
onf/ wpfacwfNyD;wpfacwf ynm&SifwdkY t"dyÜg,fzGifhqdkcsufrsm;ESihf Ak'¨0g'tpOftvmtrsKd;rsKd;wdkY\ ½IjrifrIudk
tajccHNyD; rajymif;vJaom tppftrSefw&m;jzpfonhf edAÁmeft,ltqonf ajymif;vJoGm;cJhonf/
&Snfvsm;onhf ordkif;wpfaphwpfapmif;u Ak'¨"r®qdkif&m t"dyÜm,faumuf,lrItrsKd;rsKd;ESihf a&S;OD;Ak'¨"r®udk
oabmrwlnDEdkifrIwdkYaMumihf Ak'¨0g'ykHpHopfwdkYonf Ak'¨"r®qdkif&m a&S;OD;t"dyÜg,faumuf,lrIrsm;rS aoGznfoGm;cJh

21
Silakkhandha-vagga-atthakatha (Rangoon, Burma: Department of Religious Affairs, 1975), 17.
22
Bhikkhu Bodhi, The Connected Discourses of the Buddha: A New Translation of the Samyutta Nikaya Vol. II(Boston: Wisdom Publications,
2000),
23
1844.
Ma-P, Di-N Vol. II 231.
24
Di-N-NT, 335.
25
Venerable Nyanaponika Thera and Bhikkhu Bodhi Numerical Discourses of the Buddha: An Anthology of Suttas from the Anguttara Nikaya
(New York: Altamira Press, 1999), 130-131.

16
26
aMumif; azmfjyvsuf&Sdonf/ Ak'¨0g'ykHpHopfwpfckrSm r[m,meAk'¨bmomjzpfonf / ouúwAk'¨bmom odkYr[kwf
r[m,meAk'¨bmom ynm&Sifrsm;onf a&S;OD;Ak'¨0g't,ltqrsm;udk vufrcHbJ&SdMuonf/ em*&ZÆKe (Nagarjuna)
27
onf r[m,meAk'¨bmom ynm&Sifwpfa,mufjzpfonf / em*&ZÆKeonf edAÁmefudk jcm;em;onhf tajctae
wpf&yfrS wifjycJhonf/ ¤if;t,lt& edAÁmef[lonf oHo&mjzpfNyD; oHo&m[lonf edAÁmefyifwnf;/ ,if;ESpfck
jcm;em;jcif;r&SdbJ awGYMuKHod&SdrIt& t&mESpfrsKd;r [kwfacs/ trSefpifppf ,if;ESpfrsKd;rSm twlwljzpfonf/ xdkYjyif
¤if;onf edAÁmefudk oknw(qdwfokH;jcif;)[kvnf; t"dyÜm,fzGifhqdkcJhonf/ ¤if;t& t&mcyfodrf;rSm oknwjzpfNyD;
ouf&SdoufrJhtm;vkH;vnf; oknwjzpfonf/ oknwudk rZÑdr'#dy'gvrf;pOftjzpf em;vnfcJhonf/ oknw
28
vrf;pOfudk edAÁmefa&mufaMumif; vrf;pOftjzpfvnf; ,lqcJhonf /
,if;tpOtvmtwGif;ü edAÁmef\t"dyÜm,fzGifhqdkcsuftcsKdUudk oabmrwlEdkifrIaMumihf r[m,me*dkPf;
twGif;ü tjcm;*dkPf;opfrsm; ay:aygufcJhonf/ ,if; r[m,me*dkPf;uGJykHpHopfrSm okc0wDAk'¨0g'tjzpf xif
29
&Sm;onf / okc0wD*kdPf;onf eddAÁmefudk edAÁmefbkH odkYr[kwf Ak'¨bkHtjzpf zGifhqdkonf/ okc0wDbkHonf trdw
bmbk&m;ryGifhrD ESpfaygif; toacsFteEÅMumatmif usifhBuHtm;xkwfcJhonfh aAm"dowåusihfpOf\ &v'fjzpfonf/
okc0wD0g'onf ousrkedAk'¨\ "r®um,udk rysufrpD; xm0&wnfNrJtaejzihf tvdk&SdaMumif; txl;jyKazmfjycJh
30
onf / okc0wDAk'¨0g'\ txl;jyKazmfjycsufrSm xm0&wnf&Sdaeaom Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwfonf awG;ac:ajrmfjrifrI
t& txnfudk,fokH;rsKd;(Bwdum,)jzihf xif&Sm;&Sdonf/ ,if;t,ltqonf to*F (Asnga) ESihf tjcm;a,m*gpm&
q&mBuD;rsm;\ t,ltqESihf qufEG,frI&Sd onf/

Ak'¨\udk,fcE¨monf ta&twGuftm;jzifh wpfckwnf;jzpfaomfvnf; vkyfaqmifcsuftm;jzihf rsm;jym;onf/


a&S;OD;r[m,mewdkYonf Ak'¨tm; cE¨mESpfck&Sdonf[k,q
l Muonf/ ,if;wdkYrSm toGifoP²mefrJh wnfNrJonhf
tppftrSefw&m;[laom "r®um,ESihf ta&miftqif;&Sd auG;ñGwfEdkifNyD; tm½kHig;yg;jzihf awGUodcHpm;Edkif
aom toGifoP²mef&Sd ½lyum,jzpfonf/ to*FESihf tjcm;aom a,m*gpm& q&mrsm;url aemufqkH;ü
Ak'¨tm; "r®um,? oarÇm*um, (tm½kHcHpm;Edkifaomudk,fcE¨m) ESifh edr®meum, (zefqif;udk,fcE¨m)[lí
31
okH;rsKd;&SdaMumif;,lqcJhMuonf /

txufygazmfjycsufudk tajcjyKí okc0wDAk'¨bmom0ifwdkYonf ordkif;wpfcsdefwGif xif&Sm;&SdcJhonfh Ak'¨&Sif


awmfjrwfonf vlYavmuwGif rwnf&Sdawmhaomfvnf; jrihfjrwfaomcE¨mudk,fonf Ak'¨bkH[kac:onhf tjrihfqkH;
bkHXmewGif xm0&wnf&Sdaeonf[k ,kHMunfMuonf/ þazmfjycsufü Ak'¨\"r®ukd,fonf okc0wDAk'¨0g'tvdkt&
rysufrpD; xm0&wnfNrJaeonf[k qdkvdk&ma&mufonf/
þordkif;0ifazmfjycsufudk tajcjyKí 0dyóemÓPf wdk;wufatmif tm;rxkwfzl;olwpfa,muftzkdY ax&
0g'ESihfr[m,meAk'¨0g' ESpfrsKd;vkH;tm; qefYusifonhf tawG;tjrif wpf&yftjzpf ,lqEdkifonf/ odkY&mwGif þ
tcsufESihfywfoufí yd#uwfusrf;*efrsm;wGif tajccHonfh edAÁmeft"dyÜg,fzGifhqdkcsuf trsKd;rsKd;udk pl;prf;&SmazG&ef

26
r[m,meAk'¨bmom ay:aygufcJhonhf a&S;OD;umvESihfywfoufí t,ltqtrsKd;rsKd;&Sdonf/ tcsKdUynm&Sifrsm;u 'kwd,
oH*g,emNyD;rSay:aygufcJhaMumif; ,kHMunfNyD; tcsKdUurl wwd,oH*g,emNyD;rS ax&0g'Ak'¨bmomESihf jcm;em;vsuf pwifay:
aygufcJhaMumif; ,kHMunfMuonf/ Akira, 105-116 udk ½Iyg/
27
Cheng, 1-12. Cheng u em*½ZÆKe (at'D 2 &mpkwGif ay:xGef;cJhNyD; rZÑrduAk'¨0g'udk wnfaxmifcJhol) \tawG;tjriftm; r[m
,metawG;tjrif\ tajccHtjzpf ,lqcJhaMumif; azmfjycJhonf/
28
Herbert V. Guenther, Philosophy and Psychology in the Abhidharma (1957:reprint, Delhi: Mothlal Banarsidass Publishers, 1991), 194.
29
okc0wDAk'¨0g' (Pure Land Buddhism)onf Ak'¨\w&m;"r®rsm;udk tajccHonfh r[m,me*dkPf;uGJwpfckjzpfonf/ aESmif;acwfwGif
xif&Sm;onhf okc0wD\"r®rsm;udk at'D 12-&mpk *syefEdkifiHwGif tajcjyKcJhonfh &SJifokc0wD*dkPf;udk wnf;axmifol &SJif&ef ½Ideif
(Shinran Shorin 1173-1262)u a[mMum;cJhonf/ ¤if;\t,ltqxif&Sm;vm&jcif;rSm aeYpOfb0wGif vlwdkif;vdkufemEdkifonfh vG,ful
onhf usihfpOfpepf aMumihfjzpfonf/ þazmfjycsufrSm Cheng pm-11 rSjzpfonf/
30
Ibid, 12.
31
Takeuchi Yoshinori, ed., Buddhist Spirituality: Later China, Korea, Japan and the Modern World. Vol. II (New York; Crossroad Press, 1999),
396.

17
'óeenf;vrf;rsm;&Sdonf/ ,if;enf;vrf;rsm;teuf ygVdusrf;*efenf;vrf;rsm;ESihf 'óeenf;vrf;tcsKdU yg0if
onf/ 'óeenf;vrf;rsm;udk tokH;jyKjcif;onf awG;ac:olrsm;tm; eddAÁmeft"dyÜm,f em;vnfrIudk &Sif;vif;
us,fjyefYapEdkifNyD; usrf;*efvm enf;vrf;rsm;udk tokH;jyKjcif;onff avhusihftm;xkwfolrsm;tm; r*fÓPfzdkvf
ÓPf\ crf;em;rIudk em;vnfapEdkifonf/ txl;jyKqdk&aomf ,if;'óeqdkif&m enf;vrf;rsm;ESihf usrf;*efenf;
vrf;rsm;udk tokH;jyKjcif;onf þavhvmcsuftm; tpGef;a&muft,ltqESpfrsKd;jzpfonfh Oapä''d|dESihf oów'd|d
ESpfrsKd;udk &Sif;vif;apEdkifrnfjzpfonf/

edAÁmefavhvmcsuf enf;rSefust,ltq
Ak'¨0g'tpOftvm\ ½IaxmihftaxGaxGjzifh ordkif;aemufcHjzpfpOfudk azmfjyNyD;jzpfojzihf ,if;ordkif;aemufcHrQjzihf
edAÁmef\t"dyÜm,fudk avhvm&efrvkHavmufao;aMumif; xif&Sm;onf/ t"dyÜm,fzGifhqdkcsuf trsm;tjym;udk azmfjy
&efvdktyfonf/ ,cifu t"dyÜg,fzGifhqdkcJhonhfusrf;rsm;onf Ak'¨\rlva[mMum;csufudk jynfhpkH &Sif;vif;aponf
xuf awmfawmfrsm;rsm;rSm ½IyfaxG;qefYusifaponf/ ,if;t"dyÜm,fzGifhqdkcsufqdkif&m usrf;rsm;udk wnfhrwfap&ef
þavhvmcsufonf a&S;OD;Ak'¨0g' pl;prf;avhvmrIpwif&eftwGuf usrf;*efenf;vrf;rsm;ESihf 'óeenf;vrf;rsm;
yg0ifonhf enf;vrf;rsm;udk tokH;jyKonf/
usrf;*efvmenf;vrf;[lonf tb,fenf;? ,if;onf ygVdusrf;*efrsm;ü tokH;jyKxm;onf enf;vrf;udk qdkvdk
onf/ ygVdAk'¨bmomwGif usrf;*efenf;vrf;onf ½IaxmifhokH;rsKd;ESihf qEG,fonf (1) y&d,wåd tqdktrdefY (2)
y#dywådusifhpOfESihf (3) y#da0" awGUBuKHod&SdcHpm;rI wdkYjzpfonf/ þü y&d,wåd[lonf Ak'¨a[mMum;csufESifh tnD
t,ltqoDtdk&Drsm;udk azmfjyonfhenf;vrf;udk qdkvkdonf/ y#dywåd[lonf pdwfydkif;b0ESihf pdwf"mwf&ifhusufrI
udk &&Sd&efESihf edAÁmef\t"dyÜg,fukd em;vnf&efvdktyfonhf vrf;ñTefcsuftjzpf "r®tqdktrdefYrsm;udk vufawGY
tokH;csjcif;jzpfonf/ y#da0"[lonf orx 0dyóemur®|mef;tm;xkwfrIESpfrsKd;rS awGUBuHKod&SdrIudk ñTef;qdkjcif;
jzpfonf/ ,if;okH;rsdK;teuf y&d,wådudk Ak'¨a'oemawmftwGufr&Sdrjzpf vkdtyfaomt&mtjzpf rSwf,lonf/
taMumif;rl ,if;y&d,wådudk tajcjyKí Ak'¨0g'vdkufemusifhokH;olrsm;onf ¤if;wdkY\ bmoma&;vrf;pOfwGif
32
tjcm;ESpfrsKd;udkvnf; jznhfusifhEdkifaomaMumifhjzpfonf /

ww¬ y&d,wåDwd wDPD yd#umed/ y#dywåDwd y#dy'g/ y#da0a"mwd opöy#da0a"m/ omoe|dwd,m ye


33
y&d,wådyrmPH/ y@dawm [d awyd#uH okwGm a'Gyd yla&wd /
y&dwåd[lonf yd#uwfokH;ykHwnf;/ y#dywåd[lonf tusihfwnf;/ y#da0"[lonf opömav;yg;udk xdk;xGif;í
odjrifjcif;wnf;/ ,if;okH;rsKd;teuf y&d,wådonf tjcm;ESpfrsKd;xuf tajccHusNyD; ta&;ygonf/ tajccH
34
w&m;rsm;udk avhvmNyD;aemuf ynm&Sdyk*¾Kdvfonf tjcm;ESpfrsKd;udk jynfhpkHapEdkifonf /

ygVdusrf;*efvm enf;vrf;rsm;\ av;eufcrf;em;rIudk awGYjrifNyD;jzpfonhftwdkif; edAÁmef\t"dyÜm,fudk avh


vmEdkif&ef þavhvmrItwGuf y&d,wådudk tokH;jyKEdkifonf/ trSefw&m; em;vnfrIudk tuJjzwf&mü usihfBuHtm;
xkwfrI tawGYtBuHKwGif psmefw&m;udk od&SdrIESihf 0dyóemÓPf r*fÓPfzdkvfÓPfwdkYtygt0if ÓPfjzihfawGYBuKH
35
od&SdrIwdkYyg yg0ifonf /
odkY&mwGif þavhvmcsufü pepfwuszGJYpnf;rItm;jzihf Ak'¨usrf;*efrsm;udk t"dyÜm,fzGifhqdkEdkifa&;twGuf oihf
awmfonhf 'óeqdkif&menf;vrf;rsm;udk a½G;cs,f&ef vdktyfonf/ þusrf;pmwGif a0g[m&cGJjcrf;pdwfjzmrIESihf
tokH;wGifonhf a0g[m&tokH;jyKrI enf;vrf;rsm;udk tokH;jyKEdkifonf/ a0g[m&cGJjcrf;pdwfjzm enf;vrf;onf vl
om;ESihf bmoma&;usrf;pmrsm;udk t"dyÜg,fzGifhqdkrIwGif em;vnfrIwdkYESihf ywfoufonf/ ,if;onf rlvtm;jzihf
ygVdawmfusrf;*efrsm;udk t"dyÜg,fzGifhqdkrIESihf tenf;i,fom ywfoufonf/ odkY&mwGif a0g[m& cGJjcrf;pdwfjzm
32
Pathikavagga-atthakatha, Digha-Nikaya (Rangoon, Burma: Department of Religious Affairs, 1993), 82.
33
Ibid, 82.
34
,if;onf #DumzGihfqdkcsufudk tajccHí usrf;jyKol\ t*FvdyfbmomjyefrS jrefrmjyefqkdjcif;onf/
35
Di-N-A, Vol. III, 82-83.

18
enf;vrf;udk ,aeYacwfwGif bdkifb,fvf (Bible) avhvmjcif;? bmoma&;avhvmjcif;ESihf 'óee,fy,fwdkYü
rMumcP tokH;jyKonf/ ,if;enf;vrf;onf q,fhESpf&mpkwGif z&uf'&pf &SmvD,mrmcsm (Friendrich Schleie-
rmacher) usrf;\pmjzihf acwfopf t"dyÜg,fzGihfqdkrIESihf 'óetpOftvmrsm;ESihf ywfoufí r&Sdrjzpf vdktyfaom
'óetajccHwpfck jzpfvmonf/ xdkYjyif z&uf'&pf &SmvD,mrmcsm a&S;OD;pGm wdk;wufatmif vkyfaqmifcJhonfh
]a0g[m& cGJjcrf; pdwfjzmenf;vrf; puf0ef;}onf usrf;*efodkY jyefYoGm;NyD; t"dyÜg,fzGihfqdkrItopfudk jzpfay:aponhf
36
jzpfpOfjzpfonf/ ,if;onf tcsdefwdkif; t"dyÜg,fzGifhqdkrItopf jzpfykH&onf / odkYwap a0g[m&cGJjcrf;pdwfjzm
enf;vrf;tay: acwfopfpdwf0ifpm;rIonf acwfopft"dyÜg,faumuf,lrI oDtdk&Drsm;ESihf ydkíywfoufrI&Sdonf/
bmoma&;qdkif&m usrf;*efrsm;udk t"dyÜm,fzGifhqdk&ef ]Ak'¨bmomqdkif&m a0g[m&cGJjcrf;pdwfjzmenf;vrf;}onfvnf;
37
,if;\usrf;*efrsm;udk t"dyÜg,fzGifhqdkrIESihf ywfoufonf /

,if;aemufqkH; t,ltqudk qkH;jzwf&ef&mS azGjcif;onf Ak'¨0g'a0g[m&cGJjcrf;pdwfjzmrIwGif t"du ywfouf


rIwpfckjzpfvmNyD; usrf;*effrsm;udk t"dyÜg,faumuf,l&mü azmfjyygjyóemrsm;udk jzpfay:apaom Ak'¨&Sif
awmfjrwf\ w&m;"r®a[mMum;&mü xufjrufonhf enf;vrf;jzpfonhf Oyg,a'oemonfyif t"dyÜg,fzGifh
qdkrIudk aqmif½Gufonhf tajccHwpf&yfjzpfvmoihfonf/ Oyg,[lonf ax&0g'aewådygVdESihf ul½kdif (Kurai)
\ ZlZl&Sif½Gef (Jujushinron) usrf;wdkYü azmfjyouJhodkY jcm;em;vGef;onf[kxif&aom usrf;*efvm trsKd;tpm;
cGJjcm; pepf\tajccHrsm;udk wnfaqmufykHvnf;&onf/ --- ax&0g'tzGifhusrf;rsm;onf ,if;wdkY\ a0g
[m&cGJjcrf;pdwfjzmrI r[mAsL[mudk wjznf;wjznf; aAm"dÓPfodkYa&mufaMumif; vrf;pOft,ltqay:
wGif tajccHonf/ odkYjzpfí ¤if;wdkYonf pdwfydkif;b0wdk;wufrIESihf p½dkuftqihftwef;uJhodkYaom tcsuf
rsm;udk tajccHvsuf Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf w&m;"r®a[mMum;cJhaom yk*¾KdvfykHpHrsm;udk tao;pdwf azmfjyMu
38
onf /

t"dyÜg,fzGifhqdkrItaMumif;qdk&mü Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwfonf wynfhom0utm;vkH;tm; wlnDaom taMumif;


t&mudk a[mMum;awmfrrlcJhacs/ Ak'¨bmom0ifwdkYonf edAÁmef\t"dyÜg,fudkzGifhqdk&mü oufqdkif&musrf;*efüyg&Sd
onfh qufEG,ft"dyÜg,frsm;udk &&Sdap&ef enf;vrf;pkHudk tokH;jyK&rnfjzpfonf/ odkYjzihf Ak'¨bmoma0g[m&cGJ
jcrf;pdwfjzmenf;pepfonf edAÁmeftaMumif;udkzGifhqdkMuonhf ,cifusrf;pmrsm;udk okH;oyfavhvm&ef þokawoe
pmwrf;ESihf ywfoufqufEG,frI&Sdonf/
tcsKyftm;jzihf a&S;usrf;wdkYü azmfjyxm;NyD;jzpfonhf t"dyÜg,fzGifhqdkcsufudkMunfhjcif;ü t"dyÜg,fzGifhqdkrI enf;
ynmpuf0ef;rS rvGwfEdkifacs/ a0g[m&cGJjcrf;pdwf jzmenf;puf0ef;wGif t"dyÜg,fzGifhqdkrIpuf0ef;onf wpfpdwf
wpfa'oESihf tvkH;pkHwdkYtMum; qufEG,frI&Sdonf/ ,if;onf tpdwftydkif;wpfckpDudk t"dyÜg,fzGifhqdkjcif;rSm yk'f
wpfckvkH;udk t"dyÜg,fzGifhqdkjcif;ü wnfrSDaMumif; qdkvkdonf/ ,if;enf;vrf;onf þavhvmcsuftwGuf trSefyif
tokH;0ifonf/ taMumif;rl t"dyÜg,fzGifhqdkcsufrsm;onf wpfcgwpf&H ,if;wdkY\ t"dyÜg,fwdrfjrKyfrI qufEG,f
rsm;jym;ojzihf tvGef½IyfaxG;aomaMumihfjzpfonf/ odkYjzpfí a0g[m&cGJjcrf;pdwfjzm enf;vrf;onf þokawoe
jyKrI\ yef;wdkifodkYa&muf&ef tm;udk;&aom enf;vrf;jzpfonf/
þavhvmcsufonf vufawGUtokH;usrI0g'udkvnf; tokH;jyKrnfjzpfonf/ vufawGYtokH;usrI0g'onf
rlvtm;jzihf tar&duefEdkifiHü wdk;wufcJhonf/ þenf;vrf;onf awG;jrifrIt"dyÜg,f odkYr[kwf trSefw&m; t,l
tqonf vufawGU&v'f\ udpöwpf&yfjzpf&rnf[k ,lqonf/ ]vufawGY[al om a0g[m&onf awG;BuHonhf
39
twkdif; vIyf&Sm;aqmif½GufrI[k t"dyÜg,f&onf / vufawGYtokH;usrI0g'onf ,if;\ enf;vrf;udk trSefw&m;
\ oDtdk&Dtjzpf wdk;wufapcJhonf/ csm;pf qef'g ydkif;&fpf (Charles Sanders Peirce, 1839-1914)u vufawGYtokH;
usrI0g'udk tawG;tjrifrsm;udk &Sif;vif;onhf enf;vrf;tjzpf t"dyÜg,fzGifhqdkcJhonf/ ¤if;tvdkt& vufawGY
36
Robert Audi, ed., The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995), 323-324.
37
Donald S. Lopez, Jr., Buddhist Hermenetitices (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1988), 1-5.
38
Ibid, 5-6.
39
Samuel Enoch Stumpf, Socrates to Sartre: A History of Philosophy (New York: McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, 1988), 411.

19
tokH;usrI0g'\ tajccHrlrSm awG;jrifBuHqrIrsm;udk prf;oyfppfaq;rIwpfcktjzpfxm;&SdNyD; tusKd;qufrsm;udk
apmifhMunhfavhvm&efjzpfonf/ ydkif;&fpfu awG;ac:ajrmfjrifrItm;vkH;rSm wpfpkHwpfckjyKvkyf&ef enf;vrf;wpfck
tjzpf,lqrIudk trSeftjzpf,lqcJhonf/ odkYwap wpfpkHwpfa,mufonf tawG;tjriftjzpfodkY ajymif;vJoGm;
aom ,kHMunfrIwpf&yf&Sd&rnf/ awGYBuKHod&SdrIESihf pl;prf;qifjcifrIwdkY\ pHñTef;rSwfausmufjzihf prf;oyfEdkifaom
40
tawG;tjrifonfom ,if;\jyKrltavhtusifhudk wnfaqmuf&ef ,kHMunfrIudk ay;pGrf;Edkifrnfjzpfonf /
0DvsH*sdrf;pf (William James, 1842-1910) url rSefuefonhf ,lqcsufrsm;onf prf;oyfawGU&SdrItwGuf tokH;
0ifonf[laom t,ltqudk azmfjycJhonf/ *sdrf;pfu ]vufawGY tokH;usrI0g'onf enf;vrf;wpfckomjzpfonf -
--- ,if;0g'onf aocsmonfhtajztwGuf r&yfwnfaomfvnf; vufawGYusifhBuHonhf enf;vrf;wpfck taejzihf
41
,if;\tESpfom&onf tajzrsm;udk aocsmwdusaponf / odkYjzpfí þavhvmcsufonf tqdktrdefYrsm;? w&m;
"r®rsm;ESihf t"dyÜm,fzGifhqdkcsufrsm;yg0ifonhf vufawGYtokH;us prf;oyfrIrSwpfqifh vufawGY tusKd;w&m;rsm;ESihf
ywfoufrnfjzpfonf/ azmfjyygtcsufonf vufawGYtokH;usprf;oyfrIESihf vufawGY usihfokH;rItusKd;qufwdkYudk
tokH;jyKvsuf edAÁmef\t"dyÜg,fudk zGihfqdk&efvnf; vufawGYtokH;jyK rnfjzpfonf/ þokawoejyKrIü usrf;*ef
vmenf;vrf;ESifh 'óeenf;vrf;rsm;udk tokH;jyKjcif;jzihf þavhvmcsufonf edAÁmef\ajymif;vJwdk;wufrIjzihf
,if;\ yef;wkdifudk jznfhpGufay;rnfjzpfonf/ ,if;onf þ usrf;pm\ t"du&nf½G,fcsufjzpfonf/

þokawoejyKrI\ vdk&if;tcsKyf
edAÁmeft"dyÜg,fzGifhqdkrIudk azmfjyjcif;ESifhywfoufí &Sif;vif;onfh Ak'¨0g'tawG;tjrifrSm 0dyóemur®|mef;w&m;
yGm;rsm;tm;xkwfrIrS&&Sdaom udk,fwdkifod&SdrIrSwpfqifh edAÁmef\crf;em;rIESihf t"dutm;jzihf ywfoufonf/ odkYaomf
þokawoejyKcsufonf ax&0g'Ak'¨ bmom½Iaxmihfudk tajccHonhf edAÁmeft"dyÜg,f&Sif;vif;rIudk BudK;pm;aqmif
½Gufrnfjzpfonf/ edAÁmefudk udk,fwdkifod&SdrIonf rvGJraoGvdktyfNyD; ,if;\tESpfom&udk wdusonhf t"dyÜg,fjzihf
zGifhqdk&ef rjzpfEdkifacs/ odkYwap tm;udk;avmufonhf tudk;tum;rsm;jzihf usrf;*efenf;vrf;eihf 'óeenf;vrf;
rsm;udk tajcjyKonhf aMumif;usKd;qDavsmfonhf t"dyÜg,fudk &SmazG&efrl jzpfEdkifonf/ a&SUwGifazmfjyNyD;jzpfonhf
twdkif; þokawoejyKrItwGuf tm;tudk;&qkH;aom &if;jrpfrsm;rSm ygVdawmfrsm;? ,if;\tzGifht|uxm
#Dumusrf;rsm;? Ak'¨bmom usrf;*efpmayrsm;ESihf jrefrmAk'¨bmom usrf;*efrsm;jzpfonf/
þu@onf edAÁmef\ usrf;*efvmt"dyÜm,frsm;udk rnfodkYavhvmrnf[laom tcsufudk tusOf;tm;jzihf
azmfjyonf/ tcef; 2 wGif ygVdpmayESihf a&S;OD; Ak'b ¨ momESihfoufqdkifonhf a&S;acwf a&;om;csufrsm;ESihf
Ak'¨bmomESihf Ak'¨bmomr[kwfol ynm&SifwdkY\ t"dyÜg,fzGihfqdkcsufrsm;udk tav;ay;azmfjyrnfjzpfonf/ Ak'¨
a[mMum;cJhonhf w&m;awmfrsm;ESihf wdkuf½dkufqufEG,frI&&Sdap&ef þokawoejyKrItwGuf ygVdpmayonf tvdk
tyfqkH;ud&d,m wefqmyvmjzpfonf/ pmaytawG;tjrifonf edAÁmeftaMumif;azmfjyonhf Ak'¨bmomusrf;*ef
rsm;tjyif ynm&SifwdkY t"dyÜm,fzGifhqdkcsufrsm;ESihf t"duywfoufonf/ þtcef;wGif acwfopfAk'¨0g'DESihf Ak'¨0g'D
r[kwfol ynm&Sifrsm;\ t,ltqudkvnf; xnfhoGif;azmfjyrnfjzpfonf/
tcef; 3 ü ur®t,ltqudk tajccHonhf b0wnf&SdrIESihf b0rwnf&SdrIt,ltqESihf Ak'¨0g' pMu0Vm
,lqcsufESihftwl b0oHo&mtaMumif;udk azmfjyrnfjzpfonf/ ygVdawmfazmfjycsufrsm;ü edAÁmefESihf b0oHo&m
wdkYESifhywfoufrI&Sdonfh Ak'¨0g'qdkif&m pMu0Vmt,ltqudk Ak'¨bmomusrf;*efrsm;ü &Sif;vif;pGm azmfjyonf/
Ak'¨bmomusrf;*efwdkYü pMu0Vmt,ltqudk azmfjyjcif;\&nf½G,fcsufrSm b0jzpfpOfESihfaojcif;? b0wnf&SdrIrI
ESihf b0rwnf&SdrIwdkYudk &Sif;jy&efESihf em;vnf&efjzpfonf/ r*fÓPfzdkvfÓPfudk &&SdNyD;yk*¾Kdvfrsm;onf b0oHo&m
wGif rnfodkYwnf&Sdonf b0oHo&mqif;&Judk rnfodkYy,f&Sm;EdkifonfwdkYukd odjrifaMumif; Ak'¨bmom0ifwdkY ,kHMunf
Muonf/ þtcef;ü Ak'¨0g'pMu0VmaA'wGif azmfjyonhftwkdif; oHo&m? edAÁmefESihfywfoufonhf pdwftrsKd;rsdK;
ESihf apwoduftaxGaxGwdkY\jzpfpOfudk &Sif;jy&ef tbd"r®mtawG;tjrifudk tokH;jyKxm;onf/

40
Ibid, 414.
41
Ibid, 415-416.

20
tcef; 4 onf ygVdynm&Sifrsm;\ t"dyÜg,fzGifhqdkcsuftrsKd;rsKd;ESihf ¤if;wdkY\'óeqdkif&m t,ltqvdk&if;udk
od&SdEdkif&efBudK;yrf;xm;onf/ þokawoepmwrf;onf ¤if;wdkY\t"dyÜg,fzGifhqdkcsufrsm;ESihf t,ltqrsm;udk jyef
ajymif;azmfjyonfrSm aocsmonf/ edAÁmef[laom pum;vkH;onf aemufcH*dkPf;*PtpOftvm trsKd;rsKd;&Sdojzihf
t"dyÜg,ftrsKd;rsKd;ESihf t,ltqtrsKd;rsKd;&SdEdkifonf/ tpOftvmwdkif;wGif ,if;tpOftvm w&m;"r®udk tajccH
onhf udk,fydkifwefzdk;rsm;&Sdonf/ þavhvmcsuf\ vkyfaqmifrIwpf&yfrSm ynm&SifwdkY\t,ltqrsKd;pkHudk em;vnf
&efESihf edAÁmef[laomyk'f\t"dyÜg,fudk ygVdpmayü rnfodkYzGifq h dk&ef BudK;yrf;cJhMuonf[laomtcsufudk &Sif;jy&efjzpf
onf/ xdkYjyif edAÁmef\'óeqdkif&m ,lqcsufESihfoufqdkifaom ynm&SifrsKd;pkH\ ½IaxmihftrsKd;rsKd;udkvnf; xnhf
oGif;azmfjyxm;onf/ trSwfpifppf Ak'¨bmomynm&Sifrsm;\ t,ltqtrsKd;rsKd;udk EIdif;,SOfjyjcif;jzihf Ak'¨0g'udk
EdIif;,SOfavhvmrItwGuf us,fjyefYonfh tawG;tjrifrsm;udk &&SdapEdkifrnfjzpfonf/
tcef; 5 wGif 0dyóemur®|mef;[kvnf; vlodrsm;onhf owdy|mefav;yg;enf;vrf;udk tokH;jyKvsuf
vufawGUavhusifhtm;xkwfrIudk t"dutxl;jyKazmfjyxm;onf/ rlvblwtm;jzifh Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf a[mMum;
awmfrlcJhonhf ,if;enf;vrf;onf 0dyóemÓPf wdk;wufrItwGuf vrf;pOfjzpfonf/ odkY&mwGif at'D 5 &mpk
wGif xif&Sm;cJhol t|uxmq&mBuD; t&Sifr[mAk'¨aCmozGifhqdkonhf t|uxmusrf;ü owdy|mefenf;vrf;
taMumif;udk pepfwus aphaphpyfpyf&Sif;jyNyD; em;vnfvG,fonhf zGihfqdkcsufrsm;jzihf ydkrdktao;pdwf azmfjycJhonf/
t|uxmq&mBuD;onf owdy|mefenf;vrf;udk trsKd;tpm;cGJjcm;jcif;rsm;? Oyrmrsm;? ñTefMum;csufrsm;ESihf &Sif;
vif;onhf ½Iaxmihfrsm;jzihf *½kwpdkuf cGJjcrf;pdwfjzmazmfjycJhonf/ ta&;ygonfh tjcm;usrf;*eftcsKdUrSm 0dok'¨dr*¾
t|uxmESihf r[m0*¾ (r[mowdy|meokwf)t|uxmwdkYjzpfonf/ ,if;usrf;*efrsm;rSm ur®|mef;avhusifh tm;
xkwfolrsm;tzdkY ¤if;wdkY\ pdwfydkif;b0vrf;pOfrSefudk em;vnf&ef tvGefta&;ygonf/ owdy|mefur®|mef; enf;
vrf;udk tcef; 5 wGif t"du aqG;aEG;rnfjzpfonf/
edAÁmeft"dyÜm,fzGifhqdkrIqdkif&m azmfjycsufrsm;ESihfywfoufí edAÁmef\t"dyÜm,fudkem;vnf&ef ynm&nftqihf
jrifh t"dyÜm,fzGihfqdk½kHjzihf rvkHavmufbJ oDtdk&DESihf vufawGUusihfBuHrIwdkYudk xnhfoGif;pOfpm; tokH;cs&rnfjzpf
aMumif; þokawoejyKolu ,lqonf/ yxrqkH;taejzihf oDtkd&D½IaxmihfrS edAÁmef[lonf tb,fenf;[lí
jzpfonf/

000000

21
tcef; 2

½IaxmifhrsKd;pkHrS edAÁmeft,ltq

edAÁmeyk'f\ a0g[m&&if;jrpf
ygVdawmf t|uxm#Dumusrf;rsm;üawGY&onfh edAÁmeyk'fudk t"dyÜm,faumuf,l&ef cufcJrIwpf&yftjzpf ,lq
onf/ ygVdt|uxm#Dumusrf;jyKq&mrsm;ESihf Ak'¨0g'DESihf Ak'¨0g'Dr[kwfolynm&Sifrsm;onf edAÁmeft"dyÜm,fudk
odvdkMuonfh y&dowfrsKd;pkHtm; ¤if;wdkY\ edAÁmeft"dyÜm,fzGifhqdkudk ay;cJhMuonf/ odkY&mwGif ¤if;wdkY \zGihfqdkcsuf
ESihf t"dyÜm,faumuf,lcsufrsm;onf rwluGJjym;jcm;em;onfh ed*kH;rsm;udk jzpfay:aponf/ ,if;onf edAÁmeft,l
tq ½IyfaxG;rIavsmhenf;ap&efESihf ,if;a0g[m&\ ydkrkdav;pm;zG,f zGifhqdkcsufwpf&yfjzpf&ef ynm&Sifrsm;\
t"dyÜm,faumuf,lykHrsm;pGmudk cGJjcrf;jzm&ef BudK;pm;rI\ taMumif;wpf&yfjzpfonf/ odkYjzpfívnf; þavhvmrIü
Ak'¨0g'tpOftvmtm;vkH;ESihf tNrJwrf; nDñGwfrIr&Sdonfh ed*kH;aumufcsufrsm;udk awGY&rnfjzpfonf/
Ak'¨\tajccHw&m;"r®rsm;ESihf edAÁmeft"dyÜm,faumuf,lrIrsm;udkykdrdkem;vnf&ef Ak'¨0g'tay: raumif;jrif0g'
tjzpf ypfy,fxm;rnfhtpm; Ak'¨0g'usrf;*efpmayESihf ,if;\crf;em;rItaqmufttkHudk rodusKd;uRHjyK&ef rjzpf
Edkifacs/ ygVdawmfusrf;*efrsm;ü Ak'¨0g't,ltqrsm;udk &Sif;vif;rIyg0ifonf/ xdktcsdefrSpí edAÁmeft,ltqvnf;
pwifcJhNyD; ,if;edAÁmef\crf;em;rIudk todtrSwfjyKjcif;rsm;vnf; yg0ifonf/ xdktcsufudk odrxm;cJhrl edAÁmef
t,ltqESihf ar;cGef;rsm;pGm ay:aygufvmrnfrSm oHo,jzpfzG,frvdkacs/
tbd"rÜw¬o*F[usrf;ü edAÁmefudk y&rw¬"r®av;yg;wGif xnhfoGif;azmfjycJo h nf/ y&rw¬[laoma0g[m&ü
y&rESifh tw¬[kyk'fESpfckygonf/ y&r[lonf razmufjyefaom? tjrifhqkH;jzpfaom? aemufqkH;jzpfaom[k t"dyÜ,f
&onf/ tw¬ [lonf tppftrSwfw&m;jzpfNyD; "r®[lonf t&nftaoG;? obm0 odkYr[kwf t&m0w¬K jzpf
onf/ odkYjzpfí y&rw¬"r® rsm;[lonf razmufjyefonhf udk,fydkifobm0ESihf wnf&Sdaeaomt&mrsm; odkYr[kwf
obm0w&m;rsm;[kjzpfonf/ ,if;oabmw&m;rsm;onf b0\aemufqkH;ESihf aemufxyfr&SdEdkifawmhaom w&m;
tpk taygif;jzpfonf/ tbd"r®w¬o*F[usrf;tvdkt& y&rw¬w&m;rsm;wGif pdw?f apwoduf? ½kyfESihf edAÁmef[k
w&m;tpk av;ckyg&Sdonf/ ,if;av;rsKd;teuf yxrokH;rsKd;rSm ocFgw(jzpfysufwwfaom)w&m;rsm;jzpfNyD; av;ck
ajrmufedAÁmefrSm tocFw(jzpfysufrJh)w&m;jzpfonf/ ,if;t& edAÁmef[lonf b0'ku©rS aemufqkH; vGwfajrmuf
42
onhf tqifhjzpfojzihf jzpfysufoabm&Sdaomb0ü yg0ifjcif;r&SdaMumif; qdkvkdonf / tbd"r®w¬o*F[usrf;wGif
y&rw¬w&m;av;rsKd;udk atmufygtwdkif; rSwfwrf;wifcJhonf-

£wd pdwåH apwoduH? ½lyH edAÁmerdpöyd/


43
y&rw¬H yumaoEÅd? pwk"m0 wxm*xm /
þodkY wxm*wbk&m;&SifwdkYonf y&rw¬w&m;udk av;rsKd;&SdaMumif; azmfxkwfawmfrlcJhMu\/ ,if;wdkYum;
44
pdwf? apw oduf? ½kyfESihf edAÁmefwdkYwnf; /

Ak'¨bmomusrf;pmrsm;tvdkt& edAÁmefonf wpfckwnf;aom tESpfom& odkYr[kwf rajymif;vJaom obm0


&Sd\/ qdkvdkonfrSm wa'wH obm0awm {u0d "rÜd = edAÁmefonf obm0tm;jzifh wpfckwnf;aom vu©Pm

42
Ac-Ab, 25-27.
43
Baddanta Anurudda Thera, Abhidhammatthasangaha Pali (Rangoon, Burmma; Department of Religious Affairs, 1993), 114.
44
Ac-Ab, 260.

22
&Sd\/ edAÁmef\ tvdktyfqkH;aom t&nftaoG;rSm tb,fenf;/ ,if;um; oEÅdvu©PH edAÁmeH = edAÁmefonf
45
tvkH;pkHNidrf;csrf;jcif; odkYr[kwf jyKjyifajymif;vJjcif;r&Sdaom vu©Pm&Sd\[kjzpfonf /
odkY&mwGif ck'´uedum,f £wd0kwåuygVdawmfü edAÁmeftjym; ESpfyg;&SdaMumif;azmfjyonf/ azmfjycsufrSm
]a'Grm bdu©a0 edAÁe"mwka,m? uwar a'G? oOyg'daoom p edAÁme"mwk tEkyg'daoom p edAÁme"mwk =
&[ef;wdkY? edAÁme"wf ESpfrsKd;&Sday\/ tb,fESpfrsKd;wdkY enf;[lrl 1) Oyg'd t<uif;&Sdaom edAÁme"mwfESifh 2) Oyg'd
46
t<uif;r&Sdaom edAÁme"mwfwdkYjzpf\} [kjzpfonf/ qdkvdkonfrmS oOyg'daooedAÁmef[lonf pdwfydkif;qdkif&m
vGwfajrmufrIudk awGYBuKHod&Sdjcif;wpfrsKd;jzpfonf/ owå0gwpfa,muf\ b0oufwrf;twGif; udavomtnpf
taMu;taMumihfjzpfay:&onfh qif;&J'ku©rS vGwfajrmufjcif;jzpfonf/ tEkyg'daooedAÁmef[lonf udk,fcE¨m
vGwfajrmufrIudk awGYBuHKod&SdrIaemufwpfrsKd;jzpfonf/ ,if;onf edAÁmefudk &&SdNyD;aemuf cE¨mig;yg; (½kyf? a0'em?
onm? ocFg&? 0dnmP) ESihf qufpyfywfoufaeonhf qif;&Jtm;vkH;rS vGwfajrmufrIjzpfonf/
edAÁme[laom a0g[m&onf ygVdawmfrsm;ü tcgtm;avsmfpGm awGY&aomfvnf; ,if;\t"dyÜm,frSm rsm;jym;
onf/ vef'efygVdtoif;tbd"mef (P.T.S.)t& ed&f ESihf 0g [k yk'f&if;ESpfckyg&Sdonfh ae&fAmeyk'fudk a0'acwf
wGif okH;pGJaeNyD;jzpfonf/ t"dyÜg,frSm Nidrf;apjcif; odkYr[kwf `iSdrf;owfjcif;jzpfonf/ okdY&mwGif rD;udkNidrf;atmif
tm;xkwfjcif;[lonf avmb? a'go? arm[[laoma0g[m&wdkYudk rD;rsm;tjzpf Ak'¨0g'tawG;tjrifü xif&Sm;
aeNyDjzpfaMumif; qdkvdkonf/ edAÁme[laom ygVdpum;vkH;onf edAÁEÅd [laom Bud,myk'frS qif;oufvmonf/ edAÁEÅd
[laomyk'fudk ck'´uedum,f0if &weokwfawmfü ]edAÁEÅd "D&m ,xm,H y'Dayg (ynm&Sdyk*¾KdvfwdkYonf rD;tdrfrsm;
Nidrf;ouJhodkY Nidrf;Muukef\)}[k awGY&onf/ qdkvdkonfrSm `iSdrf;owfjcif;[k t"dyÜm,f&onf/ þazmfjycsufü
47
edAÁmef[lonf avmb? a'go? arm[[laom avmuDrD;rsm;udk Nidrf;owfjcif;[k t"dyÜg,foufa&mufonf /
a0g[m&&if;jrpft& edAÁme[laomyk'fonf ygVdbmom edESihf 0ge[laom ESpfy'k fwdkYudk qufpyfxm;aom
a0g[m&jzpfonf/ þae&mü ed[lonf r&Sdjcif; odkYr[kwf xGufcGmjcif; (edu©EÅwåm)jzpfNyD;? 0ge[lonf wPSmjzpf
onf/ tbd"r®w¬0dbm0deD#Dumü]0geocFgwm, wPSm, edu©EÅwåm (0ge[kqdktyfaom wPSmrS xGufajrmuf
48
wwfaomaMumifh)}[kazmjfyonf / 0ge[kqdktyfaom wPSmrSxGufajrmufjcif;[k t"dyÜ,f&onf/ ESpfyk'faygif;
ed+0ge [lonf wPSmrS vGwfajrmufjcif;jzpfonf/ ygVdo'´gykHpHt& 0geyk'fa&SUü aemufxyf ]0}wpfvkH; qufxnfh
&onf/ odkYjzihf 0geyk'fonf 0+0ge = 0Gge [k qufpyfyk'f jzpfvmonf/ ,if; 0Ggeonf o'´genf;t& AÁme jzpf
49
vmojzihf ed+AÁmeonf ygVdykHpHus edAÁmeyk'fjzpfvmonf/ wPSmrS vGwfajrmufjcif;[k t"dyÜg,f&onf /
odkY&mwGif opömav;yg;w&m;ü Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwfu 'ku©csKyfNidrf;jcif; edAÁmeyk'fESihf t"dyÜm,fwl[k ,lq&onfh
eda&m"opömudk wwd,opömtjzpf 'DCedum,f r[mowdy|meokwfawmfü rSwfwrf;wifcJhonf/ a[mMum;csuf
udk atmuftwkdif;awGY&onf –

uwrOö bdu©a0 'ku©eda&m"H t&d,opöH? a,m wóma,0 wPSm, taoo0d&m*eda&ma"m pma*g


y#dedóa*¾g rkwåd temva,m --- {aw¬om wPSm y[D,rmem y[D,wd? {w¬ ed½kZÆrmem ed½kZÆwd? £'H
50
0kpöwd bdu©a0 'ku©eda&m"H t&d,opöH /
&[ef;wdkY 'ku©eda&m"opöm[lonf tb,fenf;/ ,if;onf wPSm\ vkH;0t<uif;rJh aysmufuif; csKyfNidrf;
oGm;jcif;? wPSmudk pGefYjcif;? vTwfjcif;? wPSmrS vGwfajrmufjcif;? ruyfNidjcif; --- wPSmudk y,ftyfaomf
51
csKyfNidrf;rIay:vm\/ &[ef;wdkY ,if;csKyfNidrf;rIudk 'ku©eda&m"opöm[kac:\ /

45
Ashin Janakabhivamsa Sayadaw, Abhidhammattha-Sangaha-bhasa-tika (Rangoon, Burma: Departement of Religious Affairs, 1979), 545.
46
Itivuttaka Pali, Khuddaka-Nikaya (Rangoon, Burma: Department of Religious Affairs, 1972), 221.
47
Khuddakapatha Pali, Khuddaka-Nikaya (Rangoon, Burma: Department of Religious Affairs, 1972) 221.
48
Baddanta Sumangalasami-thera, Abhidhammatthavibhavini-tika (Rangoon, Burma: Department of Religious Affairs, 1990), 216.
49
Ab-B-T, 544.
50
Ma-P, Di-N Vol. II, 247, 249.
51
Di-N-NT, 347-348

23
þusrf;*efazmfjycsufü 'DCedum,f r[m0*¾ygVdt|uxmtvdkt& eda&m"[laom a0g[m&onf edAÁme
yk'f\ y&d,m,fwljzpfonf/ edAÁmef (udk&&SdNyD;) tajctaewGif wPSmonf vkH;0jywfpJ\/ odkYjzihf edAÁme [laom
a0g[m&udk þae&mü eda&m"[laomyk'fESifh t"dyÜg,fwl&SdaMumif; em;vnf&onf/ ygVdbmom azmfjycsufü
]taoo0d&m*eda&ma"mwdtm'Ded oAÁmed edAÁmea00pemae0 (taoo0d&m*eda&m"paom a0g[m&wdkYrSm
52
edAÁmeyk'f\ y&d,m,fwlrsm;om jzpfMuonf) } [kawGY&onf/ odkYjzpfí eda&m"opöm[laom pum;pyfü eda&m"
[laom a0g[m&onf edAÁmeyk'Ef Sihf t"dyÜg,ftwlwljzpfonf/
rnfonhftrnfemrESihf t"dyÜg,fwlyk'frsm;udk tokH;jyKonfjzpfap edAÁmef\tESpfom&rSm oEÅdvu©Pm(tqkH;
pGef Nidrf;csrf;rI) wpfckomjzpfonf/ odkYwpfap edAÁmeyk'fonf t"dyÜg,frsm;pGm&SdEdkifonf/ Oyrmtm;jzihf taoo0d
&m* (wPSmrS t<uif;rJhvGwfajrmufjcif;)? taooeda&m" (wPSmt<uif;rJhcsKyfNidrf;jcif;)? pm* (pGefYvTwfjcif;)?
y#dedó*¾ (pGefYypfjcif;)? rkwåd (vGwfajrmufjcif;)? temv, (ruyfNidjcif;)? tem,l[e (jyKjyifrIr&Sdjcif;)? tyÜ#doE¨d
(wpfzefy#doaE¨raejcif;)? t*wd (b0r&Sdjcif;)? tZmw (topfwpfzef rjzpfjcif;)? tZ&m (tdkrIr&Sdjcif;)? tAsm"d
(tema&m*gr&Sdjcif;)? trw (aorIr&Sdjcif;)? taomu (aomur&Sdjcif;)? ty&da'0 (idka<u;rIr&Sdjcif;)? tEkyg
,mo (ylaqG;rIr&Sdjcif;)? toHudvd| (tnpftaMu;r&Sdjcif;) ponfwdkYjzpfonf/ txufyg azmfjycsufrsm;rSm 'DC
53
edum,f r[mowdy|meokwft|uxmrS jzpfonf /
trSefpifppfrl edAÁmeyk'f\ y&d,m,fyk'frsm;rSm ,if;azmfjyyg trnfrsm;xufyif rsm;ao;onf/ txufyg
azmfjycsufü xif&Sm;NyD; tokH;rsm;onhf edAÁmef\ y&d,m,fy'k frsm; ryg0ifao;acs/ þü ygVdpmayvmtcsKdUudk
xkwfjyazmfjy&rl oknw (qdwfokH;jcif;)? tblw (r&Sdjcif;)? oEÅd (Nidrf;csrf;jcif;) ESifh acr (ab;uif;jcif;? wnfNidrf
jcif;? Nidrf;csrf;rI jynfh0jcif;) wdkYjzpfonf/ edAÁmeyk'f\ y&d,m,fwlyk'frsm;udk avhvmrIrSm pdwf0ifpm;zG,faumif;
onf/ trSeftm;jzihf ygVda&m ouúwyg t*FvdyfbmomuJhodkY y&d,m,fwlyk'frsm; <u,f0Muonf/ t*Fvdyf
bmomwGif y&d,m,fwlyk'frsm;ESihf oHwlaMumif;uGJa0g[m&rsm;udk azmfjyonhf a0g[m&ya'omusrf;rsm;&SdouJh
odkY ygVdESihfouúwbmomwdkYüvnf; tbd"mef[kac:onhf tvm;wlusrf;pmrsm;&Sdonf/ ygVdbmomwGif t"dyÜm,f
wlonhf yk'ftrsKd;rsKd;udk azmfjyonfh tbd"meyÜ'Dydumac:onhf usrf;pmwpfapmif&Sdonf/ ,if;usrf;pm\ t"du
tpdwftydkif;wGif y&d,m,fwlyk'frsm;udk pkaqmif;azmfjyxm;NyD; yPmrESihfed*kH;rygbJ *gxmyk'fa& 1203 yg&Sdonf/
,if;usrf;pmü edAÁmeyk'f\ y&d,m,fwyl k'frsm;udk azmfjyxm;onf/ ,if;usrf;t& edAÁmef\ y&d,m,fwl yk'f 46
54
ck&Sdonf /
Ak'¨bmompmaywGif edAÁmef\t"dyÜg,fudk zGifhqdk&ef tocFwyk'fudk rMumcPazmfjyavh&Sdonf/ tocFwyk'f
onfvnf; edAÁmef\ y&d,m,fwlyk'fyifjzpfonf/ a0g[m&cGJjcrf;pdwfjzmenf;vrf;t& tocFwyk'frSm ygVdpmayü
t-ESihf ocF w ESpfyk'fudk qufpyfxm;jcif;jzpfonf/ t-[lonf r&Sdjcif;? ocFw[lonf jyKjyifjcif;jzpfonf/
t"dyÜm,frSm ]ypöa,[d tbdocF&dwwåm ocFwH (taMumif;w&m;wdkY jyKjyifjcif;cH&aomaMumihf cE¨mig;yg;onf

52
Bhaddanta Buddhaghosa Thera, Mahava-atthakatha (Rangoon, Burma, Department of Religious Affairs,1992), 390.
DI-N-A Vol. II, 390. t|uxmazmfjycsufrSm atmufygtwdkif;jzpfonf – {uar0 [d edAÁmeH/ emrmed yeó oAÁocFwmeH emry#d
53

yu©0aoe taeumed a[mEÅd/ ao,sxd'H – taoo0d&ma*g taooeda&ma"m pma*g y#dedóa*¾g rkwåd temva,m &m*u©
a,m a'gou©a,m arm[u©a,m wPSu©a,m tEkyÜga'g tyÜ0wåH tedrdwåH tyÜPd[dwH tem,l[eH tyÜ#doE¨d tEkyÜywåd
t*wd tZmwH tZ&H tAsm"d trwH taomuH ty&da'0H tEkyg,moH toHud|EÅd/
54
armau©m eda&ma"m edAÁmeH? 'Dayg wPSmu©a,m y&H/
wmPH avPr½lyÍö? oEÅH opöremv,H/
tocFwH od0rrwH ok''k ´oH? y&m,eH o&P reDwduH wxm/
temo0H "k0 red'óemuwm? yavmudwH edykP reEÅ rocFg&H/
'ku©u©a,m AsmAZÑÍö? 0d0¥H acr au0vH/
ty0a*¾g 0dema*g p? yPDw rpöKwH y'H/
a,m*u©a,m yg&ryd? rkwåd oEÅd 0dok'¨a,m/
0drkwsmocFw"mwk? ok'¨ edAÁKwda,m od,kH/
azmfjyyg *gxmrsm;udk t&Sifarm*¾v’mer[max&fu rSwfwrf;wifcJhjcif;jzpfonf/ Abhidhanappadipika (Rangoon, Burma:
Department of Religious Affairs, 1990), 3-4.

24
ocFwrnf\[k)} jzpfonf/ taMumif;w&m;[lonf uH (ud, k fEIwfESvkH; tjyKtrl)? pdwf? Owk (tat;tylponf)
tm[m& wdkYjzpfonf/ þzGifhqdkcsuft& tocFw[lonf (uH pdwf Owk tm[m&wdkY\) jyKjyifjcif;rcH&aom
55
w&m;[kt"dyÜm,f&onf /
tocFw[laom a0g[m&udk 'DCedum,f? r[my&dedAÁmeokwfüazmfjy\/ ,if;azmfjycsufrsm;onf a0g[m&
cGJjcrf;pdwfjzmenf;½IaxmihfrS tocFwESifh edAÁmeyk'fwdkY wpfckESihfwpfck qufpyfykHudk azmfjyonf/ ,if;azmfjycsufrSm
atmufygtwkdif;jzpfonf –

y&dedAÁKaw b*0wd o[y&dedAÁmem oauúm a'0gerdaE´m £rH *gxH tbmod –


tedpöm 0w ocFg&m? OyÜg'0,"r®daem/
56
OyÜZÆdwGm ed½kZÑEÅd? awoH 0lyoarm okacg /
Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf y&dedAmÁ efpHvGefawmfrlaomf ewfwdkYoeif; odMum;rif;onf þ*gxmudk ½Gwfqkd\-
ocFg&w&mwdkYonf rNrJygwum;/ jzpfjcif;ysufjcif; oabm&Sd\/ jzpfay:NyD;aemuf ysufpD;\/ ,if;w&m;wdkY
57
csKyfNidrf;jcif;um; trSefuefqkH; csrf;omwnf; /

awoH 0lyoarm okacg (,if;w&m;wdkY csKyfNidrf;jcif;um; trSefuefqkH; csrf;omwnf;)[laom pum;&yfonf


þazmfjycsufü &Sif;vif;ykHr&acs/ odkYjzpfí t|uxmq&m t&Sifr[mAk'¨aCmou 'DCedum,f? r[m0*¾t|
uxmü atmufygtwdkif; &Sif;jyonf –
58
awoH 0lyoarmwd awoH ocFg&meH 0lyoarm? tocFwH edAÁmear0 okcEÅd taw¬m /
awoH 0lyoarm (,if;w&m;wdkYcsKyfNidrf;jcif;um; trSefuefqkH; csrf;omwnf;) [lonf ocFg&w&m;wdkY jywf
59
pJcsKyfNidrf;jcif;aMumifh ,if;w&m;wdkYcsKyfNidrf;onhf edAÁmefonfom trSefqkH; aysmf½TifrIjzpfonf[k qdkvdk\ /

,if;azmfjycsufü edAÁmeyk'fESihf tocFwyk'fwdkYonf a0g[m&rQom uGJjym;NyD; t"dyÜm,f twlwljzpfonf/


edAÁmef\ t"dyÜm,fESihfywfoufí em;vnf&onfrSm wpfpkHwpfckonf jyKjyifpD&ifjcif;cH&aom oabm&SdvQif ,if;
onf arG;zGm;jcif; jzpfay:jcif;oabm&SdNyD; jyKjyifcHocFww&m;wdkYonf csKyfaysmufysufpD;jcif; oabm&Sd\? ,if;odkY
rjzpfESihf csKyfaysmufysufpD;jcif;r&SdygapESihf[k rnfolrQ awmihfwír&Edkif? edAÁmef[lonfum; jyKjyifcHw&m;r[kwf
ojzifh csKyfysufjcif; arG;zGm;jcif; odkYr[kwf wpfzefjzpfay:jcif;oabmr&Sd [líjzpfonf/ Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwffudk,fwdkif
azmfjyxm;csufrSm ],H wH ZmwH blwH ocFwH yavmu"r®H? wH 0w rm yvkZÆDwd? aewH XmeH 0dZÆwd (arG;zGm;jcif;
jzpfay:jcif; jyKjyifoabmw&m;rSeforQonf csKyfysufjcif;oabm&SdNyD; ,if;oabmudk rjzpfysufygapESihf[k awmihf
60
wí r&Edkif)} / edAÁmeft"dyÜm,fudk zGifhqdkonhf ygVdawmfpum;&yf rsm;pGm&SdonfrSm xif&Sm;onf/

edAÁmefESihf a&S;OD;Ak'¨0g' t,ltq


ordkif;qdkif&m tcsuftvufrsm;t& a&S;OD;tdE´d,bmoma&; tpOftvmrsm;ü armu©[laomtawG;tjrif vTrf;
rdk;cJhaMumif; oHo,jzpfzG,frvdkacs/ xdktcsdefu tdE´d,awG;ac:rItpOftvmwGif armu©[laom t,ltqudk
b0\tqifhtjrifhqkH;yef;wdkiftjzpf ,lqcJhMuonf/ odkYwap tdE´d,tpOftvmtwGif;rSmyif ¤if;wdkY\ obm0
vGeftajctaersm;ESihf oabmxm;rsm;aMumifh *dkPf;*PtrsKd;rsKd;onf rkwåd\obm0? vGwfajrmufrIt"dyÜm,fESihf
armu©ac: vGwfajrmufrIudk od&SdcHpm;rIwdkYESihf pyfvsOf;í jcm;em;pGm azmfjyMuonf/ *sdef;0g'wGif armu©[lonf

55
Ab-B-t, 481.
56
Ma-P, Di-N 129-130.
57
Di-NNT,271.
58
Di-NNT,271.
59
t|uxmzGifhudk tajccHonhf pmwrf;&Sif\ t*Fvdyfbmomjyefjzpfonf/
60
Ma-P, Di-N, 129-130.

25
pmayenf;t& vGwfajrmufjcif;jzpfonf/ ,if;onf 0dnmOf\ raumif;rIrS vGwfajrmufjcif;ESihf aemufxyftoGif
61
ul;ajymif;rIrS vGwfajrmufjcif;udk qdkvkdonf /
'ku©rSvGwfajrmufrI tjypfrSvGwfajrmufrI[lonfrSm bmomw&m;wdkY\ a,bk,s,lqcsuf jzpfonf/ ,if;
,lqcsufwGif Ak'¨0g'u ,if;\tEÅdryef;wdkifudk edAÁme odkYr[kwf vGwfajrmufrI (rkwåd odkYr[kwf 0drkwåd) [k azmfjy
onf/ Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwfonf rdrdy&dowftm; yxrqkH; pwifa[mMum;awmfrlcJhaomaMumihf 'ku©eda&m"opöm
('ku©csKyfNidrf;jcif; trSefw&m;)\ BuD;jrwfcrf;em;rIudk tav;xm;a[mMum;awmfro l nf/ þü 'ku©ed&m"[laom
pum;vkH;udk vGwfajrmufrItjzpf t"dyÜm,faumuf,lEdkifonf/ Ak'¨bmom0ifwdkYonf aojcif;ESihf y#doaE¨wpfzef
aejcif;rSvGwfajrmufjcif;[laom tqkH;pGefNidrf;csrf;rIudk &&Sda&;twGuf vGwfajrmufrIvrf;pOfudk&SmazG&ef BuKd;yrf;
Muonf/ odkYjzihf Ak'¨0g'DwdkYonf pdwfydkif;ESihf½kyfydkif;b0 vGwfajrmufrItwGuf bmomw&m;ESihfqdkifaom arQmfrSef;
csufwpf&yf&Sdonf/
edAÁmeft"dyÜm,fzGifhqdkrIESihfywfoufí t*¾om0uESpfyg;\ azmfjycsuftjzpfjzihf edAÁmef,lqcsufudk azmfjy
onhf a&S;OD;Ak'¨0g'tawG;tjrifwpf&yf&Sdonf/ t*¾om0ursm;jzpfMuonhf t&Sifom&dykwå&mESihf t&Sifarm*¾v’mef
wdkYonf edAÁmefudk aojcif;uif;onhf tajctaetjzpf t"dyÜm,fzGifhqdkcJhonf/ wpfcgaomf aemiftcg tpOf
twkdif; t&Sifom&dykwå&mESihf t&Sifarm*¾mv’mefjzpfvmMurnhf OywdóESihf aumvdwtrnf&Sd trsKd;om;ESpf
a,mufonf uyGJwpfckudk Munfh½IaeMuqJwGif b0&Sdt&m0w¬Krsm;\ rwnfNrJykHudk euf½Idif;pGm oabmaygufcJh
Muonf/ aemufqkH;wGif ¤if;wdkYESpfa,mufonf tdrfaxmifrIb0udkpGefYNyD; vGwfajrmufrIvrf;pOfudk &SmazG&efqkH;
62
jzwfcJhMuonf / odkY&mwGif ¤if;wdkY awmxGufjcif;rjyKrD wpfa,mufonf aojcif;uif;onhftajctae (trw)
udk awGUcJhrl tjcm;wpfa,muftm; ajymjy&ef uwdu0wfjyKMuonf/ þazmfjycsuft& Ak'¨bmom0ifwdkYonf
edAÁmef\ t"dyÜm,fudk em;vnfEkdifMuonf/

awe acg ye ora,e om&dykwåarm*¾v’mem oÍöa, y&dAmZdau jA[®p&,H p&EÅd/ aw[d uwdum
63
uwm a[mwd ]a,m yxrH trwH t"d*päwd? aom £w&ó tma&map[D}wd /
t&Sifom&dykwå&mESihf t&Sifarm*¾v’mefwdkYonf oÍö,trnf&Sdy&dAkdZfq&mBuD;\ vrf;ñTefrIatmufü aexdkif
MupOf þodkYtcsif;csif; uwdu0wfpum;jyKMu\ ]tu,fí wpfa,mufonf aojcif;uif;onhf tajc
64
taeudk yxrqkH; a&muf&SdcJhrnfqdkvQif xdkyk*¾Kdvfonf tjcm;wpfa,muftm; ajym&rnf} /

a&S;OD;Ak'¨bmom0ifwdkYonf ygVdawmfazmfjycsufrsm;udktajccHí edAÁmef odkYr[kwf vGwfajrmufjcif;\ crf;em;


rIt"dyÜm,fudk em;vnfEdkifMuaomfvnf; arG;aorSvGwfajrmufrI t,ltqonf Ak'¨bmom0ifr[kwfolrsm;tzdkY
'óeqdkif&m ar;cGef;wpfcktjzpfodkY jrifhwufoGm;Edkifonf/ vGwfajrmufrIESifhywfoufonhf ¤if;wdkY\azmfjycsufrSm
a0zefqef;ppfzG,ftcsuf yg0ifonfh bmomw&m;qdkif&m ,lqrIjzpfonf/ edAÁmef[laoma0g[m&ESihf vufawGU
qufpyfonhf aAm"dÓPf (t&[wår*fÓPf zdkvfÓPf) ESihf vGwfajrmufrI [laom t&mESpfckwdkY rnfodkY qufpyf
oenf;/ aAm"dÓPfudk xdk;xGif;odjrifoGm;NyD;olonf avmutm; tvkH;pkHaom ,if;\rESpfoufzG,f tusKd;quf
rsm;&Sdonhf tajccHtppftrSefw&m;wpfcktjzpf ½IjrifEdkifonf/ ,if;odkYaom yk*¾Kdvfonf 'ku©avmurS vGwf
ajrmufvdkonf/ ynmpGrf;&nfjzihf pdwfudk vGwfajrmufapvdkonf/ ynm odkYr[kwf aAm"dÓPfonf owå0gwpf
a,muftjzpf 'ku©avmuodkYqufpyfay;onhfwPSmudk z,f&Sm;ypfEdkifonf/ xdkYjyif ynmonf tu,fí þb0
wGif aAm"dÓPfudk &&SdNyD;olwpfa,muf&SdrnfqdkvQif xdkyk*¾Kdvfonf ewf? ayw? vl? wd&pämefESihf tjcm;edrfhus
onhf b0rsm;yg0ifonfh b0tpOfudk jzwfoef;zG,frvdkawmhaMumif; odEdkifonf/ owå0gwpfa,muf\ b0jzpf

61
Jaina Ramjee Singh, "Moksa in Indian Philosophy: A Perspective in Jaina Philosophy and Religion," www.jainworld.com, 1-5 [cited 15
September,
62
2002].
Bhaddanta Buddhaghosa-thera, Dhammapada-atthakatha, (Rangoon, Burma: Burma Pitaka Association, 1986), 52-73.
63
Mahavagga Pali, Vinaya Pitaka, Khudddaka-Nikaya ( Ranggon, Burma: Department of Religious Affairs, 1972), 50.
64
usrf;jyKol\ ygVd0gus t*Fvdyfbmomjyef jzpfonf/
26
pOfudk oabmaygufjcif;ü Ak'¨bmom0ifwdkYonf aAm"dÓPf\ tcef;u@onf r&Sdrjzpfvkdtyfaom Ak'¨0g'
vGwfajrmufrI t,ltqwpf&yfjzpfaMumif; ,kHrSwfMuonf/
aAm"dÓPftajctaeESihf ywfoufonhf ,lqcsufum; tb,fenf;/ þae&mü aAm"dÓPf[lonfudk
opömw&m;udkodjrifjcif; odkYr[kwf tukodkvftnpftaMu;rsm;rS vGwfajrmufaom pdwftajctaewpf&yf tjzpf
em;vnf&onf/ aAm"dÓPfpGrf;&nfrSwpfqifh t&mtm;vkH;udk wG,fwmvdkrI r&Sdawmhacs/ aAm"dÓPfESihf ywf
oufonhf Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf\ wynfhom0uwdkYtm; rdefYMum;csufwpf&yfrSm þodkYjzpfonf –

0drkwåo®ð 0drkwårdwd ÓPH a[mwd? ]cDPm Zmwd 0kodwH jA[®p&d,H uwH u&PD,H emy&H £w¬wåm,m}wd
yZmemwd? £' ra0gp b*0g? twårem yÍö0*¾d,m bdu©L b*0awm bmodwH tbdeE´KH/ £ro®ð p ye
65
a0,smu&Poð® bnrmae yÍö0*¾d,meH bdu©LeH tEkyg'g, tmoa0[d pdwåmed 0drkpöðolwd /
vGwfajrmufoGm;aomf vGwaf jrmufoGm;NyD[k todÓPfjzpf\/ ]b0wpfzefjzpfjcif; ukefqkH;NyD? tusifhjrwf
udk usifhokH;NyD;NyD? jyKzG,fudpöudk jyKNyD;NyD? b0opfwpfzef jzpfrIr&Sdawmhacs} [k em;vnf\/ Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf
,if;odkY a[mMum;awmfNyD/ yÍö0*¾D&[ef;wdkYonf Ak'¨a[mMum;csufudk 0rf;ajrmufpGm em,lMu\/ þa'
oemawmfudk a[mMum;awmfrlaomtcg yÍö0*¾D&[ef;wdkY\ pdwfonf taESmiftwG,frJhvsuf tmoa0g
66
w&m;wdkYrS vGwfajrmufoGm;Mu\ /

txufygazmfjycsufonf edAÁmefudk 'óetaejzihf ½Ijrifjcif;[k qdkjcif;xuf pdwfynmtaejzihf ½Ijrifjcif;


wpf&yf[k ,lqonf/ txufyg azmfjycsufrsm;udk pdwfykdif;qdkif&m odjrifem;vnfrIwpf&yf[k ,lqcJhaomf edAÁmef
\ tESpfom&udk emrfw&m;tjzpf xnhfoGif;Edkifonf/ Ak'¨0g'ynm&Sifrsm;taejzihf edAÁmefudk emrfw&m;tjzpf
todtrSwfjyKEkdifoavm/ rSefonf? edAÁmefudk emrfw&m;tjzpf todtrSwfjyKxm;onf/ odkYwap edAÁmefudk
pifMu,frIjzpfpOf taejzihfvnf; azmfjyonf/ pifMu,frIjzpfpOfudk em;vnf&efrSm aMumif;usKd;qufEG,frIjzpfpOf
(y#dpöorkyÜg') odkYr[kwf pifMu,frIvrf;pOfudk tajccHonhf aAm"dÓPfudk em;vnf&rnfjzpfonf/ ,if;ESpfrsKd;t
aMumif;udk þusrf;aemufydkif;wGif aqG;aEG;rnfjzpfonf/ ykHrSeftm;jzihf Ak'¨bmompmayu edAÁmeftajctaeudk
tukodkvftnpftaMu;wdkY\ tajccHtaMumif;tcsufrsm;tjzpf ,lqonhf avmb? a'goESihf arm[wdkY ryg0if
onhf pifMu,frIjzpfpOftjzpf azmfjy&ef tm;xkwfMuonf/
'DCedum,f? oDvu©E¨0*¾tbde0#DumwGif avmb? a'goESihf arm[uJhodkYaom pdwftnpftaMu;w&m;
rsm;tm; ,if;w&m;wdkYrS rvGefajrmufEdkifoltaygif;udk qif;&J'ku©rsm;pGm &apwwfaomaMumihf tqdyfESihf yrmjyK
xm;onf/ ,if;#Dumusrf;vm wdkuf½kdufazmfjycsufrSm ]tew¬Zeeawm 0doocFgowm, udavaom 0doH
67
(udavomwdkYonf ykxkZOfwdkYukd 'ku©rsm;pGm jzpfapwwfaomaMumihf tqdyfESifhyrmwl\} [kjzpfonf / trSef
pifppf udavomtqdyfrsm;onf rdrdudkomru olwpfyg;wdkYudkvnf; emusifaponf/ xdkYxuf ,if;wdkYonf
aomufrsdKrdol odkYr[kwf xdrdoltaygif;tm; aoapavmufonhf tajctaeudk jzpfay:apEdkifonf/ odkYjzpfí
Ak'¨0g'udk vkdufemusihfokH;olrsm;onf pdwftnpftaMu;udavomudk z,f&Sm;EdkifvQif edAÁmef[laom tqkH;pGef
Nidrf;csrf;rIudk &&SdEdkifonf[k ,kHMunfMuonf/ xkdYjyif ur®|mef;bm0em½IrSwfrIjzihf udavomrsm;udk ausmfvGefEdkif
jcif;onf pdwfpifMu,frIudk &&Sdjcif;jzpfonf/ pifMu,frIjzpfpOfudk csOf;uyfaomenf;vrf;onf pdwfudk pdwfynm
½IaxmihfESihf tenf;ESihftrsm; ywfoufaponf/ odkY&mwGif Ak'¨0g'a&S;OD;,lqcsufrSm aAm"dÓPf odkYr[kwf edAÁmef
udk&&SdrIonf udavompdwftnpftaMu; (tukodkvfapwodurf sm;)aMumihfjzpfaom qif;&Jtm;vkH;rS vGwfajrmuf
NyD;aemufwGif jzpfonf/
Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwfonf atmufyg>ruf[csufudk aAm"dÓPf odkYr[kwf edAmÁ efudk odjrif&&SdNyD;aemuf cPt
MumwGif rdefYMum;awmfrlonf/ ,if;>ruffMum;csufudk Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf\ yxrOD;qkH;aom udk,fwdkif>ruf[csuf
65
Khandhavagga-Pali, Sanyutta-Nikaya ( Ranggon, Burma: Department of Religious Affairs, 1991), 56.
66
Bhikkhu Bodhi, The Commected Discourses of the Buddha, 903
67
Baddanta Nanabhivamsa, Silakkhandhavagga-abhinava-tika, ( Ranggon, Burma: Department of Religious Affairs, 1963), 74.

27
tjzpf jyqdkonf/ 'DCedum,f? oDvu©E¨0*¾t|uxmtqdkt& Ak'¨\pum;awmfrsm;rSm tkyfpkokH;ck&Sdonf/ yxr
Ak'¨0pe (Ak'¨\ yxrqkH;>rufMum;csuf)? rZÑdrAk'¨0pe (yxrESihf aemufqkH;a[mMum;csufrsm;twGif; a[mMum;
csuftm;vkH;)ESifh ypädrAk'¨0pe (Ak'¨\aemufqkH;pum;) wdkYjzpfonf/ om"uygVdrSm ]oAÁar0 [d'H yxrAk'¨0peH
rZÑdrAk'¨0peH ypädrAk'¨0peEÅd wdAÁab'H a[mwd (Ak'¨\a[mMum;csufrsm;rSm yxrqkH;pum;? tv,fwGifjzpfaom
68
pum;ESifh aemufqkH;pum;[k okH;rsKd;&Sd\)} [kjzpfonf / ,if;Ak'¨0peokH;rsKd;teuf yxrAk'¨0perSm atmufygt
wdkif;jzpfonf –

taeuZmwdoHom&H? oE¨m0dóH tedAÁdoH/


*[um&H *a0oaEÅm? 'ku©m Zmwd ykeyÜKeH/
*[um&u 'da|mod? yke a*[H e um[od/
oAÁm aw zmokum b*¾g? *[ul#H 0docFwH/
69
0docFg&*wH pdwåH? wPSmeH c, rZÑ*g /
tdrfaqmufvkyfoltm; &SmazGaomfvnf; rawGUaomigonf b0rsm;pGm arG;zGm;rIoHo&mudk jzwfoef;cJh&
\/ b0Budrfzef jzpf&jcif;um; emusifvSacs\/ tdk tdrfaqmufvkyfol? ,ck oifhudk awGUNyD/ oifonf tdrf
opfwpfzef raqmuf&awmhNyD/ oihf tjcif&e,fwdkYudk zsufqD;vdkufNyD/ oifh tdrftxGwfudkvnf; zsufqD;
70
vdkufNyD/ ighpdwfonf jyKjyifjcif;uif;&m edAÁmefodkYa&mufNyD/ wyfESpfoufrItvkH;pkH ukefqkH;&modkY a&mufcJhNyD /

txufygazmfjycsufü 'óeqdkif&m ,lqcsufrsm;yg&Sdonf/ Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwfonf ,if;ygVd*gxmrsm;udk


rdrdzmom ½Gwfqdkawmfrljcif;jzpfonf/ tjcm;olwpfa,muf\ wyfESpfoufrIwPSmudk rnfolwpfa,mufrQ
rz,f&Sm;Edkif aMumif; em;vnf&onf/ aAm"dÓPfpGrf;&nfjzifhomvQif ,if;wPSmudk z,f&Sm;Edkifonf/ wPSmonf
oHo&mü&Sdonf/ tu,fí edAÁmefonf oHo&mür&SdvQif wPSmESihfedAÁmefwdkY qufEG,frIudk rnfodkY&Sif;jyEdkiftHh
enf;/ trSefqdkaomf aAm"dÓPfpGrf;&nfonf ,if;ESpfckudk wpfckpDcGJypfvkdufonf/ wPSmonf oHo&mESihf
qufEG,faeNyD; wPSmrJhjcif;onf b0r&Sdonhf edAÁmefESihf ywfoufonf/ odkYjzihf edAÁmefü b0wpfzefarG;zGm;jcif;
vkH;0r&SdaMumif; em;vnf&onf/
,if;>rufqdkcsufokH;&yfü r[my&dedAÁme[kac:onhf aemufqkH;edAÁmefodkY a&mufvkeD;tcsdefwGif Ak'¨&Sifawmf
jrwfonf wynfhtaygif;tm; "r®\jrihfjrwfykHudk tusOf;csKyftm;jzifh rdefYMum;awmfrlonf/ Ak'¨\ ,if;pum;
awmfrsm;udk aemufqkH;>rufqdkcsuftjzpf tcdkiftrmazmfjyMuonf/ ]£'H ypädrAk'¨0peH (þonfum; Ak'¨\
aemufqkH;pum;awmfwnf;)}/ ,if;a[mMum;csufudk 'DCedum,f? r[my&dedAÁmeokwaf wmfü atmufygtwdkif;
rSwfwrf;wifxm;onf –

tx acg b*0g bdu©L tmraEÅod ][E´ 'ged bdua© 0? tmrEÅ,mrd a0g? 0,"r®m ocFg&m? tyÜrma'e
71
orÜma'xm}wd/ t,H wxm*wó ypädr0gpm /
,if;aemuf Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwfonf &[ef;wdkYtm; þodkYrdefYawmfrl\ ]&[ef;wdkY? ,cktcgü igonf oifwdkY
tm; þodkYrdefYMum;ay\ - ocFg&w&m;tm;vkH;wdkYonf ysufpD;jcif;oabm&Sd\/ rarhavsmhbJ BudK;pm;tm;
72
xkwfMuukefavmh}/ þum; wxm*w\ aemufqkH;pum;wnf; /

68
Bhaddanta Buddhaghosa-thera, Silakkhandhavagga (Sumangalavilasini) -atthakatha, (Rangoon, Burma: Department of Religious Affairs,
1973),
69
16.
Dhammapada-Pali, Khuddaka Nikaya, (Rangoon, Burma: Department of Religious Affairs, 1972), 36.
70
Nanamoli Thera's translation: Udanavatthu, Dhammapada Pali, verses 153-154, Kh-N Vol. 1, 36; Vi-P Vol. IV, 481-,482-3.
71
Di-N, Vol. II, 128.
72
Di-N-NT, 170.

28
xdkYjyif a&S;OD;Ak'¨bmom0ifwdkYonf Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwftm; edAÁmefudk awGYBuHKcHpm;rI\ txl;jrwfqkH; pHjyyk*¾Kdvf
tjzpf ,lqMuonf/ Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwfonf ur®|mef;bm0em ½IrSwftm;xkwfjcif;jzifh udk,fawmfwdkif aAm"dÓPf
udk xdk;xGif;odjrifcJhNyD; edAÁmef\tESpfom&udk em;vnfcJhonf/ Ak'¨bmomusrf;*efrsm;t& jyifyrStultnD wpfpkH
wpfckr&SdbJ rdrdtvdkvdk rarhravsmh BudK;pm;tm;xkwfjcif;jzihf aAm"dÓPfudk &&SdcJhjcif;jzpfonf/ Ak'¨onf rdrd\
"r®udk em,lolrsm;taejzihf edAÁmef\t"dyÜm,fudk trSefwu,fem;vnf&ef rvG,fulaMumif; odawmfrlcJhonf/
odkYjzpfí yxrwGif Ak'¨\pdwfawmfü "r®udk a[mMum;rIrjyK&ef udkif;ñGwfawmfrlcJhonf/ taMumif;rl owå0gwdkY\
ÓPfrsufpdwGif wdrfovmrsm;pGm;&SdMuaom owå0gwdkYtm; "r®udka[mMum;&ef cufcJaMumif; odjrifawmfrlaom
aMumihfjzpfonf/ odkYwap aemufqkH;ü r[mu½kPmawmfaMumihf owå0gwdkYtm; w&m;"r®a[mMum;awmfrlonf/
Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf qifjcifpOfpm;ykHudk 'DCedum,f? r[my'geokwfü azmfjyxm;csufrSm atmufygtwkdif;jzpfonf –

t"d*awm acg rsm,H "ar®m *rÇDa&m 'k'´aom 'k&EkaAma"m oaEÅm yPDawm twuúm0pa&m edykaPm
y@dwa0'eDa,m/ tmv,&mrm acg yem,H yZm tmv,wm tmv,ork'dwm/ tmv,&m, acg
ye yZm, tmv,wm, tmv,ork'dwm, 'k'´oH £'H XmeH ,'d'H £'ypö,wm y#dpöorkyÜga'g/
£'rÜd acg XmeH 'k'´oH ,'d'H oAÁocFg&oraxm oAÁLy"dy#dedóa*¾g wPSu©a,m 0d&ma*g eda&ma"m
edAÁmeH/ t[aÍö0 acg ye "r®H a'ao,sH ya& p ar e tmZmae,sH? aom rró udvraxm? om
73
rró 0da[omwd /
igodxm;aom "r®um; eufeJ\/ odjrifEdkifcJ\/ xdrdydkifEdkif&ef cJ,Of;\/ Nidrf;csrf;NyD; vGefjrwf\/ MuHpnf
awG;awmí r&Edkif/ odrfarGU\/ ynm&SdwdkYom em;vnfEdkif\/ owå0gtaygif;um; wG,fwmwyfrufrIü
aysmfyg;vsuf ,if;ü om,maysmf½TifMu\/ ,if;odkY wG,fwmwyfrufrIü aysmfyg;vsuf ,if;ü om,maysmf
½TifMuojzihf ocFg&w&m;wdkY\ jyKjyifcHobm0 okdYr[kwf aMumif;usKd;qufEG,frIjzpfpOf (y#dpöorkyÜg')udk
odjrifEdkifcJ&jcif;jzpf\/ xdktwlyif ocFgw&m;tm;vkH;\ csKyfNidrf;rI? Zmwd(arG;zGm;)oHo&m\ &if;jrpftm;vkH;
udk y,fpGefYrI? wPSmESihf&m*wdkY ukefqkH;jcif;? ('ku©)jywfpJcsKyfNidrf;jcif;ESihf edAÁmefudk odjrif&efvnf; cJ,Of;
vS\/ igonf "r®udk tjcm;yk*¾Kdvfrsm;tm; a[mMum;bdrl ¤if;wdkY igh(w&m;)udk em;vnfMurnfr[kwf/
74
,if;odkYjzpfvQif igbk&m;tm; yifyef;rI zdpD;rI jzpfvdrfhrnf /

azmfjyyg ygVdawmfpum;&yfü awGU&onhftwdkif; ,if;odkYjzpfjcif;onf a&S;OD;Ak'¨bmom0ifwdkY edAÁmeft"dyÜm,f


aumuf,lrIESihfywfoufí jiif;ckHajymqdkrIjyóemr&SdbJ EIwfqdwfaeMujcif;\ taMumif;wpf&yf jzpfzG,f&Sdonf/
Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf\ wdusaomajz&Sif;csufESihf aemufqkH;vGwfajrmufrItaejzihf edAÁmefudkwdkuf½kdufodjrifonf[l
aom aAm"dÓPfudk&NyD;onhf t&Sifom&dykwå&muJhodkYaom wynfhom0ursm;\ &Sif;vif;csufrsm;udkvnf; em;
vnf&onf/ a&S;Ak'¨0g'\ vGwfajrmufrItjrifonf bmompum;a0g[m&taejzihf tjcm;aom bmom0g'wdkY\
u,fwifjcif;t,ltq odkYr[kwf jyifytoGifoP²mefwpfrsKd;ü vGwfajrmufjcif;ESihf yrmwlEdkifonf/ odkYaomf þ
ae&mü vGwfajrmufrI[k t"dyÜm,f&onhf edAÁmeft,ltqum; tjcm;bmom0g'vkdufemolrsm;\ t"dyÜm,fzGifhqdk
csufESihf jcm;em;onf/

ygVdawmfvm edAÁmeft"dymÜ ,f zGifhqdkcsufrsm;


edAÁmef[lonf 'ku©tm;vkH;rS vGwfajrmufjcif;[k odem;vnfjcif;ü vGwfajrmufrI[lonfudk aojcif;rJhtajctae
tjzpf txl;jyKzGifhqdkrnfjzpfonf/ ,if;,lqcsufonf a&S;OD;Ak'¨0g'DwdkYtMum; xif;&Sm;aomaMumifh ¤if;wdkYonf
twåvdyfjymESihf ,if;twåvdyfjym\ xm0&wnfNrJrI t,ltqudk jiif;y,fcJhonf/ r[mjA[®mtygt0if xm0&
wnfNrJowå0gtm;vkH;ESihf £ó&edr®meyk*¾Kdvf(zefqif;&Sif)udk jiif;qdkMuonf/ a&S;OD;Ak'¨0g'onf xm0&wnfNrJ
aeaom rnfonhf owå0gtajctaewpf&yfudkrQ azmfjyjcif;rjyKacs/ xm0&wnfNrJtjrifudk vufcHrnfhtpm; ¤if;

73
Di-N Vol. III, 31.
74
Ibid, 213.

29
wdkYonf xm0&wnfNrJonhft&mtm; vufcHrIudk jiif;qdkMuonf/ ¤if;wdkYtjrif\ 0daooazmfjycsufrSm aAm"d
ÓPfudk &&SdNyD;olrsm; aemufqkH;taejzihf edAÁmefudk 0ifa&mufNyD;aemuf xdkyk*¾Kdvfrsm;\ cE¨mig;yg;onf (tjcm;b0
wpfckjzpf&ef) t<uif;tusefr&Sdawmhacs[k jzpfonf/ ,if;odkYaom em;vnfrIrsKd;aMumihf a&S;OD;Ak'¨0g'DwdkYtaejzihf
aAm"dÓPfudk &&SdNyD;olrsm;\ aovGefNyD;aemuftajctaeESihf ywfoufí aqG;aEG;jcif;jyK&ef ta&;rBuD;[k ,kH
MunfcJhMuonf/ odkYwap ¤if;wdkY\ ,lqcsufrSm 'óeqdkif&m pkHprf;avhvmrIudk rvGefajrmufEdkifacs/ edAÁmefudk
&&SdNyD;yk*¾Kdvfrsm;taejzihf tusKd;r&Sdaomfvnf; ,if;tcsuftcsKdUudk w&m;a'oemawmfrsm;u &Sif;jy&rnfjzpf
onf/ odkYjzihf tcsKdUaom Ak'¨0g'ynm&Sifrsm;taejzihf edAmÁ efukd ygVdbmomjzifh a0g[m&rJh oknw? odkYr[kwf a0g
[m&wdkYukefqkH;&m c,? odkYr[kwf j'yfrJh tbm0? odkYr[kwf qdwfokH;jcif; wkpätjzpf t"dyÜm,fzGifhqdk&ef BudK;yrf;
cJhMuonf/
trSefpifppf edAÁmeftqifhwGif udk,fydkif crf;em;jrifhjrwfrI&Sdonf/ odkY&mwGif obm0tm;jzihf tm½kHig;yg; umr
*kPfw&m;aysmf½TifrIqDodkY udkif;ñGwfaom avmuDpdwfjzihf edAÁmeftaMumif;udk awG;awmjcif;um; edAÁmef\tESpf
om&trSefrS uGmvSrf;vSonf/ edAÁmefcsrf;omudk rcHpm;zl;olrsm;tzdkY (y&d)edAÁmefpHNyD;aemuf r*fzdkvfÓPfudk &&SdNyD;
olrsm; rnfonhfae&mwGif &Sdvdrfhrnf[lonfudk em;vnf&efvnf; rjzpfEdkifacs/ odkYwap &[EÅmyk*¾Kdvfrsm;taejzihf
rdrdukd,fwdkif xdk;xGif;odjrifNyD;jzpfonhft&m (edAÁmef)udk odjrifEdkifonf[k Ak'¨bmom0ifwdkY ,kHMunfMuonf/ ygVd
usrf;*efrsm;t& &[EÅmyk*¾Kdvfrsm;onf avmukwå&mtm½kHESihf ¤if;wdkYodjrifNyD; t&nftcsif;rsm;udk ¤if;wdkY xdk;xGif;
odjrifNyD;jzpfonfh avmukwå&mynmjzihf odjrifMuonf/ ¤if;wdkY\ awGUBuKHod&SdrIonf Ak'¨0g',kwådwGif cGJjcrf;pdwf
jzmprf;oyfrIESifh qufEG,fonf/ atmufygpum;&yfrSm Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf >ruf[cJhaom ygVdpmydk'fjzpfonf –

,awm p acg ar bdu©a0 £arok pwlok t&d,oapöok {0H wdy&d0¥H 'Gm'omum&H ÓP'óeH
ok0dok'¨H a[mwd? txm[H bdu©a0 oa'0au avmau orm&au ojA[®au oórPjAm[®Pd,m
yZm, oa'0rEkóm, tEkwå&H or®moarÁm"ð tbdorÁKa'¨gwd ypönmoð/ ÓPÍö ye ar 'óeH
75
O'yg'd? tukyÜm ar 0drkwåd? t,rEÅdrm Zmwd? ew¬d 'ged ykeAÇa0gwd /
igbk&m;\ opömav;yg;udk t0ef;tqihfokH;yg; tjcif;t&mq,fhESpfyg;jzihf t&SdrSeftwdkif;odaom ÓPf
tjrifonf aumif;pGmpifMu,f\/ ,if;odkY aumif;pGmpifMu,fvaomf ewf rm&fewf jA[®mESihf vlYavmu
tvkH;odkY twkrJhNyD;jynfhpkHonhf aAm"dÓPfudk &&SdNyDjzpfaMumif; igbk&m; aMunmcJo
h nf/ ]ighpdwfvGwfajrmuf
rIum; rwkefrvIyf ckdifNrJ\/ þonfum; ig\ aemufqkH;arG;zGm;rIwnf;/ b0opfwpfzef jzpfay:rI r&Sd
76
awmhacs}[laom ÓPftjrifjzpfay:cJhonf /

Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf aAm"ÓPfudk &&SdcJhpOfu azmfjycsuft& &Sifawmfjrwfonf ]þum; ig\ aemufqkH;b0


jzpf\} [k rdefYawmfrlonf/ ,if;onf udk,fawmfjrwftaejzihf aojcif;ESihf aoNyD;aemuf taESmiftzGJU r&SdawmhNyD
jzpfaMumif; qdkvkdonf/ þazmfjycsufü Ak'¨onf jynhfpkHonhfaAm"ÓPfjzihf rdrdpdwf vGwfajrmufoGm;jcif;udkom
vQif 0daoojyKxm;onf/ odkYwap em,lolrsm;\pdwfwGif &Sifawmfjrwfa[mMum;csufESihf ywfoufí ar;jrefzG,f
wpfpkHwpf&m &SdEdkifonf/ Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwfonf ½kyfydkif;b0 vGwfajrmufoGm;jcif;udk >ruf[awmfrloavm? ,if;
onf edAÁmef\ jrifhjrwfcrf;em;rIEiS hf rnfodkYqufpyfoenf;[lonfudk odvkdMuonf/ trSefyif Ak'¨onf þ>ruf[
csufudk wynfhtaygif;tm; tcsdeftcg ae&ma'otrsKd;rsKd;ü >ruf[awmfrlcJhonf/
Ak'¨onf vlom;wpfa,muftaejzihf udk,fydkifobm0&SdaMumif; oabmaygufawmfrlonf/ p½dkuf0goem
[lonf vlwpfa,muf\ obm0&Sd&if;pGJ oabmxm;tjyKtrlESihf ywfoufonhf p½kdufvu©Pmjzpfonf/ ]vlwdkY
\p½dkufvu©Pmonf ¤if;wdkY\ twdwfut H rsKd;rsdK;t& uGJjym;jcm;em;onf/ t|uxmq&mrsm;tvdkt& p½dkuf
77
vu©Pm[lonf y#doaE¨pdwfESifhtwlygvmonfh uHaMumifhjzpfonf / 0dok'd¨r*¾t|uxmtvdkt& &m*p½dkuf?

75
Sa-N Vol. III, 370-371.
76
Sa-N - NT Vol. II, 1846.
77
Ac-Ab, 330-331.

30
a'gop½dkuf? arm[p½dkuf? o'¨gp½dkuf? Ak'¨d (todynm)p½dkuf? 0dwuú (MuHpnfawG;awmrI)p½dkuf[k tusOf;tm;
jzihf ajcmufrsKd;&Sdonf/ odkY&mwGif –

tcsKdUu ,if;ajcmufrsKd;wpfckpDESihf &m*a'goarm[okH;rsKd;aygif;wpfESihf ,if;okH;rsKd;aygif;wGif o'¨g? Ak'¨d?


0dwuúwdkYudkaygif;í wpfrsKd;pD aygif;av;rsKd;? o'¨gAk'¨d0dwuúokH;rsKd;aygif;wpfESifh ,if;okH;rsKd;aygif;wGif
avmb? a'go? arm[wdkYudkaygif;í wpfrsKd;pD aygif;av;rsKd;[k p½dkuftjym;udk 14-rsKd;,lMu\/ odkYaomf
,if;odkY cGJjcm;rIudk vufcHcJhaomf avmbponfukd o'¨gponfü aygif;xnhfjcif;jzifh p½dkuftjym; wdk;rsm;
78
zG,f&Sd\/ odkYjzpfí p½dkuftjym;udk tcsKyftm;jzihf ajcmufyg;omrSwfoihf\ /

p½dkufrsm;tvdkuf avmuDESihf avmukwå&ma&;&m b0tjrifwdkYü yk*¾Kdvfwdkif; pdwf0ifpm;rIudk,fpD &Sdvdrhfrnf


jzpfonf/ Oyrmqdk&aomf avmuDa&;&mwGif wpfa,mufu tpdrf;a&mifudkBudKufNyD; tjcm;wpfa,mufu tjcm;
ta&mifwdkYudk ESpfoufrnfjzpfonf/ pdwfykdif;b0 avhusifhtm;xkwfrIwGif tcsKdUu arwåmur®|mef; u½kPm
ur®|mef;uJhodkYaom orxur®|mef;udk yGm;rsm;vdkpdwf xufoefNyD; tcsKdUrl 0dyóemur®|mef; yGm;rsm;tm;xkwfrI
udk tm;&Muonf/ ,if;tajctaeudk oabmaygufawmfrljcif;ü Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwfonf yk*¾Kdvfwdkif;\ p½dkuf
vu©Pmtvkduf ½IaxmifhrsKd;pkHrS w&m;a'oemudk a[mMum;awmfrljcif;jzihf rdrd\pGrf;&nfudk tokH;jyKawmfrl onf/
Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwfonf rdrd\w&m;a'oemawmfrsm;ü wpfcgwpf&H pdwyf dkif;b0vGwfajrmufrIomru b0udk,fcE¨m
vGwfajrmufrIudkyg txl;jyKa[mMum;awmfro l nf/ odkYjzpfí edAÁmef[lonf pdwfydkif;ESihf ½kyyf dkif;b0 vGwfajrmufrI
ESihf oufqdkifaom vGwfajrmufrItjzpf em;vnfEdkifonf/ ck'´uedum,f? okwåedygwfygVdü Ak'¨a[mMum;awmfrl
csufudk atmufygtwdkif; rSwfwrf;wifxm;onf –

tudÍöeH tem'geH? {wH 'DyH temy&H/


79
edAÁmerdwd eH jALrd? Z&mrpöK y&du©,H /
þuRef;ü aMumuf½GHUjcif;r&Sd/ wPSmjzihf wG,fuyfjcif;r&Sd/ þudk;uG,f&mü rnfonhft&mrQr&Sd/ ,if;
80
uRef;[lonf edAÁmefwnf;/ ,if;onf tdkjcif; aojcif;rS vGwfajrmufonhf ae&mjzpf\ /

txufyg azmfjycsufü edAÁmef[lonf tdkjcif;aojcif;ESihf 'ku©ESifh qufEG,fonhft&mtm;vkH;rS vGwfajrmuf


vsuf ab;uif;onhf uRef;ESihfwlaom ae&mjzpfonf/ azmfjyNyD;ouJhodkYyif tcsKdUrSm wifpm;zGifhqdkjcif;jzihf edAÁmef
t"dyÜg,fudk em;rvnfEdkifbJ tcsKdUrl ,if;odkYaom wifpm;&Sif;jycsufrsm;udk vG,fulpGm em;vnfEdkifjcif;jzihf zwf½I
avhvmolrsm;udk todynmESihf pdwfydkif;t& jcm;em;oGm;aponf/ edAÁmeft"dyÜg,faumuf,lrIESihf ywfoufí Ak'¨
&Sifawmfjrwf\ t*¾om0u t&Sifom&dykwå&monf oif,lavhvmolrsm;\ tusKd;twGuf edAÁmef\t"dyÜm,fudk
BudK;yrf;zGifhqdkcJhonf/ t&Sifom&dykwå&m\ &Sif;vif;csufonf pdwfynmqefqef t"dyÜm,fzGifhqdkrIwGif tajccH
ojzihf Ak'¨0g'vdkufemusifhokH;oltcsKdUtwGuf em;vnf&efvG,fulonfrSm aocsmonf/ t&Sifjrwf\ edAÁmef
t"dyÜm,fzGifhqdkcsufonf edAÁmeftaMumif;udk ar;jref;ol ZAÁKcg'uy&dAkdZftzdkY pHjyjzpfoGm;ykH&onf/ ,if;azmfjycsuf
udk oH,kwåedum,f? edAÁmeyÍSokwfü atmufygtwkdif; awGU&onf –

edAÁmeH edAÁmeEÅd tm0kaom om&dykwå 0kpöwd? uwrH Ek acg tm0kaom edAÁmerdwd/ a,m acg tm0kaom
81
&m*u©a,m a'gou©a,m arm[u©a,m? £'H 0kpöwd edAÁmerdwd /
rdwfaqG om&dykwå? edAÁmef edAÁmef[k qdkyg\/ ,if;edAÁmef[lonf tb,fygenf;/ (rdwfaqG ZrÁKcg'u)?
82
&m*ukef&m? a'goukef&m? arm[ukef&mudk edAÁmef[k qdkyg\ /
78
Vi-S, 101.
79
Suttanipata Pali, Khuddhakanikaya (Rangoon, Burma: Department of Religious Affairs, 1990), 444.
80
,if;\ okwåedygwft|uxmudk tajccHí usrf;jyKolu t*FvdyfbmomjyefqdkcJhonf/
81
Sagathavagga Samyutta Pali, Samyuitta-Nikaya (Rangoon, Burma: Department of Religious Affairs, 1991), 447.

31
txufygazmfjycsufü t&Sifom&dykwå&m\ edAÁmeft"dymÜ ,fzGifhqdkcsufrSm avmb? a'goESifh arm[[laom
pdwftnpftaMu;rS vGwfajrmufaomt&m[k jzpfonf/ tu,fí avmb? a'goESihf arm[wdkY &SdaeOD;rnfqdk
vQif 'ku©taxGaxGudk jzpfay:aponhf jyóemrsm;udk zefwD;vdrhfOD;rnfjzpfonf/ trSefpifppf aAm"dÓPfudk r&
bJ avmb? a'go? arm[wdkY\ t&Sdeft0gudk zsufqD;&ef rjzpfEdkifacs/ odkYjzpfí t&Sifom&dykwå&monf avmb?
a'go? arm[ukef&monf edAÁmefrnf\[k txl;jyKrdefYawmfrljcif;jzpfonf/ ,if;aemuf t&Sifjrwfonf or®m'd|d
(rSefaomtjrif)? or®mouFyÜ (rSefaomtMuHtpnf)? or®m0gpm (rSefaompum;)? or®mur®EÅ (rSefaomtvkyf)?
or®mtmZD0 (rSefaomtoufarG;rI)? or®m0g,mr (rSefaomvkHYv)? or®mowd (rSefaomowd)? or®morm"d
83
(rSefaomwnfMunfrI)[laom r*¾if&Spyf g;vrf;pOfjzihf edAÁmefodkYa&mufEdkifonhfenf;vrf;udk a[mMum;cJhonf /
wpfzef ygVdawmfusrf;pmwdkYü edAmÁ eft"dyÜm,fzGifhqdkcsufudk rnfodkYyifawGU&apumrl tajccHtm;jzihf ESpfrsKd;
jym;aMumif;azmfjyonhf vu©Pmwpf&yfom&Sdonf/ aemufqkH;wGif edAÁmef[lonf vGwfajrmufrItajctaewpf
&yfjzpfonf/ ,if;vGwfajrmufrIonf ESpfrsKd;&Sdonf/ wpfckrSm pdwfESifhywfoufonhf pdwfydkif;qdkif&mvGwfajrmufrI
jzpfNyD; tjcm;wpfckrSm cE¨mig;yg; ydkítwdtusqdkaomf b0cE¨mESihfywfoufonhf vGwfajrmufrIjzpfonf/ ,if;
tajctaeudk oabmaygufNyD;jzpfjcif;ü t&Sifom&dykwå&monf edAÁmefESihfywfoufonhf aMumif;usKd;qDavsmfonhf
enf;vrf;wpfck? qdkvdkonfrSm rdrda[mMum;csuf\ed*kH;wpf&yfudk qGJjycJhonf/ ,if;udk ck'´uedum,f? y#dorÇd'gr*¾
ygVdawmfü rSwfwrf;wifcJhonf/ ,if;azmfjycsufrSm - ]OyÜga'g ocFg&m? tEkyÜga'g edAÁmeEÅd oEÅdya' ÓPH? y0wåH
ocFg&m? tyÜ0wåH edAÁmeEÅd oEÅdya' ÓPH (wnfjzpfrIonf ocFg&? jzpfwnfrI r&Sdjcif;onf edAÁme? obm0jzpfpOf
84
onf ocFg&? obm0jzpfpOfr&Sdjcif;onf edAÁme) [kjzpfonf} / azmfjycsuftrsm;pkwGif ocFg&[laom ynm&yfokH;
a0g[m&udk Ak'¨bmomusrf;pmwdkYü emrfydkif;qdkif&mtzGJUtpnf; (mental formation) [k t*FvdyfbmomjyefMuaomf
vnf; þae&mwGif ,if;onf edAÁmef\qefYusifbuft"dyÜm,fjzpfonf/ y#dorÇd'gr*fygVdawmft& edAÁmef[lonf
]jzpfay:rIr&Sdjcif;} odkYr[kwf ]b0jzpfwnfrIr&Sdjcif;} jzpfonf/ ,if;azmfjycsuft& edAÁmef\t"dyÜm,fudk wpfcg
wpf&Hü b0cE¨mvGwfajrmufrIudk qdkvdkaMumif; em;vnfEkdifonf/

edAÁmeft"dyÜm,f t|uxmzGifhqdkcsufrsm;
edAÁmeft"dyÜm,fudk ygVdawmfusrf;*efrsm;ü azmfjyxm;csuft& emMum;oly&dowfESihftnD &nfñTef;aMumif; em;
vnf&onf/ ygVdawmfvm edAÁmeft"dyÜm,f zGifqdkcsufrsm;onf em;vnfEdkifavmufatmif &Sif;vif;aMumif; t|
uxmq&mrsm; ,kHMunfMuonf/ Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf\ w&m;awmftm;vkH;rSm vufawGYusifhokH;rItajccHtwGuf
a[mMumcsufrsm;wGif rsm;pGmtajccHonf/ odkYwap vufawGYcsOf;uyfrIr&SdbJ edAÁmef\tESpfom&rSefudk em;vnf
&ef aocsmaygufrjzpfEdkifaMumif; ñTefjyonf/ trSefaomf yxrwGif usifhpOfudk oif,lonfqdkygpdkY? ,if;aemuf
pdwfydkif;b0wdk;wufrItwGuf ,if;usifhpOfudk vufawGUusifhokH;&rnfjzpfonf/ þenf;jzihf edAÁmef\crf;em;rIudk
em;vnfEdkifrnfjzpfonf/
t|uxmq&mrsm;onf edAÁmef\obm0udkem;vnfrIESihf ywfoufí ta&;ygonhf azmfjycsufwpf&yf jyKcJh
Muonf/ ygVdawmfvm edAÁmeft"dyÜm,fzGifhqdkcsufudk em;vnf&ef oifhwifhavsmufywfaom vufawGUusifhpOf
&Sd&rnfjzpfonf/ t|uxmq&mwdkYonf vufawGYur®|mef;bm0em½IrSwfjcif;r&SdbJ edAÁmef\obm0rSef odkYr[kwf
aAm"dÓPftm; awGYMuKHod&SdrIudk em;vnf&efrjzpfEdkifaMumif; ¤if;wdkY\azmfjycsufwdkYü tcdkiftrm qdkMuonf/ ¤if;
wdkY\azmfjycsufudk azmfjycsufudkcdkifrmap&ef t|uxmq&m t&SiftEk½k'¨gonf tbd"r®w¬o*F[usrf;ü ¤if;\
t,ltqudk ,kwådESihfvufawGYtjrifjzihf azmfjy&efBudK;yrf;cJhonf –

edAÁmeH ye avmukwå&ocFgwH pwkr*¾ÓaPe opädumwAÁH r*¾zvmerm&r®PblwH 0geocFgwm,


85
wPSm, edu©EÅwåm edAÁmeEÅd y0kpöwd /
82
Sa-N-NT Vol. II, N, 1294.
83
Ibid, 1294.
84
Patisambhidamagga Pali, Khuddaka-Nikaya (Rangoon, Burma: Department of Religious Affairs, 1991), 58.
85
Bahhanta Anuroddha thera, Abhidhammattha-sangaha-Pali (Rangoon, Burma: Department of Religious Affairs, 1993), 113.

32
86
edAÁmef[lonf avmukwå&mjzpf\/ r*fÓPf av;yg;jzifhodEdkif\ / r*fzdkvfwdkY\ tm½kHjzpfNyD; 0ge[kqdk
87
tyfaom wPSmrS xGufajrmufwwfaomaMumihf edAÁmef[kac:\ /

a&SUwGifazmfjyNyD;onfudk tajccHíqdkaomf edAÁmef\obm0udk avmukwå&mpdwfjzihf odEdkifonf/ avmukwå


&mr*fpdwfjzihf edAÁmefodkY a&mufEkdifonf/ tb,folonf edAÁmef\obm0udk em;vnfEdkifoenf;/ ax&0g'Ak'¨bm
omtvdkt& aAm"dÓPfudk &&SdNyD;yk*¾Kdvfrsm;om edAÁmefudk trSeftwdkif; oabmaygufEdkifonf/ þusrf;pmtqdk
t& edAÁmef[lonf aAm"dÓPfudk &&SdNyD;yk*¾Kdvfrsm;om ydkifqdkifaMumif; em;vnfEdkifonf/
at'Dig;&mpkwGif ay:xGef;cJhonhf t&Sifr[mAk'¨aCmoonf xif&Sm;aom t|uxmq&mjzpfonf/ t&Sif
jrwf\ txif&Sm;qkH;aomusrf;rSm 0dok'¨dr*¾t|uxmjzpfNyD; tjcm;ygVdawmfrsm;\ t|uxmusrf;rsm;udkvnf;
a&;om;cJhonf/ t&Sifjrwfonf a&S;a[mif;t|uxmusrf;rsm;udk qufpyfNyD; t|uxmoacFytjzpf tzGifhopf
rsm;a&;om;vsuf yd#uwfokH;ykHudk tESpfcsKyfcJhonf/ Ak'¨0g'w&m;a'oemrsm;wGif edAÁmeft,ltqESifhywfoufNyD;
½IyfaxG;rIrsm;pGmr&SdbJ t&SifAk'¨aCmoonf zGifhqdkNyD;t"dyÜm,frsm;udk ñSdEdIif;&efBudK;yrf;cJhonf/ t&SifAk'¨aCmo
onf edAÁmef\t"dyÜm,fudk vufawGYtm;xkwfrIrSwpfqihf t"dyÜm,fzGifhqdkNyD; ,if;aemuf ¤if;tvdk edAÁmef\
t"dyÜm,fudk &Sif;jyonf/ ¤if;usrf;pm\ taumif;qkH;tcsufrSm wdk&Sif;vdk&if;rdjcif;jzpfonf/ t&SifAk'¨aCmo
onf Ak'¨\w&m;a'oemtm;vkH;twGuf &Sif;vif;onhf tESpfcsKyfukd jyKEdkifpGrf;&SdcJhonf/ ,if;tESpfcsKyfrSm edAÁmef
odkYr[kwf aAm"dÓPfudk&&Sd&eftwGuf oDv orm"d ynm[laom odu©mokH;yg;udk jznhfusifhtm;xkwf&rnfjzpf
onf/ ,if;onf 0dyóemÓPf odkYr[kwf aAm"dÓPfudk trSwfwu,fvdkvm;ol rnfolrqdktwGuf rjzpfrae
vdktyfonf/ odkY&mwGif yg&rD? o'¨gw&m; ("r®tay:,kHMunfrI)ESihf t"d|me[laom ueOD;vdktyfcsufrsm;udkvnf;
csefvSyfrxm;cJhay/ ¤if;\azmfjycsufrSm atmufygtwdkif;jzpfonf –

tyd p edAÁmeH ew¬Dwd e 0wåAÁH? uo©m? y#dywåd,m 0Íösbm0gyZÆeawm/ towd [d edAÁmae or®m'd|d-
yka&Z0g, oDvm'dcE¨wå,o*F[m, or®my#dywåd,m 0Íösbma0g tmyZÆwd/ e pm,H 0Íösm edAÁmeygye-
88
awmwd /
wpfzefvnf; edAÁmefonf rwnf&Sdyg[krqdkEdkif/ taMumif;rl ,if;odkYjzpfrl edAÁmefokYda&mufaMumif;tusifh
onf tcsnf;ESD;jzpfoGm;aomaMumihfwnf;/ tu,fí edAÁmefrwnf&Sd[kqdkcJhrl oDvESihf or®m'd|dtpjyKonfh
ou©mokH;yg;yg&Sdonfh or®my#dywådvrf;pOfonf tusKd;r&Sd[k qdk&ma&muf\/ ,if;usihfpOfonf edAÁmefodkY
89
trSefwu,fa&mufEdkifaomaMumihf tcsnf;ESD;r[kwfacs /

0dok'¨dr*¾t|uxmwGif t&Sifr[mAk'¨aCmorax&fu edAÁmeft"dyÜm,fzGifhqdkrIudk tusOf;csKyfavhvm okH;


oyfcJhNyD; vltcsKdUu edAÁmef[lonf ,kefcsKdvdyfaoG; (oo0domP)[louJhodkY trSefwu,fr&Sd[k rSm;,Gif;pGm ,lMu
aMumif; rSwfcsufjyKcJhonf/ t&Sifr[mAk'¨aCmoonf oDv? orm"d? ynmvrf;pOfjzihf edAÁmefudk odjrifEdkifaom
aMumihf edAÁmefrwnf&Sd[laom t,ltqudk jyif;xefpGmjiif;qdkcJhonf/ t&Sifjrwfonf ydkrdkem;vnfrI &&SdEdkif&ef
,cifzGifhqdkcsuftcsKdUudk jiif;qdk&efBudK;yrf;cJhonf/ Oyrm t&SifAk'¨aCmoonf edAÁmef[lonf &m*ukef&mjzpf
onf[kazmfjyonfh t&Sifom&dykwå&m\ edAÁmeft"dyÜm,fzGifhqdkcsufudk udk;um;cJhonf/ ¤if;\azmfjycsufrSm atmuf
ygtwdkif;jzpfonf-

86
tbd"r®w¬o*F[ygVdESihf tbd"r®musrf;*efrsm;ü r*fÓPfav;rsKd; azmfjyonf/ ,if;wdkYrSm 1) aomwmywådr*fÓPf 2) oum'g*grd
r*fÓPf 3) tem*grdr*fÓPf 4) t&wår*fÓPf wdkYjzpfonf/ Bhaddanta Nyanatiloka-thera \ Buddhist Dictionay: Manual of Buddhist
Terms and ctrines (Kandy, Sri Lanka: Buddhist Publication Society, 1988) 20 udk ½Iyg/
87
Ac-Ab, 258.
88
Bhaddanta Buddhaghosa-thera, Visuddhimagga-atthakatha Vol. II (Rangoon, Burma: Department of Religios Affairs, 1993) 139.
89
Bhikkhu Nanamoli \ 0dok'¨dr*ft*Fvdyfbmomjyef The Path of Purification: Visuddhimagga (1956; repring, Kandy, Sri Lanka: Buddhist
Publication Society, 1991) 514-15 rS xkwfEkwf ul;,lygonf/
33
]a,m acg tm0kaom &m*u©a,m}wd tm'd0peawm ]ca,m edAÁme}EÅd ap? e t&[wåómyd
90
c,rwåmyZÆeawm/ wrÜd [d ]a,m acg tm0kaom &m*u©a,m}wd tm'dem ea,e ed'´d|H /
]igh&Sif? &m*ukef&m (a'go? arm[ukef&m)onf edAÁmefrnf\}[laom pum;t& edAÁmef[lonf ukefqkH;
ysufpD;oGm;jcif;r[kwfavm[kqdktHh (Sa-N. IV, 251)/ ,if;odkYum; r[kwf/ taMumif;rl &[EÅmtjzpfonfvnf;
ukefqkH;ysufpD;oGm;jcif;jzpf\[k t"dyÜm,foufa&mufoGm;aomaMumihfwnf;/ ]igh&Sif? ,if;t"dyÜm,fudk
91
avmb? a'go? arm[ukefcef;olonf &[EÅmrnf\}paom a&S;OD;pum;&yfjzihfyif azmfjyNyD;jzpf\ /

ukefqkH;ysufpD;jcif; azmfjycsufEiS fhywfoufí t|uxmq&monf ysufpD;jcif;t"dyÜm,f&Sdonhf rl&if;pum;


vkH; &m*u©,yk'fudk &nfñTef;jyqdkonf/ t&SifAk'¨aCmou c,(ukefjcif;)onf edAÁmefudk r&nfñTef;bJ aAm"d
ÓPfudk&NyD;ol &[EÅmyk*¾KdvfwdkY\ cE¨mig;yg;udkom &nfñTef;aMumif; jiif;qdkonf/ &[EÅmyk*¾KdvfwdkYonf b0opf
udk jzpfay:ap&ef ur®pGrf;&nf&Sdaom pdwftnpftaMu;tm;vkH;udk zsufqD;onf/ Ak'¨aCmoonf om"utae
jzifh Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf\ pum;awmfrsm;udkazmfjyvsuf wdusonhf azmfjycsufwpf&yfudk BudK;pm;&Sif;jycJhonf/ ]]t
aMumif;rl ,if;onf Ak'¨\pum;awmfjzpfNyD; edAÁmefonf y&rw¬oabmt& yk*¾KdvfwpfOD;pD\ tESpfom& jzpfaom
aMumihf r&Sdaomt&mr[kwf/ odkYjzpfí ]&[ef;wdkY? rarG;zGm;aomt&m? jzpfay:jcif;r&dSaomt&m? rjyKjyif tyf
92
aomt&m? jzpfwnfjcif;r&Sdaomt&monf&Sd\}[k a[mawmfrl\ (Iti. 37; Ud. 80.)}}
t&SifAk'¨aCmo\ t"dyÜm,fzGifhqdkcsufed*kH;csKyfrSm ]edAÁmefonfom (rzefqif;tyfaomt&mjzpfaomaMumihf)
xm0&wnfNrJaomt&m jzpf\/ wpfOD;pDEiS hfqdkifaom ½kyf0w¬KtESpfom&udk ausmfvGefaomaMumifh ½kyf0w¬Ktxnf
93
udk,fr&Sd/ Ak'¨\yef;wdkifrSm wpfckwnf;omjzpfNyD; trsm;tjym;r&Sd} / odkY&mwGif t&SifAk'¨aCmoESihf acwfNydKif
cefY[k,lq&onfh &[EÅmt&SifOywdórax&fu edAÁmeft"dyÜm,fzGifhqdkrIESihfywfoufí 0drkwådr*¾usrf;wGif ukd,f
ydkif[efjzihf tusOf;csKyfzGihfjycJhonf/ ¤if;\zGifhqdkcsufrSm ]wPSm vkH;0avsmhenf; jywfpJoGm;jcif;? wPSmrS xGuf
cGmjcif;? wPSmudk pGefYypfjcif;? wPSmrS vGwfajrmufjcif;? wPSmrS uif;a0;jcif;[lí 'ku©eda&m"opömudk em;vnf
94
&rnf }[kjzpfonf/ ¤if;\tvdkt& y#doaE¨wpfzefraeonhf tajctae? obm0tm;jzihf ysufpD;roGm;jcif;?
opömav;yg;udk xdk;xGif;íodjrifjcif;? 'ku©Nidrf;csKyfjcif;udk edAÁmef[kac:onf/ ,if;azmfjycsufudk tESpfcsKyfazmfjy&
aomf þt|uxmq&m\ edAÁmeft"dyÜm,fzGifhqdkcsufonf &Sif;vif;NyD; wdkawmif;onf/ edAÁmeft"dyÜm,fzGifhqdk
csufudk ½IaxmifhtrsKd;rsKd;rS odEkdifonf/ ,if;½Iaxmifhrsm;t& edAÁmef[lonf ur®0dygu (twdwfESifh ypöKyÜefuH\
tusKd;quf)ESihf wPSmESihft0dZÆmwdkY jzpfay:apaom oHo&mtaESmiftzGJYrS vGwfajrmufjcif;rSwpfyg; tjcm;
t"dyÜm,fr&Sdacs/ þodkYjzihf vGwfajrmufrI\ omvGefjrifhjrwfykHudk enf;vrf;rsKd;pkHjzihf em;vnfEdkif&monf/

ax&0g'r[kwfaom Ak'¨0g'Dynm&SifwdkY\ edAÁmeft,ltq


þae&mü ax&0g'r[kwfaom Ak'¨bmom[lonf tdE´d,r[m,meAk'¨bmomudk t"dutm;jzihf &nfñTef;jcif;
jzpfonf/ trSeftm;jzifh ,if;*dkPf;uGJESpfck\ w&m;"r®rsm;rSm &if;jrpftm;jzihf Ak'¨\a[mMum;csufrsm;udk tajccH
Muonf/ tcsdKUaom t"dyÜm,faumuf,lrI odkYr[kwf zGifhqdkrIwdkYrSm ESpf*dkPf;vkH;oabmwlnDEdkifNyD; tcsKdUrSm o
abmwlnDrI r&SdEdkifacs/ ESpf*dkPf;vkH;ü edAÁmefodkYa&muf&ef[laom wlnDonhf yef;wdkif&SdMuonf/ a,bk,stm;jzihf
ESpf*dkPf;vkH;onf edAÁmeft"dyÜm,faumuf,ljcif;twGuf vIyf&Sm;rIrsm;&Sdaeonf/ ax&0g'vkdkufemusifhokH;ol

90
Vi-M Vol. II, 139-140
91
Vi-M, 515.
92
Ibid, 517.
93
Ibid, 516-516.
94
N.R.M. Ehara, Soma Thera, and Kheminda Thera, trans. The Path of Freedom: Vimuttimagga (1961; reprint, Kandy, Sri Lanka: Buddhist
Publication Society, 995), 272. t|uxmq&m &[EÅmt&SifOywdórax&fonf ¤if;\azmfjycsufudk oH,kwåedum,f? r[m0*¾
oH,kwåygVdrS ]a,m wóma,0 wPSm, taoo0d&m* eda&ma"m pma*g y#dedóa*¾g rkwåd temva,m/ £'H 0kpöwd bdu©a0
'ku©eda&m"H t&d,opöH} (Rangoon, Burma: Department of Religious Affairs, 1991, 272.)[laom om"uudk udk;um;í rdrd\
azmfjycsufudk txl;jyKrdefYMum;cJhonf/
34
trsm;pku edAÁmef[lonf vufvSrf;rDaomt&mjzpfojzihf þb0rSmyif vufawGYusif;okH;rIrSwpfqifh &&SdEkdifonf
[k,lqNyD; r[m,meAk'¨0g'D trsm;pkurl edAÁmef[lonf vlwdkif;wGifwnf&Sdojzihf vufawGYusifhokH;rIrSwpfqihf &&Sd
Edkifonfqdkonf/ *dkPf;ESpfckvkH;uyif edAÁmeftm; arm[ odkYr[kwf t0dZÆmrS vGwfajrmufrItjzpf txl;jyKazmfjyMu
onf/ ax&0g'Drsm;tzdkY t0dZÆmESihfwPSmrS vGwfajrmufrI[lonf y&rw¬opömudk xdkxGif;odjrifrIESihf edAÁmefudk
&&SdrIyifjzpfonf/ r[m,me0g'Dtrsm;pktzdkYrl arm[rSvGwfajrmufjcif; odkYr[kwf t&mcyfodrf;twGuf qdwfokH;
95
aompdwfjzihf Ak'¨obm0[laom rlvpdwf okdYr[kwf pMu0VmpdwfodkY jyefvnfa&mufoGm;Edkifonf[kqdkonf /

arm[rS vGwfajrmufrIudk &jcif;jzihf aemufqkH;tqifhodkY jyefa&muf\/ aemufqkH;tqifhodkY a&mufjcif;jzihf


rlv&if;jrpfodkY jyefa&muf\/ rlv&if;jrpfudk &&SdrIonf edAÁmeftqihf jzpf\/ odkYaomf edAÁmefonf jyifywGif
&Sdaomt&m b0oHo&mrS wpfjcm;pDjzpfaomt&mum; r[kwf/ Ak'¨obm0tppftrSefonf tjyifbuf
&Sdt&m obm0avmurS wpfjcm;pDvnf; r[kwf/ wpfpkHwpfa,mufonf ½kwfw&uf todÓPfudk &
onfESihf xdktodÓPfonf xdkyk*¾KdvfESifhxyfwljzpfoGm;\/ --- r[m,meAk'¨0g' edAÁmefonf b0oHo&m
96
tjyifbufü &SmazG&onfr[kwf/ arG;aoudpötm;jzihf b0oHo&mtwGif;rSmyif edAÁmefudk &Edkif\ /

Ak'¨0g'tpOftvmESpfckvkH;rSmyif arm[(todrSefr&SdrI)udk edAÁmef\twm;tqD;tjzpf ta&;wBuD;azmfjyMu


onfrSm xif&Sm;onf/ ax&0g'Ak'¨0g'DwdkYu arm[\owådonf edAÁmefa&mufaMumif; enf;vrf;udk wm;qD;wwf
aMumif; rMumcPazmfjyonf/ þtcsufü r[m,meAk'¨0g'DwdkYvnf; xdkenf;wlyif qdkMuonf/ ]]tokH;rsm;onhf
97
w½kwfAk'¨bmom pum;ykHwpfckrSm ]todrSef r&ao;vQif ykxkZOf? todrSef&NyD;vQif ynm&Sif} [kjzpfonf}} /
ax&0g'r[kwfonhf Ak'¨bmom*dkPf;uGJrsm;teuf xif&Sm;onhfESpfckrSm rZÑrSdu*dkPf;ESifh a,m*gpm&*dkPf;wdkY
jzpfonf/ awG;ac:&Sif em*&ZÆKeonf tv,ftvwfvrf;pOf[kvnf; xif&Sm;onfh rZÑrdSu*dkPf;udk wnfaxmifcJh
onf/ þyk*¾Kdvfonf at'D ESpf&mpkwGif ay:xGef;cJhonf/ em*&ZÆKeonf w&m;"r®ESihfywfoufonhf awG;ac:rI
enf;pepfrsm;udk tav;ay;azmfjyNyD; tbd"r®m½IaxmifhudktajccHvsuf Ak'¨0g'udkem;vnf&ef ¤if;wDxGifonhf
,kwådaA'enf;udk tokH;jyKcJhonf/ awG;ac:rIqdkif&m t"dyÜm,faumuf,lenf;ESifhrwlbJ ¤if;\usrf;wGif tbd"r®m
98
tawG;tac:qdkif&m cGJjcrf;pdwfjzmrIjzifh trsm;okH;t,ltqwdkYudk avQmhcs&ef ,kwådaA'udk tokH;jyKcJhonf /
at'Dav;&mpkwGif ay:xGef;cJhol to*F yg0ifwnfaxmifcJhaom pdwft"du*dkPf;[kvnf; xif&Sm;onfh
a,m*gpm&*kdPf;onf aemufqkH;tppftrSefw&m;\ tESpfom&udk&SmazG&ef vufawGUusifhokH;rIudk axmufcHNyD;
Ak'¨\rZÑdry#dy'gvrf;pOfudkwifjy&ef ur®|mef;vufawGUtm;xkwfrIudk txl;jyKazmfjyonf/ em*&ZÆKeESihf rwlbJ
to*F\azmfjycsufrSm wpfpkHwpfa,muf\ odjrifrIESihf em;vnfrIwdkYonf obm0tm;jzihf rwnf&SdbJ ,if;wdkYrSm
99
taMumif;w&m;ESihf tajctaersm;&Sdonfh qufEG,frIoabmw&m;rsm; jzpfMuonf /
em*&ZÆKeonf edAÁmef\ vGwfajrmufrIESihf jyefvnfrarG;zGm;jcif; vu©Pmudkazmfjy&ef rBudK;yrf;cJhaomfvnf;
¤if;\azmfjycsufonf wpfpkHwpfa,muftm; edAÁmef[laom aemufqkH;tppftrSefw&m;tay: Edk;<uaponf/
em*&ZÆKeonf tqkH;pGeftrSefw&m;[lonfudk bmompum;jzihf &Sif;jyoifhaMumif; ,kHMunfcJhonf/ bmompum;
[lonf or®Kwdoabm tajctaetay: rlwnfaomoabm&Sdaomfvnf; avmuDtrSefw&m;tjzpf bmom
pum;onf tEÅdrtrSefw&m;udk em;vnf&ef trSefyifvkdtyfonf/ em*&ZÆKe\ &yfwnfcsufrSm avmuDtrSef
w&m;jzpfonhf bmompum;jzihf ,if;y&rw¬opömudk r&Ekdif/ odkYaomf ,if;y&rw¬opömudk em;rvnfbJ edAÁmefukd
em;rvnfEdkif/ em*&ZÆKetvdkt& pum;vkH;rsm;? trnfemrrsm;? bmompum;rsm;rSm oknjzpfonf/ ouf&Sdrsm;
oufrJhrsm;rSm oknjzpfonf/ ouf&SdoufrJhESpfrsKd;vkH;udk okntjzpfodjrifjcif;onf tqkH;pGeftrSefw&m;jzpfonf/
95
Fung Yu-Lan. A Short History of Chinese Philosophy (New York: The Free Press, 1976), 251.
96
Ibid, 252. The quotation connected to Collected Commentaries t the Parinirvana Sutra, Chuan 1 and Commentary to the Vimlakirti Sutra,
Chuan
97
7.
Ibid, 253.
98
Cheng, 1-9.
99
Asanga, Abhidharmasamuccaya: The Compendium of the Higher Teaching (Philosophy). Translated by Sara Boin-Webb from the French
translation of Walpola Rahula (1971; repring, Fremong, California: Asian Humanities Press, 2001), xi-xviii.

35
pMu0Vm\ trSefw&m;udk ouf&Sd odkYr[kwf oufrJhtjzpf razmfjyEdkif/ odkYaomf qefvkef rmpwm csDqef (San-lun
Master Chi-tsang) uJhodkYaom r[m,metpOftvm q&mBuD;rsm;onf okn odkYr[kwf oknw [laom a0g[m&
rsm;udk wpfcgwpf&H t&m0w¬Krsm;udk t&nftcsif;avQmh&efESihf wefzdk;avQmh&ef tokH;jyKaMumif; ñTefjycJhonf/
þq&m\tvkdt& oknjzpfaomt&mrsm;onf bmrQtokH;rusacs/ odkYjzpfí Ak'¨w&m;awmfrsm; tm;enf;
oGm;rnhftajctaeudk yaysmufap&ef oknwt,ltqudk z,f&Sm;oihfonf/ odkYaomf ,lqcsufrSm ,lqcsufrQ
omjzpfNyD; trSefw&m;r[kwfacs/

t&m0w¬KwdkY\ tppftrSeftm; ouf&SdESihfoufrJh? wnf&SdrIESihfrwnf&SdrI [louJhodkYaom t,ltqwdkYudk


tjyeftvSef oufa&mufaprI (tm;NydKifrI) tm;jzifh r&Sif;jyEdkif/ em*&ZÆKeu ]wpfzef t&mtm;vkH;rSm okn
jzpf\/ tb,faMumihfenf;? ouf&SdoufrJh[lonfudk wpfcsdefwnf;rSmjzpfap? tcsdeftrsKd;rsKd;rSmjzpfap
100
r&&SdEdkif} [kqdkcJhonf /

trSefpifppf em*&ZÆK\'óeonf r[m,meAk'¨0g'tay: MoZmvTrf;rdk;rIBuD;rm;cJhNyD; 'óeESihfbmom


a&;qdkif&m vIyf&Sm;rItrsKd;rsKd;udk jzpfay:apchJonf/ ¤if;\tawG;tjrifudk tajccHvsuf r[m,meAk'¨bmom
ynm&Sifrsm;pGmwdkYonf rZÑrdu*dkPf;\ oifMum;csuftawG;tjriftcsKdUudk Ak'¨\w&m;"r®rl&if;ESihf ta&;ygaom
a[mMum;csufrsm;tjzpf a½G;cs,fcJhMuonf/ ,if;aemuf ¤if;wdkYonf rdrdwdkYudk,fydkif w&m;"r®ESihf bmoma&;qdkif
&m avhusifhtm;xkwfrIrsm;udk wdk;wufatmif aqmif½GufcJhMuonf/ tcsKdUaom r[m,meAk'¨bmomynm&SifwdkY
onf ½kyfvGef'óetjrifudk wnfaqmufEdkifa&;twGuf b0ESihfowå0gwdkYESihfqdkifaom ½kyfvGeftajctaeudk
axmufcH&ef udk,fydkift,ltqrsm;udkyif tokH;jyKcJhMuonf/

½kyfvGef'óeonf wpfpkHwpfckonf &Sdonf(tw¬d)ESifh r&Sd(ew¬d)? ,if;ESpfrsKd;udkjiif;qdkcsuf &Sdonfvnf;


[kwf r&Sdonfvnf;[kwf[laom ,kwådoabmESihfqufEG,f\/ tqdkyg &Sd[kwfr&Sd[kwf'óe vTrf;rdk;ojzihf
a&S;OD;Ak'¨bmom0ifwdkYonf edAmÁ efonf wnf&Sd\ odkYwnf;r[kwf wnf&Sdonf[laom oabmw&m;tm;vkH;
\ qefYusifbuf[k ,lqMu\/ ,if;a&S;OD;Ak'¨0g'DwdkYtaejzihf edAÁmefonf 'kur© &Sdonfü wnf&Sd\ odkYwnf;
101
r[kwf ,if;onf 'u©r&Sdjcif;rQomjzpf\[k ,lqcJhMuonfudk awGYEdkifonf /

&Sdonf(tw¬d) r&Sd(ew¬d)[laom ½kyv f Gef'óeESihfywfoufonfh txufygazmfjycsuffudk qifjcifaomf oHo


&monfyif edAÁmef[k,lojzihf ,if;odkYaom oDtkd&D,lqcsufonf 'ku©jyóemrsm;twGuf tajzrjzpfEdkif[k qdk&
rnfjzpfonf/ tjzpfr&Sdjcif; (tbm0)? qdwfokH;jcif; (wkpä) taejzihf t"dyÜm,faumuf,lvsuf edAÁmef[lonf vkH;
0r&Sdjcif;[laom ,lqcsufudk pGJudkifxm;vQif r[kwftajz,lqcsufodkY usa&mufaeonf/ em*&ZÆKeu t&Sd
w&m;tm;vkH;onf wnfrSDaomt&Sdw&m;jzpfonf[laom tqkdrSefvQif edAÁmeftygt0if rwnfrSDaomw&m;onf
102
rwnf&Sd[k qdkEdkifjyefonf / edAÁmef[laombmompum;onf ½IaxmifhtrsKd;rsKd;ESifh Ak'¨0g'Dynm&Sifrsm;pGmwdkY\
t"dyÜm,faumuf,lcsufESihf ywfoufaeojzihf ed*kH;aumufcsufqGJ,l&ef cJ,Of;onf/
a,m*gpm&*dkPf;udk wGJzufwnfaxmifol to*Fonf enf;vrf;rsm;pGmjzihf y&rw¬opömESihf or®Kwdopöm[l
aom trSefw&m;ESpfrsKd;udk jyifqifjyKjyifvsuf em*&ZÆKe\ t,ltqudk axmufcH&ef BudK;yrf;cJhonf/ to*F
onf axmufqjcif;? BuHpnfjcif;? qkH;jzwfjcif;[laom vu©PmokH;&yf½IaxmihfrS ¤if;\tjrifudk azmfjycJhonf/
odkYwap to*Fonf edAÁmef[laoma0g[m&udk a&S;OD;Ak'¨0g'DwdkY t"dyÜm,fzGifhqdkonfESihf teD;pyfqkH;taejzihf
jywfpJjcif; odkYr[kwf csKyfNidrf;jcif;[kzGifhqdk&ef BudK;yrf;cJhonf/ ]jywfpJjcif;udk tb,faMumihf edAÁme[kac:oenf;/
taMumif;rl edAÁmefonf udavomtyltm;vkH;ESihf tvdkqE´tm;vkH; rjynfhpkHrIaMumihfjzpfay:vmonfh qif;&J

100
Cheng, 13.
101
Bibhuti, 452.
102
Ibid, 463-464.

36
'ku©tylBuD;wdkYrS vGwfajrmufaomaMumihfjzpf\/ ,if;'ku©jywfpJoGm;jcif;udk tb,faMumihf csKyfNidrf;jcif; (edAÁmef)
103
[kqdk&oenf;/ taMumif;rl ,if;onf oP²mefrJh Nidrf;csrf;rIjzpfaomaMumihfwnf;} / wpfzefqkd&rl a,m*gpm&
*dkPf;wnfaxmifolrsm;teuf wpfa,mufyg0ifol 0okAE¨Ktrnf&Sd Ak'¨bmomynm&Sifwpfa,mufvnf; &Sdao;
onf/ xdkyk*¾Kdvf\ edAÁmeft,ltqrSm atmufygtwkdif;jzpfonf –

y#docFgeda&m" odkYr[kwf edAÁmef[lonf tb,fudk ac:oenf;[lrl - wnf&SdNyD; udavomrsm;ESihf wnf&SdNyD;


b0udk zsufqD;vdkufaomtcg udavomt<uif;tusef odkYr[kwf b0t<uif;tusefr&Sdjcif;wnf;/ pdwf
\owåd (y#docFgynm)[laom taMumif;aMumifh (odkYaomf okwåEÅmefaqmifyk*¾KdvfwdkYu rSwfcsufjyKMu\)
tem*wfwGif 'ku©jzpfay:rvmjcif;onf pdwf0dnmOfudk taxmuftyHhjyK\/ ,if;aemuf ,if; ('ku©
104
jzpfay:rvmjcif;)udk y#docFgeda&m"twGif; xnhfoGif;&\ /

¤if;\edAÁmeftjrift& edAÁmef[lonf udavomtm;vkH; odkYr[kwf b0tm;vkH;rS vGwfajrmufjcif;aMumihf


tem*wfwGif 'ku©jzpfay:rvmjcif;jzpfonf/ edAÁmefodkYa&muf&jcif;wGif udavomrS vGwfajrmufjcif;onf t"du
tcsufjzpfaMumif; qdkvdkjcif;jzpfonf/ trSefpifppf Ak'¨bmomynm&Sifrsm;onf vGwfajrmufrIudk &SmazGaeMuonhf
tjcm;aom bmomw&m;vdkufpm;olrsm;tm; rdrw d dkY\tawG;tjrifudk rQa0Mujcif;jzpfonf/
Ak'¨0g'edAÁmeft"dyÜm,fzGifhrIqdkif&m azmfjycsufudk tESpfcsKyfaomf Ak'¨bmom0ifrsm;\ ½Iaxmihft& edAÁmef[l
onf tESpfom&tm;jzihf Nidrf;csrf;rIvu©Pmwpf&yfom&Sdaomfvnf; ,if;onf t"dyÜm,ftrsKd;rsKd;&SdEdkifonf/ odkYw
ap tHhMozG,faumif;onfrSm Ak'¨0g'tpOftvmrsm;onf edAÁmeftm; emrfw&m;taejzihf y&rw¬ (tqkH;pGef tppf
trSef) w&m;tjzpf t"dyÜm,fzGifhqdkrIudk a,bk,stm;jzifh oabmwlMujcif;jzpfonf/ odkY&mwGif azmfjyNyD; edAÁmef
t"dyÜm,fzGifhqdkrIrsm;ESihf ywfoufí vsOf;yg;zG,frsm; &SdEdkifao;onf/ þonfrSm edAÁmeft"dyÜm,fonf ¤if;wdkY,lq
onfESihf jcm;em;NyD; edAÁmef\tESpfom&rSm ¤if;wdkYarQmfvihfonfESihf jcm;em;aMumif;qdkvdkonf/ ¤if;wdkYtaejzihf
,cifzGifhqdkNyD; usrf;pmrsm;udk tajcjyKí jyefvnf&Sif;vif;zGifhqdkcJhjcif;jzpfz,
G f&Sdonf/ odNyD;jzpfonhftwdkif; vuf
awGUusifhokH;rIrSwpfqifh edAÁmefudk &Edkifonfomjzpfonf/

Ak'¨0g'DESihf Ak'¨0g'Dr[kwfol ynm&Sifrsm;\ edAÁmeft"dyÜm,fzGifhqdkcsufrsm;


edAÁmeft"dyÜm,fzGihfqdkcsufrsm;ESihfywfoufí azmfjyNyD;jzpfonhftwdkif; ynm&Siftrsm;pk\ edAÁmeft"dyÜm,f zGihfqdk
csufrsm;rSm edAÁmeftm; ¤if;wdkYudk,fwdkifawGYBuKHod&SdrIwGif tajcrcHbJ pmawGUedAÁmef,lqcsuf em;vnfrItay:wGif
tajccHykH&onf/ ygVdawmfusrf;*efwdkYü edAÁmefudkem;vnf&ef ur®|mef;bm0em½IrSwfavhusihfrIjzihf csOf;uyfrI trSef
wu,fvdkaMumif; txl;jyKzGifhqdkMuonf/ ,if;onf edAÁmef\obm0udk oabmaygufjcif;twGuf tajccHvrf;
ñTefcsufjzpfonf/ odkY&mwGif Ak'¨0g'DESihf Ak'¨0g'Dr[kwfol ynm&Sifrsm;taejzihf vufawGYtajccHrygbJ pmawGYESihf
awG;ac:ajrmfjrifrItajccHjzihf edAÁmefudkavhvm&ef taumif;qkH;enf;vrf;jzpfaMumif; oG,f0kdufí tom;ay; azmf
jyvdkMuonf/ edAÁmef[lonf rnfodkYjzpfonf[k a&S;OD;pGm pmawGUtm;jzihf em;vnf&ef jzpfEdkifonf/ odkYwap
edAÁmef\t"dyÜm,fudk ydkrdkem;vnfEdkif&ef y&d,wåd(pmawGY)ESihf y#dywåd(vufawGY)[laom ½IaxmifhESpfaxGudk tokH;cs
&ef rjzpfraevdktyfaMumif; þavhvmcsufü tcdktrmazmfjyonf/
edAÁmeft,ltq rnfrQMoZmBuD;rm;aMumif;ESihf tjcm;aom,Ofaus;rIESihf tpOftvmrsm;udk rnfrQvTrf;rdk
aMumif;odjrif&ef wu,fyif thHMop&mjzpfaeonf/ þedAÁmef,lqcsufESihf ywfoufí Ak'¨0g'Dr[kwfol ynm&Sif
rsm;u ¤if;wdkYbmomw&m;,lqcsuftay:tajccHvsuf ¤if;wdkYem;vnfonhftwdkif; edAÁmef\obm0ukd t"dyÜm,f
zGifhqdk&ef BudK;yrf;cJhMuonf/ Oyrmtm;jzifh [dE´Lbmom½IaxmifhrS edAÁmefa0g[m&udkqufEG,f&ef BudK;yrf;onhf
[dE´L0g',lqcsuf wpf&yf&Sdonf/ ,if;,lqcsufudk atmufygazmfjycsufü awGY&onf ]Ak'¨onf wpfukd,fa&

103
Asanga, 193.
104
Vasubandhu Abhidharmakosabhasyam, Vol 1. Translated by Pwo M. Pruden from the French translatin of Louis de La Vallee Poussin, (
1923-1925; reprent, Berkeley, California: Asian Humanities Press, 1988), 280-281.

37
twåvdyfjymi,fudkom jiif;qdkcJhNyD; r[mjA[®mESifhxyfwljyKonhf r[mtwåtm; rjiif;qdkbJ edAÁmef\ trSefw&m;
105
onf OyedoQ'fusrf;wdkYü oifMum;onhf vGwfajrmufrIuJhodkYyifjzpfaMumif; qdkEdkifonf} /
xdkYjyif Ak'¨0g'Dr[kwfolynm&Sif rmufpf rlvm (Max Muller)u edAÁmef[lonf 0dnmOfvdyfjym &yfem;jcif;odkY
a&muf&Sdjcif;tjzpf t"dyÜm,fzGifhqdk&ef BudK;yrf;cJhonf/ ,if;ynm&SifwdkY\ edAÁmef,lqcsufrSm ,if;wdkY\,kHMunfrI
udk tajccHonfrSm oHo,jzpfzG,frvdkacs/ xdkyk*¾Kdvfu edAÁmefudk atmufygtwdkif; qdkonf –

twåvdyfjym0dnmOfaumif tem;,loGm;jcif;? qE´ESihf vkdtyfcsuftm;vkH;wdkYudk ausmfvTm;atmifjrifjcif;? okc


'ku© taumif; tqdk; jcm;em;rIr&Sdjcif;? twå0dnmOf ¤if;bmom epf0ifoGm;jcif;? arG;jcif;rS aojcif;
106
aojcif;rS topfwpfzefarG;zGm;jcif;[laom b0oHo&mrS vGwfajrmufoGm;jcif; /

Ak'¨0g'\t"du&nf½G,fcsufrSm twåvdyfjym&Sd0g'udk jiif;qdkygvsuf twåvdyfjymoDtdk&Dudk pGefYy,f&ef cJ,Of;


aMumif; em;vnfEkdifonf/ odkYwap edAÁmefudk tjcm;yk*¾Kdvfrsm; rnfodkY,lqonf ¤if;wdkYenf;vrf;jzifh edAÁmef[lonf
udk trSefw&m;wpf&yftjzpf rnfodkYxifjrifcJhonfudk od&jcif;rSm pdwf0ifpm;zG,faumif;onf/ trSefaomf edAÁmef
t,ltqonf ¤if;wdkYxifjrifcJhonfESihf wlnDEdkifrnfr[kwfay/ tjcm;bmomw&m;½IaxmihfrS edAÁmeft,ltq
rnfonhf tao;pdwf EIdif;,SOfcGJjcrf;pdwfjzmrIudkrqdk þavhvmrIe,fy,ftwGif; xnfhoGif;rnfr[kwfay/
bmoma&;½Iaxmifhrsm;ESihf ywfoufí bmomw&m;udk,füyif ,if;wdkY\ ,kHMunfrIpepftwGif; vltrsm;udk
½IyfaxG;vmap&ef pGrf;&nf&Sdonf[k qdkEdkifygoavm/ ,if;odkY rqdkEdkifyg/ bmomw&m;\ &nf½G,fcsufonf
vlom;wdkY\ Nidrf;csrf;rIudk wnfaqmuf&efjzpfonf/ vlwdkYonf bmomw&m;vdkufemusifhokH;rIjzihf udk,fykdifNidrf;
csrf;rIudk wnfaqmufEdkifonf/ odkYwap þ,kHMunfrIpepfonf NyD;jynfhpkHpmG rSefuefoavm odkYwnf;r[kwf vkH;0
rSm;,Gif;oavm [lonfudk twdtus rqdkEdkifacs/ trSefpifppf bmomw&m;rsm;onf vlomwdkYtm; Nidrf;csrf;
rIudk wnfaqmufEdkifoavm odkYr[kwf vlom;wdkYonf Nidrf;csrf;rItwGuf bmomw&m;rsm;udk wnfaqmufEkdif
oavm[lonfudk qdk&efcJ,Of;vSonf/ odkYjzihf bmoma&;,kHMunfrIpepftaMumif;udk ajymqdkav ½IyfaxG;vmEdkif
avjzpfonf/ trSefaomf edAÁmefonf xnfhoGif;pOf;pm;&rnfh taMumif;t&mwpfckr[kwfaomfvnf; csOf;uyf
oihfaom tppftrSefw&m;wpfck qdkvdkonfrSm aemufqkH;tppftrSefw&m;wpfckjzpfonf/ þt"dyÜm,ft& edAÁmef
onf pdwfydkif;b0 awGYBuKHod&SdrIrSwpfyg; tjcm;wpfyg;r[kwfacs/
ax&0g'Ak'¨0g'DtcsKdUonf Ak'¨a[mMum;csufrsm;ESihf Ak'¨\"r®a&;&mvGwfajrmufrItjriftm; vufawGYcsOf;
uyfrIukdtajccHvsuf cGJjcrf;pdwfjzm&ef BudK;pm;cJhMuonfrSm oHo,jzpfzG,frvdkacs/ ,if;tajctaersm;udk ½I
vsuf Ak'¨0g'Dynm&Sif vmaAmvDyl&Sif (La Vallee Poussin)u atmufygtwdkif;azmfjycJhonf –

a&S;OD;Ak'¨0g'ü ½kyfvGefoabmw&m; vkH;0r&Sd odkYr[kwf t&m0w¬KwdkY\ tvkH;pHkESihf obm0a&;&m oif,l


tyf odkYr[kwf twdtustaMumif;jycsuf&Sdaom pmawGYoabmw&m; r&Sdacs/ Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf\ a[m
Mum;csufrsm;udk trSDjyKvsuf vlonf todynmxGef;vif;rIjzihf vGwfajrmuf&medAÁmefwGif oEÅdokcudk &&Sd
onftxd rdrdjyKrlaqmif½GufcsufwdkY\ tusKd;w&m;udk wpfb0NyD;wpfb0 cHpm;&rnfjzpfaMumif; ,kHMunf
107
Muonf /

pwDAif aumvif;pf (Steven Collins) onf edAÁmefudk b0\ jyKjyiftyfaom rwnfNrJaom rESpfNrdKUzG,f t&m
tm;vkH; qkH;cef;wdkifonhf jywfpJrIjzpfpOftjzpf t"dyÜm,fzGifhqdkcJhol acwfopf Ak'¨0g'Dynm&Sifjzpfonf/ ¤if;\
Ak'¨0g'tay: taumif;jrifoabmxm;onf Ak'¨0g'udk vufrcHvdkbJ&SdMuolrsm;tm; (auseyfvmap&ef) cGeftm;
wpf&yfjzpfaponf/ ¤if;wdkYonf edAÁmef\oabmobm0udk em;vnfrIvGJNyD; w&m;"r®&SmazGol\ tcef;u@udk

105
Collins, 98.
106
Welbon, 125.
107
Ibid, 282.

38
vlrIqufEG,fa&;ESihf jywfawmufrItjzpf ½IjrifMuaomaMumihf vufrcHvdkMujcif;jzpfonf/ pwDAif aumvif;pf
onf ¤if;\ Ak'¨0g'tawG;tjrifESihf ,aeYvlrIa&; qufpyfywfoufrIudk wifjycJhonf/ trSefpifppf pwDAif
aumvif;onf oów (wnfNrJrI)ESihf Oapä' (jywfpJrI)[laom tpGef;ESpf&yf,lqcsufudk rajz&Sif;cJhaomfvnf;
edAÁmefudk xl;jrwfomvGefNyD; tocFw vGwfajrmufrItjzpf,lqonfh Ak'¨0g'wefzdk;\ tpdwftydkif;tjzpf azmfjycJh
onf/ &[EÅmyk*¾Kdvfrsm; y&dedAÁmefpHNyD;aemuf tajctaejyóemESihfywfoufonfh ¤if;\azmfjycsufrSm atmufyg
twdkif;jzpfonf-

tajzrSm tajctaeESpf&yfteuf wpfckomjzpfEdkifaMumif; rMumcPazmfjyykH&onf - edAÁmefonf twå


vdyfjymudkvufrcHrI? xm0&wnfNrJrIrSeforQudk ajymqdkjcif;tm; jiif;y,frI? &nf½G,fykH&onfudk r&nf½G,f&
aom jrifhjrwfonhf bkHXmewpfrsKd;[kjzpfap? odkYr[kwf "r®onf &nf½G,fykH&onfudk trSefwu,f &nf½G,f
ojzihf edAÁmef[lonf bmrQr&Sdjcif; csKyfNidrf;jywfpJjcif;[kjzpfap (azmfjyEdkif\)/ Ak'¨0g'usrf;*efqdkif&m &yf
wnfcsufudk &Sif;vif;pGmazmfjy&rl edAÁmef[lonf trSefyif bmoma&;qdkif&m aemufqkH;yef;wkdif 'ku©
tm;vkH;ESihf rwnfNrJaomt&mtm;vkH;rS vGwfajrmufjcif;jzpfaomfvnf; bmompum; awG;ac:,lqcsuf
wdkYjzihf rSefuefatmif razmfjyEdkifaomt&mjzpf\/ edAÁmefonf twuúm0p&H awG;ac:BuHqí r&Edkifaom
t&m ( It 37, Ud-a 391) jzpf\/ xif&Sm;onfrSm edAÁmefudk 0dnmOftwåvdyfjymwpfcktjzpf razmfjyEdkifjcif;
jzpf\/ acwfopfAk'¨bmom pma&;q&mrsm;onf ukef;ajrtawGUtBuKHudk ig;tm; r&Sif;jyEdkifaom vdyfESifh
108
OyrmjyKí azmfjyMu\ /

edAÁmeftaMumif; ynm&SifwdkY t"dyÜm,fzGifhqdkcsufrsm;teuf tcsKdUaom aMumif;usKd;qDavsmfonhf tcsufrsm;


rS awGU&onfhtwdkif; ,if;zGifhqdkcsufwdkYonf wpfenf;r[kwfwpfenf; tqihfjrifhpepfwusavhvmrItwGuf
tusKd;&Sdonf/ odkYwap ynm&SifwdkYonf awG;ac:jcif;ESihf tppftrSefw&m;[laom ½IjrifrIESpf&yftMum; jcm;em;
rIudk &SmazGaeMuqJjzpfonf/ Ak'¨0g'tawG;tac:½IaxmifhrS edAÁmefudk awGUBuKHod&SdrItm; emrfydkif;oabmw&m;
wpfrsKd; odkYr[kwf pdwfydkif;qdkif&m vrf;pOfwpf&yf\ yk*¾vduydkifqdkifaomt&mtjzpf ,lqMuonf/ odkY&mwGif
þavhvmcsuf\ &nf½G,fcsufrSm tppftrSefw&m;udk axmufcHonhf awG;ac:ajrmfjrifrIrsm;ESihftwl ,if;tppf
trSefw&m;tm; awGUBuKHod&SdrIudk &Sif;jy&efjzpfonf/ tppftrSefw&m;tm; awGUBuKHod&SdrIudk vufawGUcsOf;uyfrI
tajccHjzihf &&SdEdkifonf/ xdktwlyif awG;ac:ajrmfjrifrIqdkif&m ,lqcsufonf ygVdawmfrsm;? pmaywdkYtjyif ,if;
csOf;uyfrIqdkif&m t"dyÜm,fzGifhqdkrIwdkYESihf qufEG,fonf/ awG;ac:ajrmfjrif,lqcsufonf yef;wdkifodkY oufaomihf
oufom a&muf&Sd&ef vrf;ñTefaom ajrykHESihfwlonf/ odkYjzifh þavhvmrIonf awG;ac:ajrmfjrifrI ½Iaxmihfudk
tokH;csjcif;r&SdbJ edAÁmef\t"dyÜm,f cGJjcrf;pdwfjzmrIudk a&SifvTJ&ef rjzpfEdkifacs/

usrf;*efvm enf;vrf;rsm;jzifh edAÁmefudk em;vnfjcif;


awG;ac:ajrmfjrifrI½Iaxmifhjzihf azmfjyNyD;jzpfonhftwdkif; þavhvmrI\ yef;wdkifodkYa&muf&ef þusrf;ü ta&;BuD;
onhf tcef;u@wpf&yfrSm ygVdawmfusrf;*efrsm;udk tokH;cs&efjzpfonf/ y#dpöorkymÜ 'ESihf 0dok'd¨r*¾[lí
ta&;ygonfh usrf;*efvmenf;vrf; ESpf&yf&Sdonf/ ,if;usrf;*ef enf;vrf;ESpf&yfudk Ak'¨0g'vufawGUusifhpOfü
yef;wdkifodkY a&muf&ef rMucPtokH;jyKonf/ ,if;enf;vrf;rsm;udk ygVdawmfESihf t|uxmusrf;wdkYü pepfwus
rSefwrf;wifxm;onf/
,if;azmjfycsufü y#pöorkyÜm'[lonf y#dpö-ESihf orkyÜm'-[laom yk'fESpfckaygif;jzpfonf/ þü y#dpö[lonf
taMumif;jyKí orkyÜm'[lonf jzpfay:vmjcif;[k t"dyÜm,f&onf/ y&rw¬w&m;av;yg;ESihf ,if;acgif;pOfrsm;udk
&Sif;jyNyD;jzpfaomfvnf; þavhvmrIü tusKd;w&m;? taMumif;w&m;ESifh ,if;wdkY\qufEG,frt I aMumif;udk r&Sif;jy
&ao;acs/ y#dpöorkyÜm'a'oemonf aMumif;usKd;qufEG,rf I\ ta&;ygykHudk tao;pdwf&Sif;jyaom w&m;rsm;t
euf wpfckjzpfonf/ y#dpöorkyÜm'enf;vrf;onf txl;taMumif;w&m;wdkY\jyKjyifcH"r® odkYr[kwf apwoduf
108
Collins, 97.

39
w&m;rsm;udk azmfjyonf/ ygVdawmfpmayt& Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwfonf y#dpöorkyÜm'fjzpfpOfudk em;vnf;NyD;aemuf
aAm"dÓPfudk &EdkifcJhonf/ y#dpöorkyÜm'fa'oemü tajccHtm;jzihf 'Gm'o*F (t*Fgq,fhESpfcsuf)ESifh a'Grlv (&if;
109
jrpfESpfck)wkdYudk tokH;jyKxm;onf /
þenf;vrf;onf tajccHtm;jzihf taMumif;w&m;wpfckr&SdbJ tusKd;w&m;wpf&yfrjzpfEdkif? tusKd;w&m;
wpfckonfyif taMumif;w&m;wpfckaMumifh jzpfay:&onf/ trSefpifppf tusKd;w&m;taygif;tpkwpfckESihf ouf
qdkifonfh taMumif;w&m;taygif;tpkwpf&yf &SdNrJjzpfonf/ y#dpöorkyÜm'f\ tusOf;csKyftajccHrSm wpfpkHwpfckjzpf
ay:vmcJhaomf ,if;\tusKd;w&m;wpfpkHwpfck &Sd&rnf[kjzpfonf/ tu,fí ,if;taMumif;w&m; jywfpJcJhaomf
aemuftusKd;w&m;wpfck jzpfay:vmawmhrnfr[kwf/ bdu©KaAm"d\ tbd"r®w¬o*F[ t*Fvdyfbmomjyefusrf;
vm ygVdbmomazmfjycsufwpf&yfrSm ]£ro®ð owd £'H a[mwd? £ró OyÜm'g £'H OyÜZÆwd? £roð towd
£'H e a[mwd (þtaMumif;w&m;&Sdaomf xdktusKd;w&m;&Sd\? þw&m;jzpfjcif;aMumifh xdkw&m;jzpfay:\? þ
w&m;r&Sdaomf xdkw&m;rjzpf/)} ygVdawmfü y#dpöorkyÜm'tajccHudk ykHpHus azmfjyxm;onf/ ,if;azmfjycsufrSm
atmufygtwdkif;jzpfonf-

t0dZÆm ypö,m ocFg&m? ocFg&ypö,m 0dnmPH? 0dnmPypö,m emr½lyH? emr½lyypö,m oVm,weH?


oVmwe ypö,m zaóm? zóypö,m a0'em? a0'emypö,m wPSm? wPSmypö,m Oyg'geH?
Oyg'eypö,m ba0g? b0ypö,m Zmwd? Zmwdypö,m Z&mr&Paomuy&a'0'ku©a'greókyg,mom
110
orÇ0EÅd/ {0arwó au0vó 'ku©u©E¨ó ork'a,m a[mwd /
rodrIt0dZÆmaMumifh uHocFg&wdkYjzpf\? uHocFg&aMumihf pdwf0dnmPfjzpfay:\? pdwf0dnPfaMumihf emrf½kyf
jzpfay:\? emrf½kyfaMumihf tm,we ajcmufyg;jzpfay:\? tm,weajcmufyg;aMumihf xdawGYrI zójzpf
ay:\? zóaMumihf cHpm;rIa0'emjzpfay:\? a0'emaMumihf wyfrufrIwPSm jzpfay:\? wPSmaMumihf
pGJvrf;rIjzpfay:\? pGJvrf;rIaMumihf b0wnf&SdrIjzpfay:\? b0aMumihf wpfzefb0opfarG;zGm;rI jzpfay:\?
b0opfarG;zGm;rIaMumihf tdkjcif; aojcif; pdk;&drf&jcif; ylaqG;&jcif; ukd,fqif;&Jjcif; pdwfqif;&Jjcif; jyif;pGm
111
ylyefjcif;wdkY jzpfy:\/ ,if;odkYvQif þ'ku©tpkta0;onf jzpfay:&\ /

trSefaomf y#dpöorkyÜm'onf aMumif;usKd;jzpfpOftwGufa&m b0vnfywfrI (0¥) twGufyg tvGefvdktyf


aom taqmufttkHjzpfonf/ apwoduf[laom taMumif;w&m;onf arG;aopuf0ef;udk rjywfpJatmif cH
aqmifxm;onf/ y#dpöorkyÜm'ü t*Fg q,fhESpf&yfyg&Sd\/ ,if;wkdYrSm twdwfb0 taMumif; ESpfck? ypöKyÜefb0
taMumif;w&m; &Spfck ESihf tem*wftaMumif;w&m; ESpfckwdkYjzpfonf/ ,if;q,fhESpfrsKd;wGif t0dZÆmESihf ocFg&wdkY
onf twdwfjzpfpOfü yg0ifonf/ 0dnmP? emrf½kyf? oVm,we? zó? a0'em? wPSm? Oyg'ge? b0 [laom
t*Fg &SpfckrSm ypöKyÜefjzpfpOfü yg0ifonf/ aemufqkH;ESpfckjzpfonhf ZmwdESihf Z&mr&PwdkYrSm tem*wfjzpfpOfü yg
0ifonf/ y#dpöorkyÜm'wGif tvGefta&;ygonhf &if;jrpfw&m;ESpfyg;rSm t0dZÆmESihfwPSmwdkYjzpfonf/ t0dZÆmwPSm
112
0aoe a'G rlvmed p a0'dwAÁmed (t0dZÆm wPSm\tpGrf;jzihf &if;jrpfw&m;ESpfyg;wdkYudkvnf; odtyfukef\) /
y#dpöorkyÜm'a'oemawmft& arG;jcif;aojcif;tygt0if 'ku©tpka0;tvkH;pkHrSm ,if;ta&tygqkH; &if;jrpf
ESpf&yfjzpfonf/ ,if;&if;jrpfESpfckonf ouf&Sdowå0gtm;vkH;udk b0wpfckNyD;wpfck jzpfay:atmif zefwD;EdkifpGrf;&Sd
onf/ y#dpöorkyÜm'a'oem\ t"dutydkif;onf jzpfwnfrIwpfck&Sdygu ,if;\taMumif;w&m;&SdonfNyD; topf
jzpfwnfrIvnf; &SdvdrhfOD;rnf[kjzpfonf/ twdwf? ypöKyÜefESihf tem*wf taMumif;w&m;rsm;rSm tcsif;csif; quf
EG,fMuonf/ tjyeftvSeftm;jzihf wpfpkHwpfck ydkrdktwdtusqdkrl t0dZÆmESifh wPSm csKyfaysmufaomf aemufxyf
jzpfay:&ef &Sdawmhrnfr[kwfacs/ wPSmESihf t0dZÆm[laom apwodufw&m;wdkY r&SdawmhvQif b0opfESihf aojcif;

109
Mahavagga Pali, Vinaya Pitaka, Khuddaka-Nikaya, 1.
110
Ibid, 1.
111
Ac-Ab, 294-395.
112
Ab-S, 134; Ac-Ab, 302.

40
r&SdawmhNyD[k qdkvdkjcif;jzpfonf/ ,if;odkYtm;jzihf awG;ac:ajrmfjrifrIpepfonf edAÁmefa&mufaMumif;enf;vrf;udk
ñTefjy&ef rnfokdYrnfykH tokH;csxm;aMumif; em;vnfEdkifonf/
tjcm;usrf;*efvm ta&;ygonhf enf;vrf;rSm 0dok'¨dr*¾ (pifMu,frIvrf;pOf) jzpfonf/ þenf;vrf;udk Ak'¨
bmom ur®|mef;bm0em½IrSwfrI twdtusqdkrI owdy|mefur®|mef;ü edAÁmef[laom yef;wdkifudka&muf&ef rMum
cP tokH;jyKavh&Sdonf/ Ak'¨0g'wGif ,if;enf;vrf;udk txl;jyKjyqdkjcif;rSm pdwå0dok'¨dqidk f&m pdwftvGefoefY&Sif;rI
twGuf xl;jcm;oGifjyifudkazmfjyaom wdk;wufonhf vrf;pOftqihfudk &SmazG&efjzpfonf/ þenf;vrf;\ yef;
wdkifrSm t"dutm;jzihf 'ku©rStvkH;pkHrSvGwfajrmufrItjzpf t"dyÜm,fzGifhqdkxm;onhf edAÁmefudk odjrif&eftwGuf
owdzGHUNzKd;wdk;wufrIrSwpfqihf pdwfudkjzLpifatmifvkyf&ef jzpfonf/ tcef; 5 wGif owdy|mefur®|mef;taMumif;
aqG;aEG;rnfjzpfonf/
þavhvmcsufonf txl;ojzihf ygVdusrf;*efvm vufcHEdkifzG,f&Sdaom t"dyÜm,fzGifhqdkrIrsm;ESifh Ak'¨0g'DESihf
Ak'¨0g'Dr[kwfolynm&SifwdkY\ usrf;pmwdkYü awGU&aom tjiif;yGm;zG,f t"dyÜm,fzGifhqdkcsufrsm;ESihf ywfoufonf/
xdkYjyif þavhvmcsufonf ueOD;taejzihf edAÁmeft"dyÜm,fzGifhqdkcsuftrsKd;rsLd;tay: awG;ac:ajrmfjrifrIqdkif&m
jcKHikHavhvmcsufwpf&yfudk azmfjyNyD; edAÁmeftm; rSefuefonfh awGUBuKHod&SdrIudk em;vnfrnfhf vufawGYenf;vrf;udk
&SmazGonf/ a&SUwGif azmfjyNyD;onhftwdkif; b0 (jzpfwnfrI)? 0db0 (jzpfwnfrIr&Sdjcif;)? emrf½kyf\ rESpfNrdKUzG,frS
vGwfajrmufrIoabmw&m; ,lqcsuftygt0if obm0"r®tm; oDtdkt&cGJjcrf;pdwfjzm½kHrQjzihf edAÁmef\ t"dyÜm,f
rSefudkazmfxkwf&ef rvkHavmufacs/ pmqdkESihfvufawGUESpfrsKd;vkH;udk xyfwlnDrQtokH;cs&ef vdktyfonf/ taumif;
jrifa&m raumif;jrifyg ynm&nftqihfjrifh t"dyÜm,fzGifhqdkrIrsm;udkvnf; ñSdEIdif;xm;NyD; edAÁmeftaMumif;udk
t"dyÜm,fzGifhonhf ¤if;wdkY\usrf;pmrsm;udk cGJjcrf;pdwfjzmjcif;jzihf edAÁmeft,ltqtay: &Sif;vif;pGm em;vnfrI
qDodkY qdkufa&mufEdkifrnfjzpfonf/

000000

41
tcef; 3

b0 (jzpfwnfrI)ESihf 0db0 (jzpfwnfrIr&Sdjcif;)

b0 (jzpfwnfrI) [lonf tb,fenf;


þtcef;ü jzpfpOft& edAÁmef\csKyfNidrf;rIwGifyg0ifaom b0ESihfaojcif;wdkYtay: Ak'¨0g'½IjrifokH;oyfykHudk t"du
azmfjyrnfjzpfonf/ b0ESihfaojcif;jzpfpOfudk em;vnf&efrmS edAÁmeft"dyÜm,fudk &Sif;vif;onhf þavhvmcsufü
tajccHtm;jzihf ta&;ygaomtcsufjzpfonf/ Ak'¨0g'usrf;*efrsm;ü touf&Sifjcif;ESihf aojcif;jzpfpOfudk od&ef
tvdktyfqkH; tcsufESpf&yf&Sdonf/ odkYr[kwfvQif b0\tm;enf;csuf tm;omcsufwdkYudk trSeftwkdif; em;vnf
Edkifrnf r[kwfacs/ ,if;tcsufESpf&yfrSm 1) b0\obm0ESifh 2) aojcif;\obm0wdkYjzpfonf/ Ak'¨0g' tvdk
t& aojcif;onf b0qkH;cef;wdkifoGm;onf[krqdkvdkbJ t&[wår*fÓPfudk r&ao;rl aemufb0wpfck\ tp
jzpfonf/ Ak'¨usrf;*efrsm;ü ouf&SdjzpfpOf odkYr[kwf b0qufvufíjzpfay:jcif;udk b0(jzpfwnfrI) [kac:onf/
,if;udk ocFw(jyKjyifcH) w&m;tjzpfvnf; em;vnfonf/ edAÁmefonf ,if;\qefYusifbuft"dyÜm,f tocFw
(rjyKjyiftyfaomoabm) jzpfonf/
b0[laom a0g[m&onf pOfqufrjywf arG;aopuf0ef;ESihf qufpyfaeonfh b0jzpfpOfudkqdkvdkNyD; edAÁmef
onf b0jzpfpOfESihf ,if;\tusKd;qufjzpfaom arG;aopuf0ef;rS vGwfajrmufonf/ b0ESihfywfoufí jrefrm
Ak'¨0g'DwdkY oHo&m'ku© odkYr[kwf jrefrmvdk oH&mqif;&J[laompum;ukd rMumcP ajymqdkavh&SdMuonf/ ,if;
um; b0puf0ef;udk qdkvdkjcif;jzpfonf/ jrefrmtpOftvmü xif&Sm;onhf qdk½dk;wpfck&Sdonf ]b0[lonf oHo&m
wnf;/ b0oHo&mrSmae&oa½GU 'ku©rsK;pkHESihf ruif;onhft&mrsm;pGmESihf BuKHawGU&vdrfhrnf/ b0oHo&mpuf0ef;
ü r&SdawmhvQif aMumufzG,fr&Sdawmhacs}[kjzpfonf/ þazmfjycsufü b0r&Sdjcif;[lonfudk axmufwnf&m edAÁmef
tjzpf ,lqonf/ odkYwap edAmÁ efwnf&SdrIonf b0r&Sdjcif;t"dyÜm,fESihf jcm;em;onf/
b0wnf&Sdjcif; b0rwnf&Sdjcif;[laom a0g[m&rsm;ESihfywfoufí þavhvmrIonf a&S;OD;pGm b0(jzpf
wnfrI) t,ltqudk avhvmrnfjzpfonf/ azmfjyNyD;jzpfonhftwdkif; edAÁmefodkYa&muf&SdNyD;yk*¾Kdvfrsm;onf arG;ao
b0puf0ef;ü r&Sdawmhacs odkYr[kwf b0oHo&mjzpfpOfü rwnf&daS wmhacs/ edAÁmefudk tqkH;pGef aysmf½TifNidrf;csrf;rI
\txGwftxdyf (oEÅdokc)[k,lqonf/ awoH (ocFg&meH) 0lyoarm okacg (xdkocFg& b0jzpfwnfrI r&Sdawmh
113
jcif;onf Nidrf;csrf;rItppftrSefjzpf\) / arG;aojzpfpOfudk azmfjyonhf Ak'¨0g'qdkif&m bkHXmetaMumif; em;vnf
jcif;r&SdbJ þavhvmcsufonf NyD;jynhfpkHvdrfhrnfr[kwfacs/ arG;aotaMumif;&Sif;vif;csufonf edAÁmef\&Sif;vif;
aom ykHoP²mefudk azmfaqmifay;onf/
trSefaomf b0jzpfwnfrIobm0onf 'ku©½kyfoGifudk yDjyifpGm o½kyfazmfonf/ þae&mü 'ku©[lonf b0ü
tvdkr&Sdtyfaom qif;&Ja0'emudk qdkvdkonf/ Ormtm;jzihf cspfcifolwpfa,mufESihf cGJcGmauGuGif;&jcif;onf
rESpfouftyfaom qif;&Ja0'emwpf&yfjzpfEdkifonf/ aojcif;obm0onf 'kuu © dk rsm;pGmjzpfaponf/ cspfjrwf
Edk;onhf cJGcGmoGm;olESihf auGuGif;jcif;aMumihf touf&Sifae&jcif;onf 'ku©ESifhusef&pfonf/ oH,kwåeu d m,f? tmoD
0daomyrokwåeft& b0[lonf tEÅ&m,fESihfqufpyfaeNyD; rm&[laom aojcif;w&m;ESihf rvGJraoG &ifqdkif&
rnfjzpfonf/ uHaumif;pGmjzihf ouf&Sdowå0grsm;twGuf wpfckwnf;aomarQmfvihfcsuf&Sdonf/ ,if;um; aojcif;
w&m;rS vGwfajrmufonhf edAÁmefjzpfonf/ Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwfu edAÁmef[lonfudk tEÅ&m,ftm;vkH;ESihf aojcif;rS
vGwfajrmufaomw&m;tjzpf azmfjycJhonf/ Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf\ a[mMum;csufrSm atmufygtwkdif; jzpfonf-

113
Ma-P-D, 129.

42
]Mo&drH wD&H omouø oyÜ#db,}EÅd acg bdu©a0 ouúm,aówH t"d0peH/ yg&drH wD&H acrH tyÜ#db,EÅd
114
acg bdu©a0 edAÁmeaówH t"d0peH /
tEÅ&m,fxlajymNyD; aMumufzG,f þbufurf; (b0jzpfwnfrI) [lonf cE¨mukd,ftm; oligtjzpfpGJ,ljcif;
115
\ trnfwnf;/ vkHNcKHNyD; tEÅ&m,fuif;onhf [dkbufurf; (edAÁmef) [lonf edAÁmef\trnfwnf; /

txufygazmfjycsufü edAÁmef[lonf aojcif;uif;rIudk wdkuf½kduf&nfñTef;onf/ ta&;ygaom em;vnfoihf


onhf tcsufwpf&yfrSm aojcif;ESihf aojcif;uif;onhf obm0tajctaeESpf&yftMum; qufoG,frIrnfodkY wnf
&Sdonf? ,if;t&mESpfck rnfodkY ajymif;vJonf[laom tcsufjzpfonf/ aojcif;w&m;udk ouf&SdwdkY ydkifqdkifNyD;
aojcif;uif;onfhw&m;udk aAm"dÓPfudk&&SdNyD;olwdkY ydkifqdkifonf/ azmfjyygpum;&yfü arG;jcif;ESihfaojcif;obm0
udk pkHprf;avhvm&efrSm þavhvmrI\ t"duta&;ygaomtcsufjzpfonf/ xdkYaMumihf edAÁmefobm0udk cGJpdwfjzm
rIrjyKrD avmuDvlom;wdkY\tajctaeESihf ¤if;wdkYaexdkifonfh bkHXmewdkYtaMumif;udk &Sif;jy&rnfjzpfonf/
Ak'¨0g'tvdkt& ouf&SdoufrJhwdkYtygt0if t&mcyfodrf;onf ysufpD;jcif;obm0&SdouJhodkY jyKjyifcHobm0
vnf;&Sdonf/ ysufpD;jcif;obm0ESihf jyKjyifcHobm0&Sdonhf vlom;wpfa,mufonf vGwfvyfrIenf;onf/ ysufpD;
jcif;obm0ESihf jyKjyifcHobm0wdkYudk ajz&Sif;olonf vGwfvyfrIydkrsm;onf/ qdkvdkonfrSm b0jzpfwnfrIr&Sdaomf
'ku©vkH;0r&Sd[kjzpfonf/ taMumif;rl 'ku©onf b0[kac:aom emrf½kyfobm0jzpfpOfESihf qufpyfaeaomaMumihf
jzpfonf/ þazmfjycsufü b0rSvGwfajrmufrIESihf 'ku©rSvGwfajrmufrItwGuf edAÁmefvkdonf/ b0[lonfwGif
umrb0? ½lyb0ESihf t½lyb0[k okH;rsKd;yg0ifonf/ tbd"r®w¬o*F[usrf;azmfjycsufrSm ]'ku©H awblruH 0¥H?
wPSm ork'a,m ba0/ eda&ma"m emr edAÁmeH? ra*¾g avmukwåa&m rawm (bkHokH;rsKd;ü b0vnfywfjzpf&jcif;
onf qif;&J\/ wPSmonf ,if;vnfywfrI\ &if;jrpfjzpf\/ vnfywfrI jywfpJjcif;um; edAÁmefwnf;/ edAÁmef
116
a&mufaMumif; vrf;pOfum; avmukwå&mwnf;)} [líjzpfonf/
Ak'¨0g'pMu0Vmt,ltqwGif edAÁmefonf b0jzpfpOfü ryg0ifaomaMumifh 0db0 (jzpfwnfrIr&Sdjcif;) tjzpf
,lqonf/ þü b0[lonf arG;aojzpfpOfudk qdkvkdonf/ okH;q,fhwpfbkHü yg0ifjcif;r&Sdawmhaom rnfonhf
owå0grudkrqdk 0db0 (jzpfwnfrIr&Sdjcif;) üyg0ifol[k ac:onf/ odkYwap edAÁmefonf b0jywfpJoGm;jcif;udk rqdk
vdkjyefacs? taMumif;rl ,if;onf okH;q,fhwpfbkHü ryg0ifaom xl;uJjrifhjrwfonfh tajctaetjzpfjzihf trSefw
u,f wnf&SdaomaMumihfjzpfonf/ odkYjzpfí jzpfwnfrI (b0)tjrifESihf arG;aojywfpJrI (edAÁmef) tjrifwdkYonf þ
avhvmrIacgif;pOf\ &Sif;vif;rItwGuf tokH;0ifonf/ odkY&mwGif ]tu,fí ouf&SdwdkYtygt0if t&mtm;vkH;
tdkjcif;aojcif;oabm&SdonfqdkvQif b0jzpfwnfvmolrSm rnfolenf;} [k apmaMumEdkifonf/
b0[lonfESihfywfoufí twdwftcsdef ,cifb0rsm;wGif jyKvkyfcJhaom uH\tusKd;qufwnf&Sdaeao;o
a½GUb0qufvufjzpfwnfaernfjzpfNyD; wpfb0NyD;wpfb0 ajymif;aernfjzpfonf/ ,if;udk b0oHo&m[kac:
onf/ ygVd ur®? ouúw um&fr (tvkyf)onf ouf&SdjzpfpOf vIyf&Sm;vnfywf&mwGif ta&;ygaom tcef;rSyg0if
onf/ b0[l&mü tajccHtm;jzihf aumif;uHESihfoufqkdifaom b0aumif; (ok*wd)ESihf raumif;uHESihfoufqdkif
aom b0qdk;('k*¾wd)[k vm;&m*wdESpfrsKd;&Sdonf/ ,if;ESpfrsKd;udk ewfbkH(a'0avmu)ESifh i&JbkH(ed&,avmu) [k
ac:Edkifonf/ urÇmhbmomw&m;qdkif&m usrf;pmrsm;\½IaxmifhrSjzpfap odkYr[kwf EIwftpOftvm½IaxmifhrSyif
jzpfap bmomw&m;tm;vkH;eD;yg;rQ ewfbkHESihfi&JbkHwdkYudk azmfjyMuonf/ ,if;,lqcsufudk oufqdkif&mbmom
w&m;wdkY\½Iaxmihfudk tajcjyKvsuf enf;rsKd;pkHjzihf wifjyMuonf/ Oyrmqdkaomf c&pf,efESihf tpövmrf,kHMunfrI
wdkYü aumif;uifbkHESihfi&JbkHrSm xm0&(a&mufNyD;vQifjyefra½GU)jzpfNyD; Ak'¨0g'ürl xm0&r[kwfacs/ xdkYjyif ewfbkH
[lonfrSm txl;ojzihf olawmfaumif;wdkY\ ae&mjzpfNyD; i&JrSm vlrdkufwdkY\ ae&mjzpfonf/ olawmfaumif;[l
117
onf aumif;aomtvkyfudk vkyfolrsm;jzpfNyD; vlrdkuf[lonf raumif;rI'kp½dkufudk usL;vGefolrsm;jzpfonf /

114
Sa-N Vol. II, 383.
115
Bhikkhu Bodhi, The Connected Discourse of the Buddha,1239.
116
Ab-S, 129.
117
K. Sri Dhammananda, The Buddhist Concept of Heaven and Hell (Malaysia: Buddhist Missionary Society, 2000), 1-4.

43
0ifpwefudef; (Winston King) ESihf rJvfzdkY'fpyD½dk (Melford Spiro) wdkYtvdkt& ur®Ak'¨0g'ESifh edAÁmeAk'¨0g'[k
Ak'¨0g'ykHpH ESpfrsKd;&Sdonf/ ur®Ak'¨0g'DwdkYu aumif;aomtvkyfonf b0aumif;odkYa&muf&Sdaponf[k ,kHMunfNyD;
118
edAÁmeAk'¨0g'DwdkYurl ur®|mef;bm0em½IrSwfjcif;onf b0oHo&mrS vGwfajrmufaponf[k ,kHMunfMuonf /
odkY&mwGif þusrf;jyKol\tvdkrl awG;ac:ajrmfjrifrIESihf vufawGUusifhpOfESihftnD 1) ur®Ak'¨0g' 2) psmeAk'¨ 3)
edAÁmeAk'¨0g'[k Ak'¨0g'ykHpH okH;rsKd;&Sdoifhonf/ ur®Ak'¨0g'DwdkYu vlYbkHESihfewfbkHuJhodkYaom ok*wdb0wGif jyefvnf
arG;zGm;Edkif&ef raumif;rIudk a&SmifMuOfNyD; aumif;rIudk jyKvkyf&ef BudK;yrf;Muonf/ psmeAk'¨0g'DwdkYu jA[®avmu
[kac:onhf jA[®mhbkHuJhodkYaom Nidrf;csrf;onhfbkHXmeü arG;zGm;&ef orxur®|mef;udk tm;xkwfMuonf/ psmeAk'¨
0g'udk usifhokH;olrsm;onf ½ly t½ly[laom jA[®mhbkHwdkYü jyefvnfarG;zGm;cGifh&&Sdjcif;udk rSefuefaumif;jrwfaom
r*Fvmtjzpf xifrSwfMuonf/
odkY&mwGif edAÁmeAk'¨0g'DwdkYurl ur®ESihf psmeAk'¨0g'DwdkY\ ,lqcsuftay: tm;enf;csufudk jrifMuonf/ ¤if;
wdkY cHpm;&onfhokcrSm trSefyif wefzdk;&SdonfrSmrSef\? odkYwap ,if;okcwdkYü tm;enf;csufrsm;pGm &Sdaeonf/
taMumif;rl tu,fí ¤if;wdkYtaejzihf twdkif;tqrJh aysmf½TifvdkrIqE´ESihf rodrIt0dZÆm qdkvdkonfrSm t0dZÆmt
azmfo[JjyKonfh wPSmaMumihf tukodkvfudk jyKrdjcif;jzihf rSm;,Gif;pGmjzpfbdrl ,if;wdkY\ raumif;rIonf om,m
aumif;rGefonfhb0wdkYü aysmf½TifcHpm;cGifh ay;vdrhfrnfr[kwfawmhaomaMumihfjzpfonf/ uHraumif;pGmjzihf ¤if;wdkY
\ tukodkvfrIrsm;onf i&J odkYr[kwf wd&päefESihf NydwåmwdkYtygt0if tjcm;raumif;aomb0wdkYü jyefvnfarG;
zGm;jcif;odkY OD;wnfoGm;onf/ xdkYjyif ewfjynfcsrf;omü aysmf½TifrIrSm trSefwu,fxl;jcm;qef;Mu,faomfvnf; tdk
jcif; aojcif; emjcif;ESifhrl ruif;vGwfEdkifacs/ ,if;tm;enf;csufwdkYudk Munfhvsuf edAÁmeAk'0¨ g'DwdkYonf okH;q,fh
wpfbkHü wnf&Sdonfh 'ku©[laom rESpfoufzG,f b0oHo&mqif;&JrS vGwfajrmufrIudk &&Sd&ef BudK;yrf;Muonf/

ouf&SdwdkYtwGuf bkHXmet,ltq
Ak'¨0g'pMu0Vmt,ltqonf pdwfynmESihf cE¨maA'qdkif&m b0tawG;tjrifESihf qufEG,rf I&Sdonf/ odkY&mwGif
Ak'¨0g't,ltqonf rjrifEdkifaomowå0gwdkYonf pdww f Gifomwnf&Sd\[laomt,ltqudk jiif;qdkonf/ edAÁmef
taMumif; rnfodkYqdkEdkifoenf;/ edAÁmefonfvnf; pdwfxrJ Smyif wnf&Sdonf[k qdkEdik fygoavm/ rjrifEdkifaom
ouf&Sdrsm;ESihf ywfoufonhf tawGYtBuKHr&Sdolrsm;tzdkY oHo,jzpfzG,frsm;pGm&Sdonf/ odkYjzpfí Ak'¨0g'pMu0Vm
t,ltqudkavhvm&efESihf ouf&Sdtm;vkH;\ b0jzpfwnfrIESihf pMu0VmwdkY qufEG,fywfoufykH ta&;ygrIudk em;
vnf&efvdkonf/ Ak'¨0g'pMu0Vmt,ltqt& ouf&SdwdkY\b0udk tajccHtm;jzihf bkHXmeokH;rsKd; cGJjcm;Edkifonf/
,if;wdkYrSm –
1) umrbkH? umrok*wd ckepfbkHESihf tyg,fav;bkH
2) ½lybkH? ½kyfoP²mefESihf emrf&Sd ½lyq,fhajcmufbkH
119
3) t½lybkH? ½kyfoP²mefrJh emrfom&Sd t½lyav;bkH wdkYjzpfonf /
txufygazmfjycsufrSm þokawoejyKrItay: aemufxyftao;pdwfazmfjyrItwGuf Ak'¨0g'pMu0Vmt,l
tqtESpfcsKyfjzpfonf/ tcsKdUrSm ewfbkH i&JbkHuJhodkYaom bkHXmersm;ESifh edAÁmefwdkYudk rsufpdjzihfrawGYjrifEdkifaom
aMumihf ,if;tppftrSefw&m;rsm;rSm pdwfxJwGifom&Sdonf[k ,lqMuonf/ þtcsufü Ak'¨0g'twGif;rS b0
wnf&SdrI,lqcsuf tajccHudk &Sif;jyoihfonf/ a&S;OD;pGm or®KwdopömESihf y&rw¬opömESpfrsKd;wdkY\ jcm;em;csufudk
em;vnfatmif BudK;yrf;&rnfjzpfonf/
or®Kwdopöm[lonfudk aeYpOfb0 aygif;oif;qufqHa&;ü a,bk,stokH;jyKonhf trSefw&m;tjzpf ,lq
onf/ or®Kwdopömudk tokH;jyKvsuf ac:a0:ajymqdkrIykHpHrsm;pGm&Sdonf/ rdef;r? a,musfm;? cE¨mudk,f? tdyf&m? xdkif
ckH ponftm;vkH;rSm or®Kwdopöm\ Oyrmrsm;jzpfMuonf/ ,if;wdkYtm;vkH;rSm pdwf? zó? yx0D? tmayg[laom

118
Harvey B. Aronson, "The relationship of the Karmic to Nirvanic in Theravada Buddhism." Journal of Religious Ethics 7 (1979), 28.
119
Ac-Ab, 72-73.

44
trnfemrrsm;uJhodkY tppftrSefwnf&Sdw&m;rsm; r[kwfMuacs/ odkYjzpfí ,if;trnfrsm;ESihf ,if;wdkYazmfjyonfh t
120
&mrsm;udk ac:a0:okH;pGJ½kHrQom ta&;ygojzihf or®Kwdopöm trsm;okH;twGufrSefuefaom ykHpHrsm;[kac:onf /
y&rw¬opöm[lonf ½kyf? a0'em? onm? ocFg&? 0dnmP[laom cE¨mig;yg;uJhodkYaom "r®obm0wdkY\ tESpf
om&udk azmfjy&eftokH;jyKaom trSefw&m;jzpfonf/ razmufjyefaom trSefw&m;[lonf ,if;obm0w&m;wdkY
udk &nfñTef;onf/ y&rw¬opöm[lonf pkaygif;trnfwpfckrQomr[kwfbJ Ak'¨0g'usrf;*efrsm;t& trSefwu,f
wnf&Sdaom t&mrsm;udk &nf½G,fjcif;jzpfonf/ þü v,fwDq&mawmfu ]or®Kwdopömonf rSm;,Gif;rIudk wm;
121
qD;NyD; y&rw¬opömonf pdwful;,OfrSm;,Gif;rIudk umuG,fonf}[k ñTefjycJhonf / ,if;trSefw&m;ESpfrsKd;ESifh
ywfoufí ouf&SdwdkYwnf&SdrIESihf edAÁmefwnf&SdrIonf ,if;acgif;pOfESpfrsKd;atmufwGif toD;oD;yg0ifMuonf/
Ak'¨0g'pmayt& or®KwdopömESihf y&rw¬opöm trSefw&m;ESpfckonf ygVdawmfusrf;*efrsm;ü wdkuf½kdufrvm&Sd
122
bJ t|uxm #Dumusrf;rsm;üom awGU&onf / odkY&mwGif t|uxmusrf;rsm;üazmfjyonhf eDww¬ (wdkuf½dkuf
t"dyÜm,f)ESihf ae,sw ¬(oG,f0dkuf odkYr[kwf wifpm;) t"dyÜm,f[laom trSefw&m;rsm;rSm vufawGUtokH;0ifvS
123
onf / odkY&mwGif Ak'¨&Siaf wmfjrwfonf rdrd\w&m;awmfrsm;ü y&rw¬opömESihfywfoufaom "r®tESpfom&udk
em;vnfEdkifap&ef y&dowftm; w&m;a'oem a[mMum;awmfrlaomtcg or®Kwdopömudk tokH;jyKonfom jzpf
onf/ þtcsufESifhywfoufí ]or®Kwdopöarmu©ar0 y&rw¬opöm"d*arm a[mwd (or®KwdopömudktrDSjyKíom
124
vQif y&rw¬opömudk xdk;xGif;í odjrifEdkif\)} [kazmfjyonf /
or®Kwdopömtjrif½IaxmifhrS ouf&SdwdkYonf trSefyif wnf&Sdonf/ odkY&mwGif wpfpkHwpf&mudk wnf&Sd\[kqdk
Edkif&ef ,if;udk wpfenf;enf;jzihf oufaojy&ef vdktyfonf/ Ak'¨0g'ynm&Sifrsm;onf ]wnf&Sdjcif;} [lonf
]taMumif;aMumihf jzpfjcif;} ]jyKjyifcH&jcif;} ]zefwD;cH&jcif;} ]wpfpkHwpfckudk trSDo[JjyKjyif;} [k em;vnf&ef BudK;yrf;
125
cJhMuonf / ,if;onf ouf&SdwdkYwnf&SdrIudk todtrSwfjyK&ef Ak'¨0g'tawG;tjrif tajccHjzpfonf/ odkY&mwGif
,if;,lqcsufudk or®KwdopömtwGufom tokH;jyKNyD; y&rw¬opömtwGuf tokH;rjyKacs/
þazmfjycsufü b0wnf&SdrI t,ltqrsm;onf ouf&Sdrsm;ESihf rw (aojcif;) trw (raojcif;)wdkYESihf ouf
qdkifojzihf or®KwdopömESifh ydkrdkywfoufonf/ aojcif;obm0onf ouf&SdwdkY\ a&SmifvTJr&aomt&m jzpfonf/
ouf&SdrsKd;uGJ rsm;pGm&Sdaomfjim;vnf; 'd|owå (jrifaumif;owå0g)ESifh t'd|owå (rjrifaumif;owå0g) [k tkyfpk
ESpfck cGJjcm;Edkifonf/ Ak'¨0g'pMu0Vmt,ltqonf okH;q,fhwpfbkHudk tajccHonhf ouf&SdykHpHtrsKd;rsdK;udk tao;
pdwfazmjfy&ef BudK;yrf;jcif;jzpfonf/ Ak'¨0g'tpOftvmwGif jrifaumif;rjrifaumif;aom ouf&SdwdkYyg0ifonhf
azmfjyNyD; bkHXmeokH;rsKd;udk tokH;jyKavh&Sdonf/ odkYwap okH;q,hfwpfbkHudk þusrf;ü tokH;jyK&mwGif ouf&Sd?
aojcif;ESifh aojcif;rJhtajctaewdkY\ ykHoP²mefudk pdwfynmtjrifjzihfazmfjyrl ydkrdk&Sif;vif;vdrfhrnfjzpfonf/
tbd"r®w¬o*F[ygVdusrf;ESihftnD okH;q,fhwpfbkH&Sd yk*¾KdvftoD;oD;ESihf edAÁmefwkdY qufEG,faeykHudk o½kyfazmfEdkif&ef
atmufyg Z,m;ykHpHudk azmfjyygonf/

120
Ledi Sayadaw, The Manulas of Buddhism (Malaysia: SBVMS Publication, 1994), 188.
121
Ibid, 189.
122
Di-N-A Vol. 1, 306; Sa-N-A Vol. 1, 72; An-N-A Vol. 1, 74; and It-A, 78.
123
Baddanta Nyanatiloka-thera, 147.
124
Ne-A, 100.
125
Cheng, 19.

45
Z,m; 1

ax&0g'Ak'¨0g'tvdk edAÁmefESifh okH;q,fhwpfbkH

31/ ae0onmemonm,we
30/ tmudÍöm,we
29/ 0dnmPÍöm,we
28/ tmumomeÍöm,we

27/ tued|m
26/ ok'óD
25/ ok'óm
24/ twyÜm
23/ t0d[m
22/ tonowåm
21/ a0[yævm

18/ okbudPSm 19/ tyÜrmPokbm 20/ y&dwåokbm


15/ tmbó&m 16/ tyÜrmPmbm 17/ y&dwåmbm
14/ r[mjA[®m 13/ jA[®yka&m[dwm 12/ jA[r®yg&opöm

11/ y&edr®dw0o0wåd
10/ edr®me&wd
9/ wkodwm
8/ ,mrm
7/ wm0wðom
6/ pmwkr[m&mZdum

5/ vlYbkH

4/ tol&um,f
3/ Nydwåm
2/ wd&pämef
1/ i&J

rSwfcsuf/ / tbd"r®musrf;*efrsm;t& þpMu0VmtwGif;rS okH;q,fhwpfbkHESihf þavmu\ tjyifbuf&Sd


edAÁmeftajctaeudk avmuDtaMumif;w&m;\ vTrf;rdk;rIr&SdbJ xl;uJjrihfjrwfrIobm0 oufouftjzpf aumif;

46
pGm jrifEdkifonf/ þodkYjzihf xl;uJjrifhjrwfaompdwfudk tbd"r®mwGif avmukwå&mpdwf[k trnfemrjyKonf/ edAÁmef
(oEÅdobm0)udk avmukwå&mpdwfjzihf odjrifEdkifonf/ txufygZ,m;ü þpMu0Vmü toD;oD; tqihf&Spf
qifh&Sdonf/ atmufajcrS txufodkY yxrtqifhudk 'ku©cHpm;&onhf 'k*¾wdbkHtqihftjzpf owfrSwfonf/ 'kwd
,tqifhudk ok*wdblrdü yg0ifonhf vlYbkHtjzpf trnfjyKonf/ trSefaomf vlYbkHrSpí txufbkHtm;vkH;udk ok*
wdblrd[k ac:onf/ wwd,tqifhudk a'0blrd (ewfjynf 6 xyf) [k ac:onf/ xdktwlyif pwkw¬tqifh? yÍör?
q|rESihf owårtqifhwdkYudk ½lyjA[®mblrd (½ly 16 bkH)[k ac:onf/ t|rtqifhudk t½lyjA[®mblrd (t½ly 4
bkH)[k ac:onf/ 'kwd,tqifhrS t|rtqihfxd bkHXmersm;ü arG;zGm;olrsm;teuf 'Gd[dwfESihf t[dwfyk*¾Kdvf
r[kwfolrsm;rSm edAÁmefudk þrsufarSmufb0ü &Edkifajc&Sdonf/ odkY&mwGif atmufqkH;tqifh tyg,fbkH[kac:onhf
'k*¾wdbkHü arG;zGm;olrsm;rSm þrsufarSmufb0ü edAÁmefudkodjrif&ef tcGifhtvrf;r&Sdacs/ odkYwap ,if;wdkYonf
aemifb0wGif &Edkif&efjzpfEdkifajc&Sdonf/ trSefpifppf edAÁmefonf þpMu0Vm&SdbkHtqihftm;vkH;\ [dkbufwGif&Sd
onf/ taMumif;rl ,if;onf arG;aor&SdaomaMumihfwnf;/ edAÁmefudk ,if;bkHXmetm;vkH;\ txufwGif awGYjrif
&aomfvnf; ,if;bkHtqihftm;vkH;\ tay:ü&Sdaom bkHXmewpfcktjzpf r,lqacs/ trSefum; edAÁmefonf
½kyfydkif;t&a&m pdwfydkif;t&yg okH;q,hfwpfbkHrS vGwfaomt&mjzpfonf/ odkYjzihf edAÁmefudk xl;uJjrihfjrwfaom
126
w&m;"r®tjzpf azmfjyjcif;jzpfonf /

txufyg okH;q,fhwpfbkHtaMumif; &Sif;jycsufrSm ax&0g'tbd"r®musrf;*efrsm;udk tajcjyKí tao;pdwf


azmfjyjcif;jzpfonf/ r[m,meusrf;*eftcsKdUvnf; b0trsKd;tpm;rsm;udk azmfMuonf/ odkY&mwGif pMu0Vmwnf
aqmufykHESihf bkHXmta&twGufjzpfpOfrSm ax&0g'ESihf uGJjym;onf/ r[m,meAk'¨0g'wGif bkHXmeudk av;q,fh
127
wpfbkH azmfjyonf / odkY&mwGif Ak'¨0g'tpOftvmESpfckvkH;onf ouf&Sdowå0gtm;vkH;onf b0udkwyfrufrI
wPSmaMumifh b0oHo&mwGif Budrfzefrsm;pGm usifvnf&onf[laomtjrifudk vufcHMuonf/ aemufqkH; ¤if;
wdkYtaejzihf b0udk rwyfrufaomtcgwGif edAÁmefudk&&SdMuvdrfhrnf/
owå0gwdkYonf tb,faMumihf &nf½G,fcsufr&SdbJ ,if;b0oHo&mwGif vnfaeMu&oenf;/ taMumif;rSm
ur®ed,mr\ EId;qGrIaMumihfjzpfonf/ owå0gwdkYonf ,cifb0awGua&m þypöKyÜefb0wGifyg udk,fEIwfESvkH;
tm;jzihf aumif;rIraumif;rIwdkYudk jyKvkyfNyD;jzpfMuonf/ owå0gwdkYonf y#dpöorkyÜm' (aMumif;usKd;jzpfpOf) a'o
emawmft& wPSmESihft0dZÆmaMumihf xdkxdkb0wGif r&yfrem; arG;zGm;Mu&onf/ trSefpifppf owå0gwpfa,muf
uG,fvGefaomtcg ¤if;tm; aemufbkHXmewpfckü jyefvnfarG;zGm;&ef ur®(udk,fEIwfESvkH;tm;jzihf jyKvkyfNyD;jzpf
onfh aumif;rIraumif;rI) pGrf;tm;u wGef;tm;ay;onf/
txufwGif azmfjyNyD;jzpfonhftwdkif; bkHb0,lqcsufEiS hfywfoufí b0ykHpHrsm;onf aMumif;usKd;jzpfpOf? jyK
jyifpD&iftyfaom tusKd;quf? tm;vkH; wpfcktay:wpfck wnfrSDrIwdkYESihf qufEG,fonf/ b0ESifhaojcif;onf
wpfckESihfwpfck qufpyfaeaomaMumihf þb0owå0grsm;ESihf aemufb0owå0grsm;tMum; aMumif;usKd;qufEG,f
rIudk pkHprf;avhvm&efvdkonf/ Ak'¨0g'wGif þb0rS aemifb0odkY ul;ajymif;oGm;jcif;udk *wd[kac:onf/ ,if;
onf oGm;jcif; odkYr[kwf ul;ajymif;oGm;jcif;[k t"dyÜm,f&\/ ul;ajymif;oGm;jcif;[lonf twåvdyfjymaumif ul;
ajymif;oGm;jcif;r[kwfbJ b0uGif;qufomjzpfonf/ *wd[lonf ykxkZÆe*wd (omrefyx k kZOfwpfa,muf\ oGm;
&m*wd)ESihf t&d,*wd (t&d,myk*¾KdvfwdkY\*wd)[k tajccHtm;jzihf ESpfrsKd;&Sdonf/ ykxkZÆeudkvnf; uvsmP
ykxkZÆe (uRwfxdkufykxkZÆOf)ESihf tE¨ykxkZÆe (ruRwfxdkufykxkZOf)[k ESpfrsKd;cGJjyefonf/ Ak'¨0g'tvdkt& aAm"dÓPf
udk tjynfht0r&&Sdao;aom yk*¾Kdvfrsm;onf ,if;okH;q,hfwpfbkHteuf wpfckckodkY oGm;a&muf&vdrhfrnfjzpfNyD; t
jynfht0 aAm"dÓPfudk&&Sdaom yk*¾Kdvfrsm;rSmrl þb0NyD;aemuf edAÁmefodkY 0ifa&mufrnfjzpfonf/
þpdwfydkif;b0azmfjycsufwGif ykxkZOfyk*¾Kdvfrsm;onf ,if;okH;q,hfwpfbkHwGif ¤if;wdkY\oGm;&m*wdrSm rao
csmacs/ &[EÅmyk*¾Kdvfrsm;rSwpfyg; r*fÓPfzdkvfÓPfudk &&SdNyD;olrsm; odkYr[kwf todÓPf&SpfqifhwGif yxrqkH;
aomwmywådr*fÓPfudk &&SdNyD;yk*¾Kdvfrsm;um; t&d,blrd[kac:onhf ok*wdbkHodkYa&muf&ef aocsmonf/ odkY&m

126
The Table is based on Ab-S, 73-74 and its commentary: Ab-T, 161-164.
127
Vasubandhu Abhidharmakosabhasyam Vol. II, 365-366.

47
wGif aAm"dÓPfudk &&SdNyD;olrsm;rSm þb0rSuG,fvGefNyD;aemuf edAÁmefodkYa&mufrnfjzpfonf/ þtcsufü v,fwD
q&mawmfu atmufygtwdkif; azmfjyonf –

rdrdtvdk&Sdonfh rnfonhfb0rsdK;udkrqdk rul;ajymif;Edkif/ rdrd\ twdwfuHypfcsonhftwdkif; okH;q,fh wpfbkH


twGif; wpfckckodkYusa&muf&\/ Oyrmqdkaomf tkef;oD; odkY[kwf xef;oD;a<uusaomtcg rnfonhfae&m
wGif usvdrhfrnf[k BudKwifrqdkEidk fouJhodkYwnf;/ xdktwlyif ykxkZOfwpfa,muf aovGefNyD;aemuf ¤if;\
b0opfonf rnfonhfae&mwGif jzpfrnfqdkonfudk BudKwifírajymEdkifacs/ b0udk&&SdMuonfh owå0g
wdkif;onf a&SmifvTJr&bJ aojcif;obm0qdk;udk apmihfaeMu&NyD; aovGefNyD;aemufüvnf; b0wpfckodkY
128
ysufpD;íusa&mufrnf aocsm\ /

ykxkZOfyk*¾KdvfwdkYonf ¤if;wdkY\jyKrlvkyfaqmifcsufrsm;ESihftnD okH;q,fhwpfbkHtwGif; wpfckwGif jyefvnfarG;


zGm;&rnfjzpfonf/ odkY&mwGif oH,kweå dum,f? ecodcokwft&rl owå0gwdkYonf rsm;aomtm;jzihf tyg,fav;bkH
ü arG;zGm;Muonf/ taMumif;rl owå0gtrsm;pkrSm aumif;rIxuf raumif;rIudk tjyKrsm;MuaomaMumihfjzpfonf/
Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwfu ouf&Sdowå0gwdkY\ jzpf&mb0tajctaeudk vufonf;cGHay:ü oJtcsKdUudkwifjyNyD; OyrmjyKcJh
onf/ Ak'¨u tyg,fav;bkHü arG;zGm;aom owå0gwdkYonf vlYjynfESihf ewfjA[®mjynfwdkYü arG;zGm;aom owå0gwdkY
xuf rsm;jym;aMumif; ñTefjycJhonf/ vufonfcGHay:rS tenf;i,frQaomoJyGifhonf pMu0Vmtm;vkH;&SdoJyGifhrsm;
xuf enf;yg;ouJhodkYwnf;/ taMumif;rl 0dedygwe*wdqdk;aMumihf qdkvdkonfrSm ysufpD;jcif; aovGefNyD;aemuf
129
b0trsKd;rsKd;wGif jzpfEdkifajcrsm;jcif;aMumifh jzpfonf /
tbd"r®w¬o*F[usrf;ü ,if;usrf;jyKq&mu yk*¾KdvftoD;oD;ESihf ,if;wdkYjzpfEdkifajc&Sdonhf b0rsm;tMum;
qufpyfrIudk azmfjycJhonf/ Ak'¨0g'usrf;*efrsm;onf yk*¾Kdvfwpfa,muf rnfonhfbkHtqifh rnfonhfbkHrsKd;udk
oGm;Edkifonfqdkonfudk xdkyk*¾Kdvfykdifqkdifonhf pdwfudktajcjyKí twdtusazmfjyMuonf/ tbd"r®w¬o*F[usrf;
tvdkt& rdrdvkyfaqmifcsuf aumif;uHraumif;uH odkYr[kwf ur®|mefbm0emyGm;rsm;jcif;jzihf&&Sdonfh ÓPfxl;
r*fÓPf zdkvfÓPfwdkYESihftnD tem*wfb0wpfckodkY OD;wnfaom yk*¾Kdvfq,fhESpfrsKd;&Sdonf/

128
Ledi Sayadaw, The Manuals of Buddhism, 7-8.
129
Sa-N Vol. II, 120.

48
Z,m; 2

yk*¾Kdvf q,fhESpfa,mufESifh ¤if;wdkY\ edAÁmefESihfqufoG,frI

(12) 'k ok ewfjynf 6 ½ly 16 t½ly 4 edAÁme


yk*¾Kdvf ty vl pmwk <uif;ewf 5 ½ly 10 ton ok'¨g u c * C i p

'kt[dwf + +
okt[dwf + + +

'dG[dwf + + + +
wd[dwf + + + + + +

aomr*f + + + + +
aomzdkvf + + + + + +
our*f + + + + + +
ouzdkvf + + + + + +
emr*f + + + + + +
emzdkvf + + + + + + +
&r*f + + + + + + +
&zdkvf + + + + + + +

twdkaumuf
'kt[dwf = 'k*¾wdt[dwfyk*¾Kdvf (tyg,fav;bkH&Sd t[dwfyk*¾Kdvf)/
okt[dwf = ok*wd t[dwfyk*¾Kdvf (umrbkH&Sdt[dwfyk*¾Kdvf)/
'dG[dwf = 'Gd[dwfyk*¾Kdvf (tavmb? ta'go[dwfESpfck&Sdyk*¾Kdvf)/
wd[dwf = wd[dwfyk*¾Kdvf (tavmb? ta'go? tarm[ [dwfokH;yg;&Sdyk*¾Kdvf)/
aomr*f = aomwmywådr*¾|mefyk*¾Kdvf/
aomzdkvf = aomwmywådzv|mefyk*¾Kdvf/
our*f = ou'g*grdr*¾|mefyk*¾Kdvf/
ouzdkvf = ou'g*grdzv|mefyk*¾Kdvf/
emr*f = tem*grdr*¾|mefyk*¾Kdvf/
emzdkvf = tem*grdzv|mefyk*¾Kdvf/
&r*f = t&[wår*¾|mefyk*¾Kdvf/
&zdkvf = t&[wå zv|mefyk*¾Kdvf/
'k = 'k*¾wdblrd ('ku©cHpm;&aombkH)/
ok = ok*wdblrd (okccHpm;&aombkH)/
ty = tyg, (tyg,fav;bkH)/ rEk= rEkóbkH (vlYbkH)/
pmwk = pmwkr[m&mZdubkH (yxrqkH;ewfbkH)/
<uif;ewf 5 = usefewfjynfig;xyf/

49
&ly 10 = tonowfbkHESihf ok'¨0goig;bkHrSwpfyg;aom jA[®m 10 bkH/
ton = tonowåbkH
ok'¨g = ok'¨0go ig;bkH/
t½ly 4 = t½lyav;bkH/

'kwd,Z,m;rS twdkaumuf
u &[EÅmyk*¾Kdvf? aAm"dÓPfudk NyD;jynfhpkHpGm&NyD;ol? þb0ukefqkH;vQif edAÁmefodkYa&mufvdrfhrnf/
c tem*grfyk*¾Kdvf? ,ckb0aemuf 'kwd,b0wGif edAÁmefa&mufrnfhyk*¾Kdvf? odkYr[kwf þb0rSmyif rMumrD
edAÁmefa&mufrnfhyk*¾Kdvf (þonfrSm jzpfEdkifajcudk qdkvdkonf)/
* ou'g*grfyk*¾Kdvf? 'kwd,b0NyD;aemuf edAÁmefa&mufrnfhyk*¾Kdvf? odkYr[kwf þb0rSmyif edAÁmefa&mufrnfh
yk*¾Kdvf (jzpfEdkifajcudk qdkvdkonf)/
C aomwmyefyk*¾Kdvf? wpfb0rS ckepfb0twGif; edAÁmefa&mufrnfhfyk*¾Kdvf? tv,ftvwfwef;pm;yk*¾Kdvfrsm;rSm
ckepfb0 aeonf? odkYr[kwf þb0rSmyif edAÁmefa&mufrnf (jzpfEdkifajcudk qdkvdkonf)/
i uvsmPykxkZOf (ykxkZOfolawmfaumif;)? rdrd\ BudK;pm;tm;xkwfrItavsmuf þb0rSmjzpfap? tqkH;rxif
tem*wfb0wpfcsdefwGifjzpfap edAÁmefudk &Edkifajc&Sdol (jzpfEdkifajcudk qdkvdkonf)/
130
p usefyk*¾KdvfokH;rsKd;rSm þb0wGif edAÁmefa&mufEdkifcGifhr&Sdacs/ tem*wfb0wpfcsdefwGifom &Edkifajc&Sdonf /

Ak'¨0g' pMu0Vm t,ltq


Ak'¨0g'qdkif&m pMu0Vm,lqcsufESihfywfoufí Ak'¨onf Ak'¨0g'pMu0VmtaMumif;udk a[mMum;cJh ra[mMum;cJh?
Ak'¨pmaywdkYüazmfjyonhf bkHXmersm;onf trSefwu,fwnf&Sdr&Sd[laom tjiif;yGm;zG,f ar;cGef;tcsKdU jzpfay:vm
onf/ Ak'¨0g'pG,fpkHusrf; (The Encyclopaedia of Buddhism) twGJ 9 wnf;jzwfol aZmwd, "d&aoau& (Jotia
Dhirasekera) trnf&Sdyk*¾Kdvfu 'DCedum,fvm jA[®ZmvokwfESihf pMu0Vmonf NrJoavm rNrJbl;avm[k
jrwfAk'¨tm;ar;jref;ol t&Sifrmvkusykwåtm; Ak'¨rdefYMum;csufwdkYudkudk;um;í a&S;tusqkH; Ak'¨bmompmaywGif
pMu0VmESihfywfoufí awG;ac:ajrmfjrifrIudk Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwftaejzihf oabmwlcJhykHr&[k axmufjycJhonf/
131
þü Ak'¨0g'tawG;tjrifonf ,if;tBuHjyKazmfjycsufudk *½kwpdkufazmfjyMuonf / Ak'¨0g' pMupVmt,ltq
azmfjycsufrsm;t& ar;cGef;rsm;udkajzMum;&ef enf;vrf;av;rsKd;&Sdonf/ ,if;wdkYrSm 1) wdkuf½kdufjyefMum;í ajzqdk&
aomar;cGef; ({uHoAsmu&PyÍSm) 2) cGJjcrf;pdwfjzm odkYr[kwf &Sif;vif;íajzqdk&aom ar;cGef; (0dbZÆAsmu&P
yÍSm) 3) wefjyefar;cGef;xkwfí ajzMum;&aomar;cGef; (y#dykpämAsmu&PyÍSm) 4) rajzbJxm; (jiif;qdk)&aom
132
ar;cGef; (XmyeD,yÍSm) wdkYjzpfonf /
yxrqkH;ar;cGef;rSm ]cE¨ig;yg; (½kyf? a0'em? onm? ocFg&? 0dnmP) wdkYonf NrJoavm odkYwnf;r[kwf rNrJ
bl;avm} [louJhodkYaom udpörsKd;ESihfywfoufonf/ 'kwd,rSm ]rNrJaom"mwfobm0onf ½kyfavm} [laom emrf
½kyf,lqcsufuJhodkYaom ar;cGef;rsK;djzpfonf/ wwd,rSm ]t&mcyfodrf;udk yuwdrsufpdjzihf cGJjcrf;pdwfjzm odkY[kwf
odjrifoavm} [lonfüuJhodkY cGJjcrf;pdwfjzm&rnfh ,lqcsufrsm;ESihfywfoufaom ar;cGef;jzpfonf/ aemufqkH;rSm
]pMu0Vmonf xm0&wnfNrJoavm -- rwnfNrJbl;avm -- tqkH;&Sdoavm -- r&Sdbl;avm -- ESpfrsK;vkH; [kwfo
avm -- ESpfrsKd;vkH;r[kwfbl;avm? twåonf cE¨mudk,fESihf wloavm? twåonf t&mwpfrsKd;jzpfNyD; cE¨mudk,f u
tjcm;wpfrsKd;avm? wxm*w (Ak'¨) onf uG,fvGefNyD;aemuf wnf&Sdoavm odkYwnf;r[kwf rwnf&Sdavm
odkYwnf;r[kwf wnf&Sdrwnf&SdESpfrsKd;vkH;[kwfoavm odkYwnf;r[kwf wnf&Sdrwnf&SdESpfrsKd;vkH; r[kwfbl;avm}
ponfESihf oufqdkifaom ar;cGef;rsKd;jzpfonf/ ,if;tajctaersm;t& Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwfonf t&Sifrmvkusykwå
\ar;cGef;rsm;udk ajzMum;jcif;rjyKcJhay/ odkYjzpfrl ]tb,faMumihf Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwfonf ,if;ar;cGef;rsm;udk rajz

130
Ab-S, 68-70; Ab-T, 156-161; Ab-S-N, 241-255.
131
Jotiya Dhirasekera, ed., Encyclopaedia of Buddhism, Vol. IV (Sri Lanka: The Department of Government, 1979), 257-259.
132
Q-Mi 88-89.

50
Mum;bJ ab;z,fxm;cJhygoenf;}[k pdwfxJü awG;rdEdkifonf/ taMumif;rSm ,if;ar;cGef;rsm;udkajzMum;&ef t
aMumif;aemufcHr&SdaomaMumihfjzpfonf/ Ak'¨bk&m;&SifwdkYrnfonf taMumif;aemufcHr&SdbJ >rufMum;awmfrljcif;
133
r&Sdacs /
Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwfonf t&Sifrmvkusykwå\ tar;udkrajzMum;cJhaomfvnf; Ak'¨0g'pMu0VmESifh urÇmavmu
taMumif; >rufMum;awmfcJhonfomjzpfonf/ b0wnf&Sdjcif;ESihf b0rwnf&Sdjcif;taMumif;udkvnf; em,lolwdkY
tusKd;&SdrnfqdkvQif tcgtm;avsmfpGm a[mMum;awmfrlonf/ odkY&mwGif Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwfonf pMu0VmtaMumif;
ESihf ,if;pMu0VmrnfodkY pwifay:aygufcJhonf[lonfudk >rufMum;awmfrlaomtcgwGif teD;pyfqkH;taMumif;
(y'|me)tjrifESihf jzpfEdkifcJtaMumif;w&m;rsm; odkYr[kwf urÇmavmutprxif (tem'duavmu) t,ltq
wdkYudk *½kwpdkuf cGJjcrf;a[mMum;cJhonf/ odkYwap Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwfonf urÇmavmuESihf pMu0VmtaMumif; a[m
Mum;&ef jiif;qdkcJhonf[k trsm;uxifrSwfMuonf/ taMumif;rl a&S;tusqkH; Ak'¨0g'pmayü pMu0Vmqdkif&m
awG;ac:ajrmfjrifrIudk Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf oabmwlcJhykHr&aomaMumifhjzpfonf/ Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwfonf pMu0Vm
taMumif;udk tb,faMumifhra[mMum;cJhoenf;[lonfESihfywfoufí pOf;pm;&ef t"dutaMumif; ESpf&yf&Sd
onf/ taMumif;wpf&yfrSm Ak'¨0g'pmaywdkYrSm pMu0VmwnfaqmufykHpepfudk OD;pm;ay;azmfjyjcif;rjyKbJ zGJUpnf;
wnfaqmufxm;aomaMumihfjzpfonf/ 'kwd,taMumif;w&m;rSm Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwfonf t&Sifrmvkusykwårax&f
u ]urÇmavmuonf xm0&wnfNrJoavm? rwnfNrJbl;avm}paom ar;cGef;rsm;udk ar;jref;aomtcg ,if;odkY
aom urÇmavmu\wnfNrJrI odkYr[kwf tqkH;r&SdrI[laom pMu0Vmqdkif&mar;cGef;rsm;udk ajzMum;&efjiif;qdkcJh
134
aomaMumifhjzpfonf / tu,fí t&Sifrmvkusykwåtm; Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf\ ,if;a[mMum;csufudkom qifjcif
Munhfrnfqdkygu Ak'¨bmompmayonf urÇmavmuwnfaqmufykHESihf pMu0VmtaMumif; pl;prf;avhvm&ef
oabmwlykHr&[k rSm;,Gif;pGmt"dyÜm,faumuf,lEdkifonf/ trSefaomf Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwfonf okH;q,fhwpfbkHjzifh
&Sif;vif;azmfjyonhf Ak'¨0g'pMu0Vmt,ltqudk rdrd\a[mMum;csufrsm;ü rodusKd;uRHjyKawmfrrlcJhacs/
Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwfonf pMu0VmtaMumif; xkwfazmfa[mMum;cJhonf[al omtcsufudk axmufcHonhf om"
utcsKdUawGU&onf/ 'DCedum,f? t*¾nokwfygVdawmfü atmufyga[mMum;csufjzihf ouf&Sdowå0grsm;ESihfwuG
urÇmavmuonf a&S;OD;rdk;½GmoGef;jcif;aMumihf pwifjzpfwnfykH wdk;wufvmykH wnfNrJaeykHESihf rD; a&ESihf avwdkY
aMumihf ysufpD;&ykHwdkYudk azmfjycJhonf –

0gao|? umv&SnfMumvwfaomf þurÇmavmu ysufpD;onhf tcsdefonf&Sd\/ avmuysufpD;qJtcsdefü


owå0gwdkYonf rsm;aomtm;jzihf tmbó&mjA[®mhbkHü arG;zGm;Mu\/ ,if;bkHü ¤if;wdkYonf (psmef)
pdwfjzihfNyD;ukef\/ yDwdudkpm;okH;ukef\/ udk,fa&mifudk,f0gjzihf xGef;vif;ukef\/ aumif;uifü usufpm;
ukef\/ wihfw,fcrf;em;pGm aexdkifMu\/ oufwrf; tvGef&SnfpGmaexkdifMu\/ umv&SnfMumvwfaomf
þurÇmavmu jzpfwnfvmaom tcsdefonf&Sd\/ avmujzpfwnfqJtcsdefü owå0gwdkYonf tmbó
&mbkHrSpkawí rsm;aomtm;jzihf þvlYbkHü arG;zGm;vmukef\/ þvlYbkHü ¤if;wdkYonf (Oypm&psmef) pdwf
jzifhNyD;ukef\/ yDwdudk pm;okH;ukef\/ udk,fa&mifudk,f0gjzihf xGef;vif;ukef\/ aumif;uifü usufpm;ukef
\/ wihfw,fcrf;em;pGm aexdkifMu\/ oufwrf; tvGef&SnfpGmaexkdifMu\/ --- tvdkavmbrsm;aom
owå0gwpfa,mufu ]þt&mum; rnfonhft&menf;} [kqdkí ajrqDudk vufjzihf,lí pm;jrnf;\/
,if;odkYjyKjcif;jzihf xdkowå0gonf t&omudk odoGm;vsuf xdkt&omudk wyfrufrIjzpf\/ --- ,if;odkYpm;
okH;Muojzihf ¤if;wdkY\ udk,fa&mifudk,f0gonf uG,f\/ ¤if;wdkY\ ukd,fa&mifudk,f0guG,faomf vESihfaewdkY
ay:xGef;vm\/ nOfhESifhaeYwdkY cGJjcm;jzpfay:vm\/ vESihfvcGJwdkYjzpfay:vm\/ ESpfESihfOwk&moDwdkY jzpfay:
135
vm\/ þrQaomtydkif;tjcm;jzihf urÇmavmuonf wpfzefjzpfay:\ /

133
Milindapanha Pali, Khuddaka-Nikaya (Rangoon, Burma: Department of Reigious Affairs, 1991), 146-147; Q-Mi, 88-89.
134
Di-N Vol. III, 69-70; Di-N-NT, 409-410.
135
Di-N Vol. III, 69-70; Di-N-NT, 409-410.

51
txufygazmfjycsufudk tajccHvsuf Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwfonf Ak'¨0g'pMu0VmESihf ,if;\rlvblwtaMumif;udk
>rufMum;cJhonfrSm oHo,jzpfzG,frvdkacs/ Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwfonf pMu0VmESihf ,if;onf obm0jzpfpOftm;jzihf
a&S;OD;yxr rnfodkYjzpfay:vmcJhaMumif; >rufMum;cJhonfrSm xif&Sm;onf/ pMu0Vmonf urÇmavmuykHpHrsKd;pkHESihf
ouf&Sdowå0grsKd;pkH yg0ifaMumif;,kHMunfMuaomfvnf; pMu0Vmonf &Hzef&Hcg ajymif;vJonf/ ,if;aemuf pMu0
VmjzpfpOftm; wdk;wufrIESihf qkw, f kwfrIoufwrf;umvpuf0ef;tjzpf em;vnf&onf/ urÇmhacwfwpfck\ puf
0ef;onf uyÜ[kac:onfh umvoufwrf;taejzihf ra&wGufEdkifatmif Mumanmif;onf/

Ak'¨pmayusrf;*efwdkYü tEÅ&uyf? toacsF,uyfESihf r[muyf[k uyfumvokH;rsKd;jyqdk\/ tEÅ&uyf[l


onf vlYoufwrf; q,fESpfrSpí ESpfaxmifaygif;rsm;pGmtxdjrifhNyD; wpfzefq,fESpfwrf;odkYusqif;onhf t
Mum;umvjzpf\/ tEÅ&uyfoufwrf;aygif; ESpfq,fonf toacsF,suyfwpfckjzpfNyD; toacsFuyfav;ck
onf r[muyfwpfckjzpf\/ r[muyfwpfck\ &SnfMumcsdefrSm Ak'¨a[mMum;csuft& vlwpfa,mufonf
wpf,lZem (7 rdkif 8 zmvkHcefY) tjrihftus,f&Sdonfh ESrf;zwfausmufawmifudk ESpfwpf&mpDMumrS ydk;om;
136
t0wfjzihf yGwfwdkufojzihf xdkausmufawmifBuD; ukefqkH;oGm;onhf tcsdefxufyif ydkíMum\ /

r[muyfwpfck\oufwrf;udk ,if;odkYa&wGufjcif;rSm tbd"r®usrf;*efrsm;ESihftnDvnf; jzpfonf/ trSef


tm;jzihf r[muyfwpfck\ oufwrf;tydkif;tjcm;rSm rnfolrQa&wGufí r&Edkifatmif&SnfMumonf/ taMumif;rl
urÇmavmu\oufwrf;rSm a&wGufr&Edkifavmufatmif &SnfMumaomaMumihf jzpfonf/
pMu0Vm jzpfwnfjcif; ysufpD;jcif;jzpfpOfpuf0ef;onf oufwrf;av;rsKd;ESihf ywfoufonf/ ,if;wdkYrSm ysuf
pD;qJumv (oH0¥)? ysufpD;NyD;twdkif; rjzpfwnfbJ wnfaeonhfumv (oH0¥Xm,D)? jzpfwnfqJumv (0d0¥)?
jzpfwnfNyD;wdkif; rysufpD;bJwnfaeonhfumv (0d0¥Xm,D) wdkYjzpfonf/ ,if;urÇmavmuav;rsKd;teuf ysufpD;
qJumvonf rD;a&avwdkYaMumihf urÇmavmuysufpD;csdefwGif pwifonf/ ysufpD;qJumvü owå0gtm;vkH;eD;yg;
i&JESihf tjcm;urÇmavmurS vGwfajrmufNyD; vlYbkHwGif; arG;zGm;Muonf/ ¤if;wdkY&&Sdonhf psmefpdwftvdkuf tcsdKUrSm
yxrpsmefbkH? tcsdKU'kwd,psmefbkHESihf tcsKdUwwd,psmefbkHwdkYü arG;zGm;Muonf/ ,if;aemuf ¤if;wdkYonf aemuf
qkH;wGif rD;a&avwdkYaMumihf rysufpD;Edkifonfh pwkw¬psmefbkHü arG;zGm;Edkifonftxd orxur®|mef;rS wpfqihf
137
tqihfjrifhorm"dudk &&SdEdkifMuonf /
odkY&mwGif tbd"r®aumousrf;tvdkt& tukodkvfuH tusKd;ay;rukefqkH;ao;ol qdkvdkonfrSm i&Jjypf'Pf
usrIyrmPrNyD;qkH;ao;ol i&JbkHom;tcsKdUrSm tjcm;pMu0Vmwpfckü wnf&Sdonhf i&JbkHodkY a½TUajymif;oGm;onf[k
138
qdkonf / urÇmavmu ysufokH;rIjzpfpOfonf obm0jzpfpOftqifhtrsKd;rsKd;jzihf urÇavmuwpfckNyD;wpfck jzpf
onf/ þü Ak'¨0g'wGif tjiif;yGm;zG,fwpf&yfjzpfykH&onhf awG;ac:ajrmfjrifrt I &r[kwfbJ ygVdawmfusrf;*efqdkif&m
t,ltqwpf&yf&Sdonf/ ,if;,lcsufrSm þpMu0VmurÇmrdk;ajr tprxifouJhodkY ouftm;vkH;\tpudkvnf; r
odEdkifacs/ þonfrSm xdktpwpfckrwdkifrD tjcm;tpwpfc&k SdcJhNyD; ,if;rwdkifcifvnf; tjcm;tpwpfck&Sdonf
ponfjzifh qdkvdkjcif;jzpfonf/ ,if;udk ]tprxif}[k ac:qdkonf/ ,if;t,ltqonf y#dpöorkyÜm'fESihf wdkuf½kduf
qufEG,fonf/ urÇmavmujzpfpOf odkYr[kwf ouf&SdavmujzpfpOfESihf owå0gwpfckrnfodkY pwifjzpfay:vm
onf[lonfrSm þurÇmavmuudk tajcjyKíqdkjcif;omjzpfonf/ odkYwap pMu0Vmonf vlom;wdkYem;vnfEdkif
pGrf;\ wpfzufwGif&Sdavmufatmif us,fajymeuf½Idif;onf[k ,kHMunf&onf/ vlom;wdkYtodÓPf odkYr[kwf vl
omwdkY\ odyÜHynmjzihf xdk;xGif;EkdifrI\[dkzufwGif rsm;jym;vSaom urÇmavmu odkYr[kwf pMu0VmwdkY&Sdonf/
y#dpöorkyÜm'a'oemawmft& owå0gwdkYonf t0dZÆmESihfwPSmaMumihf b0oHo&mwGif vSnfhvnfaeMu&
onf/ Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwfu t0dZÆmESihf wPSmwGef;tm;aMumifh owå0gwdkY b0oHo&mü usifvnf&ykHudk atmufyg
twdkif; >rufMum;cJhonf ]&[ef;wdkY? þoHo&monf rjrifEdkiftyfaom tpw&m;&Sd\/ t0dZÆmjzihf wm;qD;xm;NyD;

136
Sa-N, 389-390;Ac-Ab, 198.
137
Ab-B-T, 322-330.
138
Ab-S, 78-79.

52
wPSmjzihf a`rS;,Sufxm;jcif;ü OD;wnf&mrJhusifvnfaeMu&ukefaom owå0gwdkY\ yxrqkH;aomtpudk rodjrif
139
Edkifacs} / txufyga[mMumcsufudk zwf&jcif;ü pMu0VmjzpfpOf tprxifaMumif; Ak'¨&iS fawmfjrwf txl;jyK
a[mMum;cJhaMumif; em;vnfEdkifonf/ þazmfjycsufü urÇmavmuudk zefqif;jcif;t,ltq? urÇmavmu
b,fvdk bmaMumihf pwifcJhonf? pMu0Vmudk b,folzefqif;cJhonf[lonfudk azmfjyjcif;xuf 'ku©avmurS
vGwfajrmufrIjzpfpOfudkom Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf t"duñTef;vdkjcif;jzpfonf/ odkYwap Ak'¨onf wynfhtaygif;tm;
oGm;a&mufvdkonhfae&modkY a&mufEdkifcGifhydkrdk&&Sdapa&;twGuf udk,fusifhw&m;udk oGefoifEdkif&ef owå0gwdkY\ b0
rsm;udk azmfjycJhonf/

urÇmavmupwifykH ,lqcsufESpf&yf
urÇmavmu odkYr[kwf pMu0Vm yxrqkH; rnfodkYpwifcJhonf[laom tcsufESihfywfoufí cyfqifqifwlonhf
,lqcsufESpf&yf&Sdonf/ ,if;wdkYrSm odyÜHynm&SifwdkY\ ,lqcsufESihf Ak'¨0g'DwdkY\ ,lqcsufjzpfonf/ ,if;ESpf&yfrSm
eD;uyfpGm qufEG,frI&Sdonf/ yxrtaejzihf ,if;,lqcsufESpf&yfonf xm0&bk&m; (zefqif;&Sif) onf tppft
rSefw&m;\ tajccHrlvblwjzpfonf[laomtqdkudk jiif;qdkonf/ 'kwd,taejzihf ,lqcsufESpf&yfvkH;onf
urÇmavmu odkYr[kwf pMu0Vmonf obm0jzpfpOft& ay:aygufvmonf[k ñTefjyonf/ aemufqkH;taejzihf
þurÇmavmuay:aygufvm&ef xm0&bk&m;\MoZm odkYr[kwf zefqif;jcif; wpfpkHwpf&mr&SdbJ obm0jzpfpOf
t&om tvdktavsmuf jzpfay:vmonf/
urÇmavmurnfodkYjzpfay:vmonf[laom ,lqcsufESifhywfoufí odyÜHynm&Sifrsm;pGmwdkYu ½kyfydkif;b0
qifhuJjzpfpOf? "mwkqifhuJjzpfpOf? cE¨maA'qifhuJjzpfpOf odkYr[kwf pMu0VmqifhuJjzpfpOfwdkYaMumifh rlvblw
tajccHw&m;wpfckonfyif ½IyfaxG;qef;jym;onhf owå0grsm;tjzpfodkY wdk;wufjzpfxGef;vmEdkifonfudk oufaojy
NyD;jzpfaMumif; azmfjyMuonf/ odkY&mwGif Ak'¨0g'url ½lyaA'enf;tm;jzihf urÇmavmujzpfwnfrItaMumif; ouf
aorjycJhaomfvnf; oDtkd&Dtm;jzihf tcsKdU,lqcsufrsm;udk trSefyifazmfjycJhonf/ odkY&mwGif Ak'¨0g'DwdkY\ urÇm
avmujzpfwnfykHtaMumif;onf odyÜHynm&SifwdkY\ ,lqcsufESihf tvGefeD;pyfonf/ odyÜHynm&SifwdkY\ ,lqcsuf
rSm atmufygtwdkif;jzpfonf –

odyÜHynm&Sifrsm;pGmwdkYonf urÇajrtm; r[m"mwfcJGprf;oyfjyKvkyf&mwGif (vGefcJhaom ESpfoef;aygif; av;


axmiftvGefu) umbGef? [dk'½dk*sif? atmufqD*sifESif Edkifx½dk*sif"mwfwdkYonf ½IyfaxG;qef;Mu,fonfh
armfvDusKrsm;tjzpf aygif;pyfjzpfwnfoGm;Muonf/ ,if;jzpfpOfwGif wpfckaomaygif;pyfrIonf ]ZD0touf}
[kac:onhf pdwf0ifpm;zG,ftaumif;qkH;aom jzpfpOftjzpf tpysKd;cJhzG,f&Sdonf/ ½kyftajccHrSm rDodef;? trdk;
eD;,m;ESihf umbGef'dkifatmufqkdufuJhodkYaom ½dk;½dk;"mwkaygif;pyfrIrsm;rS zGJUpnf;oGm;cJhonhf y½dkwdef;ac:
ay:vDrm (polymer) j'yfaygif;wpfck jzpfEdkifonf/ toufZD0onf ,if;odkYpwifcJhNyD; ,if;"mwfaygif;onf
ESpfumv Mumaomf vlom;jzpfvmonftxd aemufxyfajymif;vJoGm;onf/ ay:vDrmonf ESpfoef;aygif;
tenf;i,f ydka&S;usEdkifaomfvnf; vlom;wdkYrSm þpMu0Vmü (vGefcJhaomESpfaygif; wpfodef;cefYurS)
140
topfa&muf &Sdvmolrsm;jzpfMuonf /

tcgtm;avsmfpGm qihfuJajymif;vJrIjzpfpOfwpfrsKd;onf urÇmajray:ü jzpfay:vmavh&Sdonf/ þpMu0Vm


wGif urÇmajrtay:,HvTm jzpfay:NyD;aemuf pMu0Vmqdkif&m ajymif;vJrIjzpfpOf ay:vmonf/ odyÜHqdkif&m t,l
tqt& ,if;ajymif;vJrIjzpfpOfudk ]r[maygufuGJrI (Big Bang)} oDtkd&D[kac:onf/ r[maygufuGJrIoDtdk&Djzihf
½Ijrifjcif;onf Ak'¨0g'tawG;tjrifESihf wlnDaMumif;awGU&onf/ Ak'¨bmomusrf;*efwdkYü aemufqkH;wGif urÇmavm
uonf tvGefyljyif;vmNyD; wpfcsdefwnf;eD;yg;avmufwGif aeckepfpif;wpfpif;NyD;wpfpif; ay:xGufvmvsuf urÇm
avmuaygufuGJawmhrnhf tajctaersKd;jzpfoGm;aMumif;azmfjyonf/ ,if;aemufwGif ,if;tyl&Sdefonf urÇmajr

139
Nidana-vagga Sanyutta Pali, Samuktta-Nikaya (Rangoon, Burma: Department of Religious Affairs, 1991), 387;Sa-N-NT Vol, I, 651
140
Ibid, 46.

53
141
udk avmifuRrf;ypfvdkufonf / odyÜHynm&SifwdkYonf r[maygufuGJrIjzpfpOfonf ESpfaygif; 13 bDvD,H cefYu
jzpfysufaMumif; cefYrSef;,kHMunfMuonf/ ESpfumvrsm;pGmMumaomf pMu0VmrsufESmjyifay:ü ajymif;vJrI tpDt&D
jzpfay:vmonf/ ,if;ajymif;vJrIrsm;teuf tao;rTm;qkH;qifhuJjzpfpOf? "mwkqifhuJjzpfpOf? ½kyfydkif; qifhuJjzpf
pOfESihf pdwfydkif;qifhuJjzpfpOfwdkYyg0ifonf/ odyÜHynm&Sifrsm;pGmwdkYonf vlYom;wdkY\ rlvblwonf ½kyfydkif;ESihfpdwf
ydkif;qifhuJjzpfpOf[laom wpfNydKifeufjzpfay:onfh jcm;em;onhf jzpfpOfESpf&yf\ &v'fjzpfaMumif; ,kHMunfMu
onf/ trSefyif ½kyfykdif;qifhuJjzpfpOfonf vlom;wdkYESihfywfoufaomtcg qef;jym;axGjym;NyD; a0zef aqG;aEG;
142
zG,fjzpfonf / odkYwap xm0&bk&m;&Sd,lqolwdkYu pMu0VmESihf ouf&Sdtm;vkH;onf xm0&bk&m; ocif\
qE´t& þurÇmavmupwif jzpfwnfcJhonf[laom,lqcsufudk pGJudkajymqdkaeMuqJjzpfonf/ odkY&mwGif Ak'¨0g'D
rsm;ESihf odyÜHynm&Sifrsm;onf pMu0VmESihf ouf&Sdrsm;onf obm0jzpfpOf odyÜHa0g[m&tm;jzihfqdkrl ]obm0a½G;
cs,frI (natural selection)}aMumifh jzpfay:cJhaMumif; ,kHMunfMuonf/
þazmfjycsufü Ak'¨bmom0ifwdkYonf pMu0VmtpoDtdk&DESihfywfoufí odyÜHynm&Sifrsm;uJhodkY tonf;
toef rajymqdkMuay/ taMumif;rl (pMu0Vm) tpr&Sd? ouf½SdoufrJhavmutygt0if t&mcyfodrf;udk zefqif;
onfhyk*¾Kdvfr&Sd[k ,kHMunfMuaomaMumihfjzpfonf/ Ak'¨bmom0ifwdkYonf prf;oyfrIjzihf pMu0Vm\tOD;tp
taMumif;tcsuftvufrsm;udk ray;Muaomfvnf; ¤if;wdkYonf a'oemawmfESihfnDonhf odyÜHynm&SifwdkY\ azmf
jycsufrsm;udk vufcHMuonf/ þae&mwGif odyÜHynm&Sifrsm;onf pMu0Vm\tpt,ltqudk atmufygtwdkif;
azmfjyMuonf –

ypöKyÜefjzpf&yfrsm;onf twdwfjzpf&yfaMumihfjzpfNyD; wpfzef ,if;jzpf&yfrsm;onfvnf; ,if;rwdkifrD twdwf


jzpf&yfrsm;aMumifhjzpfonf[laom t,ltqESihf uRrf;0ifzl;Mu\/ twdwfumrsm;qDodkY aemufjyefoGm;aom
aMumif;usKd;jzpfpOfuGif;qufwpfck&Sd\/ odkYwap ,if;uGif;qufwGif tp&SdonfqdkygpdkY? yxrqkH;aom jzpf
&yfwpfck &SdonfqdkygpdkY/ ,if;tpqkH;jzpf&yfonf rnfonfhtwGufaMumihfjzpf&oenf;/ ,if;onf odyÜH
ynm&Siftrsm;pk ajzMum;vdkaom ar;cGef;wpfckr[kwfcJhacs/ ¤if;wdkYonf ½k&Sm;odyÜHynm&Sifrsm;(qdko)uJhokdY
pMu0Vmonftpr&Sd[k jiif;qdkíjzpfap? pMu0Vm\rlvblwonf odyÜHynm&SifwdkY\ e,fy,ftwGif;r&SdbJ
obm0vGef odkYr[kwf bmomw&m;\e,fy,ftwGif;ü&SdaMumif; qkyfudkifíjzpfap ,if;ar;cGef;udk a&Smif
uGif;&ef BudK;yrf;cJhMu\/ uREkfyf\tvdkt&rl ,if;onf rnfonhfodyÜH&SiftppftrSef wpfa,mufrqdk &,l
oihfaom tajctaewpf&yfr[kwfacs/ tu,fí odyÜHed,mrrsm;udk pMu0Vm\rlvtpüom &yfqdkif;
xm;rnfqdkvQif ,if;ed,mrrsm;onf tjcm;tcsdefrsm;wGifvnf; tokH;rusjzpfoGm;Edkifonfr[kwfavm/
ed,mrwpfckonf tu,fí wpfcsdefwGifom rSefrnfqdkygu ed,mrr[kwfacs/ uREfkyfwdkYtaejzihf pMu0Vm
\tpudk odyÜHtajccHjzihf em;vnfatmifBudK;yrf;&rnf/ ,if;onf uREfkyfwdkYpGrf;&nf\ wpfzufwGif&Sdonhf
wdkif tenf;qkH;awmh BudK;yrf;rIjyK&rnf/ yif½dkpD (Penrose) ESihf uREkfyfwdkY oufaojycJhonhf oDtkd&rfrsm;u
pMu0Vmonf tpwpfck&Sd&rnf[k azmfjyaecsdefwGif ,if;oDtdk&rfrsm;onf xdktp\obm0ESihfywfouf
onfh owif;tcsufrsm;pGm ray;EdkifcJhay/ ,if;oDtdk&rfrsm;u pMu0Vmonf pMu0VmwpfckvkH;ESihf pMu0Vm
twGif;&Sdt&mtm;vkH; tvkH;pkHodyfonf;rSwfwpfckqDodkY usKHUoGm;cJhonhf r[maygufuGJrIrS pwifcJhaMumif;
ñTefjycJh\/ ,if;odyfonf;rIwGif tdkifpwdkif;\ taxGaxG &Dav;wDADwDoDtdk&D (aMumif;usKd;jzpfpOf ed,mr)
143
ysufpD;oGm;ojzihf pMu0Vm\rlvblwonf odyÜHpufuGif;\wpfbufwGif usef&pfonfrSm xif&Sm;\ /

pMu0Vm\rlvtp cGJjcrf;pdwfjzmrIESihfqdkifaom oDtdk&Dwpf&yfjzihf rnfonhfodyÜHynm&Sifwpfa,mufrQ ay:r


vmao;ojzihf pMu0Vm\rlvtpESihfywfoufí pkHprf;qifjcifrIudk r&ruvkyfaejcif;udk pGefYypfrl ydkíoihfavsmf

141
Ab-B-T, 321.
142
Francis R Xavier, " Creation in Evolution", in Indian Theological Studies, Vol. XXXVIII. No. 1., 47-54.
143
Stephen Hawking, The Universe in a Nutshell (New York: Bantam Books, 2001), 79.

54
onf/ odkYwap qihfuJajymif;vJrIjzpfpOfrSm pMu0VmrnfodkYpwifNyD; ]obm0a½G;cs,frI (natural selection)}aMumifh
144
,if;onf rnfodkYajymif;vJcJhaMumif; &Sif;jy&ef pHerljy oDtdk&Dwpf&yfjzpfaMumif; a,bkk,stm;jzifh qdkMuonf /

'k*¾wdbkH wnf&Sdjcif;
jrifaumif; rjrifaumif;b0rsm;wnf&SdrIESihf ywfoufí qif;&J'ku©cHpm;&onhf owå0gwdkYarG;zGm;&m bkHXmersm;rSm
tyg,fav;bkH[kxif&Sm;NyD; raumif;aom b0oufwrf;twGuf wnfae&m 'k*¾wdbkH[kvnf;ac:wGifonf/ i&J?
Nydwåm? tok&mESif wd&pämefwdkYrSm ,if;tyg,fbkHrsm;jzpfMuonf/ Ak'¨0g'pMu0VmaA't& tyg,fav;bkHrSm Ak'¨
0g'Drsm;tzdkY rvkdvm;tyfaom bkHXmrsm;jzpfonf/ tyg,[laompum;vkH;onf ty(r&Sd) t,(csrf;om jcif;)[l
aom pum;vkH;ESpfck wGJpyfyk'fjzpfonf/ xdkYaMumifh tyg,[lonf pmayenf;t& csrf;omrJhjcif;[k t"dyÜm,f&
onf/ wpfcsdefvkH; emusifcHcufjcif;&Sdonhf b0bkHXmersm;udk odrf;½kH;íac:a0:jcif;jzifonf/ odkYjzpfí tyg,fav;
bkHü arG;zGm;olrsm;rSm csrf;omokcr&Sdacs/ trSefpifppf wpfpkHwpfa,mufonf avmu\ 'ku©obm0udk ppfrSefpGm
145
jrifbdrl (avmurS)vGwfajrmufrI Ak'¨0g'½IaxmifhrS edAÁmefudka&muf&ef pdwftm;xufoefvdrfhrnfjzpfonf /
Ak'¨0g'vm tyg,fav;bkHteuf i&JbkHonf tvdkr&SdtyfqkH;aom bkHXmejzpfonf/ ed&,(ouúw = e&u)
[lonf pmayenf;tm;jzihf csrf;omuif;qdwfjcif; odkYr[kwf ysufpD;íusa&mufonhfae&m[k t"dyÜm,f&onf/
t"dui&JbkHtpkwGif i&JBuD;&Spfck&SdNyD; i&Ji,fav;q,f&Sdonf/ ,if;odkYjzpf&jcif;rSm rZÑdredum,f? a'0'lwokwf
ESihf oN*ØK[fbmom#Dumusrf;wdkYt& i&JBuD;wpfckpDwGif i&Ji,fig;ckpDyg0ifaomaMumihfjzpfonf/ ,if;i&JbkHwdkY
onf vlYbkHatmuf pMu0Vmwpfae&mwGif wnf&SdMuonf/ i&JbkHom;rsm;onf ¤if;wdkY\ 'ku©udkcHpm;&mü &yfem;
jcif;r&SdbJ i&JbkHXmewGif 'vpyfcHpm;Mu&onf/ tjyif;xefqkH;qif;&J'ku©rSvnf; em;cGifhr&SdMuacs/ ¤if;wdkYonf
twdwfb0rsm;ü ¤if;wdkYjyKvkyfcJhaom tukodkvfuHt& 'ku©cHpm;Mu&jcif;jzpfonf/ ,if;odkYaom qif;&J'ku©rsm;
taMumif;udk odjrifMujcif;ü Ak'¨0g'DwdkYonf tyg,fbkHwdkYü arG;zGm;&rnf;udk tvGefaMumufvefYMuonf/ odkYjzpfí
¤if;wdkYtaejzihf pdwf"mwft& 'ge (tvª'gejyKjcif;)? oDv (udk,fusifhw&m;)ESihf ynm (todÓPf)wdkYdudk usifhBuH
jcif;jzihf vGwfajrmufrItwGuf &nf½G,fMuonf/ odkYwap tjcm;bmomw&m;wdkYESihfrwlbJ Ak'¨0g'onf rnfonhf
t&mrQ xm0&wnfNrJrIr&Sdojzihf i&JbkHü'ku©cHpm;ae&olrsm;rSm xm0&cHpm;&vdrfhrnfr[kwfacs/ odkYaomf i&JbkHXm
ewpfckckü cHpm;Mu&olrsm;tzdkYrSm tvGefESdyfpufcH&rIudk cHEdkifaomfvnf; toufraoEdkifaomaMumifh tvGef
146
aMumufrufzG,faumif;onf /

i&JbkHwGif rnfrQqif;&Joenf;/ rZÑdredum,f? a'0'lwokwfü rSwfwrf;wpf&yf&Sdonf/ Oyrmxkwfjy&rl –


xdk (i&Jxdef;)wdkYonf avmavmylaom oHikwfudk vufüpdkufESufukef\..ESpfckajrmufvufü pdkufESufukef
\/ ..ajcü pdkufESufukef\/ .. ESpfckajrmufajcü pdkufESufukef\/ xdk (i&Jxdef;)wdkYonf avmavmylaom
oHikwfudk &ifv,fü pdkufESufukef\/ xdki&Jusolonf qif&Jukef jyif;xefukef Murf;wrf;ukef usifemukef
147
aom a0'emwdkYudk cHpm;&\/ xdkraumif;rIuH rukefao;orQ rao /

,if;okwåefwGif i&JbkHrsm;\ qif;&J'ku©taMumif;udk tao;pdwf azmfjyxm;onf/ odkYjzpfí i&JbkHrsm;ürnf


rQ 'ku©cHpm;&onf[lonfudk aemufxyfavhvmoifMum;vdkygu ,if;okwåefudk avhvmEdkifonf/ ,if;okwåefvm
taMumif;t&mwdkYrSm trSefyifxdwfvefY aMumuf½GHUzG,faumif;vSonf/ owå0gwdkYonf ¤if;wdkY\i&Jb0wGif cH&
onfh xdwfvefYzG,f qif;&J'ku©rsm;taMumif;udk odem;vnfMujcif;ü Ak'¨0g'DwdkYonf edAÁmefodkY qdkufa&mufvdkMu
onf/ odkYwap xdkowå0grsm;rSm aemufqkH;ü ¤if;wdkY\ raumif;rI tukodkvfuHtusKd;qufukefqkH;ygu ,if;
xdwf½GHUzG,f 'ku©avmurS vGwfajrmufcGifh &SdMuvdrfhrnfjzpfonf/

144
Francis P. Xavier, 69.
145
Ab-B-T, 281-283.
146
Ibid, 283-291.
147
Bhikkhu Nanamolli and Bhikkhu Bodhi, trans., The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha: A New Translation of the Majjhima Nikaya
(Boston: Wisdom Publications, 1995), 1032.

55
i&JBuD;&Spfxyfteuf t0Dpdonf atmufqkH;i&JjzpfNyD; aMumufzG,ftaumif;qkH;jzpfonf/ Ak'¨0g'tvdkt&
*½kuH[kac:onhf tjyif;xefqkH;tukodkvfrIudk usL;vGefolrsm;onf t0Dpdi&Jü cHpm;Mu&onf/ *½kuHtm;
ydkrdkaumif;rGefonhfb0wpfckü arG;zGm;a&;twGuf tajctaeajymif;vJatmif tjcm;rnfonhfuHjzihfrQ tpm;rxdk;
Edkifacs/ BuD;rm;onhfjypfrI (yÍömeEÅ&d,uH) ig;rsKd;udk apwemESihfwuGusL;vGefolrsm;tm; t0Dpdi&JrS vGwfajrmuf
&ef rnfonhfukodkvfuHrQ rulnDEdkifacs/ yÍömeEÅ&d,uHig;rsKd;rSm tzowfjcif;? trdowfjcif;? &[EÅmowfjcif;?
Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwftm; 'Pf&mtemw&jzpfatmif vkyfjcif;? oHCmoif;uGJatmifvkyfjcif; wdkYjzpfonf/ Oyrm Ak'¨&Sif
awmfjrwf\ nDtpfudkwpf0rf;uGJawmfpyfol a'0'wf\jzpf&yfudk owd&oihfonf/ a'0'wfonf Ak'&¨ Sifawmfjrwf
tm; 'Pf&matmifjyKjcif;? oHCmoif;uGJjcif;[laom teEÅ&d,uHESpfrsKd;udk usL;vGefcJhojzihf ¤if;\psmefwefckd;rsm;
148
uG,faysmufoGm;NyD; t0Dpdi&Jü arG;zGm;&onf /
wd&pämefrsm;onfvnf; tyg,fbkHü yg0ifNyD; NydwåmESihf tol&mwdkYudkvnf; tyg,fav;bkHü xnhfoGif;onf/
,if;bkHwdkYonf tukodkvfuHaMumihf trSefyif tqkH;rJh xdwfvefYzG,fbkHXmersm; jzpfMuonf/ wd&pämef[lonf
tvsm;vdkufoGm;vmaom owå0grsm;udk qdkvkdonf/ wd&pämefrsm;onf þurÇmajray:rSm odkYr[kwf a&xJrSm
odkYr[kwf aumif;uifrSmyifjzpfap ae&mwdkif;rSm aeEdkifMuonf/ raumif;rIudk usL;vGefonhf vlom;rsm;onf
,if;raumif;rI tukodkvfuHaMumifh aoNyD;aemufwGif wd&pämefavmuü arG;zGm;EkdifaMumif; ,kHMunfMuonf/
wpfpkHwpfa,mufonf wd&pämefavmuü arG;zGm;NyD;qdkaomtcg ,if;avmurS vGwfajrmuf&ef cJ,Of;onf/
taMumif;rSm wd&pämefrsm;taejzihf ukokv d faumif;rIjyK&ef tcGifhtvrf; rsm;pGmenf;yg;NyD; tcsif;csif;ñSmwm Muif
emrIuif;rJhvsuf tm;BuD;olu tm;enf;oltm; ESdyfpufMuaomMumifhjzpfonf/ ¤if;wdkYonf txl;ojzihf vlom;
wdkYESifhEIdif;pmvQif ukodkvfaumif;rIjyK&ef tcGifhtvrf; trSefyif enf;yg;Muonf/ Ak'¨0g'tvdkt& aumif;aomt
149
vkyfonfomvQif 'ku©avmurS vGwfajrmufapEdkifonf /
ayw[laoma0g[m&onf tpdrf;ol&J Nydwåmudkdqdkvkdonf/ ]cGJcGmolrsm; odkYr[kwf aoolrsm;\0dnmOf}[k
vn;f t"dyÜm,f&onf/ ]qmavmifrGwo f dyfonhf wapärsm;}[kvnf; bmomjyefMuonf/ Nydwåmrsm;onf twdwf
b0tukodkvfuHaMumihf BuDrm;onhf qmavmifrGwfodyfjcif;jzihf ESdyfpufcHae&aom owå0grsm;jzpfonf/ ¤if;wdkY
taejzihf ukodkvftrQay;a0í vlom;wdkYxHrS tultnDr&rcsif; uHaMumifhjzpfaom qif;&J'ku©rS oufom&m
r&Edkifay/ NydwåmwdkYrSm bkHXmeoD;jcm;r&Sday/ ¤if;wdkYonf vlYbkHXmewGif aexkdifMuaomfvnf; omreftm;jzihf vl
om;wdkYu ¤if;wdkYudk rjrifEdkifMuay/ opfawm? vGifjyif? okomef odkYr[kwf ork'´&mwdkYwGif aexkdifMuonf/ ykHpHt
rsKd;rsKd;&SdNyD; tpm;tpmrsKd;pkH Oyrm vlwdkYpGefYypftpm;tpmrsm;? tnpftaMu;rsm;? ESyf? jynf ponfudk pm;aomuf
Muonf/ tcsKdUrSm tpm;taomufrsm;pGm pm;aomufMu&aomfvnf; qmavmifrGwfodyfrIrS oufom&mr&EkdifbJ
&SdMuonf/ odkYjzpfí ¤if;wdkYudk qmavmifrGwfodyfwapärsm;[k ac:a0:jcif;jzpfonf/ ¤if;wdkYonf rdrdudk,fwdkif
azmfjyvdkjcif;r&SdvQif vlom;wdkYu rjrifEdkifMuay/ >cif;csufrSm 'dAÁpu©KtbdnmPf&ol wefcdk;&Sifrsm;onf tcsdefr
150
a½G; wdapärsm;udk jrifEdkifpGrf;&Sdonf / rZÑdredum,f? a'0'lwokwfawmft& aorif;[kxif&Sm;aom ,rrif;onf
151
NydwåmbkHwGif aexdkifoljzpfonf/ ,rrif;um; NydwåmwdkY\ bk&iftjzpfvnf; xif&Sm;onf /
Ak'¨0g'tvdkt& tol&m[lonfvnf; edrfhusonhf avmuwGifaexdkifMuvsuf aMumuf½GHUxdwfvefYzG,f r
aumif;aom owå0grsm;jzpfMuonf/ ¤if;wdkY\ bkHXmeudkvnf; tyg,fav;bkHü xnfhoGif;onf/ tol&um, [l
aom a0g[m&udk ewfbDvl; ewfqdk;rsm;[k bmomjyefavh&SdMuonf/ tcsKdUtol&mrsm;onf raumif;aom &nf
½G,fcsufjzihf ¤if;wdkY\wefcdk;udk tokH;jyKMuonf/ wpfcgwpf&H tyg,fbkHudk okH;bkHtaejzihf a&wGufaomtcg
tol&mwdkYudk aywbkHü xnfhoGif;Muonf/ ygVdpmaywdkYü wpfcgwpf&HwGif tyg,fokH;bkHtjzpfazmfjyNyD; ,if;odkY
azmfjyaomtcg tol&mwdkYudk aywbkHü xnfhoGif;Muonf/ tol&mtrsKd;rsKd;&Sdonf/ tcsKdUtol&mrsm;rSm jrpfwGif
aexdkifMuonf/ tcsKdUrSm ork'´&m tcsdKU awmawmifrsm;wGif aexdkifMuonf/ odkYwap jrif;rdk&fawmifajcü ae
xkdifMuaom tol&mrsm;rSmrl Ak'¨0g'ü tol&mrsm;tjzpf ydkítodrsm;onf/ taMumif;rl ,if;tol&mrsm;onf
148
Ac-Ab, 202.
149
Ab-B-T, 292.
150
Ibid, 292-293.
151
Ma-N-NT, 1029-1033.

56
wm0wðomewfjynf&Sd odMum;rif;tm; ppfxdk;zl;aomaMumihfjzpfonf/ ax&0g'Ak'¨pmayt& wm0wðomewfwdkYu
tol&mwdkYudk wm0wðomewfjynfrS jrif;rdk&fawmifatmufajcodkY armif;rcsEdkifrDtxd tol&mwdkYonf wm0wðom
ewfjynftm; ydkifqdkifzl;onf/ odkYjzpfí tol&mwdkYonf trSeftm;jzihf ewfwdkYESihfwlykH&aomfvnf; ¤if;wdkYudk ewf
152
tjzpfr,lqMuacs/ xdkYaMumihf azmfjyNyD;owå0gwdkYtm; tyg,fbkHü xnfhoGif;Mujcif;jzpfonf / Ak'¨\a[mMum;
csuft& i&JbkHü qif;&J'ku©rsm;pGmudk odjrifMujcif;ü yxrwGif owå0gwdkYonf rdrdudk,fwdkif oufaomihfouf
om aysmf½TifEdkifap&ef ewfavmuü arG;zGm;vdkMuNyD; ,if;aemufü edAÁmefodkY a&muf&SdvdkMuonf/

ok*wdbkH wnf&Sdjcif;
vlYbkHESihf ewfjynfavmuudk ok*wdbkHtjzpf a&wGufonf/ ok*wd [lonf aysmf½TifzG,fb0oufwrf; (aumif;
aom vm;&m) jzpfNyD; blrd [lonf bkHXmejzpfonf/ vlYbkHonf umrok*wd ckepfbkHü yg0ifonf/ vlYom;wdkYonf
tyg,fbkHom;rsm;ESihf EdIif;pmaomf rsm;pGmaom aysmf½TifcHpm;rIwdkYudk ydkifqkdifMuonf/ trSefaomf vlYbkHonf okc
ESifh'ku© a&maeaom bkHXmejzpfonf/ Ak'¨0g'DwdkYonf pMu0VmbkHXmewGif 'ku©udkrnfodkYa&Smif&rnf? tcgtm;
avsmfpGm ESpfoufaysmf½TifrIudk rnfodkY&Edkifonf[laom rdrdwdkY\ tajctaeudk odem;vnfMuonf/ wpfzef ¤if;
wkdYonf avmuDaysmf½TifrIESihf avmukwå&maysmf½TifrI (edAÁmefcsr;f om)udk &EdkifcGifh&SdMuonf/ xdkYjyifvnf; ¤if;wdkY
onf pdwfydkif;b0 yGm;rsm;usifhBuHjcif; (bm0em)? pdwfxJü pGJNrJxm;jcif; (yPd[dw)ESihf ckdifNrJaom qkH;jzwfcsuf
(t"d|me) wdkYjzihf Ak'¨tjzpfudkyif &&SdEdkifMuonf/ vlYavmuonf aumif;rIukodkvfudk avhusihftm;xkwf&ef tcGifh
tvrf;rsm;pGm&SdaomaMumifh tvdk&Sd&mbkHXmewdkif;odkY oGm;a&muf&ef wHcg;ESihf yrmwlonf/ Ak'¨0g'½IaxmifhrS ewf
153
jynf[lonf aysmf½TifESpfoufzG,fbkHXmejzpfonf /
ewfbkHom;rsm;onf ork'´&mtxuf odrkY [kwf vlYbkHtxufae&mwdkYwGif jzpfzG,f&Sdonfh jrif;rdk&fawmif\
wpfpdwfwpfa'owGif&Sdaom bkHXmeudk,fpDü aexdkifMuonf/ jrif;rdk&fawmifudk awmifckepfckjzifh ywf&Hxm;onf/
ewfrif;BuD;av;a,mufwdkYaexdkif&mbkHXmetygt0if umrewfbkHrsm;[kac:onhf tqihfjrifhewfbkH ajcmufrsKd;&Sd
onf/ ewfbkHom;wdkYonf vlYbkHom;wdkYxuf ydkrdkoufwrf;&SnfNyD; umrpnf;pdrfvnf; ydkírsm;jym;onf/ odkYwap
,if;ewfwdkYykdifqdkifonfht&mtm;vkH;vnf; rwnfNrJaomt&mrsm;jzpfMuonf/ ewfjynfbkHrsm;teuf tedrfhqkH;rSm
pmwkr[m&mZdu[kac:onhf ewfrif;BuD;av;a,mufaexdkifonhf bkHjzpfonf/ ,if;onf tqdkygewfrif;BuD;av;
a,mufwdkY ¤if;wdkY\ taptyg;rsm;ESihftwl aexkdifonhf ae&mjzpfonf/ ax&0g'tpOftvmt& ,if;ewfrif;
154
BuD;av;a,mufwdkY\ oufwrf;onf ewfoufwrf;tm;jzihf 500 (ewfoufESpf) jzpfonf /
0dbif;t|uxmwGif pmwkr[m&mZduewfwdkY\ wpf&ufonf vlom;wdkY\ESpfig;q,fESihf nDrQaMumif; t|
uxmq&muazmfjyonf/ 'kwd,jzpfonhf wm0wðomewfbkHwGif ewfwdkY\ wpf&ufonf vlYoufwrf; ESpfaygif;
wpf&mjzpfonf/ wwd, ,mrmbkHwGif ESpf&m? wkwdombkHwGif ESpfaygif;av;&m ponfjzpfonf/ Ak'¨0g'DwdkYu Ak'¨
jzpfvmrnfh bk&m;avmif;onf wkodwmewfbkHü aexdkifvsuf&Sdonf[k ,kHMunfMuonf/ ,if;odkYjzihf ewfjynf
ajcmufxyf\ oufwrf;udk jcm;em;pGm a&wGufonf/ Oyrmtm;jzifh pmwkr[m½mZf ewfoufrSm ESpf 500 jzpfo
jzihf ewfrif;BuD;av;a,mufwdkY\ oufwrf;onf vlYwdkY\oufwrf;tm;jzihf ESpfaygif; 9 oef;ESihf nDrQonf/ (ewf
155
1 &uf = vl ESpfig;q,f/ 1 ESpf = 360 &uf/ ewf 500 ESpf = vl ESpfaygif; 9,000,000) /
ewfwdkYESihfywfoufí Moygwduowå[kxif&Sm;NyD; trSefyifwefcdk;&Sdaom owå0gtjzpf ,kHMunfMuonf/
Moyygwdu [lonf pmayt& ]udk,fxif&Sm; arG;zGm;ol} [kt"dyÜm,f&NyD; owå[lonf ouf&Sdowå0gjzpfonf/
,if;owå0gwdkYonf ,if;wdkY\bkHXmeü rdb[laomtaMumif;w&m; wpfenf; trd0rf;üudef;jcif;r&SdbJ arG;zGm;
aomowå0grsm;jzpfaMumif; qdkvdkonf/ Ak'¨0g'usrf;*efwdkYü rSwfwrf;wifxm;csuft& ,if;odkYaom arG;zGm;jcif;
rsKd;rSm ewfjynfajcmufxyfvkH;ü xif&Sm;onf/ a,bk,stm;jzihf trd0rf;ü oaE¨aeíarG;zGm;jcif; (ZvmAkZ)?
OrSarG;zGm;jcif; (t@Z)? tpdk"mwfrSarG;zGm;jcif; (oHao'Z)ESihf udk,fxif&Sm;arG;zGm;jcif; (Moyygwdu)[k arG;zGm;
152
Ab-B-T, 292-293.
153
Ibid, 294.
154
Ibid, 294-295.
155
Ac-Ab, 196-197.

57
156
enf; av;rsKd;&Sdonf / ewfbkHom;wdkYonf ewfjynfwGif owå0grsm;tjzpf csufcsif;arG;zGm;MuaomaMumihf ewf
om;wdkYrSm toufESpfq,ft½G,f? ewforD;wdkYrSm toufq,fhajcmufESpft½G,fjzihf arG;zGm;Muonf/ ,if; odkYarG;
zGm;jcif;rSm ewfjynfajcmufxyf&Sd ewfbkHrsm;tm;vkH; wlnDMuonf/ ¤if;wdkYudk,fwdkif jznfhusifhcJhaom ukodkvfuH
aMumihf t&mcyfodrf;rSm xl;jcm;qef;jym;Muonf/ ¤if;wdkYonf t&mcyfodrf; NiD;aiGYzG,fr&SdbJ BuD;us,fonhf aysmf
½TifrIrsm;&SdMuvsuf udk,fydkifewfbkHAdrmefrsm;wGif ewftpm;tpm ewfwdkY\umr*kPfpnf;pdrf? ESpfoufzG,f O,smOf
157
rsm;jzihf pHpm;Mu&onf /
tjcm;bmomw&m;rsm;uJhodkYyif Ak'¨0g'onfvnf; ewfbkHüaexdkifolrsm;udk bmomw&m;½IaxmifhrS ESpfouf
zG,ftaumif;qkH;owå0grsm; tjzpfazmfjyMuonf/ odkY&mwGif ,if;owå0grsm;udk vlom;wdkYtaejzihf rjrifEdkifao;
bJ&Sdonf/ ,if;ewfbkHom;rsm;vnf; tjcm;owå0grsm;enf;wlyif b0\tajctaersm;rS rvGwfuif;Edkifacs/
tu,fí b0wpfck\tponf arG;zGm;jcif;ESihf pwifcJhrnfqdkvQif ,if;b0wpfck\tqkH;onf aojcif;jzifhtqkH;
owfonf/ aojcif;obm0onf owå0gtm;vkH;wdkYtwGuf rESpfouftyfaom tjctaejzpfonfrSm xif&Sm;
onf/ idka<u;jcif;? jrnfwrf;jcif;? aqG;ajrUjcif;ESihf uGJuGmjcif;um; aojcif;\tusKd;qufwdkYjzpfonf/ ewfbkHb0
onfvnf; aojcif;'ku©ESihf zGJUcsnfxm;NyD; jyefvnfarG;zGm;rI raocsmojzihf ,if;ewfb0üvnf; tm;&zG,fr&SdEdkif
aMumif; odjrifMuojzihf edAÁmeftvdk&So d l Ak'¨0g'DwdkYrSm edAÁmefodkYom a&muf&SdvdkMuonf/ odkYjzpfí Ak'¨0g'DwdkY
taejzihf ewfbkHom;wdkYonf tdkjcif;? emjcif;ESihf aojcif;rS rvGwfajrmufEdkifMuojzihf ewfbkHb0udkvnf; pdwfr
0ifpm;bJ&SdMuonf/
odkYwap Ak'¨0g'DwdkYonf pMu0VmzGJUwnfykHESihf bkHXmetaMumif;udk &Hzef&Hcg ajyma[mMuonfrSm oHo,jzpf
zG,frvdkacs/ Ak'¨0g'usrf;*efrsm;ü urÇmajray:rSm? i&JrSm odkYr[kwf ewfbkHAdrmefrsm;rSm xl;jcm;qef;jym;NyD; ÓPf
rrDEdkifaom owå0grsm; aexdkifvsuf&SdMuaMumif; azmfjyonf/ xdkYjyif Ak'¨0g'onf [dE´L0g'uJhodkYyif jA[®mbkHwnf
&SdrIudk vufcHaomfvnf; ,if;onf tjcm;½IaxmifhwpfrsKd;ESihf ywfoufonf/ ½lyjA[®mrsm;ESihf t½lyjA[®mrsm;rSm
psmefw&m;udk tm;xkwfolrsm;twGufjzpfonf/ psmefw&m;udk &&Sdolrsm;onf ¤if;wdkY&&Sdonhfpsmeftvdkuf ½lyjA[®m
bkHrSmjzpfap? t½lyjA[®mbkHrSmjzpfap arG;zGm;vdrhfrnfjzpfonf/ Ak'¨0g'*dkPf;uGJrsm;tvdkt& ,if;bkHXmewdkYü aexkdif
Muolrsm;vnf; avmbe,fy,ftwGif;üyif &SdMuqJjzpfonf/ odkYwap ,if;bkHwdkYü aexdkifMuolrsm;rSm psmef
ormywfwdkY\tpGrf;aMumifh umvMumjrihfpGm umr*kPt f m½kHrS uif;a0;aeMuojzihf ,if;½lybkHwdkYudk umrbkH[k
rac:Muacs/ ½lybkHudk yxrpsmefrS pwkw¬psmefwdkifatmifaom psmefwdkYukdtajcjyKí av;rsKd;cGJjcm;xm;onf/
psmefbkHwdkif;wGif okH;bkHpDyg&SdNyD; pwkw¬psmefürl ig;bkHyg0ifonf/ Ak'¨0g'½Iaxmihft& jA[®mwdkYonf ¤if;wdkY&&Sdaom
yxrpsmefrSonf &Spfckajrmuf (ae0onmemonm,we) psmefwdkifatmif psmeftqihftwef;tvdkufjzpfonhf
158
bkHXmrsm;wGif aexkdifMuonf /
teEÅpMu0VmwGif owå0gtcsKdUrSm trSefyif pdwful;,OfawG;awmrI\ wpfzufwGif&Sdonf/ vlwdkYonf rsm;
aomtm;jzifh ouf&Sdowå0gwdkYudk ½kyfoGif ykHoP²mef&Sdtaejzihfom pOf;pm;rdMuonf/ taMumif;rl owå0gt
rsm;pkrSm t½G,ftpm;trsKd;rsKd;ESihf ykHoP²meftrsKd;rsKd;&SdMuaomaMumihfjzpfonf/ odkYwap ,ckazmfjyrnfh jA[®mwdkYrSm
ykHoP²mefr&Sdojzifh ¤if;wdkYudk t½lyjA[®m[kac:onf/ tqdkyg ½kyfoGifrJh t½lyjA[®mhbkH av;rsKd;&Sdonf/ ,if;wdkYrSm
tumomeÍöm,we? 0dnmPÍöm,we? tmudÍönmw,eESihf ae0onmemonmwewdkYjzpfonf/ ,if;bkHXme
wdkYü arG;zGm;&ef t½lypsmefESihfywfoufaom ur®|mef;bm0em½IrSwfrIrS&v'f&Sd&ef vdktyfonf/ ,if;&v'ftoD;
oD;onf azmfjyyg oufqdkif&mbkHXmewdkYü arG;zGm;rIudk jzpfaponf/ t½lyjA[®mbkHü arG;zGm;Muolrsm;rSm ½kyf
oP²mef vkH;0r&SdbJ emrfw&m;rQom&Sdonf/ tjrihfqkH; ae0onmemonm,wepsmefudk&onhf jA[®mrsm;\ ouf
159
wrf;rSm toacsF,suyfaygif; 84000 jzpfonf /
jA[®mhbkHXmersm;ESihf ywfoufí jAm[®P0g'DwdkYu jA[®m[lonf tajccHtm;jzihf [dE´Lbmom\ ewfbk&m;
zefqif;&SifjzpfaMumif; ,kHMunfMuonf/ ¤if;wdkYu r[mjA[®m[lonf ouf&SdoufrJht&mcyfodrf;ESihfwuG þ
156
Ibid, 256.
157
Ab-B-T, 295-296.
158
Ab-S, 78-79.
159
Ac-Ab, 199.

58
urÇmavmuudk zefqif;aomaMumihf þpMuVmwGif tBuD;jrwfqkH;jzpfonf[k ,lqMuonf/ trSefpifppf [dE´L0g
'vm r[mjA[®mt,ltqESihf Ak'¨0g'vm jA[®m0g'rSm eD;pyfpGm wlnDrI&Sdaeonf/ odkYwap [dE´LwdkYu jA[®mtm;
pMu0Vmudk zefqif;oltjzpf ,kHMunfNyD; Ak'¨0g'DwdkYu jA[®mtm; pMu0Vmudkzefqif;&ef pGrf;&nfr&Sdaom omref
jA[®mtjzpfom,kHMunfonf/ [dE´L0g'tzdkY jA[®twå odkYr[kwf y&rtwåonf xm0&wnfNrJaomfvnf; Ak'¨0g'
tzdkYrl xm0&rysufrpD;wnfNrJaom jA[®mhavmu&Sd jA[®m[lír&Sdacs/ xdkYxuf [dE´LwdkYtzdkY bmomw&m;qdkif&m
vGwfajrmufrI\t"dyÜm,frSm yk*¾KdvftoD;oD;\ ZD0twåonf y&rtwåESihf nDñGwfaygif;pnfrIudk &&SdoGm;onfxd
pifMu,foGm;jcif;jzpfonf/ Ak'¨0g'DwdkY\ bmomw&m;qdkif&m vGwfajrmufrIrSm oEÅdokcedAÁmefudk &&Sd&efjzpf
160
onf / jA[®mhbkHodkYa&muf&dS&efrSm [dE´LwdkYtzdkY aemufqkH;&nfrSef;csufjzpfNyD; Ak'¨0g'DwdkYtzdkYrl edAÁmefodkYa&muf&efrSm
aemufqkH; yef;wdkifjzpfonf/ odkY&mwGif aemufxyf tacstwif aqG;aEG;zG,fwpf&yfrSm edAÁmefudk &&SdNyD;olwdkY ao
vGefNyD;aemuf rnfodkYjzpfoGm;oenf;[kjzpfonf/ þtcsufudk tcef;av;wGif tao;pdwfaqG;aEG;rnfjzpfonf/

touf&Sifjcif;ESihf aojcif;wdkY\ tusKd;qufrsm;


ygVdawmfusrf;*efrsm;ü touf&iS fjcif;ESihf aojcif;? aojcif;ESihf jyefvnfarG;zGm;jcif;? ur®owådESihf ,if;\tusKd;
qufwdkY qufEG,frI&SdaMumif; &Sifvif;pGmazmfjyonf/ tbd"r®mtvdkt& y#doaE¨pdwf? b0ifpdwfESihf pkwdpdwfwdkYrSm
wpfckaomb0wGif tcsif;csif;qufEG,fwlnDrI&Sdonf/ odkYwap ur®jzpfpOfjcm;em;rIaMumifh þb0y#doaE¨pdwf
onf aemufb0y#doaE¨pdwfESihf xyfwlnDjzpfvdrhfrnfr[kwfacs/ odkYwkdifatmif ur®owådonf aemufb0y#d
oaE¨pdwfudk OD;aqmifyJhudkifvdrfhrnfjzpfonf/ þudpöü ur®owåd\vkyfaqmifrIudk (xyfqihf) yJhudkifxdef;ausmif;
ay;onfh yk*¾Kdvf (wefcdk;&Sif)r&SdbJ ,if;ur®owådonfom OD;aqmifonf/ ,if;udk ur®ed,mr[kac:onf/ ur®ed
,mrESifh ywfoufí xif&Sm;onhf uHav;rsKd;&Sdonf/ aemufb0wGif y#doaE¨ukdjzpfay:aprItwGuf t"dujzpf
161
onfh ur®zvjzpfpOfudk vnfywfapaom xif&Sm;onhf uHav;rsKd;jzpfonf /

y#doE¨db0*FÍö? wxm p0ermeoH/


162
{uar0 waxa0u? 0do,aÍöuZmwd,H /
163
y#doaE¨pdwf? b0ifpdwfESifh pkwdpdwfwdkYonf wpfckaomb0ü wlnDNyD; wlnDaomtm½kH&SdMuonf /

ur®owåd t,ltqt& ,if;uHav;rsKd;wdkYonf ¤if;wdkYcHpm;&rnfh twdwfuzefwD;cJhaom tjyKtrlrsm;\


tusKd;ay;Edkifajctay: wnfrSDvsuf ay:xGufvmrnfjzpfonf/ ,if;twdwfjyKjyifrIrsm;\ tusKd;qufonf
aemufb0wGif y#doaE¨pdwfjzpfay:atmifyJhudkifay;aom ur®ed,mrudk tiftm;wdk;`rSifhay;onhfu@rS yg0if
aqmif½Gufonf/ uHav;rsKd;rSm 1) BuD;av;aomuH (*½kuH) 2) aocgeD;uH (tmoEéuH) 3) tavhtusihfrsm;
onhfuH (tm pdPÖuH)ESihf 4) azmfjyNyD; okH;rsKd;rSwpfyg;aomuH (u#wåmuH)wdkYjzpfonf/ ,if;av;rsKd;teuf
yxrqkH;uHrSm tmedoiftjyif;xefqkH;jzpfNyD; ,if;\udpörSm ur®ed,mrtusKd;ay;rIu@pOft& yxrqkH;ae&mü
yg0ifonf/ ,if;ur®ed,mronf aemuf('kwd,)b0ü y#doaE¨pdwfjzpfay:atmif aqmif½Gufonf/ odkY&mwGif
tu,fí yxruHtm;enf;cJhaomf 'kwd,trsKd;tpm;uHponfu y#doaE¨pdwftpOfjzpfay:atmif aqmif½Guf
vdrhfrnfjzpfonf/ ,if;jzpfpOfwGif *½kuHonf tjcm;uHrsm; y#doaE¨tusKd;ray;Edkifonftxd pGrf;tm; tmedoif
BuD;av;onf/ *½kuHudk ukodkvf*½kuHESihf tukodkvf*½kuH[k ESpfrsKd;cGJjcm;Edkifonf/ ukodkvft&mwGif psmefpdwfudk
&NyD;ygu *½kuH[k,lNyD; tukodkvft&mwGif teEÅ&d,uHig;rsKd;ESihf ukd,fusihfw&m;udk jiif;qdkaom ed,wrdpäm'd|d
164
wdkYjzpfonf/ a&SUwGifazmfjyNyD;jzpfonfh a'0'wå\jzpf&yfonf þae&mü pHerlemjzpfonf /

160
Lal Mani Joshi, Brahmanism Buddhism and Hinduism (Kandy, Sri Lanka: Buddhist Publicaton, 1987) 52-63.
161
Ab-S, 81.
162
Ibid, 81.
163
Ac-Ab, 199.
164
Ab-S, 81; Ac-Ab, 201-205.

59
*½kuH\pGrf;&nf r&SdcJhaomf tmoEéuHonf y#doaE¨pdwfjzpfay:vma&;twGuf aqmif½Gufrnfjzpfonf/
tmoEéuHonf ,if;\udpöudk rnfodkYaqmif½Gufoenf;/ tcsdefwdkawmif;pGm odkYr[kwf raorDuav;wGif jyKvkyf
aom tjyKtrlrsm;onf aemufb0wGifjzpfrnfh y#doaE¨pdwfEiS hf qufoG,f&ef aemufqkH;pdwf odkYr[kwf pkwdpdwf
twGuf 'kwd,OD;pmay;ae&mwGif aqmif½Gufrnfjzpfonf/ wpfb0vkH; raumif;rIrsm;udk vkyfvmolwpfa,muf
onf uHaumif;pGm raorDuav;urS jyKvkyfaom ukodkvfaumif;rIudk owd&qifjcifrdonfqdkygpdkY/ ,if;ukodkvf
aumif;rIonf ok*wdb0odkY a&mufcGifhydkomvmatmif pGr;f aqmifay;Edkifonf/ xdktaMumif;aMumihf Ak'¨0g'tpOf
tvmwGif aocgeD;yk*¾Kdvfwpfa,muftm; ¤if;jyKvkyfcJhaom ukodkvfaumif;rIudk owday;íulnDonfh tavh
tx&Sdonf/ odkYwnf;r[kwf ukodkvftawG;rsm; ay:vmap&ef y&dwfw&m;rsm; em,lapjcif;jzihf aocgeD;yk*¾Kdvf
udk tm;ay;avh&SdMuonf/ odkYwnf;r[kwf aocgeD;yk*¾Kdvftaejzihf w&m;bm0emtm;xkwfcJhzl;oljzpfbdrl ¤if;\
165
aemufqkH;tcsdefwGif Nidrf;csrf;onhfpdwfudk wdk;wufapEdkif&ef ur®|mef;½IrSwf&ef wdkufwGef;Muonf /
trSefpifppf bmomw&m;vdkufpm;olrsm;onf ¤if;wdkY\ bmoma&;b0wGif ykHrSeftm;jzihf tmpdPÖuHuk
odkvfjyKvkyf&ef ESpfoufMuonf/ taMumif;rl omrefyk*¾Kdvfwpfa,muftzdkY tmpdPÖuHukodkvfonf ok*wdb0
wGif qufvufí pdwfydkif;b0wdk;wufrI&&SdEdkif&ef ydkrdktm;udk;&aomaMumihfjzpfonf/ tmpdPÖuH[lonfum;
tavhtusifhjyKí usihfMuHtm;xkwf&aomuHrsKd;jzpfonf/ *½kuHESihf tmoPÖuHwdkY tusKd;ay;cGifhrBuKHcJhrl þ
tmpdPÖuHu tusKd;ay;rnfjzpfonf/
aemufqkH; u#wåmuH[lonf azmfjyNyD;okH;rsKd;wGif ryg0ifaom tjcm;jyKvkyfaqmif½GufrItm;vkH; yg0ifonhf
uHjzpfonf/ qdkvkdonfrSm azmfjyNyD;uHokH;rsKd;jzihf ra&wGuftyfaom? odkYaomf y#doaE¨pdwfjzpfay:a&;udk aqmif
½Guf&ef vkHavmufonhf jzpfEdkifajc&Sdaom rnfonhfjyKvkyfrIrsKd;rqdkudk &nf½G,fonf/ ,if;u#wåmuHonfvnf;
166
azmfjyNyD;okH;rsKd; tusKd;ay;cGifhr&Sdaomtcg ,if;\udpöudk aqmif½Gufonf /
Ak'¨0g'onf aorIjzpfpOfESifh aocgeD;yk*¾Kdvf\awGUBuKHod&SdrIudk txl;jyKazmfjyvsuf wrvGefb0udk em;vnf
&ef BudK;yrf;onf/ tbd"r®mtvdkt& aocgeD;yk*¾Kdvfwpfa,mufonf rsufpd? em;? ESm? vQm? udk,fESihf pdwf[laom
'Gg&ajcmufckteuf wpfckckjzihf aoonhftcdkuftwHhwGif atmufygtajctaersm;udk awGUBuKHod&Sd&vdrhfrnfjzpf
onf/ jzpfEdkifajc&Sdonhf tajctaersm;rSm –
1) uH? tusKd;w&m;rsm;ESihftnD aocgeD;yk*¾KdvfawGUBuKH&rnfh aemufb0wGif y#doaE¨pdwfudk jzpfay:ap
Edkifaom uH odkYr[kwf
2) uH\trSwfoauFw (ur®edrw d f)? uHwpfckudkjyKpOf ,cifu &if;ESD;uRrf;0ifcJhaom ykHoP²mefponf odkYr
[kwf uHudkjyKvkyfpOf tokH;taqmifypönf;rsm; odkYr[kwf
3) a&muf&Sdrnfh*wd\ oauFw (*wdedrdwf)? rMurD b0opfwGif &&dScHpm;&rnfh (tajctae\ trSwf
167
oauFw) wdkYjzpfonf /
txufyg azmfjycsufü ur®edrdwf[lonf t&m0w¬KtrsKd;tpm; Oyrm vlowfrIudk usL;vGefolwpfa,muf
tzdkY "m;? aoewfESihf ¤if;tokH;jyKonhf vufeufud&d,mrsm; yg0ifonf/ xdktwlyif ukodkvfaumif;rIe,fy,f
wGif ukodkvfaumif;rIjyKonhf t&m0w¬Krsm; Oyrm tpm;tpmrsm;? t0wftpm;rsm;? aq;0g;ypönf;rsm;onf ao
onfhtcdkuftwHhrwdkifrDuav;wGif aocgeD;yk*¾Kdvf\ pdwfxJü xifjrifvmEdkifonf/ xdkYjyif *wdedrdwfonf oGifjyif
rsKd;pkHjzihf ay:vmEdkifonf/ ,if;oGifjyifrsm;teuf raumif;aom *wdwpfckudk ñTefjyonhf oGifjyifqdk;rsm;tjzpf
i&JrD;vQHrsm;? xdwfvefYzGif i&Jxdefrsm;? acsmufcsm;zG,f acG;eufBuD;rsm;uJhodkYaom edrdwfqdk;rsm; ay:vmEdkifonf/
xdktwl ,if;ESihf qefYusifbuf oGifjyifrsm; ay:vmEdkifonf/ vSyonhf ewfom;ewforD;rsm;? ewfO,smOfrsm;?
168
vSyonhf *DwoHrsm;uJhodkYaom ok*wdb0wpfcktwGuf r*Fvm&Sdaom oGifjyifrsm;jzpfonf / ,if; edrdwfqdk;
odkYr[kwf edrdwfaumif;rsm;udk b0wpfckwGif pkwdpdwf (aopdwf) odkY a&mufvkqJ yk*¾Kdvfrsm; awGUBuKHod&SdEdkifonf/

165
Ac-Ab, 203-204.
166
Ac-Ab, 203-204.
167
Ibid, 221.
168
Ab-T, 188.

60
odkY&mwGif aemufqkH;pkwdpdwfrwdkifrD aocgeD;yk*¾Kdvf\ pdwftpOfudk pkwdpdwf[k r,lqacs/ trSefpifppf pkwdpdwf
onf b0wpfck\ tqkH;wGifjzpfay:NyD; ,if;aemuf b0opfü y#doaE¨pdwf ay:vmonf/
aocgeD;yk*¾Kdvfwpfa,muftzdkY omrefykxkZÆOfyk*¾Kdvfjzpfbdrl ¤if;\pkwdpdwfjzpfpOfonf b0opfudk wyfrufpGJ
vrf;onf/ b0a[mif; ukefqkH;cgeD;tcsdefwGif ,if;pkwdpdwftpOfESihf uHonf y#doaE¨pdwftpOfodkY ñGwfonf/ pk
wdpdwfusNyD;onfESihf wpfNydKifeuf b0opfwGif y#doaE¨pdwf jzpfay:vmonf/ þonfrSm pkwdpdwftpOfjzpfay:ykH
ESihf y#doaE¨pdwfjzpfay:ykHudk em;vnf&mü tajccHtkwfjrpfjzpfonf/ atmufygpdwfjzpfpOfrSm r&PmoEé0Dxdü
169
pdwfjzpfpOfudk tao;pdwfazmfjyonfh tbd"r®w¬o*F[usrf;ESihftnD pkwdESihfy#doaE¨pdwfwdkY\0DxdpOf jzpfonf /

Z,m; 3

r&PmoEé0Dxd (aocgeD;pdwfjzpfpOf)

pkwdpdwf
tm½kH = ur®edrdwfESihf *wdedrdwf ypöKyÜef½lyg½kH y#doaE¨pdwfESihf b0opf
.....
y#d .. bGif wD e ' y p oH P Z Z Z Z Z pkwd y#d bGif-1 bGif-2 bGif-3 ...
b0a[mif; b0opf

twdkaumufrSwfcsuf/ / y#d = y#oaE¨pdwf/ bGif = b0iftpOf/ wD = twDwb0if/ e = b0*Fpve/


' = b0*Fkyapä'/ y = yÍö'Gm&m0ZÆe/ p = pu©K0dnmP/ oH = orÜ#dpäe/ P = oEÅD&P/ Z = Z0e (aZm)/ pkwd =
pkwdpdwf/

tbd"r®mtvdkt& pkwdpdwfESihf y#doaE¨pdwfwdkYrSm tvGefeD;uyfpGm qufpyfaeaomfvnf; ,if;wdkYudk wpfck


wnf;aomt&mtjzpf ra&wGufonhfjyif w&m;udk,foabmt& wpfckESihfwpfck qufpyfrIr&Sdaomfvnf; jzpfpOf
oabmt& wpfqufwnf;jzpfonf/ a[wkzvtaejzihf aemufb0qDodkY b0wpfck\uHudk aqmifusOf;vsuf
pkwdpdwftjzpfrS b0opfüy#doaE¨pw d fjzpfvm&ef tusKd;jzpfpOfu ur®owådtm; aqmif½Gufay;onf/ ,if;
aMumihf Ak'¨bmom0ifwdkYonf wrvGefb0aumif;a&;twGuf ukodkvfaumif;rI jyKvkyfMujcif;jzpfonf/ wpfcsdef
wnf;wGif ¤if;wdkYonf tyg,fav;bkHodkY wpfzef ra&muf&a&;twGuf rdrdudk,fudkumuG,f&ef raumif;rIrS a&Smif
MuOfMuonf/ ,if;,lqcsuftay:wGiftajccHí Ak'¨0g'Drsm;tzdkY aocgeD;yk*¾Kdvftm; ¤if;\ukodkvfaumif;rIrsm;
udk owday;&ef odkYr[kwf ur®|mef;tm;xkwfzl;oljzpfygu ur®|mef;½IrSwfzdkY wdkufwGef;&efjzpfap ta&;BuD;onf/
,if;odkYjyK&onfrSm þb0rS rcGJcGmrD aemufqkH;tcdkuftwHhü pdwfNidrf;csrf;rI &&Sda&;twGufjzpfonf/ trSefpifppf
touf&Sifjcif;ESihf aojcif;jzpfpOfonf vlYb0wGif trSefwu,f xl;jcm;qef;jym;onhft&m r[kwfaomfvnf; vl
om;wdkY rodusKd;uRHjyKxm;aom tppftrSefw&m;wpfckomjzpfonf/ Ak'¨0g'½Iaxmihft& aojcif;onf þypöKyÜef
b0\tqkH;jzpfaomfvnf; (aojcif;uif;&mtrw)edAÁmefudk r&ao;oljzpfbdrl ,if;onf aemufb0opfwpfck\
tpvnf;jzpfonf/

aojcif;w&m;udk wnfNidrfpGm &ifqdkifjcif;


Zmwd (arG;zGm;jcif;)? Z&m (tdkrif;&ihfa&mfjcif;) ESihf r&P (aojcif;) oabmw&m;wdkYum; obm0jzpfpOfjzpfNyD;
owå0gtm;vkH;wdkY a&SmifvTJr&Edkifacs/ odkYwap tem*grf? &[EÅmyk*¾Kdvfrsm;rSwpfyg; owå0gtm;vkH;onf aojcif;
169
Ab-S, 89-92.

61
w&m;udk &ifqdkif&ef pdk;½GHUMuNyD; ,if;udk raumif;aomt&mtjzpf owfrSwfMuonf/ taMumif;rSm r*fÓPf zdkvf
ÓPfudk r&ao;olrsm;rSm aojcif;\ obm0trSefudk em;rvnfMuaomaMumihf jzpfonf/ odkY&mwGif jrihfjrwf
aomaojcif; odkYr[kwf pdwfykdif;b0&ihfusifhrIjzihfaojcif;twGuf jyifqifxm;olrsm;vnf; aojcif;udk xdwfvefYMu
vdrfhrnfr[kwfacs/ bmomw&m; trsm;pkrSm Ak'¨0g'ESihfrwlbJ aorIjzpfpOftm; rdrdudk,fudk toGifajymif;vJjcif;
tjzpfazmfjy&ef BudK;yrf;Muonf/ ,if;azmfjycsufü tqdkyg aojcif;rsKd;onf rdrdudk,fudk toGifajymif;vJjcif;ESihf
ywfoufrI &Sdonfjzpfap r&Sdonfjzpfap pdwfykdif;b0&ihfusifhrIjzihfaojcif;taMumif; ajymqdk&ef rsm;pGmr&Sdacs/
pdwfykdif;b0 &ihfusifhrIjzihfaojcif;udk jzpfpOftjzpf em;vnfoihfonf/ trSefpifppf pdwfykdif;b0&ihfusifhrIvrf;pOf
wdk;wufenf;udk oif,lxm;NyD;olrsm;tzdkY aojcif;w&m;udk &if;qdkifjcif;rSm tvGefrxl;qef;acs/ odkYwdkifatmif
tcsKdUu aojcif;[lonfudk 0dnmOf\ toGifajymif;vJjcif;tjzpf t"dyÜm,fzGifhqdkMuonf –

pdwfykdif;b0 &ihfusifhrIjzihf aojcif;onf u,fwifjcif; (taemufwdkif;tvdk) odkYr[kwf udk,fwdkifxdk;xGif;í


odjrifjcif; (ta&SUwdkif;tvdk)udk awGYBuKHod&SdEdkifaom jzpfpOfwpfckjzpfNyD; ,if;jzpfpOfjzihf aojcif;w&m;udk
aMumuf½GHUjcif;tm; avsmhusap\/ 0dnmOfa[mif; (Ak'¨0g'tvdk odpdwf)onf aooGm;NyD; b0opfwpfck
ay:vmaomaMumihf pdwfykdif;b0&ihfusifhrIjzihf aojcif;onf wpfpkHwpfa,muf\ oabmxm;rsm;udk b0qD
odkYa&m aojcif;ukd&ifqdkifjcif;twGufyg ajymif;vJoGm;\/ t"dutaejzihf pdwfykdif;b0 &ihfusifhrIjzihf ao
170
jcif;rSm jyefvnfarG;zGm;rI Ekd;Mum;jcif;twGuf tpysKd;jcif;jzpfonf /

odkY&mwGif pdwfykdif;b0&ihfusifhrIjzihf aojcif;\ t"dyÜm,fudk bmomw&m;½IaxmifhrS a,bk,s oabmwlnD


csuf r&Sdao;ay/ taMumif;rl bmomw&m;trsKd;rsKd;u rdrdwdkYbmomw&m;qdkif&m pHEIef;rsm;udk tajccHí ao
jcif;\obm0udk t"dyÜm,faumuf,lMuaomaMumihf jzpfonf/ xdkYjyif bmomw&m;toD;oD;u touf&Sifjcif;
ESihf aojcif;\ ta&;ygrItaMumif;ukd rdrdwdkY½IaxmifhrS azmfjyMuonf/
aojcif;w&m;tjrifwGif wdAufAk'¨bmomü Am&f'dk (bardo) t,ltqjzihf aojcif;w&m;jzpfay:ykHudk oif
Mum;onf/ Am&f'dk [lonfrSm Am&f ESihf 'dk [laom pum;vkH;ESpfck qufpyfyk'fjzpfonf/ Am&f [lonf tMum;? 'dk
[lonf uRef; odkYr[kwf trSwf jzpfonf/ Am&f'dkt,ltqt& aojcif;ESihf jyefvnfarG;zGm;jcif; ESpfcktMum;
wnf&Sdaom awGYBuKHod&SdrI (tMum;b0)wpfck &Sdonf/ ,if;udk atmufygtwdkif; azmfjyonf –

twdwfjzpfaom tajctaeonf ay:vmNyD;cgpESifh tem*wfjzpfaom tajctaeonf jzpfay:rvm


ao;ojzihf ,if;twdwfESihf tem*wftMum; uGufvyfwpfck&Sd\/ ,if;onf tajccHtm;jzihf Am&f'dk awGU
BuKHod&SdrI (tMum;b0) jzpf\/ ... Am&f'dk tqihfwGif wdk;wufjzpfay:onhf jrifuGif;rsm;ESihf ,if;jrif
uGif;rsm;ESihf twlygvmonhf awmufyonhf ta&miftqif;ESihf toHrsm;rSm odjrifol\ jrifuGif;rSwfrS
xdefodrf;xm;&efvdktyfaom tajccHw&m;wpfrsKd;jzihf jyKvkyfonfr[kwfbJ qdwfNidrfrIESihf uif;qdwfrI
171
oGifjyifwpf&yftaejzihf jzpfysuf½kHrQom jzpf\ /

,if;azmfjycsufudk tajccHvsuf Am&f'dk [lonf tdyfrufuJhodkYaom tajctaewpf&yf? ,if;onf jrifuGif;


rsm; pdwful;,OfrIrsm;&SdNyD; aocgeD;yk*¾Kdvftm; Edk;xjcif; odkYr[kwf jyefvnfarG;zGm;jcif;twGuf jrifuGif;wpf&yfudk
ay;tyfaMumif; em;vnf&onf/
wdAufwdkY,lqonfESihfrwlbJ [dE´LwdkYurl aojcif;\obm0udk tjcm;enf;wpfrsKd;jzihf t"dyÜm,faumuf,l
Muonf/ aojcif;[lonf tppftrSefr[kwf? ,if;onf vSnfhpm;rI rm,m jzpfonf/ aojcif;onf obm0jzpfpOf
wpf&yfjzpfonf/ cE¨mudk,faoaomfvnf; tppftrSef0dnmOf (twåref)onf rao/ taMumif;rSm ,if;onf

170
Ab-S, 89-92.
171
Kenneth Kramer, The Sacred Art of Dying: How World Religions Understand Death. (New York: Paulist Press, 1988), 22.

62
tppftrSefESihf xm0&wnfNrJNyD; rnfonhftaMumif;aMumihfrqdk ,if; twåref(Atman)udk azsmufzsufacsrIef;í
r&Edkif/ ¤if;wdkY ,lqykHrSm –

aojcif;\ vQKdU0Sufcsufonf a[mMum;jcif; ,ZfylaZmfjcif;wdkYjzifhr[kwfbJ ur®|mef;½IrSwfjcif;ESihf jrihfjrwf


jcif;wdkYjzihf ESvkH;tdrftwGif;ü zkH;uG,faeaom y&rtwåudk oabmayguf&efjzpf\/ ,if;tqihfudk
aemufqkH;ü y&rtwåu a½G;cs,folrsm;om a&muf&dSEdkif\/ ]twåudk em;vnfolonf aojcif;w&m;udk
tqkH;owf\}[k ,r (yk*¾Kdvf)u qdk\/ armu© (moksha) [kac:aom ,if;em;vnfoabmaygufrIonf
b0\uHMur®m axGjym;rIESihf oHo&m (tqkH;rJh arG; ao jyefarG;jcif;) rS vGwfajrmufap\/ twåudkodí
aoolrsm;onf tenf;qkH; arG;aopuf0ef;rS vGwfajrmufNyD; xm0&Nidrf;csrf;rIudk&&Sd\/ ,if;odkY em;vnf
172
NyD;olrsm;um; raoolrsm; jzpfMu\ /

[dE´L0g'wGif twåtppftrSefukd em;vnfíaoolonf arG;aopuf0ef;rS vGwfajrmufEdkifonf[k ,kHMunf


aMumif; xif&Sm;onf/ ¤if;wdkY\ aemufqkH;yef;wkdifrSm aru©jzpfonf/ ,if;onf arG;jcif; aojcif;rSm vGwfajrmuf
jcif;ESihf y&rtwå[kac:aom jA[®wåESihf aemufqkH; aygif;pnf;oGm;jcif;udk qdkvdkonf/ trSefaomf jA[®mESihf
aemufqkH; aygif;pnf;oGm;jcif;onf raovGefrD jzpfay:onf/
xdkrSwpfyg; c&pf,efbmom½Iaxmifht&rl aojcif;onf jypfrI\tusKd;qufjzpfNyD; xm0&b0rS cPwm
vGwfajrmufoGm;jcif;jzpfonf/ wpfpkHwpfa,mufonf xm0&b0wpfck\ tpodkYa&muf&ef trSefyif aoqkH;&
rnfjzpfonf/ odkYwap aemufqkH;ü aoqkH;olonf jyefvnf&iS fjyef xajrmufvdrfhrnfjzpfonf/ &Sifjyefxajrmuf
onfh t,ltq (a,½Ic&pfawmf &Sifjyefxajrmufjcif;) onf aojcif;oabmw&m;\ eufeJqef;Mu,frIESihf ywf
oufaeonfrSm oHo,jzpfzG,frvdkacs/ aemufqkH; w&m;pD&ifrnfhaeYonf wpfaeYwGif jzpfvdrhrf nf[k a,bk,s
173
tm;jzihf ,HkMunfMuonf / odkYjzpfí c&pf,efwdkYonf aemufqkH;w&m;pD&ifrnfhaeYudk apmifhqdkif;aeMuvdrfhrnf
jzpfonf/ c&pf,efbmomü aojcif;w&m;ESihf ywfoufí tajccH,lqcsufrSm aojcif;w&m;onf tjypf\
tusKd;quf? cE¨mudk,fESihf 0dnmOfwdkY\ cPwpfjzKwf uGJuGmaejcif;? tjypftwGuf ao&jcif;onf xm0&b0ü
jyefvnf arG;zGm;&jcif; jzpfonf/ aoqkH;olrsm;onf a,½Ic&pf 'kwd,tBudrfjyefvmjcif;ü &SifjyefxajrmufNyD;
w&m;pD&ifjcif;cH&vdrfhrnfjzpfonf/ w&m;pD&ifcsuf ESpfrsKd;&Sdonf –

yxrtrdsK;tpm;rSm yk*¾KdvfwpfOD;\0dnmOftm; aumif;uifbkH i&JbkHodkYcsufjcif;ydkYrnfvm; odkYr[kwf 0dnmOf


oefY&Sif;jcif;qDodkY ydkYrnfvm;[lonfudk qkH;jzwf&ef yk*¾KdvftoD;oD;tm; wpfudk,fa& w&m;pD&ifcsuf? 'kwd,
trsKd;tpm;rSm aoqkH;olwdkY\ cE¨mudk,frsm; urÇmajray:wGif tdyfarmusae&mrS &SifjyefxajrmufaomaeY
174
wGif jyefvnftqkH;tjzwfay;onhf aemufqkH;w&m;pD&ifrIwdkYjzpfonf /

aojcif;ESihf jyefvnfarG;zGm;jcif;tawGYtBuKHESihf ywfoufí c&pf,efwdkY\,kHMunfrIonf wpfenf;enf;jzihf


pdwfykif;b0&ihfusufrIjzihf aoqkH;jcif;tay: ¤if;wdkY\em;vnfrItwGuf Edk;<urIykHpHwpfrsKd;jzpfonf/ c&pf,efwdkY
onf oefY&Sif;aom0dnmOfawmf\ rsufESmvdkufjcif;r&SdbJ 0dnmOfESihf udk,fcE¨mESpfckvkH; xm0&b0\ &Sifjyefx
ajrmufjcif;odkY a&muf&Sdjcif;twGuf apmihfqdkif;aeMuonf/ ¤if;tzdkY aojcif;[lonf xm0&bk&m;ocifESihf aygif;
pnf;oGm;jcif;rSwpfyg; tjcm;r[kwfacs/
c&pf,efrsm;uJhodkYyif tpövrf0g'DwdkYvnf; w&m;pD&if&maeYwGif aoqkH;olrsm;onf ¤if;wdkY\*ltwGif;rS &Sif
jyefxajrmufvdrfhrnfjzpfonf/ ¤if;wdkYtm; ¤if;wdkY\ aumif;rI raumif;rItvdkuf qkH;jzwfrnfjzpfonf/ aumif;rI
raumif;rIwdkYudk rSwfwrf;wifxm;onhf bk&m;ocif\ pmtkyfawmfwpfpkH&Sdonf[k ,kHMunfMuonf/ tpövr®pf

172
Kramer, 30-31.
173
Ibid, 147.
174
Ibid, 147.

63
oifMum;csufrsm;t& tpövrf0g'DwdkYonf aoqkH;ol\cE¨mudk,ftm; tarT;eHYom yufzsef;&efESihf rdom;pk0ifrsm;u
tavmif;udk ydwfjzLjzihf ywf&pf&ef ñTefMum;onf/ tavmif;udk acgif;xJwGifxnhfNyD; okomefajrü `rIyfESH&onf/
]qkawmif;olrsm;u idka<u;aomua&mufaeolrsm;tm; aoqkH;oGm;oludk jrKrIefrSzefqif;cJhNyD; ¤if;onf jrLrIefodkY
jyefoGm;\? uREfkyfwdkYonf aojcif;rSwpfqihf uHMur®mudk apmifhqdkif;&ef jyefvmMu\? aemufqkH; w&m;pD&if&maeYü
175
uREfkyfwdkY vGwfajrmufMuvdrfhrnf}[k owday;Muonf / tpövrf0g'DwdkYonf aojcif;w&m;[lonf þb0rS
xm0&0dnmOfqDodkY ul;ajymif;oGm;jcif;wpfrsKd;jzpfaMumif; ,kHrSwfMuonf/ aooGm;olonf þurÇmajrodkY jyefvm
176
rnf r[kwfaomfvnf; 0dnmOfonf &Sijf yefxajrmufjcif;ESihf w&m;pD&ifrnfhaeYudk apmifhqdkif;aernfjzpfonf /
þavhvmcsufonf bmomw&m;wdkY\ ,kHMunfrIpepfESihf aojcif;ESihf touf&Sifjcif;,lqrIudk pkHprf;&SmazG
aomaMumifh aojcif;oabmw&m;udk 'óe½IaxmihfrS t"dyÜm,fzGifhqdk&ef BudK;yrf;cJhMuaom *&d'óeq&mrsm;
\ ,lqcsufudk rodusKd;uRHjyK&ef rjzpfEdkifacs/ aojcif;oabmw&m;ESihf ywfoufí *&d'óeq&m qdkua&wD;
u rdrd\ aojcif;obm0,lqcsufudk ¤if;\wynfhrsm;tm; rQa0cJhonf/ qdkua&wD;onf aojcif;\obm0ESihf
aoNyD;aemuf wrvGefü rnfodkYjzpfrnfudk em;vnf&efBudK;yrf;cJhonf/ ¤if;tvdkt& aojcif;[lonf ajymif;vJrI
jzpfpOf 0dnmOf\ þae&mrS aemufae&mwpfckodkY ajymif;a½TUjcif;rSwpfyg; tjcm;r[kwf/ qdkua&wD;onf tqdyf
a&udk raomufrD ¤if;\wynfhrsm;tm; aojcif;oabmw&m;udk raMumuf&efvnf; jyocJhonf/ olonf ao
jcif;jzpfpOfESihfywfoufí atmufygazmfjycsuftm; ,kHMunfpGm azmfjycJhonf –

uREkfyfwdkY þenf;jzifhvnf; qifjcifMunhfMupdkY/ aojcif;w&m;onf r*Fvmwpfckjzpfonf[k arQmfvihfcsuf


aumif;&Sd\/ taMumif;rl aojcif;[lonf bmrQr[kwfjcif;ESihf onmrJhjcif;[kjzpfap? odkYwnf;r[kwf uREkfyf
wdkYudkajymonfhtwdkif; ,if;onf ajymif;vJjcif; þae&mrS aemufwpfae&modkY 0dnmOf\ ajymif;a½TUjcif;
[kjzpfap ESpfckteuf wpfckjzpfaomaMumihfwnf;/ tu,fí aojcif;[lonf tdrfrufrJh tdyfaysmfjcif;uJhodkY
177
trSwfonmvkH;0uif;rJhrIjzpfbrd l ,if;onf BuD;rm;onhf tjrwftpGef;wpfckjzpfvdrfh rnf /

qdkua&wD;\ azmfjyyg 'óeqdkif&mazmfjycsuo f nf tvGefav;pm;zG,faumif;onf/ olonf 'óe½I


axmifhrS aojcif;\obm0taMumif;udk twdtusodykH&onf/ aojcif;oabmw&m;udk r*Fvmwpfyg;tjzpf &Sif;
vif;pGmazmfjyonf? aMumufvefYzG,fr&Sd? odkYaomf ESpfoufzG,f awGYBuKHod&SdrIjzpfvdrfhrnf? aojcif;[lonf tdyfruf
rJh tdyfaysmfjcif;wpfrsKd;jzpfonf/
Ak'¨0g'DwdkYu pkwdpdwfrjzpfrDuav;wGif aocgeD;yk*¾Kdvfonf aemufb0&Sd tem*wfjzpfwnfrIwpfck ay:vm
jcif;ESihfywfoufaom *wdedrdwfudk jrifawGYEkdifaMumif; ñTefjyMuonf/ aojcif;obm0 awG;ac:rIwGif a&S;acwf
u aq;bufqdkif&m q&m0efwdkYonf *wdedrdwfuJhodkYaom t&mrsm;udkpkHprf;&ef tcGifhtvrf;enf;yg;cJhMuonf/
aocgeD;yk*¾Kdvfrsm;\azmfjycsufudk avhvmqef;ppfjcif;jzihf ur®edrdwf? *wdedrdwft,ltqudk axmufcHo vm;[k
od&Sd&ef jzpfEdkifajc&Sdonf/ ,cifu ,if;*wdedrdwf[lonfudk bmoma&;,lqcsuftjzpfom xifrSwfcJhMuonf/
xdkYjyif vltrsm;pkonf aojcif;taMumif;ajymMum;jcif;rSm raumif;rIwpf&yfjzpfNyD; pdwfydkif;b0udk xdckdufap
onf[k xifMuonf/ vlYtodkif;t0dkif;ü ,if;odkYaomudprö sm;udk azmfjyjcif;udk raumif;jrifMuonf/ odkY&mwGif
Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwfu &[ef;awmfrsm;tm; aojcif;\obm0rSefudk em;vnfjcif;jzihf aojcif;w&m;udk aMumufjcif;rS
vGefajrmufEdkifa&;twGuf aojcif;oabmudkqifjcif&ef ñTefMum;awmfrlonf/ ,if;odkYaom avhusifhtm;xkwfrI
udk r&Pówdur®|mef;[kvnf;ac:onf/ uHaumif;pGmjzihf rsufarSmuf&mpkESpfwGif trf'D (M.D.) bGYJ& a&rGef at
rl;'D? ti,f (Raymond A. Moody, Jr., M.D.) trnf&Sd aq;bufqdkif&m q&m0efwpfa,mufonf vlemraorD
*wdedrdwfxifonf[laom ,lqcsufudkavhvm&ef aocgeD;vlemrsm;\b0c&D;udk prf;oyfavhvmrI wpf&yfjyK
vkyfcJhonf/ aocgeD;yk*¾Kdvfrsm;tm; ¤if;\avhvmawGY&Sdcsufrsm;udkrQa0&ef usrf;pmESpftkyfa&;om;cJhonf/

175
Ibid, 165.
176
Ibid, 160.
177
John M Cooper. ed., Plato: Complete Works. (1984; reprint, Indianapolis, Indianan: Backett Publishing Company, Inc.), 1997.

64
¤if;\a&;om;onfh ]wrvGefb0 (Life After Life)} ESihf ]wrvGefb0udkqifjcifjcif; (Reflections on Life After
Lige)} usrf;pmrsm;ü a'gufwm rl;'Donf *wdedrdwfwpfckESihf ywfoufEdkifaom aojcif;tawGYtBuKHtaMumif;udk
tao;pdwfazmfjyonf/ ,if;odkYaom ay:vmrIrsm;udk aocgeD;vlemrsm;u ¤if;tm;azmfjy odkYr[kwf ajymjycJh
onf/ a'gufwmrl;'Donf aocgeD;tawGYtBuKHudk odvdkonfh &nf½G,fcsufjzifh vlemrsm;pGmwdkYudk awGYqkHar;jref;
cJhonf/ olonf aovGefNyD;aemuf wrvGefb0&Sdonf[k ,lqcJhonf/ prf;oyfcsufrsm;pGmwdkYü ykHrSefr[kwfonhf
tMum;tm½kH cHpm;rIrsm;? ESpfoufzG,fESihf rESpfoufzG,f jrifuGif;rsm; odkYr[kwf aocgeD;vlemrsm; ay;ydkYcJhaom
xdwfvefYzG,ftoHrsm;udk rSwfwrf;wifcJhonf/ atmufygazmfjycsufrsm;onf aocgeD;vlemrsm; ajymjycJhonfudk
azmfjyonf –

aq;½kHodkYa&mufNyD; aoNyD[k ajymcH&NyD;rS jyefvnf&Sifvmol trsKd;om;wpfa,mufonf ¤if;\ aocgeD;


tawGYtBuKHudk jyefajymjy\ ]avESihftwl vGifharsmoGm;ouJhodkY a0;vHonhfvrf;wpfavQmuf acgif;avmif;
oH wpmpmjrnfoHvdk Mum;&\/ ,if;toHrsm;onf *syefavacgif;avmif;oHESihfwl\/ ...xdktoHonf
xdktcsdefu uREkfyfMum;Edkifonfh wpfckwnf;aom toHjzpf\}/

aoG;cJazmufjyefa&m*gESihfqdkifonhf ukd,fwGif;aoG;,kdpD;rIaMumihf aovkeD;yg;jzpfcJhol trsKd;orD;i,f wpf


a,muf ¤if;vJusaeonhf tcdkuftwHhtaMumif;udk þodkYajymjy\ ]uRefr *DwoHwpfrsKd;udk Mum;&\/ crf;
178
em;NyD; wu,hf om,mndrfhanmif;onhf *DwoHyg} /

aocgeD;yk*¾KdvftcsKdUrSm ¤if;wdkY\ukd,fcE¨mudk odykH&onf/ rl;'Du aocgeD;tajctae&Sd ,if;udkcE¨mudk


]0dnmOfudk,f(Spiritual Body)[k trnfay;onf/ ¤if;wdkYtaejzihf rdrdcE¨mudk,frS tjyifodkYa&mufoGm;aMumif;
owdjyKrdaomtcg ¤if;wdkYonf rdrdtawGUtBuKHudk tjcm;yk*¾Kdvfrsmtm; ajymjy&efBudK;yrf;Muonf/ odkY&mwGif
rnfolrQ ¤if;wdkYudk Mum;ykHr&acs/ atmufygpmydk'frSm aocgeD;yk*¾Kdvfrsm;\ azmfjycsufwdkYjzpfonf –

awGYBuKHrIwpfckvkH;\ pdwf0ifpm;zG,f taumif;qkH;tydkif;rSm uREkfyf\0dnmOf uREkfyf\OD;acgif; a&SUydkif;tay:


em;rS xGufcGmoGm;onhf tcdkuftwhHjzpf\/ uREkfyf\0dnmOf xGufcGmoGm;vdkoavm qufvufwnf&Sdaevdk
ovm;[k qkH;jzwf&ef BudK;yrf;aeonfESihf vkH;0eD;yg;wl\/ tcsdefonf &yfaeouJhodkY xif&\/ ...
uREkfyf\0dnmOfonf udk,fum,ykHoP²mefr&Sdaomfvnf; ukd,fcE¨m&Sdtaejzihf azmfjy&rnf/ uREkfyftae jzihf
,if;0dnmOfudk enf;vrf;trsKd;rsKd; pum;vkH;taxGaxGjzihf ajymjyEdkifaomfvnf; rnfonfurQ twd
tusrSefatmif ajymEdkifrnfr[kwf/ azmfjy&ef tvGefcJ,Of;\/ ...þtawGYtBuKHvdk tjcm;rnf onhf
t&mrQ rodjrifcJhzl;yg/ uREfkyfawGYonhf ykHoP²mefrsm;rSwpfyg; tarSmifwdkufomjzpf\/ odkY&mwGif þtawGY
tBuKHwpfavQmufvkH; uREfkyfESihftwl tvGefpGrf;&nfjrifhrm;NyD; cspfcifzG,fyk*¾Kdvfwpfa,muf &SdonfrSm
aocsm\/ ...xdkyk*¾Kdvf xdkae&mwGi&f Sdaomfvnf; olYrSmudk,fcE¨mr&Sd/ pifMu,fonhf cE¨mudk,fvdkrsKd;jzpfNyD;
vufrsm;? ajcrsm;ponfh ,if;y*¾Kdvf\ cE¨mudk,ftpdwftydkif;tm;vkH;udk odEdkif\/ odkYaomf uREfkyf olY\
179
udk,fcE¨mudk rjrifcJhyg /

a'gufwmrl;'Donf ]wrvGefb0} trnf&Sdpmtkyfudk xkwfa0NyD;aemuf aocgeD;tawGYtBuKH&SdcJhMuonhf vl


rsm;pGmudk awGYqkHar;jref;rIjyKcJhNyD; ,if;yk*¾Kdvfrsm;teuf tcsKdUrSm oufqdkif&maq;cef;rsm;rS aoNyDjzpfaMumif; tod
ay;NyD;olrsm;trSefjzpfvsuf tcsdKUrSmrl ao½Gmjyefrsm;jzpfMuonf/ vlemrsm;ESihf aojcif;taMumif; awGYqkH;ar;jref;
NyD;aemuf rdrd\ cHpm;rIrsm;udk þodkYzGifh[0efcHcJhonf –

178
Raymond A. Moody, Jr., M.D., Life Afer Life: The Investigation of a Phenomenon Survival of Bodily Death (Nwe Yourk: Bantham Books
Publication, 1977), 30.
179
48-56-70.

65
uREfkyfonf ]wrvGefb0} pmtkyfü rnfonhfawGYqkHar;jref;rIwGifrS aumif;uifbkH tenf;qkH; wpfpkH
wpfckaom tpOftvm,lqcsufudk o½kyfazmfonhfae&mudkrQ rawGYcJhaMumif;azmfjycJh\/ odkY&mwGif ,ck
wpfBudrfü xl;xl;jcm;jcm; tcdkiftrmajymqdkjcif;jzihf aumif;uifbkHom; (ewfom;) [k a0g[m&jyKEkdifonfh
owå0gwdkY\ tjcm;bkHXmersm;udk wpfaphwpfapmif; jrifawGYcJhMuaom yk*¾Kdvfrsm;pGmESihf pum;ajymcJh&\/
rSwfwrf;rsm;pGmxJrS wpfckwnf;aompmaMumif; ]tvif;a&mifNrdKUawmf (a city of light)} [kay:vmonfrSm
180
uREkfyftzdkY pdwf0ifpm;zG,faumif;\ /

]wrvGefb0} pmtkyfü vufcHEdkifaom tcsuftvufrsm;pGm yg&Sdonf/ ,if;pmtkyfonf aojcif;taMumif;


udk oHo,&Sdolrsm; ,kHMunfEdkifavmufaom taxmuftxm;udk oufaojyEdkifpGrf;&Sdonf/ odkY&mwGif Ak'¨0g'ü
touf&Sdjcif;ESihfaojcif; odkYr[kwf wrvGefb0ESihfywfoufí jyóemr&dSacs/ xdktaMumif;aMumihf þokawoe
usrf;pmü wrvGefb0taMumif; qufvufavhvm&ef aemufxyfBudK;yrf;rIudk tom;ay;awmhrnfr[kwfay/
,cktcgü þavhvmrIonf r*fÓPfzdkvfÓPfudk &NyD;olwdkY uG,fvGefNyD;aemuf b0wnf&SdrItaMumif; quf
vufí azmfjyoGm;rnfjzpfonf/ urÇmay:&Sd vltrsm;pkonf uG,fvGefNyD;aemuf wrvGefb0wpfck&SdaMumif;
,kHMunfMuonf/ odkY&mwGif ¤if;wdkYonf aovGefNyD;aemuf csKyfNidrf;oGm;jcif;ESihf bmrQt<uif; tusefr&Sd
awmhjcif;tjzpfazmfjyonhf edAÁmefwnf&SdrIudkrl oHo,&SdMuonf/ þavhvmrI\ &nf½G,fcsufrsm;teuf wpfckrSm
Ak'¨0g'DwdkYonf edAÁmef\obm0udk rnfodkYem;vnfonf? edAÁmef\ta&;ygrI? aojcif;ESihfaojcif;rJh tajctae
ESpf&yftMum; emrfydkif;qdkif&m ul;ajymif;rIESifh b0onf edAÁmefodkY rnfodkYul;ajymif;oGm;aMumif;udk pkHprf;avhvm
rnfjzpfonf/ edAÁmefESihfywfoufí þavhvmrIonf edAÁmef[lonf pdwful;wGifomwnf&Sdoavm? odkYwnf;r[kwf
tawG;rQwGif wnf&Sdoavm? ppfrSefaom y&rw¬w&m;avm[lonfudk em;vnf&efjzpfonf/ a&SUwGifazmfjyrnfh
tcef;wGif ax&0g'Ak'¨0g'ü edAÁmefwnf&SdrI[lonf rnfonfudkqdkvdkaMumif; pkHprf;avhvmonfh jynfhpkHaom
ygVdESihfjrefrmpmay taxmuftxm;rsm; yg0ifvdrhfrnfjzpfonf/ odkYjzpfrl ]edAÁmef[lonf tb,fenf;} ]edAÁmefonf
rnfonfhae&mwGif wnf&Sdoenf;}[laom ar;cGef;rsm;udk ar;jref;Edkif&monf/

000000

180
Raymond A. Moody, Jr., M.D., Reflection on Life Afer Life: (Nwe Yourk: Bantham Books Publication, 1978), 15.

66
tcef; 4

edAÁmefwnf&SdrIudk cGJjcrf;pdwfjzmavhvmjcif;
edAÁmef wnf&Sdygoavm
tcef; 2 wGif edAÁmeft"dyÜm,faumuf,lcsufrsm;ESihf ynm&SifrsKd;pkHwdkY azmfjyonhf,lqcsufwdkYudk aqG;aEG;cJhonf/
odkY&mwGif þavhvmcsufü edAÁmefwnf&SdrIudk cGJjcrf;pdwfjzmjcif;twGuf aemufxyfaqG;aEG;rIvdktyfonf/ edAÁmef
wnf&SdrIonf Ak'¨0g'½IaxmifhrS aqG;aEG;zG,fwpf&yfjzpfNyD; edAÁmefonf trSefwu,fwnf&Sd rwnf&Sd[lonfudk qkH;
jzwf&ef cJ,Of;onf/ tu,fí trSefwu,fwnf&SdonfqdkvQif ,if;onf rnfodkYwnf&Sdonf[lonfudk em;vnf
&ef cufcJonf/ Ak'¨0g'usrf;pmrsm;ESihf Ak'¨0g'tawG;tac:ü edAÁmefwnf&Sdjcif;udk tckdiftrm azmfjyaomfvnf;
,if;onf emrfw&m;wGif wnf&Sdoavm odkYwnf;r[kwf tjcm;wpfae&m&mwGif wnf&Soavm[lonfESihf ywf
oufí raocsmra&&mao;bJ&Sdonf/ Ak'¨0g'DwdkYum; edAÁmefwnf&SdaMumif; tcdkiftrmqdkMuonf/ odkYwap Ak'¨
0g'Dr[kwfolrsm;tm; edAÁmefwnf&SdrIoufaoudk vufawGYtaxmuftxm;jzihf rjyEdkifacs/ vufawGY taxmuf
txm;tpm; Ak'¨0g'DwdkYtaejzihf vufawGYur®|mef;½IrSwfjcif;jzihf &&SdEdkifrIudkom udk;um;íqdkMuonf/ ¤if;wdkY\ ,l
qcsufrSm edAÁmef[lonf tb,fenf;? rnfodkYwnf&Sdoenf;[lonfudk bk&m;&[EÅmyk*¾Kdvfrsm;rSwpfyg; rnfolrQ
twdtusrod[kjzpfonf/ vlrsm;pGmwdkYum; edAÁmefwnf&SdrIudk ½kyfydkif;o½kyfoP²mef odkYr[kwf pdwfydkif;o½kyf
oP²mef xdawGYrIjzihfodEdkifoavm odkYwnf;r[kwf ,if;\wnf&SdrIonf pdwfydkif;ESihf ½kyfydkif;tajctaersm;atmuf
wGif&Sdoavm r&Sdbl;avm[lonfudk awG;qMuHpnfMuonf/
ygVdawmfusrf;rsm;ü Ak'¨0g'DwdkY,lqcsufrSm wpfckckaomtaMumif;aMumihf tjcm;bmomw&m;rsm;\ ,lq
csufESifh jcm;em;onf/ Ak'¨0g'onf r[mwefcdk;&Sif odkYr[kwf bk&m;ociftm; edAÁmef&&Sda&;enf;vrf;tjzpf vkH;0
azmfjyjcif;r&Sd/ Ak'¨0g'DwdkYonf tqdktrdefYESihf vufawGYtm;xkwfrIudk jcm;em;jcif;rjyKbJ edAÁmefudk rnfolrQ em;
rvnfEdkifaMumif; tav;ay;azmfjyonf/ þavhvmcsuf\ t"duOD;wnfcsufwpf&yfrSm 'dGwå,lqcsuf qdkvdkonf
rSm b0&Sdjcif;ESihf b0r&Sdjcif;,lqcsufudk z,f&Sm;&efjzpfonf/ þ,lqcsufwGif yxrtaejzihf b0&Sdjcif;ESihf b0
r&Sdjcif;,lqcsuf[lonfudk em;vnf&ef vkH;0vdktyfonf/ tcef; 3 ü b0[lonfudk owå0gwdkY tqufrjywf
arG;zGm; aoqkH;Muonhfae&mtjzpf aqG;aEG;cJhNyD;jzpfonf/ b0trsKd;rsKd;onf aMumif;usKd;jzpfpOfESihfomru t
aMumif;w&m;qufoG,frItaejzihf wpfckudkwpfcktrDSo[JjyKvsuf jyKjyifcH tusKd;qufrsm;ESihfvnf; qufEG,f
aMumif; Ak'¨0g'Dynm&SifwdkY a,bk,soabmwlnDMuonf/ Ak'¨0g'½Iaxmifht&aomf b0wpfckü owå0gtaejzihf
jzpfvm&ef taMumif;w&m;rsm;? tajctaersm;? jyKjyifzefw;D rIrsm;ESihf a[wkypö,taejzihf wpfpkHwpfckudk trSD
o[JjyKjcif;rsm;&Sd&rnf[k em;vnfonf/ owå0gwpfa,mufonf jzpfjcif;ESihfysufjcif;? arG;zGm;jcif;ESihfaojcif;wdkY
yg0ifonhf jzpfpOf&Sdaom b0wpfckrS ruif;vGwfaMumif; qdkonf/ þpHEIef;udk or®Kwdopömjzihf owå0g tm;vkH;
twGuf tokH;jyKaomfvnf; ,if;onf y&rw¬opöme,fü tokH;rjyKacs/
Ak'¨0g'ü y&rw¬opöm[lonf edAÁmefudk &nfñTef;jcif;jzpfonf/ azmfjyNyD; tajctae odkYr[kwf b0rsm;ESihf
ywfoufí edAÁmefrSm >cif;csufjzpfonf/ taMumif;rl edAÁmef[lonf jyKjyifcHtajctaeESihf ywfoufrIr&SdbJ trSef
rSm rjyKjyiftyfaom tjctaejzpfaomaMumifhwnf;/ jyKjyiftyfaom tusKd;w&m;\ wpfbufwGif&SdaMumif; qdk
vdkjcif;jzpfonf/ edAÁmeftm; tocFww&m;tjzpf rMumcP azmfjyonf/ trSefpifppf uG,fvGefNyD;aemuf edAÁmef
udk rsufarSmufjyKolrsm;onf b0&yfpJjcif; odkYa&mufoGm;onf[k ,lq&onf/ okdYwap Ak'¨0g'DtcsdKUu edAÁmef[l
onf wnf&SdqJtajctae wpf&yfjzpfonf[kqdkvsuf b0r&Sdjcif;[laom ,lqcsufudk jiif;qdkMuonf/ ,if;odkYqdk
aomfvnf; ,if;wnf&Sdonhf edAÁmefonf owå0gwdkY arG;aoMu&onfh jyKjyifcH okH;q,fhwpfbkHESihf ywfoufjcif;r&Sd/
r*fÓPf zdkvfÓPf&Ny;D olrsm;tzdkY edAmÁ efonf Oyg'f(jzpf) XD(wnf) bif(ysu)f cPokH;yg;r&SdbJ trSefyifwnf&Sd
onf/ aMumif;usKd;jzpfpOfESihf ywfoufrIr&SdbJ edAÁmefonf trSefwnf&Sdonf[k ,lqonf/
67
,if;azmfjycsufESihfywfoufí jrefrmEdkifiHa½Tusifomoemudk wnfaxmifcJhol ygVdpmaywwfuRrf;awmfrl
aom a½Tusifq&mawmfu edAÁmefwnf&SdrIudk "r®0daoowpfckwnf&SdrItjzpf azmfjycJhonf/ þq&mawmftvdkt&
181
edAÁmef[lonf trSefwu,fwnf&Sdonhf y&rw¬w&m;jzpfonf / jrefrmEdkifiHomoemü "kwiftusihfjzifhxif&Sm;
onhf ur®|mef;enf;jyq&mawmfESihf awm&aqmufwnfonhf tpOftvmudk wnfaxmifol awmifykvkurÇmat;
q&mawmfuvnf; jyKjyifcHobm0r&Sdaom y&rw¬"r®udk odjrifNyD;jzpfaom r*fzdkvfÓPfudk &NyD;olrsm;tzdkY edAÁmef
onf trSefwu,fwnf&SdaMumif; qdkonf/ "kw*F[lonf ]udavomudk cgxkwfjcif;}[k wdkuf½dkufjyefqdkEdkifNyD; pif
Mu,fjcif;udk qdkvdkonf/ "kwifü usifhBuHrIykHpH q,fhokH;rsKd;&SdNyD; &[ef;wdkY\tusifh odkYr[kwf NcdK;NcHonhftusifh[k
bmomjyefMuonf/ azmjfyygq&mawmfrsm;onf owdy|mefur®mef; usihfBuHtm;xkwfjcif;r&SdbJ omrefykxkZOfrsm;
tzdkY y&rw¬w&m;udk em;rvnfEdkifonhfjyif ykxkZOfrsm;tzdkY tqdkyg omvGefjrifhjrwfonhf tqihfodkYvnf; ra&muf
Edkif[k ,lqawmfrlMuonf/ tjynfhtpkH xdk;xGif;odjrifjcif;[lonfudk wpfckwnf;aom tESpfom& ({aum "ar®m)
182
taejzihf ,lqcJhonf /
v,fwDq&mawmfonfvnf; tjcm;ynm&SifESihf xif&Sm;onhfw&m;"r®a[mMum;ol wpfyg;jzpfNyD; q&mawmf
a&;om;onhf v,fwD'DyeDusrf;rsm;aMumifha&m atmifjrifonhf ur®|mef;usihfBuHtm;xkwfrIaMumihfyg xif&Sm;ausmf
Mum;onf/ q&mawmfu Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf\w&m;udk em,lMuNyD;aemuf? vltrsm;onf edAÁmefwGif trSefwu,f&Sd
aom "r®"mwfwpfrsKd;&SdNyD; ,if;onf a&muf&Sd&efcufcJaomw&m;jzpfaMumif; oabmaygufoGm;Muonf[k azmfjy
cJhonf/ ur®|mef;w&m;tm;xkwfNyD; ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm yg&rDjznhfusihfcJholrsm;onfom edAÁmefodkYa&mufEdkifMuonf/
v,fwDq&mawmfu edAÁmef\obm0onf tvGefeufeJ(twd*rÇD&jzpf)NyD; tvGefodEdkifcJ(twd'k'´ojzpf)onf[k
tav;teufqdkcJhonf/ rNrJonhf tedpöobm0? cE¨ig;yg;\'ku©obm0ESihf cPwdkif;wGif jzpfay:vmonhf ol
183
aumifudk,faumifr&SdrI (tewå) obm0wdkYudk rodjrifbJ edAÁmef\oEÅdokcudk &&efcufcJonf /
edAÁmefudk odjrifjcif;onf Ak'¨ESihf &[EÅmyk*¾KdvfwdkYwGif xif&Sm;aomaMumihf Ak'¨0g'DwdkYonf edAÁmeftm; ¤if;wdkY\
vGwfajrmufrI aemufqkH;yef;wkdiftjzpf todtrSwfjyKMuNyD; ,if;onf vlom;wdkY\ todÓPfjzihf rodrDEdkif[k
,kHMunfMuonf/ odkY&mwGif edAmÁ efudk rnfolrQr&Edkif[k qdkvdkonfr[kwfacs/ trSefpifppf pdwfydkif;qdkif&m &&SdrIwpf
&yfrygbJ qdkvdkonfrSm r*fÓPfzdkvfÓPfudkr&bJ ,if;Nidrf;csrf;onhf obm0udk em;vnf&efrjzpfEdkifacs/ ,if;
tqifhudk todÓPfappm;rIoufoufjzihf odjrif&efvnf; rjzpfEdkifacs/ edAÁmeftm; 'óeoabmtm;jzihf qdwf
okH;jcif;? bmrQr&Sdjcif;? jywfpJjcif;ponfjzihf azmfjyMuonf/ þazmfjycsufü bmrQr&Sdjcif; okn[laom ,lq
csufonf r[m,meAk'¨0g'DwdkY\ t"dua[mMum;csufjzpfNyD; jywfpJjcif; csKyfNidrf;jcif;[k ,lqcsufrSm ax&0g'Ak'¨
0g'DwdkY\ txl;jyKa[mMum;csufjzpfonf/ odkY&mwGif r[m,meAk'¨0g'onf tESpfom&rSefokn0g'udk tcdkfiftrm
qdkNyD; oknoabmw&m;udk rSefuefonhf xdk;xGif;odjrifrItqihf &&Sdjcif;tjzpf azmfjyMuonf/ rm,mtdyfrufrS
184
Edk;xjcif;udk ]tppftrSefw&m;\ NcKHvTmudkzGifhvSpfjcif;} [kac:onf / tDAefpf 0if;wfpf (Evens Wentz) bmomjyef
qdkonhf ]r[mvGwfajrmufjcif;} (Great Liberation) trnf&Sd wdAufusrf;pmtvdkt& tESpfom&rSef ,lqcsufudk
atmufygtwdkif; awGY&onf –

em*&ZÆKea&;om;cJhonf[k ,lq&aom t0wHouokwå (Avatamsaka Sutra) wGif azmfjyonhftwdkif;


tppftrSefw&m; odkYr[kwf ppfrSefaomtESpfom&onf oHo&mü&Sdaomt&mrsm; odkYr[kwf owå0grsm;\
aemufzufwGif&Sdonfh obm0tm;vkH;\ tajccH? wnfNrJ odkYr[kwf rajymif;vJonhf rlvtppftrSefw&m;?
aysmufysufvG,fjcif; rppfrSefjcif;r[kwfonhf obm0w&m;jzpfaom jrLrIefrJhtMunf"mwfESihf qufEG,f\/
aMu;rkHwGif ½kyfykHrsm;xif[yfouJhodkY tESpfom&tppftrSefonf obm0tm;vkH;udk zrf;udkifNyD; t&mtm;
vkH;ESihf ouf&Sdrsm;onf ,if;w&m;twGif;ESihf teD;wGifwnf&SdMu\/ ,if;onf Ak'¨bk&m;&SifwdkY&&Sdonhf

181
a½Tusifq&mawmf? *rÇD&m*rÇD&r[medAÁKw'DyeD (&efukef? jrefrm? omoema&;OD;pD;Xme? 2000) 173/
182
ñTef;NyD;? 173/
183
v,fwDq&mawmf? edAÁme'DyeD (&efukef? jrefrm? omoema&;OD;pD;Xme? 1975) 711/
184
Rinpoche, 2.

68
tESpfom&tppftrSefjzpf\/ ,if;tESpfom&rS arG;zGm;onfh xif&Sm;jzpfay:vmaom pMu0VmrSwpfqihf
ae&mwdkif;wGifwnf&Sd\/ twm;tqD;rJh tmumowpfvTm;ü xm0&wnf&Sd\/ rjzpfay:atmif wm;jrpfí
r&/ Ak'¨wpfql\tESpfom&r&Sdaom ae&m[lí pMu0Vmür&Sd/ Ak'¨tESpfom&onf tmumo\ tmumo
185
rsm;twGif; us,fjyefYpGm wnf&Sdvsuf xm0&xif&Sm;\ /

edAÁmef\ obm0rSefudk cGJjcrf;pdwfjzm&ef r[m,meAk'¨0g'DwdkYonf y&dedAmÁ ef0ifpHMuNyD;jzpfaom a&S;bk&m;&Sif


wdkY\ txnfudk,ftESpfom&udk udk,fpm;jyKaom w&m;ukd,frSeftjrifudk pGJudkifxm;Muonf/ a&SUwGif azmfjyNyD;jzpf
onhftwdkif; Ak'¨bk&m;&SifwdkY\ txnfudk,ftrSefonf udk,fcE¨mokH;rsKd; (Bwdum,)tjzpf oauFwjyKonfh
ykHoP²mef okH;rsKd;jzihf ay:vmonf/ ,if;wdkYrSm 1) "r®um, (rajymif;vJaom Ak'¨udk,f? ,if;onf ykHoP²mefr&Sd?
xm0&wnf&Sd\? aAm"dÓPf\ tESpfom&jzpf\/) 2) oarÇm*um, (okH;aqmifcHpm;onhfukd,f? ewfjynfavmu
odkYr[kwf Ak'¨bkHwGif wnf&Sdaom aAm"ÓPf\ toGifoP²mef) ESihf 3) edr®meum, (xif&Sm;jzpfay:vmonhf
ukd,fcE¨m? ousrkedAk'¨tjzpf ordkif;wGifxif&Sm;&SdcJhaom Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwftjzpf vlYavmuü jyefvnfarG;zGm;onhf
udk,fcE¨m)wdkYjzpfonf/ ,if;Bwdum,,lqcsufudk tajccHvsuf r[m,meAk'¨0g'D ydkrdktwdtusqdkaomf okc0wD
*kdPf; (Pure Land) Ak'¨0g'DwdkYu rajymif;vJaom Ak'¨\txnfudk,fonf Ak'¨bkHwGifxm0&wnf&SdaMumif; ajymqdkMu
rnfrSm oHo,jzpfzG,frvdkacs/ Ak'¨bk&m;&SifwdkY\ txnfudk,fonf Ak'¨bkHwGifwnf&Sdonf/ Ak'¨\txnfudk,fudk
jyif;jy wnfrSefonhf ,kHMunfcsuf&Sdol Ak'¨0g'DwdkYom Ak'¨bk&m;&Sifudk jrifEdkifonf/
r[m,meAk'¨0g'DwdkYESihfrwlbJ ax&0g'Ak'¨0g'DwdkYurl Ak'¨bkHwGif Ak'¨txnfudk,fwnf&SdaMumif; txl;jyKí r
azmfjyMuay/ ¤if;wdkYtaejzihf Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwfonf edAÁmefodkY0ifpHoGm;NyDjzpfí pdwfykdif;a&m ½kyfydkif;yg ykHoP²mef jzpf
ay:vmjcif;r&Sdawmhay/ odkY&mwGif omvGefjrihfjrwfonhf obm0onf trSefyif qufvufíwnf&Sdaeonf/ ,if;
omvGefjrihfjrwfonhf tajctaeonf ykHoP²mefr&Sd/ ,if;½kyfvGeftajctaewGif Ak'¨bk&m;&Sifrsm; odkYr[kwf
&[EÅmrsm; y&dedAÁmefpHNyD;aemuf <uif;usef&pfonhf txnfudk,f "mwfobm0wpfckr&Sdacs/ awGYBuKHprf;oyfí r&
bJ Nidrf;csrf;wnfNidrfjcif;&SdNyD; obm0tm;jzihf tvGefodrfarGUaom w&m;wpfckomusef&pfonf/ qdkvdkonfrSm
bk&m;&[EÅmyk*¾Kdvfrsm;tygt0if aAm"dÓPfudk&NyD;olrsm;\ (y&dedAÁmefpHNyD;aemuf) txnfudk,fwGif ½kyfydkif;ESihf
pdwfydkif;oabm r&Sd? odkYaomf w&m;xl; ("r®0daoo) odkYr[kwf "r®"mwfoabm ("r®"mwk)om&Sdonf[k jzpfonf/
,if;odkYjzihf edAÁme"mwfudk edAÁmeftajctaewGif wnf&Sdaeonhf obm0vGeftajccHw&m;wpfck r&Sd[k em;vnf&
onf/ xdkYjyif edAÁmefonf okH;q,fhwpfbkH\ tjyifwGi&f Sdonf/ trSefaomf edAÁmef\ aemufqkH;tajctaeonf
186
t½lybkHwGif eda&m"ormywfudk 0ifpm;aom &[EÅmyk*¾Kdvfwpfa,mufESihf qufpyfrI&Sdonf /
eda&m"ormywf[lonf pdwfapwodufwdkY csKyfNidrf;aom pdwfydkif;b0&&SdrI tajctaewpf&yfjzpfonf/ ed
a&m"ormywftcdkufwGif onm? a0'emr&Sd/ ½kyfESihfpdwfjzpfpOf jzpfay:jcif;r&Sd/ eda&m"ormywfudk ckepf&uf
0ifpm;Edkifonf/ 0dok'¨dr*fusrf;tvdkt& pdwfpGrf;&nfr&SdolwdkY eda&m"ormywfudk r0ifpm;Edkif/ psmef&Spfyg; odkY
r[kwf ormywf&Spfyg;ydkif&Sif (tem*grdESihft&[wå) r*fÓPfzdkvfÓPfudk &olrsm;om eda&m"ormywfudk 0ifpm;
Edkifonf/ ormywf[lonf psmefudk&jcif;[k t"dyÜg,f&SdNyD; ½lypsmefav;yg;ESihf t½lypsmefav;yg;[laom psmef&Spfyg;
187
udk qdkvdkonf / þtcsufESifh ywfoufí 0dok'¨dr*fü atmufygtwdkif; azmfjyonf-

ykxkZOfyk*¾Kdvfrsm;? aomwmyefyk*¾Kdvfrsm;? ou'g*grfyk*¾Kdvfrsm;? oku0© dyóu (psmefr&ol) rsm;jzpfMuonfh


tem*grfESihf &[EÅmyk*¾Kdvfrsm;onf ,if; (eda&m"ormywf)udk r0ifpm;Edkifacs/ odkY&mwGif ormywf
&Spfyg;udk &&SdMuonfh tem*grfESihf &[EÅmyk*¾Kdvfrsm;om 0ifpm;Edkif\/ odkYjzpfí y#dorÇd'gr*¾ygVd (pm-3) ü
]AdkvfESpfyg; (orxAkdvf? 0dyóemAdkvf)ESihf jynfhpkHjcif;? ocFg&okH;yg; ('kwd,psmef0ifpm;oltzdkY 0pDocFg&?
185
Ibid, 3.
b'´EÅ"r®ygvaw¬&? 0dok'¨r*¾r[m#Dum? twGJ 2? (&efukef? jrefrm? omoema&;OD;pD;Xme? 1977) 525/ ,'d t½lay eda&m"H
186

ormyaZÆ,s? pdwåapwodumeH tnó p uópd tbm0awm tynwådaum ba0,s tEkyg'daoom, edAmÁ e"mwk,m y&dedAÁK
wo'daom/ a½Tusifq&mawmf? *rÇD&m*rÇD&r[medAÁK'DyeDusrf;? 288/
187
Bhikkhu Nanamoli, trans., The Path of Purification: Visuddhimagga (Kandy, Sri Lanka: Buddhist Publication Soceety, 1991), 731-735.

69
pwkw¬psmef0ifpm;oltzdkY um,ocFg&? eda&m"ormywf0ifpm;oltzdkY pdwåocFg&) wdkY\Nidrf;jcif;wdkYaMumihf
ÓPp&d, q,fhajcmufyg;? orm"dp&d, udk;yg;wdkYjzihf 0oDabmftjzpfodkYa&mufaom ynmonf eda&m"
ormywfudk 0ifpm;Edkif\}[k rdefYawmfrl\/ azmfjyNyD;t&nfcsif;rsm;udk ormywf&Spfyg;udk&onhf tem*grf
&[EÅmrSwpfyg; tjcm;yk*¾Kdvfrsm;ü rawGY&acs/ xdakY Mumihf ,if;eda&m"ormywfudk tem*grf &[EÅmrSwpfyg;
188
tjcm;yk*¾Kdvfrsm; r0ifpm;Ekdifjcif;jzpf\ /

txufygazmfjycsuft& t&Sifr[mAk'¨aCmoonf eda&m"ormywfudk 0ifpm;Edkifol yk*¾KdvfESpfrsKd;om&Sd


aMumif; &Sif;vif;pGm ñTefjyonf/ ,if;ESpOf D;rSm tem*grfESihf &[EÅmyk*¾Kdvfrsm;jzpfonf/ xdkyk*¾KdvfESpfrsKd;onf psmef
ormywf&SpfrsKd;udk uRrf;usifvdr®mrIpGrf;&nfaMumihf eda&m"ormywfudk 0ifpm;Edkifjcif;jzpfonf/ þae&mü eda&m"
ormywfudk 0ifpm;olwpfa,mufonf aoolwpfa,mufESihf rsm;pGmjcm;em;rIr&Sdacs/ eda&m"ormywf0ifpm;ol
ESihf aoolrnfodkYjcm;em;oenf;/ 0dok'd¨r*fü rSwfwrf;wifxm;ykHrSm atmufygtwdkif;jzpfonf –

igh&Sif? &[ef;aovGefaomtcg ¤if;\ um,ocFg&onfcsKyfNidrf;\/ ¤if;\0pDocFg&onf csKyfNidrf;\/ pdwå


ocFg&onf csKyfNidrf;\/ toufonfukef\/ taiGYonf Nidrf;\/ £a`E´wdkY ysufpD;\/ onm a0'emwdkY
csKyfonhf eda&m"ormywfudk 0ifpm;onhf&[ef;onfvnf; um,ocFg& csKyfNidrf;\/ ¤if;\0pDocFg& csKyf
189
Nidrf;\/ pdwåocFg& csKyfNidrf;\/ toufrlum;rukef/ taiGYonf rNidrf;/ £a`E´wdkYonf rysufpD;ukef /

edAÁmefonf eda&m"ormywf0ifpm;onhf tajctaeESihfwlaomaMumihf awG;ac:ajrmfjrifrIt& Ak'¨0g'Dr[kwf


olwdkYtm; ydkrdk½IyfaxG;oGm;onftxd odrfarGYeufeJonf[k Ak'¨0g'DwdkY,kHMunfMuonf/ ,if;onf cGJjcrf;pdwfjzm
onhf ½IaxmifhrS a0zefqef;ppfzG,f wpf&yfjzpfvmonf/

edAÁmef[lonf tb,fenf;
ax&0g'ESihf r[m,meAk'¨0g'ESpfcktMum; edAÁmeft,ltqESihfywfoufí uGJjym;csuf&Sdaomfvnf; tpOftvmESpf
&yfvkH;u edAÁmefwnf&SdaMumif;udk vufcHMuonf/ tpOftvmESpfck\ ,lqcsufudk twnfjyK&ef edAÁmef[lonf
rnfodkYaom t&mjzpfaMumif; avhvm&efvdkonf/ a&S;OD;pGm þavhvmcsufonf ]edAÁmef[lonf tb,fenf;} [l
aom ar;cGef;udk wYkHjyef&efvdktyfonf/ trSefyif ,if;odkYaom ½kd;½dk;pif;pif; ar;cGef;wpfckudk wkHYjyef&ef twGJrsm;pGm
ygonfh pmtkyfudk a&;&vdrfhrnfjzpfonf/ edAÁmef[lonf 'óe½IaxmifhrS a0zefzG,fjzpfNyD; oDtdk&Dt& tjiif;yGm;
zG,fjzpfaeojzihf ,if;½kd;pif;onhf ar;cGef;twGuf aMumif;usKd;cdkifvkHonhf tajzwpf&yfudk rnfolrQa&;om;Edkif vdrfh
rnfr[kwfacs/ rsm;rsm;&Sif;av zwf½Iolrsm; ½IwfaxG;av jzpfoGm;zG,f&Sdonf/ 0gvfydkvm &m[kvm (oD[dkVf
&[ef;awmf) u edAÁmeftaMumif; ¤if;\tjrifudk þodkYrQa0xm;onf ]xkdar;cGef;twGuf wpfckwnf;aom aMumif;
usKd;ckdifvkHonhf tajzrSm ,if;ar;cGef;udk pum;vkH;rsm;jzihf tjynhftpkH auseyfoGm;avmufatmif vkH;0rajzEdkifyg
[k jzpf\/ taMumif;rl vlom;wdkYbmompum;onf edAmÁ ef[laom tEÅdropöm odkYr[kwf y&rw¬opömw&m;\
190
obm0trSefudk rzGifhqdkEdkifavmufatmif (a0g[m&) enf;yg;aomaMumifhjzpfonf} / odkYjzpfí edAÁmef[lonf
rnfonhft&mjzpfonfudk ravhvmrD edAÁmef\tajctaeudk ydkrdkem;vnfEdkif&ef edAÁmef\ vu©P? &oESihf
ypöKyÜ|mewdkYudk em;vnfoihfonf/
oar®m[0daem'eD (0db*Ft|uxm) trnf&Sd Ak'¨0g'usrf;ü edAÁmef\vu©Pmudk ]oEÅdvu©PH edAÁmeH (edAÁmef
191
onf Nidrf;at;jcif;vu©Pm&Sd\} [kazmfjyonf/ oEÅd (Nidrf;csrf;rI)[lonf þü udavomq,fyg;rS vGwf

188
Ibid, 731. ( 0dok'¨d-| 2 ? 344)
189
Ibid, 731.
190
Rahula, Walpola. What the Buddha Taught (1959; reprint, London: The Gordon Fraser Gallery Ltd., 1978), 35.
191
b'´EÅAk'¨aCmoaw¬&? oar®m[0daem'eD (0db*F)t|uxm (&efukef? jrefrm? omoema&;OD;pDXme? 1985)? 79/
70
192 193
ajrmufNyD; rD;q,fhwpfyg; tqkH;pGef Nidrf;at;rIudk qdkvdkonf/ ykxkZOfyk*¾Kdvfrsm;onf tvdk&r®ufrsm;&SdNyD;
twGif;tjyifyom'½kyfrsm;jzihf aysmf½TifcHpm;vsuf ,if;wdkYudk pGJvef;onf/ ,if;odkYjzpfojzihf xdkudavomtvsOf
onf ykxkZOfowå0gtm;vkH;udk aqmif,loGm;onf/ ykxkZOfwdkYonf arG;zGm;jcif;? aojcif;? emusifcHcufjcif;ESihf pdk;
&drfylaqG;jcif;wdkY\ aus;uRef vkH;0jzpfoGm;Muonf/ t&d,myk*¾Kdvfrsm;rSmrl xdkodkYr[kwfbJ twGif;tjyifyom'
½kyfrsm;jzihf aysmf½TifcHpm;rIrjyKrlí ,if;wdkYudk rpGJvef;acs/ odkYjzihf ¤if;wdkYtm; avmb? arm[ESihf avmuDaysmf½TifrI
rsm;udk wyfrufonfhwPSmrS vGwfajrmufNyD; Nidrf;csrf;onhf yk*¾Kdvfrsm;tjzpf qdk&onf/ wPSmNidrf;csKyfrIESihfywf
oufí t&Sifem*aoerax&fu atmufyguJhodkY rdefYMum;cJhonf –

xdkt&d,myk*¾KdvftzdkY ,if;(tZÑwådu? Am[d&)tm,wewdkYudk rESpfouf rodrf;qnf; rwG,fwmojzihf


wPSmNidrf;\/ wPSmNidrf;aomf pGJvef;rI Oyg'geNidrf;\/ Oyg'geNidrf;aomf b0Nidrf;\/ b0Nidrf;aomf Zmwd
Nidrf;\/ ZmwdNidrf;aomf Z&m? r&P? aomu? y&da'0? 'ku©? a'greó? Oyg,mowdkYNidrf;\/ ,if;odkYjzihf
194
,if;'ku© tpkonf Nidrf;\/ rif;BuD;? þenf;jzihf csKyfNidrf;jcif;onf edAÁmefrnf\ /

txufyg azmfjycsufESifhywfoufí csKyfNidrf;jcif;[lonf t&mcyfodrf; tvkH;pkHcsKyfaysmufoGm;jcif;udk qdkvdk


onfr[kwfbJ arG;aooHo&mü owå0gudk jzpfay:apaom udavomtnpftaMu;wdkY csKyfNidrf;oGm;jcif;udk qdkvdk
aMumif;em;vnf&onf/ y#doaE¨aejcif;r&Sdawmhojzihf aojcif;r&Sd[kjzpfonf/ odkYjzifh edAÁmefudk oEÅd (Nidrf;at;
jcif;) vu©Pm [kazmfjyjcif;jzpfonf/ þae&mü edAÁmef\rlvt"dyÜm,frSm qdwfokH;jcif; odrkY [kwf tvkH;pkH Nidrf;
aysmufoGm;jcif;ESihf rywfoufaMumif; oDtdk&Dt& &Sif;vif;onf/ edAÁmef[lonf udavomrD;rsm;csKyfNidrf;jcif;ESihf
'ku©taxGaxGwdkY\ jywfpJjcif;aMumihf jzpfay:vmaom tvkH;pkHNidrf;csrf;rI y&rw¬opömjzpfonf/ azmfjyygt"dyÜm,f
t& edAÁmef[lonf tvkH;pkH csKyfaysmufoGm;jcif; r[kwfacs/
edAÁmef\&o (vkyfaqmifcsuf)udk ]tpöKwd &oH} (aojcif;rJhtajctae odkYr[kwf xm0&NrJonfh csrf;om)[kqdk
onf/ þazmfjycsufrSm r*fÓPfzdkvfÓPfudk &NyD;olrsm;onf tqkH;pGefNidrf;csrf;rIudk &NyD;jzpfojzihf arG;aooHo&m
ü b0wpfzef jyefjzpfrvmawmhaMumif; qdkvdkonf/ tqkH;pGef Nidrf;csrfrItajctaeudk jyqdk&mü Oyg'f (jzpfqJ) XD
(wnfqJ) bif (ysufqJ) [laom cPi,fokH;csuf obm0jzpfpOfEiS hf ywfoufrIr&Sdacs/ edAÁmefwGif tqkH;pGef Nidrf;
csrf;rIobm0onf ysufjcif;ESihf ywfoufrIr&Sd/ odkYjzpfí þae&mwGif tqkH;pGeNf idrf;csrf;rI (edAÁmef)ESifh xm0&wnf
NrJ0g'(r[mtwå)wdkYudk cGJjcm;&efvdkonf/ xm0&wnfNrJ0g'onf twå(0dnmOfaumif)0g'ESihf wdkuf½dkufywf ouf
onf/ ,if;,lqcsuft& twå(0dnmOfaumif)onf xm0&rysufrpD;wnfNrJvsuf ,if;onf zefqif;&Sif odkY
r[kwf jA[®mESihf nDñGwfaygif;pnf;jcif;ESihf qufEG,fonf/ trSefpifppf twåoDtdk&Donf pMu0Vmzefqif;&Sif odkY
r[kwf jA[®m,lqcsufESihf ywfoufaomfvnf; Ak'¨0g'DwdkYurl edAÁmefonf ,if;odkYaom xm0&twå odkYr[kwf
xm0&zefqif;&Sif odkYr[kwf r[mjA[®mESihf rqdkifaMumif; tckdiftrmqdkonf/
edAÁmef\oGifjyif (ypöKyÜ|mef)rSm tedrdwåypöKyÜ|me (toGifoP²meftm;jzihf edrdwfykHrJh) jzpfonf/ qdkvdkonfrSm
r*fÓPfzdkvfÓPfudk &NyD;olrsm;ü edAÁmefonf edrdwfvu©Pmr&Sd? t½G,ftpm;rJh\? toGifoP²mefray:? jyKjyifcH
oabmr&Sd? ysufpD;jcif;r&Sd[k qdkvdkonf/ edAÁmef\obm0onf ocFg& (emru©E¨m) ESihf ocFw (jyKjyifcHb0) wdkY\

192
udavom[lonf pdwfudk npfnL;apaom? raumif;aom t&nftcsif;rsm;jzpfonf/ xdkw&m;rsm;udk,fwdkif npfnL;NyD; pdwfESihft
wljzpfaom apwodufrsm;udk npfnL;apaomaMumihf udavom[kac:aom w&m;q,fyg;&Sdonf/ ,if;wdkYrSm 1/ avmb (wyf
rufrI) 2/ a'go 3/ arm[ 4/ rme (axmifvTm;jcif;) 5/ 'd|d (t,lrSm;jcif;) 6/ 0dpdudpäm (rqkH;jzwfEdkifjcif;) 7/ xde (pdwf\
xdkif;rIdif;jcif;) 8/ O'´pö (jyefYvGihfjcif;) 9/ t[d&du (raumif;rIjyK&ef r&Sufjcif;) 10/ taemwåyÜ (raumif;jyK&ef rxdwfvefYjcif;)
Nanatiloka-thera, Buddhist Dictionayry, 86-87.
193
rD;q,fhwpfrsKd;&Sdonf/ xdkw&m;wdkY\ pGrf;&nfonf owå0gwdkYtm; qif;&J'ku©a&mufapjcif;jzihf avmifuRrf;wwfaomaMumihf ,if;
w&m;wdkYudk rD;[kac:onf/ ,if;wdkYrSm 1/ &m* 2/ a'go 3/ arm[ 4/ Zmwd 5/ Z&m 6/ r&P 7/ aomu 8/ y&da'0 9/
ukd,f'ku© 10/ a'greó (pdwf'ku©) 11/ Oyg,mo wdkYjzpfonf/ b'´EÅAk'¨aCmoaw¬&? om&w¬yÜumoeD (oH,kwå)t|uxm
(&efukef? jrefrm? omoema&;OD;pDXme? 1987)? 85/
194
N. K. G. Mendis, ed., The Questions of King Milinda: An Abridgement of the Milindapanha (Kandy, Sri Lanka: Buddhist Publication Society,
1993), 57.

71
obm0rSjzpfay:&aomfvnf; edAÁmef\tEÅdrtajctaewGif edrdwfvu©Pm? t½G,ftpm;ESihf toGifoP²mef
195
r&Sd / xdkYjyif edAÁmef\obm0w&m;ESihf EIdif;,SOfEdkifaom tjcm;tvm;wlt&mr&Sdacs/ ]edAÁmefudk Oyrmay;&ef
jiif;ckH&ef taMumif;jy&ef rjzpfEdkif/ odkYr[kwf toGiftjyif ykHyef;oP²mefudk ñTefjyrnfh enf;vrf;r&Sd/ odkYr[kwf
196
oufwrf; t½G,ftpm;udk ñTefjy&ef rjzpfEkdif} / edAÁmef\wefzdk;ESihfywfoufí a[mMum;&mwGif Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf
u edAÁmef[lonf rnfodkYaomt&mjzpfaMumif; wynfhom0ursm;em;vnfEdkifrnfh azmfjycsufwpf&yfudk twdtus
>rufMum;awmfrlcJhonf/ ,if;>rufMum;csufrSm atmufygtwdkif;jzpfonf –

0dnmPH ted'óeH? teEÅH oAÁawm ybH/


{w¬ tmayg p yx0D? awaZm 0ga,m e *g"wd/
{w¬ 'DCÍö &óÍö? tEkH xlvH okbmokbH/
{w¬ emrÍö ½lyÍö? taooH Oy½kZÑwd/
197
0dnmPó eda&ma"e? {aw¬wH Oy½kZÑwd /
(rsufpdjzihf) rjrifaumif;aom (Oyg'f XD bif) tydkif;tjcm;r&Sdaom xuf0ef;usif qdyfurf;&Sdaom ÓPf
txl;jzihf odtyfaom edAÁmefonf&Sd\/ þ (edAÁmef)ü a& ajr rD;avonf rwnfay/ (edAÁmef)ü t&Snf
twdk ti,f tBuD; taumif; tqdk;onf r&Sday/ (edAÁmef)ü emrfESihf ½kyfonf t<uif;rJhcsKyf\/ (edAÁmef)ü
198
0dnmOf\csKyfjcif;aMumifh þ(emrfESihf½kyfonf) csKyf\ /
trSefpifppf edAÁmef\obm0onf tvGefeuf½Idif; us,fajymaomaMumifh ykxkZOfwdkYtzdkY odjrifem;vnf&ef r
jzpfEdkifacs/ ,if;odkYjzpf&onfrSm ,if;wdkYtaejzihf ur®|mef;½IrSwfjcif;jzihf r*fÓPfzdkvfÓPfudk r&ao;aomaMumihf
jzpfonf/ edAÁmef trSefwu,f rwnf&SdaomaMumihf r[kwfacs/ Oyrmwpfckqdk&rl rsufrjrifwpfOD;onf aeESihfv
udk jrif&efrjzpfEdkifouJhodkYwnf;/ þü aeESihfvtrSefwu,fr&SdaomaMumihf rsufrjrifyk*¾Kdvfonf ,if;wdkYudk
rjrifEdkifjcif;jzpfonf[k rqdkEdkifacs/ trSefpifppf aevwdkYrSm trSefw,fxif&Sm;&Sdvsuf rsufrjrifa,musfm;rSm uH
raumif;í ,if;wdkYudk awGY&eftjrifpGrf;&nf rJh&jcif;jzpfonf/ xdktwlyif ykxkZOfyk*¾Kdvfrsm;onf avmukwå&m
ynmr&Sdjcif;aMumifh edAÁmef\ y&rw¬obm0udk rodjcif;jzpfonf/ xdktaMumif;aMumihf tbd"r®w¬o*F[trnf&Sd
Ak'¨bmomusrf;pmü ]edAÁmeH ye avmukwå&ocFgwH pwkr*¾ÓaPe opädumwAÁH (edAÁmefudk avmukwå&[k trnf
199
emrjyKNyD; ,if;udk r*fÓPfav;yg;jzihf odjrifonf)[k twdtusqdkcJhonf /

edAÁmefonf rnfonhfae&mü wnf&Sdoenf;


ax&0g'Ak'¨bmomtvdkt& edAÁmef\jrihfjrwfrIobm0onf ae&mwdkif;wGifwnf&SdEdkifonf/ odkYwap ,if;onf
okH;q,fhfwpfbkHü ryg0ifacs/ r*fzdkvfÓPfxl;udk &NyD;olrsm;tzdkY ,if;wdkYuG,fvGefNyD;aemuf rnfonhft&yfürqdk
200
wnf&Sdonf[kqdkonf / ,if;onf edAÁmefESihfywfoufí aqG;aEG;zG,ftcsufjzpfonf/ taMumif;rl r*fzdkvfÓPf
xl;udk &NyD;olyk*¾Kdvfwdkif;wGif edAÁmefonf rqGuwnf;u&Sdaeaom t&nftaoG;tjzpf wnf&Sdonfr[kwfbJ uG,f
vGefNyD;aemuf edAÁmefodkYa&mufoGm;NyD;rSom edAÁmefay:aygufvmaomaMumifhjzpfonf/ edAÁmefonf owå0gwpfOD;
wpfa,muf jzpfay:rvmrD wnf&SdESihfNyD;jzpfaom okH;q,fhwpfbkHESihf jcm;em;onf/ trSefpifppf edAÁmefonf r&SdrD
uwnf;u wnf&SdESifhaomw&m; r[kwfacs/ qdkvdkonfrSm t&d,myk*¾KdvfwdkY r*fzdkvfÓPfxl;udkr&rD edAÁmefay:r
vmao;[k qdkvdkonf/ edAÁmefonf prf;oyfcHtajctaewpf&yftjzpf wnf&Sdonfr[kwfbJ obm0vGefw&m;t

195
Ibid, 48.
196
Q-Mi, 130-131.
197
oDvu©E¨0*¾ygVd? 'DCedum, (&efukef? jrefrm? omoema&;OD;pD;Xme? 1993)? 213/
198
oDvu©E¨0*¾ygVdjrefrmjyef? 'DCedum,f (&efukef? jrefrm? omoema&;OD;pD;Xme? 1995)? 263/
199
Ac-ab, 258.
200
G-M-Ni, 144.

72
201
aejzihf wnf&Sdonf / odkYjzpfí ax&0g'Ak'¨bmom½Iaxmifht&aomf edAÁmeftm; [dkae&m odkYr[kwf þae&mwGif
&Sdonf[k[k wdusaomae&mudkñTefjy&ef cJ,Of;onf/ r*fzdkvfÓPfxl;&NyD;olrsm;tzdkY edAÁmefonf ae&mwdkif;wGif&Sd
Ekdifonf[kom qdkEdkifzG,f&Sdonf/
,if;aqG;aEG;csufESihfywfoufí wpfcgu rdvdE´rif;BuD;u t&Sifem*aoerax&ftm; ar;avQmufzl;onf -
]ta&SUt&yf? awmift&yf? taemuft&yf? ajrmuft&yf? txuft&yf? atmuft&yf? zDvmt&yfwdkYwGif
rnfonhf t&yfü edAÁmef&Sdygoenf;}/ t&Sifem*aoeu rif;BuD;tm; þodkYajzMum;onf - ]rif;BuD;? ta&SUt&yf?
awmift&yf? taemuft&yf? ajrmuft&yf? txuft&yf? atmuft&yf? zDvmt&yfwdkYwGif edAÁmefwnf&Sdonhf ae
202
&mr&Sdyg} / ,if;aemuf rdvdE´rif;BuD;u tu,fí edAÁmefonf rnfonhft&yfwGifrQ r&SdcJhvQif edAÁmef[lonf r&Sd
onfomru edAÁmefudk odjrifNyD;olrsm;onfvnf; rSm;,Gif;pGm odjrifjcif;omjzpfaMumif; jiif;qdkonf/ xdkYjyif rdvdE´
rif;u tu,fí urÇmajray:wGif aumufyJoD;ESHxGufonhf v,fajrrsm;? toD;oD;onhfopfyifrsm;? ausmufrsuf
wGif;rsm;&SdcJhvQif xdkt&mrsm;xGufonhf ae&mwpfck&Sd&rnfjzpfonf? xdktwl tu,fí edAÁmef&SdonfqdkvQif edAÁmef
twGuf ae&mwpfck&Sd&rnf? odkYr[kwfbJ edAÁmefjzpfay:&ef ae&mr&Sd[kqdkbdrl xdk;xGif;odjrif&aom edAÁmef[lonf
203
r&Sd[k jiif;csufxkwfonf / rdvdE´rif;\ jiif;qdkcsufudk t&Sifem*aoerax&fu atmufygtwkdif; wkHYjyefonf-

rif;BuD;? edAÁmefudk odkrSD;odrf;qnf;xm;&ef ae&mr&Sdyg/ odkYwap edAÁmefonf wnf&Sdyg\/ a,medaom


reodum&jzifh rSefuefpGm usihfBuHtm;xkwfolonf edAÁmefudk odjrif\/ rif;BuD;? rD;udk xdef;odrf;xm;rnfh
ae&mr&Sdaomfvnf; rD;onfwnf&Sdyg\/ vlwpfa,muf wkwfacsmif;ESpfckudk yGwfwdkufygu rD;udk&&Sdyg\/
xdktwlyif edAÁmefudk xdef;odrf;xm;rnfh ae&mr&Sdaomfvnf; a,medaomreodum&jzifh rSefuefpGm usihfBuH
204
tm;xkwfolonf edAÁmefudk odjrifyg\ /

ax&0g'½Iaxmifht&aomf edAÁmefwGif tcsdefESihf tmuo"mwfr&Sd[k qdkonf/ taMumif;rl tcsdefonf y&


rw¬opömr[kwfbJ ,lqcsufrQomjzpfaomaMumifhwnf;/ edAÁmefudk tESpfom&tm;jzihf umvtpESihf tqkH;r&Sd[k
,lqonf/ okdY&mwGif ocFg&avmu aeYpOfb0ü twdwf ypöKyÜef tem*wf[k umv&Sdonf/ ,if;,lqcsufESihf
ywfoufí ax&0g'Ak'¨0g'DwdkYu ac:a0:ajymqdk&eftwGuf or®KwdtokH;tEIef; odkYr[kwf or®Kwdopömtm;jzihf
om ajymqkdEdkifaomfvnf; edAÁmefrlum; umvESihf rywfoufbJ tNrJwrf;ypöKyÜefomjzpfaMumif; jiif;qdkEdkifonf/
txufwGif azmfjyNyD;onhftwdkif; edAmÁ ef[lonf t&yfa'o wnf&Sdonhfae&m r&Sd[k qdkonf/ þü Ak'¨0g'DwdkY ,kH
MunfonfrSm pdwfonf umvudk MumjrihfrItydkif;taejzifh a&wGufNyD; tmumoudk ae&mXmetjzpf owfrSwf
aomaMumihf tcsdefESihftmumo[lonfudk pdwfjzihfñTefjyjcif;jzpfonf/ ,if;onf pdwfESihf qufEG,f½kHrQomjzpf
onf/ "r®o*FPDt|uxm (t|omvdeDt|uxm) tvdkt& umv[lonf tcsdefESifhpdwfwdkY\ eD;uyfaomquf
EG,frIwpf&yfjzpfonf/ odkYwap tcsdeEf Sihf pdwf,lqcsufudk obm0tm;jzihfwnf&Sdaom qufEG,frItjzpf azmfjy
onf/ "r®o*FPDt|uxmü atmufygtwdkif; azmfjyonf –

ora, ed'´dod pdwåH? pdawåe or,H rked/


205
ed,arwGme 'DaywkH? "ar® ww¬ yab'awm /
bk&m;&Sifonf tcsdefjzihf pdwfudk azmfjy\/ pdwfjzihf tcsdefudk azmfjy\/ ,if;odkYaom t"dyÜm,fzGifhqdkcsufjzihf
206
azmfjy&ef þü obm0w&m;wdkYudk tjym;tm;jzihf pDpOf\ /

201
Ibid, 55.
202
Q-Mi, 136.
203
Ibid, 136-137.
204
Ibid, 137.
205
b'´EÅAk'¨aCmoaw¬&? "r®o*FPDt|uxm (&efukef? jrefrm? omoema&;OD;pD;Xme? 1992)? 99/
206
Nyanaponika thera, trans., Abhidhamma Studies (Boston: Wisdom Publications, 1998), 93.

73
edAÁmefwGif pdwfr&Sdojzifh edAÁmefü tcsdeftaMumif;ajymqdk&ef rvdkawmhacs/ edAÁmefudk rsufarSmufjyKNyD;olrsm;
tzdkY aemifb0ü pdwfESihfudk,fcE¨mr&SdvQif tcsdefESihftmumoudk ajymqdk&efvnf; rvkdawmhacs/ *rÇD&m*rÇD&r[m
edAÁKw'DyeDusrf;tvdkt& edAÁmefonf twdwftem*wfESihfrqdkifbJ tNrJwrf; ypöKyÜefwGif&Sdonf/
edAÁmef\ crf;em;ykHudk 0de,yd#u y&d0gygVdü azmfjyxm;ykHrSm ]edAÁmeH t&[awm *wd (edAÁmefonf &[EÅm
207
yk*¾KdvfwdkY uG,fvGefNyD;aemuf oGm;a&mufaom ae&mwnf;) [kjzpfonf/ *wd[laom a0g[m&rSm pmayenf;t&
]oGm;jcif;} ]b0c&D;} ]oGm;a&mufae&m}[kjzpfonf/ odkYwap þae&mü ,if;a0g[m&onf &[EÅmyk*¾KdvfwdkY uG,f
vGefNyD;aemuf oGm;a&muf&rnfh xl;uJjrifhjrwfaomae&mudk qdkvkdonf/
azmfjyygygVd0gusudk y&d0gt|uxmü þodkY t"dyÜm,fzGifhqdkonf ]okpd&rÜd XwGm ye edAÁmeH t&[awm *wd
cDPmo0ó t&[awm tEkyg'daooedAÁme"mwk {uHaoe *wDwd taw¬m (edAÁmefonf xl;jcm;onfh w&m;
"r®taejzihf xm0&wnf&SdaomaMumifh &[EÅmolawmfpifrsm;\ jrihfjrwfonhfae&m odkYr[kwf aojcif;uif;onhf
ae&mtjzpfjyqdkvsuf b0wnf&SdrI t<uif;cyfodrf;csKyfNidrf;rIjzihf vGefuJxl;jrwfonhf "mwfobm0tjzpf ,lq
208
onf)} / þae&mü xl;uJjrifhjrwfonhfae&m[lonf ab;tEÅ&m,fESihf aojcif;r&SdawmhbJ owå0gtm;vkH;wdkY
tm; ocFg&w&m;wdkY\ jyKjyifjcif;rS uif;a0;onhfae&mjzpfonf/
a½Tusifq&mawmf\ tvdkt& t&wår*fÓPf zdkvfÓPfxl;udk &&SdNyD;olrsm;onf edAÁmefwGifwnf&SdMuaom
aMumihf edAÁme"mwfobm0onf vlYavmu ewfavmu jA[®mavmuowå0grsm;ESihf wjcm;pDjzpfonf/ taMumif;
rl xdkyk*¾Kdvfrsm;onf omrefvlewfjA[®mowå0grsm; r[kwfMuaomaMumihfwnf;/ jrifawGUEkdifaomowå0grsm;\
edrdwftoGifoP²mefrsm;ü ryg0ifaomaMumihfvnf; xdkyk*¾Kdvfrsm;tm; owå0g[kyif ra&wGufEdkifacs/ odkYwap
xdkyk*¾KdvfwdkYü ½kyfemrfw&m;rsm; vkH;0csKyfNidrf;aomfvnf; edAÁmefwnf&SdrIudk uif;qdwfrI (wkpä)? bmrQr&SdrI (tbm0)
209
tjzpf r,lqacs / þ,lqcsufü ax&0g'Ak'¨0g'onf Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwfrsm;ESihf &[EÅmyk*¾KdvfwdkY xm0&touf
&Sif oDwif;okH;aexdkifvsuf&Sdaom Ak'¨e,fajrwpfckudk razmfjyacs/
odkY&mwGif rdvdE´rif;BuD;onf r[my&dedAÁmeNyD;aemuf Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf rnfonhfae&mwGif &Sdaeonfudk odvdk
cJhonf/ odkYjzpfí t&Sifem*aoetm; ]Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf wnf&Sdao;ygovm;} [kar;onf/ ]rif;BuD;? Ak'¨&Sifawmf
jrwf wnf&Sdygonf} [kt&Sifem*aoeu ajzonf/ ]t&Sifjrwf? odkYqdkvQif Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwftm; ñTefjyNyD; þae&m
210
odkYwnf;r[kwf xdkae&mwGif &Sdonf[k qdkEdkifygovm;} [k rif;BuD;u qufar;onf / ,if;ar;cGef;udk t&Sifem*
aoeu atmufygtwdkif; ajzMum;onf –

rif;BuD;? Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwfonf y#doaE¨wpfzefarG;zGm;&ef tem*wfb0t<uif;tusef r&Sdawmhaom edAÁme


"mwfjzihf y&dedAÁmefpHoGm;NyD;jzpf\/ Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwftm;ñTefjyNyD; þae&m odkYwnf;r[kwf xdkae&mwGif&Sd
onf[kqdk&ef rjzpfEdkifyg/ rif;BuD;? tckajymrnfh Oyrmudk rnfodkY,lqygoenf;/ {&mrrD;awmufBuD;wpfck
Nidrf;oGm;aomtcg ,if;rD;awmufudk ñTefjyNyD; þae&m odkYwnf;r[kwf xdkae&mwGif&Sdonf[k qdkEdkifyg
ovm;/ (trSefyif) b0qkH;cef;wdkifoGm;NyD;jzpfaom Ak'&¨ Sifawmfjrwftm; ñTefjyNyD; þae&m odkYwnf;r[kwf
xdkae&mwGif&Sdonf[k rqdkEdkifyg/ rif;BuD;? odkYwapvnf; Ak'¨\"r®um, ("r®tpk)tm;jzihf Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf
211 212
tm; ñTefjyEdkifyg\ / taMumif;rl "r®udk Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf a[mMum;awmfrlcJhaomaMumihfwnf; /

207
y&d0g&ygVd? 0de,yd#u (&efukef? jrefrm? omoema&;OD;pD;Xme? 1995)? 263/
208
y&d0g&t|uxm? 0de,yd#u (&efukef? jrefrm? omoema&;OD;pD;Xme? 1996)? 163/
209
G-M-Ni, 48-55.
210
Q-Mi, 60-61.
211
þae&mü "r®um,[lonf Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf\ cE¨mudk,frS <uif;usefaeaom tESpfom& ("mwfoabm) wpfckudk rqdkvdkacs/ "r®
tESpfom& (t&m0w¬Kwpfck t&nftcsif;wpfc\ k obm0) udk wdkuf½kduf &nfñTef;jcif;jzpfonf/ ,if;odkYjzihf t&Sifem*aoerax&f
u "r®[laom pum;vkH;jzihf txl;jyKazmfjycJhjcif;jzpfonf/
212
Q-Mi, 60.

74
y&dedAÁmefpH0ifoGm;NyD;jzpfaom Ak'¨&SifawmfjrwfESihfywfoufí azmfjycsufrSm Ak'¨0g'tzdkY a0zefaqG;aEG;zG,f
tcsufjzpfonf/ Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf uG,fvGefoGm;NyD;aemuf rnfonhfae&mwGif wnf&Sdoenf;/ ,if;ar;cGef;twGuf
vufawGYtm;jzihf Ak'¨onf owå0g yk*¾Kdvfwpfa,muftaejzihf rnfonhft&yfwiG frS r&Sd[kqdkNyD; 'óe½Iaxmihft
&aomf Ak'¨onf oEÅdokctjzpf,lqonhf wpfae&mwGif wnf&Sdaeonf[kqdkonf/ odkY&mwGif ax&0g'Ak'¨0g'DwdkY
u Ak'¨onf y&dedAÁmefpHNyD;aemuf Ak'¨txnfudk,f odkYr[kwf "r®um,udk ukd,fpm;jyKvsuf Ak'¨bkHü wnf&Sdonf[k
r,lqbJ tjcm;enf;wpfrsKd;jzihf txl;jyKazmfjyMuonf/ ,if;onf "r®tESpfom&rQomjzpfaMumif; qdkvdkonf/ xdkY
jyif edAÁmeftm; ae&mwdkif; t&yfrsufESmwdkif;wGif wnf&SdEdkifaom edAÁme"mwftjzpf azmfjyNyD;jzpfonf/ odkY&mwGif
213
ax&0g'DwdkYu Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf\ "r®um,onf 31 bkHwGif wnf&Sdonf[k qdkjcif;udk jiif;y,fMuonf /

edAÁmeftrsKd;tpm; rnfrQ&Sdoenf;
tbd"r®w¬o*F[ESihf edAÁme'DyeDuJhodkYaom Ak'¨0g'usrf;*efwdkYü edAÁmefudk acgif;pOftrsKd;rsKd;jzihf azmfjyxm;onf/
edAÁmeftrsKd;tpm;rsm;udk avhvmjcif;tm;jzihf edAÁmef[lonf tb,fenf;? edAÁmef\obm0onf rnfonhft&mESihf
ywfoufoenf;? ,if;onf rnfodkYrnfykH csrf;omvdrhfrnfponfjzihf edAÁmeft,ltqudk ydkrdkem;vnfapEdkifrnfjzpf
onf/ pmwrf;&Sif\ tjrift&aomf edAÁmeftaMumif; pOf;pm;awG;awmjcif;onf 'óeqdkif&m azmfjycsufwpf&yf
jzpfNyD; edAÁmeftrsKd;tpm;udk azmfjycsufrSm usrf;pm½Iaxmifhwpf&yfjzpfonf/ £wd0kwåuygVd? edAÁme"mwkokwfwGif
edAÁme"mwfobm0udk ESpfrsKd;cJGjcm;jyonf/ wpfrsKd;rSm cE¨mOyg'dt<uif;tusef&Sdaom edAÁme"mwfjzpfNyD; usefwpfrsKd;
rSm cE¨mOyg'dt<uif;tusefr&Sdaom edAÁme"mwfjzpfonf/ yxrtrsKd;tpm;udk oOyg'daooedAÁme"mwf[k ac:NyD;
'kwd,trsKd;tpm;udk tEkyg'daooedAÁmef"mwf[k ac:onf/ ygVdawmfazmfjycsufrSm atmufygtwdkif;jzpfonf-

&[ef;wdkY? edAÁme"mwfESpfrsKd;&Sd\/ tb,fESpfyg;wdkYenf;[lrl cE¨m;ig;yg;t<uif;&Sdaom edAÁme"mwfESihf cE¨m


ig;yg; t<uif;r&Sdaom edAÁme"mwfwdkYwnf;/
cE¨m;ig;yg; t<uif;&Sdaom edAÁme"mwf[lonf tb,fenf;/ &[ef;wdkY? þomoemawmfü toma0gukefNyD;
aom? tusihfjrwfudk usifhokH;NyD;aom? jyKzG,fr*fudpöudk jyKNyD;aom? cE¨m0efudk csNyD;aom? t&[wåzdkvfodkY
a&mufNyD;aom? b0oHa,mZOf ukefcef;NyD;aom aumif;pGmodí udavomrS vGwfajrmufNyD;aom &[EÅm
yk*¾Kdvfonf&Sd\/ odkY&mwGif xdkyk*¾Kdvf\ £a`E´ig;yg;<uif;usefaeao;ojzihf ESpfoufzG,f rESpfoufzG,f tm½kH
udk cHpm;&\/ csrf;omqif;&Judk cHpm;&\/ xdk&[EÅmyk*¾Kdvf\ &m* a'go arm[ ukefceff;rIudk cE¨mig;yg;
t<uif;tusef&Sdaom (oOyg'daoo) edAÁme"mwf[k ac:\/
cE¨m;ig;yg; t<uif;r&Sdaom edAÁme"mwf[lonf tb,fenf;/ &[ef;wdkY? þomoemawmfü ..udavomrS
vGwfajrmufNyD;aom &[EÅmyk*¾Kdvfonf &Sd\/ xdkyk*¾Kdvftm; þypöu©b0wGif cHpm;rIa0'emtm;vkH;onf
&m*ponfjzihf rESpfoufrlí t<uif;rJh csKyfNidrf;vdrfhrnf/ &[ef;wdkY ,if;udk cE¨mig;yg;t<uif;r&Sdaom (tEk
214
yg'daoo) edAÁme"mwf[k qdkay\ /

213
G-M-Ni, 48-55.
214
£wd0kwåuygVd? ck'´uedum, (&efuek f? jrefrm? omoema&;OD;pD;Xme? 1972) ? 221/ John D. Ireland, trans., The Itivuttaka: The
Buddha's Sayings. (Kandy, Sri Lanka: Buddhsit Publication Society, 1991), 31-32. ygVdawmf udk;um;csufrSm atmufygtwdkif;jzpfonf-
a'Gar bdu©a0 edAÁme"mwka,m? uwar a'G? oOyg'daoom p edAÁme"mwk? tEkyg'daoom p edAÁme"mwk/
uwrm p bdu©a0 oOyg'daoom edAÁme"mwk? £" bdu©a0 bdu©K t&[m a[mwd cDPmoa0g 0kodw0g uwu&PDa,m
Mo[dwbma&m tEkyÜawåm y&du©DPb0oHa,mZaem or®'nm0drkawåm/ wó wd|aEÅ0 yÍöd`E´d,med/ a,oH bm[dwwåm
remygremyH ypöEkabmwd/ okc'ku©H y#doHa0'd,wd/ wó a,m &m*u©a,m a'gou©a,m arm[u©a,m/ t,H 0kpöwd bdu©a0
oOyg'daoom edAÁme"mwk/
uwrm bdu©a0 tEkyg'daoom edAÁme"mwk? £" bdua© 0 bdu©K t&[m a[mwd cDPmoa0g 0kodw0g uwu&PDa,m
Mo[dwbma&m tEkyÜ awåm y&du©DPb0oHa,mZaem or®'nm0drkawåm/ wó £a"0 bdu©a0 oAÁa0',dwmed tebdeE´dwmed
oDwd b0dóEÅd/ t,H 0kpöwd bdu©a0 tEkyg'daoom edAÁme"mwk/
75
txufygazmfjycsufESihf ywfoufí tjrihfqkH; t&wår*fÓPf zdkvfÓPfudk &NyD;aomjzpfaomaMumihf rdef;r
a,musfm;r[l xdk&[EÅmyk*¾Kdvfonf xdkr*fÓPfzdkvfÓPfxl;jzihf udavomtm;vkH;udk y,f&Sm;ypfEdkifaMumif; em;
vnf&onf/ xdkyk*¾Kdvfrsm;ü udavom t<uif;tusef r&Sdawmhacs/ ,if;edAÁmefudk udavoy&dedAÁme[kvnf; ac:
onf/ aoNyD;aemuf edAÁmefudk a&mufoGm;onhf &[EÅmyk*¾Kdvfrsm;onf b0wGif r&SdMuaomfvnf; b0r[kwfonhf
tajctaewGif wnf&SdMuonf/ trSefaomf &[EÅmyk*¾Kdvfrsm;onf tqkH;pGefNidrf;csrf;onhf b0wpfckwGif wnf&SdMu
aomfvnf; jyefvnfarG;zGm;jcif;? aojcif; r&Sdawmhacs/ b0oHo&mwGif r&SdMuawmhonfomru cE¨mig;yg;vnf;
215
r&SdMuawmhacs/ odkYjzihf ,if;edAÁmefudk cE¨y&dedAÁme[k ac:onf /
,if;,lqcsufESpf&yfonf &[EÅmyk*¾Kdvfrsm; raorDESifh aoNyD;aemuf rnfokdYjzpfrnf[laom tajctaeESihf
ywfoufí &Sif;vif;aom tawG;tjrifudk ay;onf/ odkY&mwGif t&SiftEk½k'¨rax&fu azmfjyyg t,ltqESpf&yf
jzihf edAÁmefESihfywfoufí vkHavmufaom tajzudkray;[k xifcJhonf/ ¤if;u aemufenf;vrf;wpfrsKd;jzihf edAÁmef
rnfodkYjzpfrnf[laomtcsufudk &Sif;vif;wifjycJhonf/ ¤if;\enf;vrf;rSm xl;xl;jcm;jcm;enf;vrf; r[kwfbJ xdkxdk
ygVdawmfrsm;ü azmfjyxm;onhf edAÁmeftaMumif;udk pkpnf;azmfjyjcif;omjzpfonf/ edAÁmefjzpfay:vmykHokH;rsK;dudk
azmfjycJhonf/ ,if;wdkYrSm oknw tedrdwåESihf tyÜPd[dw wdkYjzpfonf/ atmufygpmydk'frSm tbd"r®w¬o*F[
usrf;ü azmfjyxm;onfh ¤if;\ &Sif;vif;aom azmfjycsufjzpfonf –

avmb a'go arm[wdkYrS uif;qdwfjcif;? ocFg&w&m;wdkYrS uif;qdwfjcif;aMumihf oknwedAÁmef[k ac:\/


avmbpaom trSwfvu©PmESihf ocFg&w&m;tm;vkHwdkY\ t&dyfedrdwfrS uif;vGwfaomaMumihf tedrdwå
edAÁmef[kac:\/ avmbponf\ wG,faESmifjcif; wPSm\uyfNidjcif;wdkYrS vGwfajrmufaomaMumifh tyÜPd
216
[dwedAÁmef[kac:\ /

wpfenf;enf;jzihf ¤if;\tjrifonf edAÁmeftaMumif;udk avhvmolrsm;tm; us,fjyefYonhf A[kokwESihf


euf½Idif;onhf em;vnfrIudk ay;pGrf;Edkifrnf[k arQmfvihf&onf/ odkYwap ¤if;ay;cJhonhf tcsuftvufonf
tcsKdUyk*¾Kdvfrsm;tm; edAÁmef\tqihftwef;udk todtrSwfjyK&ef r&Sif;vif;bJ&Sdao;onf/ tqdkjyKedAÁmefESihf
vufawGUedAÁmefwdkY\ jcm;em;csufESihfywfoufí r&Sif;vif;bJ&SdqJjzpfonf/ em;vnf&ef ½IaxmifhESpf&yf&Sdonf/
yxr½IaxmihfrSm edAÁmeftm; &Sif;jyrIykHpHtaejzihf (em;vnf&ef)jzpfNyD; 'kwd,rSm vufawGYoabmaygufrItaejzihf
(em;vnf&ef) jzpfonf/ v,fwDq&mawmfonf edAÁmeftqifhrsm;udk cGJjcrf;pdwfjzm&ef rdrd\,lqcsufudk azmfxkwfcJh
onf/ q&mawmfu edAÁmef\taMumif;t&monf t,lrSm;odkYvkdufoGm;NyD; t,lwpfyg;ESihfa&m,Sufvsuf edAÁmef\
t"dyÜm,fudk rSm;,Gif;pGmzGifhqdkEdkifonftxd tvGefw&meufeJNyD; obm0trSefudk odjrifEdkifcJaMumif; txl;jyKrdefY
Mum;cJhonf/ q&mawmfonf rdrd\ ]edAÁme'DyeD}usrf;ü yd#uwfokH;ykHudk udk;um;vsuf edAÁmefudk trsKd;tpm; ckepf
rsKd; cGJjcm;jycJhonf/ ,if;wdkYrSm 1) rdpäm'd|dedAÁme (t,lrmS ;&SdedAÁmef) 2) or®KwdedAÁme (rsufarSmufb0edAÁmef) 3)
w'*FedAÁme (rsufarSmufcPedAÁmef) 4) 0du©rÇeedAÁme (udavomudk y,fcGmonhfedAÁmef) 5) orkapä'edAÁme (udav
omt<uif;rJhcsKyfNidrf;onhf edAÁmef) 6) y#dyó'¨dedAÁme (wnfNidrfrIjzihf udavomNidrf;onfhedAÁmef) 7) edó&PedAÁe
217
(ud avomt<uif;rJh csKyfNidrf;onhfedAÁmef) wdkYjzpfonf /
,if;ckepfrsKd;teuf (1) rdpäm'd|dedAÁmef[l&mü rdpäm'd|dESihf edAÁmeyk'fESpfck yg0ifonf/ rdpäm'd|d[lonf rSm;,Gif;
aomt,ltq jzpfonf/ edAÁme'DyeDt& ,if;onf umr*kPftm½kHig;yg;ESihf ywfoufaom aysmf½TifrIudk þb0
ypöu©edAÁmeftjzpf rSm;,Gif;pGm t"dyÜm,faumuf,ljcif;[kqdkonf/ 'DCedum,f? jA[®Zmvokwfü Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf
u ,if;odkYaom,lqcsufudk edAÁmeftppftrSefESihfywfoufí rSm;,Gif;aom ,lqcsufjzpfaMumif; >ruf<um;awmfrl
onf/ ]]þavmuü tcsKdUaom orP jA[®Ponf þodkYaomt,ltqudk ajyma[m,lqMuukef\ ]umr*kPf

215
BD, 106.
216
Ac-Ab, 260.
217
v,fwDq&mawmf? edAÁme'DyeD? 212/
76
ig;yg; awmufyjynfhpkHvsuf&Sdaom þtwåonf ,if;tm½kHig;yg;udk cHpm;aeoa½GU ,if;onf ,if;twå\ tjrifh
218
jrwfqkH; ,ckypöu© (y&r'd|"r®) edAÁmefudk odjrifjcif;jzpfonf}}} /
rsufarSmufacwf vlYtodkif;t0dkif;ü vltcsKdUvnf; umr*kPfig;yg; cHpm;rIudk tjrihfqkH;aysmf½TifrI[k ,kHMunf
Muonf/ ,if;,lqcsufrSm a['dkepfZif; (Hedonism) aysmf½TifrIpHjyK0g'tjzpf xif&Sm;onf/ a['dkepfZif;[lonf
aysmf½TifcHpm;rI (emusifrIr&Sdjcif; tygt0if)onf b0wGif vkH;0tvdktyfqkH;aom aumif;jcif;w&m;jzpfonf[l
aom taemufwdkif; tawG;tac:wpf&yfjzpfonf/ ,if;t,ltqonf ,if;\½dk;&Sif;jcif;ESihf vltrsm;pk ,kHMunf
NyD;jzpfonfudk twnfjyKonhf enf;vrf;jzpfojzihf vltrsm;tm; qGJaqmifEdkifonf/ aysmf½TifrIpHjyK0g'DwdkYonf cHpm;
219
rIESihfaysmf½TifrIrSm vlwdkif;tvdk&Sdaomt&mjzpfonf[k t,l&SdMuonf / ,if;avmuD ,lqcsufwpf&yfudk ,lq
vsuf tcsKdUaom &aoh&[ef;rsm;onf ,if;odkYaomaysmf½TifrIudk avmuDedAÁmeftjzpf rSm;,Gif;pGm t"dyÜm,faumuf
cJhMuonfrSm oHo,jzpfzG,f rvdkacs/ odkYwap Ak'¨0g'½Iaxmifht&rl ¤if;wdkYt,ltqonf tppftrSef edAÁmefESihf
ywfoufrI r&Sdacs/
(2) or®KwdedAÁmeft,ltqrSm þodkYjzpfonf/ þavmuü rD;tEÅ&m,f? rkefwdkif;tEÅ&m,f? ppfab;tEÅ&m,f?
iwfrGwfacgif;yg;jcif;tEÅ&m,f? aoavmufonhf a&m*guyfqdk;tEÅ&m,fESifh &efolYtEÅm,fponfjzihf tEÅ&m,f
rsm;pGm&Sdonf/ wpfcgaomf wpfpkHwpfa,mufonf ,if;tEÅ&m,ftm;vkH;udk Nidrf;apEdkifpGrf;&Sdonf/ tEÅ&m,frS
vGwfajrmufNyD;jzpfojzihf olonf xkH;pHusazmfjycsufrsm;ESihftnD Nidrf;csrf;aysmf½TifrIudk &&Sdvdrfhrnfjzpfonf/ rsuf
arSmufb0 ,if;odkYaom aysmf½TifrIudk or®KwdedAÁmef[k ac:onf/ or®Kwd[lonf þae&mü rsufarSmufavmavm
q,f[k t"dyÜm,f&onf/ þonfrSm ykxkZOfwdkYtaejzihf ,if;odkYaom Nidrf;csrf;wnfNidrfrItajctaeudk or®Kwd
edAÁmeftjzpf,lqvsuf ,if;tajctaersm;onf pdwfydkif;a&m½kyfydkif;yg aysmf½TifrIudk jzpfay:apEdkifaomaMumihf jzpf
onf/ odkYwap ,if;odkYaom aysmf½TifrItajctaeonf edAÁmef\ ppfrSefaom tajctaeESihf EIdif;,SOfír&onfrSm
xif &Sm;onf/ ,if;aysmf½TifrItajctaeonf tEÅ&m,frSvGwfajrmufolrsm;tzdkY omrefNidrf;csrf;aysmf½TifrIjzpfonf/
220
odkY &mwGif ,if;onf edAÁmef\ tjctaerSef r[kwfacs /
(3) w'*FedAÁmef[lonf tu,fíwpfpkHwpfa,mufonf olYtoufowfjcif;? ckd;jcif;? rSm;,Gif;aom touf
arG;rIuJhodkYaom tukodkvfrIrsm;udk cPwma&SmifMuOfjcif;jzihf udavomudk y,f&Sm;EdkifpGrf;&SdvQif xdkyk*¾Kvfonf
Nidrf;csrf;aysmf½RifrIudk &&SdEdkifonf[k qdkvdkonf/ ,if;onf w'*FedAÁmefrnfonf/ taMumif;rSm wpfpkHwpfa,muf
onf tukodkvfrIudkjyKNyD; olwpfyg;tm; ESdyfpufñSOf;yef;vQif olonf xdktjyKtrltwGuf pdk;&drf&vsuf ,if;tjyK
trltwGuf ylaqG;aomuudk cHpm;&onf/ xkd(udavomrJh)tcdkuftwHhü ¤if;\pdwfwGif tukodkvf'kp½dkufrIrsm;
r&Sdojzihf ,if;udk w'*FedAÁmef[kac:onf/ ,if;udkvnf; edAÁmefwpfrsKd;[k owfrSwfaomfvnf; aemufqkH; edAÁmef
221
tqifhtjzpf r,lqacs /
(4) 0du©rÇeedAÁmef[lonf psmef0if;pm;onhf tajctaeudk &nfñTef;jcif;jzpfonf/ 0du©rÇeedAÁmef[lonf þae
&mü wnfNidrfrIjzihf udavomwdkYudk z,fcGmjcif; odkYr[kwf wpfpkHwpfckaomumvtxd eD0&Pw&m;rsm;\ vTrf;rdk;
rIudk&yfpJjcif; jzpfonf/ wpfpkHwpfa,mufonf eD0&Pw&m;ig;yg;udk csKyfwnf;y,fcGmEdkifjcif;jzihf psmefw&m;udk&&Sd
Edkifonf/ pdwf\ql;ajimihfcvkwfjzpfNyD; pdwfydkif;MunfvifrIudk wm;qD;wwfaom eD0&Pw&m;ig;rsKd;&Sdonf/ vuf
awGU½Iaxmifht&aomf ,if;w&m;rsm;&Sdaejcif;jzihf Oypm&orm"dESihf tyÜemorm"dtqihfodkY ra&mufEdkifacs/
odkYjzpfrl trSefudk rodjrifEdkfifawmhacs/ eD0&Pw&m;ig;yg;rSm 1) umrpäE´eD0&P 2) Asmyg'eD0&P 3) xderd'¨eD0
&P 4) O'¨pöeD0&P 5) 0dpdudpämeD0&PwdkYjzpfonf/ azmfjyyg eD0&Pw&m;ig;yg;&Sdaerl psmefw&m;udk r&Edkif/ odkY
222
jzpfí ,if; (eD0&Pw&m;uif;qdwfrIokc)udk oDtdk&D½Iaxmihft& 0du©rÇeedAÁmefü oGif;,ljcif;jzpfonf /
'd|"r®edAÁmefESihf ywfoufaom 0du©rÇeedAÁmeftaMumif;udk &Sif;vif;pGm &&SdEkdif&ef t*Fkwå&edum,f? 'd|"r®edAÁm
eokwfü rSwfwrf;wifxm;cJhonfudk avhvmEkdifonf/ ,if;ygVdawmf azmfjycsufrSm atmufygtwdkif;jzpfonf –

218
Di-M-NT, 85.
219
Samuel Enoch Stumpf. Socrates t Sartre: A History of Philosophy (New York: McGraw-Hill Publishing Com0any, 1980) 363.
220
Ni-Di, 714-716.
221
Ibid, 717-724.
222
Vi-M, 88-91.

77
t&Sifbk&m; tmeE´m? rsufarSmufedAmÁ ef (,ckb0ü edAÁmefudk&&Sdjcif;) rsufarSmufedAÁmef[k qdkyg\? tb,f
rQjzihf rsufarSmufedAÁmef[k jrwfpGmbk&m;a[mawmfrlygoenf;/ igh&Sif? þomoemawmfü &[ef;onf
umrwdkYrS uif;qdwfíomvQif tukodkvfw&m;wdkYrS uif;qdwfíomvQif 0dwuf 0dpm&ESihfwuGjzpfaom
eD0&Puif;qdwfjcif;aMumifhjzpfaom yDwd okcjzihfjynfhaom yXrpsmefodkY qdkufa&mufíae\/ þrQjzihf
223
jrwfpGmbk&m;onf rsufarSmufedAÁmef[k (y&d,m,ftm;jzihf) a[mawmfrl\ /

txufygazmfjycsufudk tajccHí edAÁmefodkYra&mufrD ur®|mef;½IrSwfolonf oE´d|duedAÁmef odkYr[kwf 0du©rÇe


edAÁmef[kac:qdkaom psmefcsrf;omudk awGUBuKHcHpm;aMumif; od&onf/ þonfrSm wpfpkHwpfa,mufonf wpfpkHwpf
ckaom tcsdeftwdkif;twmtwGif; eD0&Pw&m;wdkY\jywfpJrIudk em;vnfNyD; ,if;tawGYtBuKHonf edAÁmefudk
od&SdrIESihfwlonf/ odkYwap þae&mü 0du©rÇeedAÁmefonf edAÁmeftppftrSefudk vkH;0em;vnfoGm;jcif;jzpfaMumif;
rqdkvdkacs/ odkYwdkifatmif ,if;udk oDtdk&D½IaxmihfrS 0du©rÇeedAÁmeftjzpf xnfhoGif;azmfjyonf/
(5) orkapä'edAÁmef[lonf t&[wår*fpGrf;&nfjzihf udavomtm;vkH;udk t<uif;rJhy,fowfrIudk qdkvdkaMumif;
em;vnf&onf/ ur®|mef;½IrSwfolonf orkapä'edAÁmeftqifhudk 0ifa&mufEdik fonf/ þae&mü orkapä'edAÁmef[l
onf ]udavomjywfpJjcif;jzihf csKyfNidrf;jcif;}[k t"dyÜm,f&onf/ r*fÓPf\tpGrf;jzihf udavomjywfpJjcif;rSm
orkapä'udpöjzpfonf/ udavomt<uif;rJh jywfpJjcif;aMumihfjzpfaom Nidrf;csrf;rItqihfudk &&Sdjcif;rSm orkapä'
edAÁmefjzpfonf/ orkapä'edAÁmef[laomtrnfonf udavomt<uif;rJh csKyfNidrf;jcif;[laom oOyg'daooedAÁmef?
224
udavoedAÁmef[laom a0g[m&rsm;ESihf t"dyÜm,fwlonf /
(6) y#dyó'd̈edAÁmef[lonf aomwmywådzdkvfpdwfudk wdkuf½kduf&nfñTef;jcif;jzpfonf/ þae&mü y#dyó'¨d
edAÁmef[lonf wnfNidrfat;csrf;rIjzihf udavomcsKyfNidrf;jcif;[k qdkvdkonf/ ,if;odkYaom edAÁmefrsKd;udk þb0wGif
vufiif;xifxif&&Sdaom y#dyó'¨dedAÁmeftqihftjzpf em;vnfEdkifonf/ ck'´uedum,fvm? r*FvokwfwGif þ
edAÁmefrsKd;udk txl;jyKvsuf ]edAÁmeopädud&d,m = þb0ü edAÁmefukd rsufarSmufjyKjcif;}[k Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf azmfjy
awmfrljcif;jzpfonf/ ,ckrsufarSmufb0wGif edAÁmef\Nidrf;csrf;om,mrIudk rsufarSmufjyKEdkifaomaMumifh ,if;edAÁmef
225
tqihfudk y#dyó'¨dedAÁmef[kac:onf /
(7) aemufqkH;taejzihf tqkH;pGefedAÁmef[lonf edó&PedAÁmefjzpfonf/ þedAÁmeftrsKd;tpm;rSm udavom
tvkH;pkH csKyfNidrf;jcif; (oOyg'daooedAÁmef) ESihf b0tvkH;pkHcsKyfNidrf;jcif; (tEkyg'daooedAÁmef) [laom edAÁmefESpf
rsKd;vkH;yg0ifonf/ þavhvmrIonf tbd"r®mtvdkt& y&rw¬opömjzpfonhf þedó&PedAÁmeftrsKd;tpm;udk
ynm&SifwdkYem;vnfEdkif&ef tcsuftvufrsm;pGmudk ay;xm;onf/ azmfjyyg edAÁmeftrsKd;tpm;wdkY\ &nf½G,fcsufrSm
Ak'¨bmom0ifwdkYonf rnfonhfedAÁmeftrsKd;tpm;udk yef;wdkiftaejzihf txl;jyKajymqdkaMumif; ,if;edAÁmefudk rnf
onhftwGufaMumifh yef;wdkiftjzpf,lqaMumif; &Sif;jyjcif;jzpfonf/ tb,faMumihf ¤if;wdkY ,if;odkY,lqonf [l
aomtcsufESihf ywfoufí ½dk;&Sif;aomtajz&Sdonf/ ,if;um; ¤if;wdkYtaejzihf b0oHo&m (b0Budrfzefjzpfjcif;
ESihf tqkH;rJh'ku©) ESifh qufEG,faeaomqif;&Jyifyef;rIrS vGwfajrmufvdkaomaMumihfjzpfonf/ trSefpifppf tvkH;pkH
226
vGwfajrmufjcif; edó&PedAÁmefudk aemufqkH;edAÁmef\ tqkH;pGefNidrf;csrf;rIü xnfhoGif;onf /
edAÁmeftrsKd;tpm;ESihf ywfoufí azmfjyNyD;edAÁmeftrsKd;tpm;xufyif ydkrsm;Edkifonf/ opömav;yg;w&m;rS ud
avom tqkH;pGefcsKyfNidrf;rI odkYr[kwf wPSmaMumihfjzpfaom qif;&J'ku©tqkH;pGefcsKyfNidrf;rI[laom eda&m"opöm[l
onfudk pOf;pm;oihfonf/ eda&m"opöm[lonf edAÁmefudk qdkvdkNyD; edAÁmef[lonf eda&m"opömyifjzpfaomaMumihf
edAÁmef[lonfudk wPSmcsKyfjywfrI[k azmfjyEdkifonf/ odkYjzihf edAÁmefonf oDtdk&Dt& rsm;pGm&SdEdkifonf/ Oyrmtm;

223
t*kFwå&ygVd? t*Fkwå&edum,? twGJ 3 (&efukef? jrefrm? omoema&;OD;pD;Xme? 1994)? 246-247/ usrf;jyKyk*¾Kdvf\ t*Fvdyfbm
omjyefjzpfonf/ ygVdawmfrl&if;rSm atmufygtwdki;f jzpfonf – 'd|"r®edAÁmeH 'd|"r®edAÁmeEÅd tm0kaom 0kpöwd? udwåm0wm Ek acg
tm0kaom 'd|"r®edAÁmeH 0kwåH b*0wmwd/ £"m0kaom bdu©K 0d0dapö0 umar[d 0d0dpö tukoav[d "ar®[d o0dwuúH o0dpm&H
0da0uZH ydwdokcH yXrH psmeH OyorÜZÆ 0d[&wd/
224
Ni-Di, 728-729.
225
ck'´uygXygVd? ck'´uedum,f? pm- 4/
226
Ni-Di, 731.

78
jzihf pu©Kyom'½kyf (pu©m,we)udk wyfrufjcif;rS csKyfNidrf;jcif;udk edAÁmefwpfcktjzpf ,lqEkdifonf/ xdktwl
aomwm,we? Cmem,we? Zd0Sg,we? um,m,weESihf rem,wewdkYudk pGJvef;jcif;rS csKyfNidrf;jcif;wdkYudk
227
vnf; edAÁmeftjzpf,lqEdkifonf/ tm,weajcmufyg;udk tajcjyKí edAÁmefajcmufrsKd; jzpfvmEdkifonf /
xdktwl ½lyg½kH o'´g½kHpaom tm½kHajcmufyg;&Sdjyefonf/ 0dnmPfajcmufyg;? oræóa0'emajcmufyg;? onm
ajcmufyg;? apwemajcmufyg;? oaÍöwemajcmufyg;? wPSmajcmufyg;? 0dwufajcmufyg;? 0dpm&ajcmufyg; (vnf;)
228
&Sdjyefonf/ þodkYjzihf ajcmufq,faom eda&m"udpöudk&nfñTef;vsuf edAÁmeftjym; pkpkaygif;ajcmufq,f&Sdonf /
odkYjzpfí Ak'¨0g'DwdkYtaejzihf t&d,myk*¾Kdvfwpfa,mufonf csKyfNidrf;ykHudpötrsKd;rsKd;udk trSDjyKí csKyfNidrf;rIykHpHtrsKd;
rsKd;udkodNyD;jzpfvQif edAÁmeftrsKd;aygif; axmifcsDí&SdEdkifaMumif; qdkEdkifonf/ odkY&mwGif edAÁmef\wpfckwnf;aom
tESpfom&rSm oEÅdokc[laom wpfckwnf;aomw&m; ({aum "ar®m) jzpfonf/

edAÁmefrSwpfyg; Nidrf;csrf;aomw&m;r&Sd/ edAÁmef[lonf Nidrf;csrf;rIrS wpfyg;tjcm;r[kwf/ Nidrf;csrf;rI[laom


,if;w&m;onf þae&mü opömw&m;tjzpf ,lqtyfaomt&mwnf;/
emnm edAÁmeawm oEÅd? oEÅH e p e wH ,awm/
oEÅbm0ed,mare? wawm opörd'H rwH/ (0dok'¨dr*¾ 2? 120)

edAÁmef[lonf tvkH;pkH csrf;ajrUaomt&mavm


ck'´uedum,f? rdvdE´yÍSygVdawmfü rSwfwrf;wifxm;aom edAÁmef\ Nidrf;csrf;aomtajctaeESihf ywfoufonhf rd
vdE´rif;\ 'óeqdkif&m jiif;qdkcsufwpf&yf&Sdonf/ t"dutaMumif;t&mrSm edAÁmef[lonf vkH;0Nidrf;csrf;onfh
oabmavm odkYwnf;r[kwf 'ku©ESifh a&maESmywfoufjcif;&Sdoavm[kjzpfonf/ trSefpifppf rif;BuD;jiif;qdkonf
rSm edAÁmefonf vkH;0Nidrf;csrf;Edkifonfr[kwfbJ qif;&J'ku©ESihf a&maESmywfoufjcif;&Sd&rnf[k jzpfonf/ edAÁmefudk
&SmazGaeMuoltcsKdUü qif;&J'ku©a&mufonhf taxmuftxm;rsm;awGU&aomaMumihf ,if;odkY,lqxm;jcif;jzpf
onf/ ur®|mef;½IrSwfolrsm; edAÁmefudk &&Sd&efBudK;yrf;Muaomtcg umre,fy,fvTrf;rdk;rIudk atmifjrifz,f&Sm;&ef
umre,fy,fü BudK;pm;tm;xkwf&onfrSm xif&Sm;onf/ a,m*Dyk*¾Kdvfrsm;onf umr*kPfaysmf½TifrItm;vkH;udk
zsufqD;&efESihf ykxZk Ofyk*¾Kdvfrsm; xif&Sm;pGm wG,fwmNiduyfaeonhf umr*kPfaysmf½TifrIig;rsKd;udk z,f&Sm;&ef BudK;
yrf;Muonf/ edAÁmefudk &&Sdjcif;twGuf a,m*Dyk*¾Kdvfrsm;onf udk,fcE¨mqif;&J'ku©a&mufNyD; pdwftm;jzifhvnf; jyif;
xefaoma0'emudk cHpm;Mu&onftxd rdrdudk,fudk rsm;pGmESdyfpufñSOfyef;Muonf/ odkYjzpfí edAÁmef[lonf vkH;0
csrf;omaomt&mr[kwfbJ qif;&J'ku©EiS hf a&maESmae&vdrfhrnfjzpfonf/
rdvdE´rif;\,lqcsufESihf ywfoufí t&Sifem*aoerax&fu edAÁmef[lonf vkH;0aysmf½Tifcsrf;ajrUaomae&m
jzpfNyD; 'ku©ESihfa&maESmjcif;r&SdaMumif; twnfjyK>rufqdkonf/ t&Sifjrwf\&yfwnfcsufrSm edAÁmefudk&SmazGjcif;
onf qif;&J'ku©wpfrsKd;jzpfonf/ taMumif;rl ,if;onf om,mzG,fpu©Ktm½kH? aomwtm½kH? Cmetm½kH? Zd0Sgtm
½kH[laom om,mzG,ftm½kHtm;vkH;udk a,m*Dyk*¾Kdvf\oEÅmefrS z,f&Sm;rIESihf oufqdkifaomaMumihfjzpfonf/ odkYw
ap ,if;qif;&J'ku©udk edAÁmef[k rac:aMumif; t&Sifjrwfujiif;qdkonf/ trSefpifppf ,if;onf edAÁmefudk &&Sdjcif;
twGuf tajccHtqihfomjzpfonf/ trSefpifppf edAÁmefw&m;rlum; tvdk&r®ufaMumifhjzpfaom qif;&J'ku©ESihf
229
rywfoufaomaMumihf vkH;0aysmf½Tifcsrf;ajrUaom t&mjzpfonf /
xdkYjyif edAÁmefESihfywfoufí txift&Sm;jiif;ckHzG,f tjcm;tcsufwpf&yf&Sdao;onf/ Oyrm edAÁmefonf
tu,fí tm½kHajcmufyg;ESihf ywfoufrIr&SdcJhaomf edAÁmefonf tjcm;rnfonhf aysmf½TifrIESihfrQywfoufjcif;r&Sd
awmhacs/ þavmuü vlwdkYonf aysmf½TifrI[lonf tm½kHajcmufyg; odkYr[kwf ½lyg½kH o'´g½kHponfESihf qufEG,f
aeonfh aysmf½TifrI[laom tm½kHajcmufyg;üwyfrufrIESihf wdkuf½kdufqufEG,fonf[k xifrSwfMuonf/ cHpm;rI

227
Ni-Di, 733.
228
Ni-Di, 734-735.
229
Q-Mi, 129-123.

79
umr*kPftm½kHrsm;udk vdkcsifwyfrufrIr&SdbJ rnfonhftajctaersKd;jzihfrqdk aysmf½TifrI&Sdonf[kqdk&ef cJ,Of;onf/
xdktaMumif;aMumihf edAÁmefü a0'emESihf onmr&Sdawmhojzihf ,if;aysmf½TifrIESihf ywfoufonf[k rqdkEdkif/
txufygazmfjycsufudk aemufxyfavhvmEdkif&ef tdyaf rmusaeonhf bk&ifOyrmjzifh azmfjyvdkonf/ yifyef;
onfhc&D;&SnfrS a&mufNyD;aemuf wpfaeukeftdyfarmusaeaom bk&ifwpfyg;&Sdonf/ ¤if;tdyfarmusaepOf ta>c
t&Hrsm;u npmtwGuf t&omt&SdqkH; tpm;tpmESihf Zdrfusonhf xdkifckHpm;yGJrsm;udk jyifqifxm;onf/ pm;zG,f
aomufzG,fwdkYjzihf tqifoihfjzpfaomtcg ta>ct&Hrsm;onf bk&iftm;EId;Muonf/ ¤if;wdkY\awmif;yefrIaMumihf
bk&ifBuD;onf rxcsifbJx&onf/ ta>ct&Hrsm;\ tjyKtrlaMumihf bk&ifBuD;ESpfoufcH&rnfhtpm; rdrdudkEId;
onhftwGuf ¤if;wdkYtm; bk&ifuBudrf;armif;onf/ xdktcg ta>ct&Hrsm;u ]t&Sifrif;BuD;? tb,faMumihf uREkfyf
wdkYudk pdwfqdk;ygoenf;/ trSefpifppf uREkfyfwdkYonf t&omt&SdqkH;tpm;tpmjzifh (jyifqifxm;onhf) þnpm
twGuf EId;&jcif;jzpfygonf/ trSefpifppf t&Sifrif;BuD;tdyfarmusaejcif;onf aysmf½TifcHpm;rIESihf roufqdkifbJ
cHpm;rIr&Sdojzihf tdyfarmusaejcif;ü aysmf½TifrIr&SdEkdifyg}[k avQmufxm;Muonf/ odkY&mwGif rif;BuD;u þodkYqdk
onf ]rSefayonf? armifrif;wdkYu igtdyfarmusjcif;onf aysmf½TifcHpm;rIr&Sd[k qdkEdkifonf/ odkY&mwGif igh&JUtdyfruf
rJh tdyfaysmfrIonf t&omr&Sdaomfvnf; armifrif;wdkY t&omrGefxuf igydkNyD;ESpfNcdKufonf/ aemiftcg tdyfaysmf
aecdkuf ighudk raESmihf,SufMuESihf}/ þazmfjycsufü tdyfarmusjcif;onf cHpm;rIESihf roufqdkifonfrSm rSefaomf
vnf; ,if;onf trSefwu,f ESpfoufzG,fjzpfonf/ þOyrmü edAÁmef\Nidrf;csufro I bm0udk tdyfarmusaeonfh
tajctaeESihfwlaMumif; em;vnfEdkifonf/ odkY&mwGif edAÁmef\ trSefwu,fNidrf;at;rIobm0udk rnfonhft&m
ESihfrQ rEdIif;,SOfEdkifacs/ taMumif;rl edAÁmefonf pum;vkH;rsm;? &Sif;vif;csufrsm; odkYr[kwf azmfjycsufrsm;\ wpf
230
zufwGif &SdaomaMumihfjzpfonf /
edAÁmefonf om,mzG,f tm½kHw&m;rsm;ESihf ywfoufaomcHpm;rI r&SdykHudk em;vnf&ef enf;vrf;wpfckom&Sd
onf/ ESpfoufzG,ftm½kHrsm;r&SdbJ edAÁmefonf aysmf½Tifcsrf;ajrUonf[lonfudk axmufcH&ef taMumif;w&m;
wpf&yfrSm eda&m"ormywf0ifpm;rIjzpfonf/ ckepf&ufrQMumEdkifaom eda&m"ormywf0ifpm;pOftwGif; ormywf
0ifpm;olonf wpfpkHwpf&m rpm;aomufbJ qufwdkuf ur®|mef;½IrSwfoGm;Edkifonf/ xdkyk*¾Kdvfrsm;onf ,if; avm
uDvGef tckduftwHhü tvGefNidrf;csrf;NyD; ,if;Nidrf;csrf;rIjzihf a&mifh&JEdkifMuonf/ edAmÁ ef\obm0rSefonf rnfodkY
aomNidrf; csrf;rIrsKd;ESihf oufqkdifonf[lonfudk &Sif;jy&efrjzpfEdkifavmufatmif eufeJcufcJvSonf/ þonfrSm
edAÁmeftppftrSefonf vlYbmompum;ESihf zGifhqdk&Sif;jyonhf enf;vrf;rsm;jzihf rjzpfEdkifaom avmuDvGeftajc
231
taejzpfonf /
xdkYtjyif cHpm;rIjzihf aysmf½TifrI (a0',dwokc)ESihf cHpm;rIrJhaysmf½TifrI (oEÅdokc) wdkY\ rwlnDykHudk cGJjcm;jyEdkif
aomf ,if;ESpfrsKd;jcm;em;csufudk EIdif,SOfEdkifNyD; rnfonfuydkí aumif;rGefaMumif; em;vnfrnfjzpfonf/ aysmf½TifrI
ESpfrsKd;wGif a0',dwokcudk csrf;omrI? atmifjrifrI? tmPm? BuD;pGmaompnf;pdrfESihf aysmf½TifzG,fcHpm;rIrsm;&Sdonfh
t&mtm;vkH;[laom avmuDydkifqdkifrrI sm;ESihf BuD;pGmauseyftm;&rIaMumifh aumif;rGefaom cHpm;rItjzpf azmfjyEdkif
onf/ ,if;cHpm;rIrsKd;udk ESpfoufzG,ftm½kHtjzpf wdkuf½dkufodMuonf/ qdkvdkonfrSm cHpm;rIr&SdcJhaomf aysmf½TifrIvkH;
0r&Sd[kjzpfonf/ trSefaomf a0',dwokconf aysmf½TifzG,fcHpm;rIrsm;ESihf oufqdkifaom avmuDaysmf½TifrIwpf
232
&yfomjzpfonf/ ,if;onf jyKjyifcHtajctae (ocFg&w&m;)ü tusKH;0ifonf /
,if;ESifhqefYusifvsuf oEÅdokc[lonfudk a0'emcsKyfNidrf;rIESihf wdkuf½kdufoufqdkifaom aysmf½TifrIrsKd;tjzpf
&Sif;vif;pGmjyqdkonf/ vufawGU½Iaxmihft&aomf a0'emcHpm;rIr&Sdaomfvnf; edAÁmefü vkH;0csrf;omonf/ ,if;
edAÁmefudk oEÅdokc (a0'emrJhcsrf;omrI)? 0drkwådokc (vGwfajrmufrIcsrf;om) [kac:onf/ Ak'¨0g'usrf;*efrsm;ü
edAÁmef[lonfudk avmukwå&mcsrf;om jyKjyifcHr[kwfaom Nidrf;csrf;rIvu©Pm&Sdaom edAÁme"mwf[k &nfñTef;azmf
jyMuonf/ edAÁmef½Sd ,if;vkH;0Nidrf;csrf;rIrsKd;onf pdwfydkif;ESihf½kyfydkif;qdkif&m taESmift,Surf sm;rS vGwfajrmufrI?
aemufqkH;ü tdkjcif; emjcif;ESihf aojcif;rSvGwfajrmufrIaMumihf jzpfay:avmonf/ oEÅdokc[lonf om,mzG,f

230
t&SifZemumbd0Ho? q&mawmff? tbd"r®w¬o*F[bmom#Dum (&efukef? jrefrm? omoema&;OD;pD;Xme? 1979)? 640-641/
231
Vi-M-Tran., 735.
232
Ni-Di, 706-708.

80
cHpm;rI odkYr[kwf rnfonhfumrtm½kHcHpm;ESihfrS roufqdkifbJ xl;uJomvGefonhf avmukwå&mcsrf;omrIwpfrsKd;
jzpfaMumif; em;vnf&onf/ trSefaomf aAm"dÓPfudk &NyD;olrsm;om ¤if;wdkY\ r*fÓPfzdkvfÓPfxl;jzihf ,if;xl;
233
uJ jrihfjrwfaom csrf;omudk em;vnfEdkifMuonf /

edAÁmefonf oHo&mü &Sdoavm


edAÁmeftaMumif;t&monf a½Tusifq&mawmf? v,fwDq&mawmf? r[mpnfq&mawmfuJhodkYaom Ak'¨bmomynm
&Sifrsm;ESihf (Ak'¨0g'D) pwDAifaumvif;pf (Steven Collins) ESihf *kdif&pfcswf 0Jvfbkef; (Guy Richard Welbon) uJhodkY
aom Ak'¨bmom0ifr[kwfol ynm&Sifrsm;udkyif wpfenf;enf;jzihf qGJaqmifrI&Sdonf/ Ak'¨0g'ü w&m;"r®rsm;ESihf
,if;wdkYudk t"dyÜm,fzGifhqdkcsufwdkYrSm enf;ynmESihf ,kwådenf;tajctjrpfrsm;ESihf ywfoufonf/ ,if;wdkYonf
tqdktrdefYESihf vufawGUtjrifwdkYESihf qufpyfonf/ okn uif;qdwjf cif;t,ltqESihf edAÁmef\tvkH;pkHcsKyfNidrf;rI
uJhodkYaom "r®a&;&mt"dyÜm,fzGifhqdkrItcsKdUrSm taemufwdkif;awG;ac:rIü ½IyfaxG;EdkifzG,f&Sdonf/ þae&mü
z&pfcsf&pfcsf rufcfpf rlvm (Frichrich Max Muller)vdk taemufwdkif;ynm&SiftcsKdUu edAÁmefudk ]t<uif;rJhcsKyfNidrf;
234
oGm;jcif;}[k t"dyÜm,fzGifhqdkcJhMuonf / xdkYaMumihf edAÁmef[lonfudk oDtdk&Dt&&Sif;jy&efESihf Ak'¨0g'urnfodkY
qdkonfudk a0zef&ef edAÁmefESifhywfoufonhf tcsuftvuftrsm;tjym;udk tao;pdwfaqG;aEG;xm;NyDjzpfonf/
odkY&mwGif vufawGU½IaxmihfrS edAÁmefudk rnfodkY&&Sdonf[laomtcsufESihfywfoufí aqG;aEG;&ef trSefyif vdktyf
aeao;aomfvnf; ,if;udk tcef; 5 ü aqG;aEG;rnfjzpfonf/
trSefpifppf Ak'¨0g'ü tcsuftvufrsm;onf tvGef enf;pepfusvsuf nDñGwfrI&SdNyD; aMumif;usKd;qDavsmf
onf/ Oyrmqdkaomf edAÁmefudk "r®"mwfü xnfhoGif;xm;onf/ þü tajccHoabmw&m;udk "mwk[kac:onf/
taMumif;rl udk,fykdif wnfNrJaomobm0 &SdaomaMumihf ("ma&wDwd "mwk) jzpfonf/ ,if;azmfjycsufrsKd;onf
enf;ynmESihf oufqdkifaomfvnf; bmompum;trsKd;rsKd;udk ajymqdkMuvihfupm; Ak'¨0g'Drsm;twGufa&m Ak'¨0g'D
r[kwfolrsm;twGufyg &Sif;vif;onf/ odkYwap tcsKdUazmfjycsufrsm;rSm Ak'¨0g'tpOftvmwpfckwnf;twGif;rSmyif
½IyfaxG;ykH&onf/ Oyrmtm;jzihf tbd"r®w¬o*F[usrf;ü edAÁmefudk cE¨mig;yg;rS xkwfy,fonf (cE¨0drkwå? cE¨
235
o*F[edó#)/ qdkvdkonfrSm edAÁmefonf 0dnmPu©E¨m? apwodu©E¨mESihf ½lyu©E¨mwdkYü ryg0if[k jzpfonf /
,rut|uxm (tbd"r®t|uxm)ü edAÁmefudk pdwf? apwoduf r[kwfbJ (,if;wdkYrSoD;jcm;) emrfw&m;ü
xnfhoGif;azmfjyonf/ odkY&mwGif edAÁmefudk emrfw&m;wpfrsKd;tjzpf,lqaomaMumihf emrfw&m;tkyfpkü xnfhoGif;
jcif;jzpfonf/ taMumif;rl edAÁmefonf avmukwå&m pdwfapwodufwdkY\ tm½kHtjyKcHw&m;tjzpf yg0ifvsuf
236
,if;wdkYudk rdrd(edAÁmef)odkY ñGwfaponf / odkYjzpfí ,rut|uxmü ]emr"r®mwd emrocFgwm "r®m? aw
tw¬awm pwåma&m t½lydaem cE¨m edAÁmeÍö (emr"r®m [lonf emrfw&m;wdkYwnf;/ ,if;wdkYrSm o½kyftm;jzihf
237
a0'em onm ocFg& 0dnmP[laom emrfcE¨mav;yg;ESihf edAÁmefwdkYwnf;)[k azmfjyonf / trSefpifppf ,if;
azmfjycsufrsm;rSm ygVdt|uxmusrf;wdkYü aemufqufwGJ azmfjyjcif;jzpfonf/ tbd"r®w¬o*F[ü atmufyg
twdkif;azmfjyonf ]ww¬ ½ly"r®m ½lyu©aE¨m0? pdw¬apwoduocFgwm pwåa&m t½lydaem cE¨m edAÁmeaÍöwd
yÍö0d"r®d t½lyEÅd p emrEÅd p y0kpöwd} (xdk½kyfemrfw&m;ESpfyg;wdkYwGif ½lyu©monf ½kyfw&m;rnf\/ pdwfapwoduf
[laom emrfcE¨mav;yg;ESihf emrfw&m;[laom w&m;ig;rsKd;udk ½kyfrJhw&m;[kvnf;aumif; emrfw&m;[kvnf;
238
aumif; ac:onf) /

233
Ibid, 706-707.
234
Welbon, 113.
235
Ab-S, 128.
236
ygVd t|uxmwdkYü ½kyfr[kwfonhf cE¨mav;yg;udk udpötm;jzihf tm½kHudk todtrSwfjyKjcif;tm;jzihf tm½kHodkYñGwfwwfaomaMumihf
emrfw&m;[k ac:onf/ ,if; (cE¨mav;yg;) onf tm½kHodkY tcsif;csif;ñGwfapwwfaomaMumihfvnf; emrfw&m;[k ac:onf/ ñGwf
apwwfaomaMumihf edAÁmefudk emrf[kac:onf/ edAÁmefESihfywfouf½mü edAÁmefonf avmukwå&m pdwfapwodufwdkY\ tm½kHtjyKcH
w&m;tjzpfyg0ifvsuf ,if;wdkYudk rdrd (edAÁmef)odkY ñGwfaponf/
237
b'EÅAk'¨aCmoaw¬&? yÍöyu&Pt|uxm (&efuke?f jrefrm? omoema&;OD;pD;Xme? 1992)? 291/
238
Ab-S, 325.

81
,if;azmfjycsufonf tbd"r®myd#u uxm0w¬KygVdü awGU&onfh azmfjycsufESifhvnf; nDñGwfonf/ ,if;
azmfjycsufrSm ]tan cE¨m? tnH edAmÁ eH? tanm yk*¾avmwd e a[0H 0wåaAÁ (cE¨mig;yg;? edAÁmef? r*fÓPf
239
zdkvfÓPfudk &NyD;olwdkYonf wpfckESifhwpfck vkH;0jcm;em;\ rqdkoihfacs) / taMumif;rl edAÁmefonf cE¨mudktrSDjyK
í jzpfay:vmaomaMumifhwnf;/ odkYjzpfí edAÁmefESihf cE¨mig;yg;udk wpfoD;wpfjcm;pDr[kwf[k ,lqjcif;jzpf
240
onf / odkY&mwGif cE¨mig;yg;onfyif edAÁmefum;r[kwfacs/ qdkvdkonfrSm t&d,myk*¾Kdvfwpfa,mufonf edAÁmef
udk &onfESihfwpfNydKifeuf aemufqk;H edAÁmef twdtusqdkaomf edAÁme"mwfonf xdkyk*¾Kdvf\y&dedAÁKwtcgwGif
wpfNydKifeufjzpfay:onf/ t&d,myk*¾Kdvfrsm;onf edAÁme"mwftaejzihf omvGefjrihfjrwfaom w&m;tjzpf,lq
aomfvnf; rdef;rjzpfap a,musfm;jzpfap &[EÅmtaejzifh&SdaomaMumifh ¤if;wdkYtwGuf ac:a0:p&m tjcm;trnf
emrrsm; r&Sdawmhacs/ taMumif;rl aemufqkH;edAÁmefodkY a&mufoGm;NyDjzpfaomaMumihfwnf;/
tqkH;pGefedAÁmefodkYr0ifrD t&d,myk*¾KdvfwdkYoEÅmefü&Sdaom ,if;ajymif;vJwwfonhfedAÁmefESihf aemufqkH;edAÁmefodkY
0ifa&mufoGm;NyD;aemuf ,if;edAÁmef[laomt&m aysmufoGm;rIrSm zGifhqdk&Sif;jy&mü tvGef½IyfaxG;vSonf/ odkY&m
wGif tbd"r®mA[kokw &Sdolrsm;tzdkYrl edAÁmefü pdwfydkif;tajctaewdkY rnfodkYjzpfay:onfudk em;vnfaumif;em;
vnfEdkif&monf/ edAÁmeftaMumif;udk aqGaEG;cJhMuonfh xif&Sm;aom ynm&SifESpfOD;&Sdonf/ ,if;yk*¾KdvfESpfOD;teuf
a½Tusifq&mawmfonf ]tan cE¨m? tnH edAÁmeH? tanm yk*¾avmwd e a[0H 0wåaAÁ (cE¨mig;yg;? edAÁmef?
r*fÓPfzdkvfÓPfudk &NyD;olwdkYonf wpfckESifhwpfck vkH;0jcm;em;\ rqdkoihfacs)}[laom udk;um;csufudk tajcjyK
í ¤if;\,lqcsufudk tckdiftrmqdkcJhonf/ trSefaomf t&d,myk*¾KdvfwdkY uG,fvGefNyD;aemufrMumrD wpfcsdefwnf;
avmufeD;yg;wGif edAÁmefjzpfay:onf/ q&mawmfonf edAÁmefjzpfpOfrnfodkY ay:vmonfudk atmuftygtwdkif;
241
azmfjycJhonf -

Z,m; 4

edAÁme0Dxd

aemufqkH;pdwf
tm½kH = edAÁmefodkYudkif;ñGwfaom pdwftm½kH edAÁmef\tqkH;pGefNidrf;csrf;rI
-----
bGif bGif bGif bGif bGif e ' r Z Z Z Z Z pk edAÁmef
b0a[mif; (y#doaE¨pdwfrjzpf)

242
twdkaumuf/ / bGif = b0if? e = b0*Fpve? ' = b0*kFyapä'? r = raem'Gg&m0ZÆe? Z = Z0e? pk = pkwd /

a½Tusifq&mawmfonf ,cifu Ak'¨0g'usrf;*efwdkYü edAÁme0Dxdudk a&S;q&mwdkY rjyqdkjcif;rSm edAÁmef[lonf


cE¨mig;yg;jzpfpOfü wdkuf½kdufryg0ifaomaMumihfjzpfaMumif; axmufjycJhonf/ odkYwap edAÁmefonf t&d,myk*¾KdvfwdkY
uG,fvGefNyD;aemuf csufcsif; jzpfay:vmaomaMumifh txufwGifazmfjyonhftwdkif; edAÁme0Dxdudk azmfjyEdkifonf/
odkY&mwGif q&mawmf\azmfjycsufonf ]edAÁmerÜd cE¨y#dA'¨ar0 = edAÁmefonfvnf; cE¨mig;yg;ütusKH;0ifonfom

239
uxm0w¬KygVd? tbd"r®myd#u (&efuek f? jrefrm? omoema&;OD;pDXme? 1991)? 53/
240
G-M-Ni, 220.
241
Ka, 53.
242
Ibid, 187.

82
243 244
wnf;} ? ]yÍöEéH cE¨meH eda&ma"m edAÁmeH = cE¨mig;yg;wdkY\ csKyfNidrf;jcif;onf edAÁmefwnf;} [laom ygVdusrf;*ef
rsm;udk tajcjyKíqdkjcif;jzpfonf/
edAÁmefwnf&Sdonhfae&mESihfESihf ywfoufí a½Tusifq&mawmfonf edAÁmefonf cE¨mESihfywfoufpGm wnf&Sdae
aomfvnf; cE¨mig;yg;onf edAÁmefr[kwf[k ,kHMunfonf/ ,if;odkY azmfjy&jcif;taMumif;rSm edAÁmefudk avmued
a&m" (avmucsKyf&m)tjzpf ,lqNyD; edAÁmefonf cE¨mig;yg;rSwpfyg; tjcm;ay:vmrnfh ae&mr&SdaomaMumifhjzpf
onf/ qdkvdkonfrSm t&d,myk*¾Kdvfwpfa,muf toufxif&Sm;&SdpOf avmueda&m"tajctaeonf xdkyk*¾Kdvf\
cE¨mig;yg;ü jzpfay:vmonf[k qdkvdkonf/ trSefpifppf edAÁmefonf t&d,myk*¾KdvfwdkYoEÅmefü tjcm;wpfae&mrS
245
jzpfay:vmonfr[kwfacs /
aemufAk'¨bmomynm&Sifwpfa,mufjzpfol bdu©KAk'¨'gorax&fu tjcm;½IaxmihfwpfrsKd;jzihf edAÁmef\tajc
246
taeudk azmfjycJhonf/ edAÁmef\ o½kyfouefudk &Sif;vif;pGmazmfjy&ef xdkt&Sifu ]edAÁmefonf oHo&mü &Sd\ }[k
qddkonf/ ¤if;\&Sif;jycsufrSm ]edAÁmefonf oHo&müwnf&d\ S } qdkaomfvnf; ]edAÁmef[lonf oHo&mjzpf\? oHo&m
[lonf edAÁmefwnf;}[laom t,ltqudkrl ¤if;u jiif;qdkonf/ ,if;odkYazmjfy&jcif;rSm t&d,myk*¾KdvfwdkYonf
edAÁmefukd&onftxd oHo&mü usifvnfMu&aomaMumihfjzpfonf/ ¤if;u þodkYqdkonf ]edAÁmefonf oHo&mü
wnf&Sd\? tE¨ykxkZOfonf ,if;edAÁmefudk b,fawmhrS odjrifEdkifvdrfhrnfr[kwf? uvsmPykxkZOfrlum; rdrdcE¨m
247
udkf,ftjyifü &SmazG&efrvdkbJ awGUjrifvdrfhrnf uREkfyf ,lqygonf} / trSefpifppf azmfjyyg xif;&Sm;aom ynm
&SifESpfyg;vkH;onf ¤if;wdkY\,lqcsufudk oH,kwåedum,fvm a&[dwóokwåefudk wlnDpGm udk;um;vsuf rdrdwdkY\
t,ltqudk rdefYqdkMujcif;jzpfonf/ ,if;ygVdawmfrSm atmufygtwdkif;jzpfonf –

e acg yem,H tm0kaom tywGm avmuó tEÅH 'kuó © tEÅud&d,H 0'grd/ tyd p cGm[H tm0kaom
£ro®ða,0 Asmrrawå uav0a& oondrSd oreau avmuÍö ynayrd avmuork',Íö avmu
248
eda&m"Íö avmueda&m"*grdedÍö y#dy'EÅd /
tcsif;ewfom;? avmu\tqkH;(edAÁmef)udk ra&mufbJ qif;&J\tqkH;jyKjcif;udk iga[mawmfrl/ tcsif;ewf
om;? pifppftm;jzihf onmvnf;&Sd pdwfvnf;&Sdaom wpfvHrQavmufaom þcE¨mudk,fü avmu('ku©
opöm)? avmujzpfaMumif; (ork',opöm)? avmucsKyf&medAÁmef (eda&m"opöm)ESihf avmucsKyf&medAÁmefoYdk
249
a&mufaMumif;tusifh (r*¾opöm) udk igbk&m;a[mawmfrl\ /

txufygazmfjycsuft& 'ku©Nidrf;jcif; ('ku©eda&m")[lonf wPSmNidrf;jcif;jzpfaMumif; em;vnf&onf/ b0


udk wyfESpfoufrIwPSmonf oDtdk&Dt& edAÁmef\qefYusifbufjzpfonf/ ck'´uedum,f? aewådygVdawmfü azmfjy
xm;csufwpf&yfrSm ]wPSu©,m 'ku©u©a,m? 'ku©u©,m edAÁmeH (wPSmukefjcif;aMumihf 'ku©csKyf\? 'ku©csKyfjcif;
250
aMumifh edAÁmefjzpfay:\)} [kjzpfonf/ ,if;azmfjycsufü a½Tifusifq&mawmfonf 'ku©ukefjcif;aMumihf edAÁmefjzpf
ay:onfqdkaomfvnf; 'ku©ukefqkH;oGm;jcif;rSm edAÁmefaMumifh r[kwfaMumif; txl;jyKazmfjycJhonf/
xdkYjyif txufygazmfjycsufü bdu©KAk'¨'gorax&fu ¤if;\ rl&if;cH,lcsufudk jyefvnfajz&Sif;cJhonf –

edAÁmefESihf oHo&monf uREkfyfwdkY\ þwpfvHrQavmufaom cE¨mudk,fü wnf&Sd\/ edAÁmefudk NyD;jynfhpkHpGmr


a&mufao;rl wpfcgwpf&H edAÁmefü wpfcgwpf&H oHo&mü pOfqufrjywf wajymif;jyefjyef usifvnf&vdrhf

243
b'EÅ"r®ygv? 0dok'¨dr*¾#Dum? wGJ 2 (&efukef? jrefrm? omoema&;OD;pD;Xme? 1993)? 70/
244
b'EÅAk'¨aCmoaw¬&? r[m0*¾t|uxm? 'DCedum, (&efukef? jrefrm? omoema&;OD;pD;Xme? 1992)? 147/
245
G-M-Ni, 53.
246
Bhikkhu Buddhadasa, Nibbana Exists in Samsara, in Me and Mire (New Your: State University of New Your Press, 1989), 141.
247
Ibid, 141.
248
o*gxm0*¾oH,kwåygVd? oH,kwåedum,? (&efukef? jrefrm? omoema&;OD;pD;Xme? 1991)? 61/
249
Sa-N NT Vol.1, 158.
250
aewådygVd? ck'´uedum, (&efukef? jrefrm? omoema&;OD;pD;Xme? 1985)? 172/
83
rnf/ uREkfyfwdkY\ umr*kPftm½kHrsm;udk ,laeoa½GU? ig ighOpöm[k pGJvef;aeoa½GU uREkfyfwdkYonf oHo&m
wGif&SdMu\/ uREkfyfwdkY\ rodrIt0dZÆmjzihfpGJvrf;rIudk ausmfvGefaomtcg uREkfyfwdkYonf tqkH;rJh rajymif;rvJ
251
xm0&wnf&Sdaom edAÁmefudk od&SdEdkif\ /

xdkt&Sifjrwf\azmfjycsufü ]edAÁmefonf xm0& (edpö) wnfNrJ\ (oów)}[lonf udavomtnpftaMu;


tm;vkH;udk z,fcGmNyD;aemuf xm0&wnfNrJaom edAÁmefudk &&SdEdkifonf[k jzpfonf/ ,if;odkYaom edAÁmef\Nidrf;csrf;rI
onf oHo&modkY vkH;0jyefra&mufEdkifawmhacs/ odkYjzpfí edAÁmef[lonf xm0&wnfNrJNyD; vkH;0Nidrf;csrf;aomt&m
jzpfonf[k ,lqonf/

edAÁmefESihfywfoufí a0zefrIrsm;
edAÁmeftm; vkH;0csKyfaysmufoGm;jcif;taejzihf ,lqjcif;ESihfywfoufí a0zefaqG;aEG;ygrnf/ Ak'¨0g'usrf;*efwdkYü
azmfjycsufESihf edAÁmeft"dyÜm,fzGifhqdkolwdkY ,lqcsufESpf&yftMum; qufEG,fywfoufrIudk qifjcif&efvdkonf/ Ak'¨
0g'onf ,if;\w&m;"r®udk awG;ac:ajrmfjrifrIqdkif&m a[mMum;csufrsm;tjzpf tokH;jyK&efrBudK;pm;bJ w&m;
"r®udk vufawGUtokH;0ifrItwGuf zGifhqdkonf/ edAÁmef\ tqkH;pGefjywfpJrIqdkif&m a0zefajymqdkcsufESihf ywfoufí
tu,fí edAÁmeftm; jywfpJjcif;[laom a0g[m&udk okH;pGJcJhaomf ,if;t"dyÜm,f zGihq f dkcsufudk bmom&yfqdkif&m
t"dyÜm,fzGifhqdkcsufESihf ñSdEdIif;&efvdktyfonf/ tu,fí edAÁmef[lonf jywfpJoGm;jcif;omjzpfonf[kqdkcJhaomf
,if;odkYaomzGifhqdkcsufudk ,if;odkYqdkwdkif; [kwfr[kwf okH;oyf&efvdkonf/ trSefpifppf jywfpJoGm;jcif;0g'onf
edAÁmeftaMumif;ESihf rywfoufacs/ edAÁmef[lonf vlom;wdkY\ a0g[m&e,fudk ausmfvGefaom t&momjzpfonf/
þtcef;ü azmfjyNyD;jzpfonhftwdkif; edAÁmef\ t&nftaoG;rsm;ESihf om"ursm;udk tus,fjyqdk&ef enf;vrf;
rsm;pGm&Sdonf/ ygVdynm&Sifrsm;u tpdwftydkif;trsm;pktwGuf edAÁmefonf trSefwu,fwnf&SdaMumif; ,lqMu
onf/ odkY&mwGif txufwGifazmfjycJhonfh taemufwdkif;ynm&Sifrsm;? [dE´Lbmom0ifrsm;? c&pf,efbmom0ifrsm;
url edAÁmef[lonf tvkH;pkHcsKyfjywfoGm;jcif;jzpfonf[k ¤if;wdkY\azmfjycsufudk qkyfudkifxm;Muonf/ Ak'¨0g'Dynm
&Sifrsm;url edAÁmef\t"dyÜm,frSef rnfodkYjzpfonf[laomtcsufudk em;vnf&ef BudK;pm;Muonf/ tvkH;pkHcsKyfjywf
oGm;jcif;[k t"dyÜm,fzGifhqdkcsufudk z,f&Sm;&ef edAÁmef\t"dyÜm,fudk jyefvnfñSdEkdif;&ef vkdtyfonf/ taemufwdkif;
t"dyÜm,faumuf,lolrsm;u &[EÅmyk*¾KdvfwdkYonf uG,fvGefNyD;aemuf b0r&Sdawmh[laom ,lqcsuftm; qGJudkif
xm;jcif;udk ,kHMunfaMumif; jyqdkonfqdkygrl ¤if;wdkY\,lqcsufonf tvkH;pkHcsKyfjywfoGm;jcif;0g'omjzpfonf/
¤if;wdkY\,lqcsufrSm aMumif;usKd;t& rrSm;acs/ taMumif;rl &[EÅmyk*¾KdvfwdkYonf okH;q,fhwpfbkHü rwnf&Sdawmh
aomaMumihfjzpfonf/ odkYwap aemufqkH;edAÁmefonf vkH;0jywfpJoGm;jcif;r[kwfbJ vkH;0Nidrf;csrf;rIomjzpfonf/
trSefpifppf edAÁmef[lonf vufawGUtm;jzihf jyKjyifcHr[kwfonhf y&rw¬w&m;taejzihf wnf&SdaomaMumihf
enf;vrf;t& NyD;jywfcsKyfNidrf;oGm;onhftjrifESihf ywfoufrIr&Sdacs/ vufawGUtm;xkwfjcif;tm;jzihf edAÁmefudk &Edkif
onf/ taMumif;rl edAÁmefonf avmuDvGeftqihfwGif jyKjyifrJh taejzihfwnf&SdaomaMumifhjzpfonf/
edAÁmef\ vkH;0csKyfNidrf;oGm;jcif; odkYr[kwf rwnf&Sdjcif;ESihfywfoufí a½Tusifq&mawmfu tu,fí edAÁmef
udk jywfpJrItjzpf,lcJhaomf ,if;onf Oapä''d|d (jywfpJonf[k ,lqonfh t,lrSm;) tjzpfodkY a&mufoGm;onf[k
qdkonf/ q&mawmftaejzihf edAÁmefonf trSefwnf&Sdonf[k ,lqaomaMumifhjzpfonf/ ,if;odkY,lq&jcif;rSm
edAÁme"mwf? tocFw"mwf[laom y&rw¬w&m;rsm; wnf&SdaomaMumihfjzpfonf/ edAÁmefü yuwdrsufpdjzihf rjrif
Edkifaom ½kyfvGef ta&miftqif;wpfrsKd;&Sdvnf; &Sdonf/ odkY&mwGif ykxkZOfyk*¾KdvfwdkYonf ,if;vSyonhf obm0
vGef ta&miftqif;udk rjrifEdkif/ taMumif;rl ,if;ta&mifonf xl;uJpGmawmufyNyD; tvGefMunfvifvsuf
yuwdrsufpdjzihf rjrifEdkifaomaMumihfjzpfonf/ Oyrmtm;jzihf vlomrefwdkYonf ewfa'0gwdkYü&Sdaom ukd,fa&mif
ukd,f0gudkyif rjrifEdkifacs/ ,if;½kyfobm0vGef ta&miftqif;onf vlYavmuü&Sdaom jrifEdkifrjrifEdkifaumif;
252
aom tvif;a&mifrsm;xuf rsm;pGm odrfarGUonf /
251
Buddhadasa, 144.
252
G-M-Ni, 133, 128-308. The quotation comes from the commentary, Mulapannasa-atthakatha (310) : Nibbanato hi anno supabhavantataro va
sujotivantataro va parisuddhataro va pandarataro va natthi.

84
edAÁmefwnf&SdrIESifhywfoufí v,fwDq&mawmfu tjcm;enf;wpfrsKd;jzihf azmfjycJhonf/ trSefpifppf rqGu
wnf;u wnf&Sdaeaom edAÁmefwpfckwnf;om&Sdonfr[kwfbJ &[EÅmyk*¾KdvftoD;oD;ü uG,fvGefNyD;aemuf ¤if;wdkY
\ udk,fykdifedAÁmefrsm;wnf&Sdaeonf/ v,fwDq&mawmfonf ,kwåde,fESihfprf;oyfe,fudk ausmfvGefvsuf obm0
vGef tvGefodrfarGUEl;nhHaom bufwGi&f Sdonhf jyKjyifrJhwnf&SdrI (tocFw"mwf) tjzpfwnf&SdaMumif; oabmwl
onf/ y&dedAÁmefpHNyD;ol yk*¾Kdvfwdkif;ü wnf&SdaomaMumifh edAÁmefonf xm0&wnf&Sdonf/ oEÅdokconf obm0
tm;jzihf y&dedAÁmefpHNyD;olrsm;tm; jyKjyifrJhwnf&SdrI (tocFw"mwf)[laom t&nftcsif;? rtdkjcif; (edpö)? tcsdefrJh
("k0)? wnfNrJjcif; (oów)[laom t&nftcsif;rsm;udk ay;onf/ odkY&mwGif v,fwDq&mawmfu a&S;q&m
(ykAÁmp&d,)\ azmfjycsufudk b0ifrusaMumif;? taMumif;rSm a&S;q&monf tocFw"mwf\ oEÅdokcobm0
onf &[EÅmyk*¾KdvfwdkY uG,fvGefNyD;aemuf wnf&Sdaevdrhfrnf[k ,lqaomaMumifhjzpfaMumif; ñTejf ycJhonf/ odkYw
ap &[EÅmyk*¾KdvfwdkYonf touf&Sifvsuf&SdpOf tocFwedAÁmefrSm wnf&SdaeonfomjzpfaMumif; azmfjyonf/ y&ded
AÁmefpHNyD;aemuf tocFw"mwf\ oEÅdokcobm0onf qufvufíwnf&dSvdrfhrnf/ ,if;odkYjzpfrl &[EÅmyk*¾Kdvf
rsm;taejzihf þb0rSmyif edAÁmefudkod&SdrI odkYr[kwf 'd|"r®duorÜ&m,duedAÁme (þb0udk odjrifjcif;) udk &Edkif
253
rnfjzpfaMumif; q&mawmfu &Sif;jyonf /
aemufygVdynmwpfOD;jzpfol r[m*E¨m½kHq&mawmfurl rdrdenf;vrf;jzihf edAÁmefwnf&SdrIudk t"dyÜm,fzGifhqdkvdkcJh
onf/ edAÁmefwGif pdwf? apwodufESihf ½kyfw&m;wdkY r&Sdawmhojzihf edAÁmeftm; pdwftxl; (emr0daoo) ½kyftxl;
(½ly0daoo) tjzpfr,lqacs/ edAÁme"mwftm; bmrQr&Sdjcif; (tbm0) udkvnf; vufrcHbJ oEÅdokctjzpfom
vufcHcJhonf/ q&mawmfonf edAÁmefü omrefvlwdkY rjrifEdkifaom tvif;a&mif;&Sdonf[laom t,ltqudk
vufcHvdkykH&onf/ ,if;tajctaeonf udavomwdkYrS uif;vGwfaomtcg ta&mift0gawmufyaom pdwf
\rlvtajctaeESihf wlonf/ udavom[lonf pdwfudk npfEGrf;arS;rSdefapaom pdwf\tajctaersm;jzpfonf/
edAÁmefü xl;jcm;xif&Sm;aom ta&mif&SdonfqdkaomaMumifh ¤if;tzdkY edAÁmefonf trSefwu,fwnf&Sdonf[laom
254
t,ltqudk jiif;qdkjcif;r&Sdacs /
ygVdynm&Sifrsm;tMum;ü edAÁmefESihf ywfoufonhf tjiif;yGm;rIwpf&yf&Sdonf/ ,if;xif&Sm;onhf ygVdynm&Sif
rSm r[mpnfq&mawmfjzpfNyD; q&mawmf\ ]oAÁawm ybH (tvkH;pkH awmufy\)}[laom ygVd0gusudk t"dyÜm,f
aumuf,lrIrSm azmfjyNyD;ynm&Sifrsm;\ ,lqcsufESihf jcm;em;onf/ q&mawmfu edAÁmefü tvif;a&mif;&Sdonf[l
aom tqdkudk jiif;y,fonf/ q&mawmftvdkt& edAÁmefü omvGefxl;uJaom tvif;a&mif;r&Sd[kjzpfonf/ odkY&m
255
wGif edAÁmef[lonf tocFw"mwfjzpfNyD; y&rw¬tm;jzihf wnf&SdaMumif; vufcHonf / trSefaomf q&mawmf
onf edAÁmef[lonf jrifomxif&Sm;onhf t&mtaejzifh wnf&SdrIudk tcdkiftrmjiif;qdkonf/ q&mawmf\ t,l
tqudk atmufygazmfjycsufjzihf cdkifrmpGm jyqdkxm;onf –

edAÁmef[lonf Adrmef odkYr[kwf eef;awmfwpfckr[kwf/ NrdKUawmfwpfckvnf; r[kwf/ tvif;a&mif r[kwf/


edAÁmefü tvif;a&mifxGuaf ejcif;r&Sd/ edAÁmefonf jrifomxif&Sm;onfh t&mr[kwf ta&miftqif;r&Sd/
Adrmef eef;awmf NrdKUawmf tvif;a&mif jrifomxif&Sm;onfh t&mwdkYrSm tocFg& odkYr[kwf y&rw¬w&m;
256
rsm; r[kwf /

txufygazmfjycsufudk MunhfvQif r[mpnfq&mawmfonf edAÁmefü toGifoP²mef ta&mif tvif;r&Sdaomf


vnf; oEÅdokc y&rw¬opömw&m;jzpfonf[k t"dyÜm,fzGifhqodk nf/ trSefpifppf edAÁmef[lonf udavom vTrf;rdk;
rIrS uif;vGwfNyD; twdwfuHwdkY tusKd;ray;bJ b0opfwnfaqmufrIudk vkH;0rjzpfay:apEdkifaom t&mjzpfonf

253
Ni-Di, 780-781.
254
Ab-T, 640-643.
255
r[mpnfq&mawmf? 0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; twGJ 2 (&efukef? jrefrm? Ak'¨omoemEk*¾[tzGJU ykHESdyfwkduf? 1999)? 341/
256
Mahasi Sayadwe, Nibbanaptisamyutta-katha: ON the Nature of Nibbana, (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Subang Jaya Buddhist Association,
1992), 59.

85
[k q&mawmfu t"dyÜm,fzGifhqdkvdkonf/ odkYjzihf edAÁmef[lonf udavomNidrf;jcif;jzihf qdkufa&mufEdkifaom t&d
,molawmfaumif;wdkY\ w&m;jzpfaMumif;qdkonf/
txufazmfjyyg ynm&Sifyk*¾Kdvf\azmfjycsufudk tajccHvsuf edAÁmef[lonf trSefwu,fwnf&Sdaomfvnf;
,if;edAÁmefonf vkH;0jywfpJcsKyfNidrf;oGm;jcif;r[kwf[k tcdktrmqdkEdkifonf/ edAÁmeftm; jywfpJjcif;[k odjcif;rSm
t"dyÜm,fzGifhqdkjcif;rQomjzpfí edAÁmeftm; oEÅdokc[kodjcif;rSm edAÁmefukd xdkxGif;íodjrifjcif;jzpfonf/ oDtdk&Dt&
edAÁmefwGif trnfemrtrsKd;rsKd;&Sdaomfvnf; ,if;\vu©PmrSm oEÅdokcvu©wpfyg;omjzpfonf/ edAÁmef\ txl;
jcm;qkH; jrifhjrwfrIrSm ocFg&avmu owåavmu Moumoavmu[laom avmuokH;yg;rS vGwfajrmufrIyifjzpf
onf/ ,if;okH;rsKd;teuf ocFg&avmu[lonf jyKjyifzefwD;rIatmufwGif&Sdaom cE¨mig;yg;udk &nfñTef;jcif;jzpf
onf/ owåavmu[lonf pMu0VmtwGif;&Sd jrifEdkifrjrifEdkifowå0gtm;vkH;udk &nfñTef;onf/ Moumoavmu
[lonf owå0gwkdYarG;zGm;&m okH;q,fhwpfbkHXmeudk &nfñTef;onf/ &[EÅmyk*¾KdvfwdkYonf y&dedAÁmefpHNyD;aemuf
257
'ku©avmurS vkH;0vGwfajrmufoGm;vdrfhjzpfonf /

&[EÅmyk*¾Kdvfrsm;twGuf edAÁmefonf wnf&Sd\


þavhvmcsufonf aemufqkH;taejzihf edAÁmef[lonf ob0xufvGefuJxl;jrwfaom odkYr[kwf edAÁme"mwf[k
ac:aom t&mwpfrsKd;ESihf qufEG,faeonhf oabmw&m;wpfckjzpfonf[k ed*kH;qGJ,lonf/ ax&0g'Ak'¨bmom
tvdkt& edAÁmef[lonf oEÅdokcobm0\tjyifwGifr[kwfaom y&rw¬opömjzpfonf/ oEÅdokc (edAÁmef)[lonf
udk razmufjyefaom Nidrf;csrf;rI? jyKjyifajymif;vJjcif;r&Sdaom aysmf½TifrItjzpf trnfemrjyKonf/ ,if;odkYaom Nidrf;
csrf;aysmf½TifrIudk awG;ac:pOf;pm;rIjzihf wdkif;wmír&/ taMumif;rl ,if;ü vufawGYrsufjrifudk tajccHaom
t&nftcsif; r&SdaomaMumihfjzpfonf/ þtcsufESihfywfoufí tcsKdUaom aysmf½TifNidrf;csrf;rIrsm;onf þpMu
0VmwGif vufawGUrsufjrifudk tajccHrIü tusKH;0ifMuonf/ odkYwap ewfjA[®mwdkY\ aysmf½TifrIonfyif vlom;wdkY
tzdkY vufawGUrsufjrifawGUBuKHrIudk ausmfvGefMuonf/ taMumif;rl ewfjA[®mwdkYonfom ewfjA[®mwdkY\ aysmf½Tif
rIudk &EdkifaomaMumihfjzpfonf/ xdktwlyif t&d,myk*¾KdvfwdkYonfom avmukwå&maysmf½iT frI rnfodkYjzpfaMumif;ukd
em;vnfEdkifMuonf/ þtajctaerSm arG;&mygrsufrjrifyk*K¾ dvfESihf wlonf/ ,if;rsufrjriftzdkY omrefyk*¾KdvfwdkY
jrifawGUEdkifonfh ta&mifESihf tvif;a&mifwnf&SdrIudk vufcH&ef cufcJouJhodkYjzpfonf/ þOyrmü rsufrjrif
yk*¾Kdvfonf ykxkZOfyk*¾KdvfESifhwlonf/ ykxkZOfyk*¾KdvftzdkY t&d,myk*¾KdvfwdkYtzdkY trSefwu,fwnf&Sdaom edAÁmefudk
vufcH&ef tvGefcJ,Of;onf/
Ak'¨0g'ü edAÁmeft,ltqonf 'óeoabmtm;jzifh tvGef½IyfaxG;aomfvnf; vufawGYusifhpOftm;jzifh
,if;udk em;vnfoabmaygufEdkifonf/ Ak'¨0g'tpOftvmrsm; tMum;üvnf; edAÁmeft,ltqESihf ywfoufí
a,bk,stm;jzihf oabmwlnDcsuf r&Sday/ odkY&mwGif ax&0g'½IaxmihfrS edAÁmefukd &Sif;jy&ef ax&0g'Ak'¨bmom
EdkifiHwdkYü jrifhrm;pGm todtrSwfjyKxm;aom rl&if;ygVdawmfrsm;ESihf ygVdpmayudk arhxm;í rjzpfEdkifacs/
ax&0g'Ak'¨bmomEdkifiHrsm;rSm oD&dvuFm? jrefrm? ,kd;',m;? uarÇm'D;,m;ESihf vmtdkwdkYjzpfMuonf/ ,if;
yifr ax&0g'ig;EdkifiHteuf jrefrmEdkifiHrSm ygVdusrf;*efrsm;ESihf ax&0g'tpOftvmudk xdrf;odrf;xm;aom EdkifiH
wpfck jzpfonf/ xdktwlyif oD&dvuFmESihf ,dk;',m;EdkifiHwdkYüvnf; ,if;tpOftvm ygVdawmfESihf ygVdpmayudk
xdef;odrf;xm;Muonf/ jrefrmEkdifiHonf ax&0g'Ak'¨0g'\ wefzdk;ESihf ,Ofaus;rIudk ESpfaygifwpfaxmifausmf
xdef;odrf;xm;NyD;jzpfonf/ ,if;tpOftvmonf &[ef;awmfrsm;? oDv&Sifrsm;? vlOygoumrsm;tm; aumif;jrwf
aomenf;vrf;jzihf bmomw&m;avhusifhrIudk ay;cJhNyD;jzpfonf/ ,if;avhusifhrIwGif Ak'¨omoemudk taMumif;jyK
í awG;ac:ajrmjrifrIESihf vufawGU½Iaxmihfrsm; yg0ifonf/ ax&0g'Ak'¨bmomEdkifiHrsm;ü &[ef;awmfrsm;onf
edAÁmeft"dyÜm,fudkzGifhqdk&mü Oapä' (jywfpJjcif;)ESihf oów (xm0&wnfNrJ)[laom tpGef;ESpf&yfudk a&SifMuOf&ef
txl;*½kpdkufcJhMuonf/

257
Kuala Lumpur Dhammajiti, Asanga Tilakaratne, and Kapila Abhayawansa. Recent Researches in Buddhist Studies (Colombo, Sri LankaL Y.
Karunadasa Felicitation committee, 1997), 23.

86
jrefrmAk'¨bmoavmutwGif;&Sd ynm&Sif&ef[ef;awmfrsm;teuf a½Tusifq&mawmfonf xif&Sm;ausmfMum;
aom ygVdynm&Sifjzpfonhfjyif q&mawmfjyKpkonhf *rÇD&m&rÇD&r[medAÁK'DyeD usrf;ESihf q&mawmf\ edAÁmef
t,ltqwdkYaMumihf txl;xif&Sm;onf/ q&mawmf\tvdkt& edAÁmef[lonf vkH;0csKyfNidrf;oGm;jcif;vnf;r[kwf
vkH;0jywfpJ oGm;jcif;vnf;r[kwf? taMumif;rl edAÁmef[lonf vkH;0csKyfNidrf;oGm;jcif;ESihf rywfoufbJ ,if;onf
vkH;0aysmf½Tif Nidrf;csrf;jcif;ESihfom ywfoufonf/ edAÁmefwnf&dSrIonf vkH;0rsufarSmufxif&Sm;jzpfonf/ edAÁmefü
cE¨mig;yg; wnf &SdrIonf tqkH;owfoGm;onf/ þazmfjycsufü edAÁmef[lonf rwnf&SdouJhodkYjzpfaMumif;
qdkMuonf/ odkYwap oEÅdokcESihf trwobm0 (edAÁme"mwk) onf wnf&Sdaeonf/ trSefpifppf edAÁmefonf
t&d,myk*¾KdvfwdkYtwGuf wnf&Sdaeonf/
txufyg edAÁmeft,ltqudk awGU&jcif;ü oDtdk&D½Iaxmihft&aomf edAÁmeft,ltqwkdif;udk azmfjyEdkifaom
enf;vrf;r&Sdonftxd euf½Idif;ykH&onf/ þrSpí a&SUwGif þavhvmrIonf edAÁmef[lonfrnfodkYaomt&m jzpf
aMumif; raqG;aEG;awmhbJ vufawGYxdk;xGif;odjrifrI½IaxmihfrS OD;wnfwifjyrnfjzpfonf/ Ak'¨0g'ü vufawGYESihf
tqdktrdefYonf "r®tESpfom&udkem;vnf&ef wlrQpGmta&;ygonf/ Ak'¨0g'DwdkYonf usrf;*efpmay odkYr[kwf usrf;
*efpmayudk oifMum;jcif;onf todÓPftwGufomjzpfNyD; xdk;xGif;odjrifí vGwfajrmufrIESihf ywfoufaom
aMumifh usrf;*efpmayxuf ur®|mef;bm0emyGm;rsm;tm;xkwfudk ydkíwefzdk;xm;aMumif; txl;jyKajymqdkMuonf/
pdwfydkif;qdkif&m todynmonf 0dyóemynm? r*fÓPfzdkvfÓPfwdkYESihf ywfoufonf/ 0dyóemynm[l
onf þae&mü tedpö? 'ku©ESihf tewåobm0udk vufceJodjrifNyD; tvdktavsmufjzpfay:aom todÓPfudk
qdkvdkonf/ ynmukd oDvESihf orm"d[laom tjcm;odu©mESpfrsKd;ESihftwl yGm;rsm;tm;xkwfEdkifonf/ 0dyóem
ynmonf todynmjzihfem;vnfrI\ &v'frQomr[kwfbJ ½kyfemrfjzpfpOfESpfrsKd;vkH;yg0ifonfh rdrd\obm0udk
ur®|mef;½IrSwfí wdkuf½kdufapmihfMunhfjcif;jzihf &&SdEdkifonf/ owdy|mef[kvnf;xif&Sm;onhf 0dyóemur®|mef;
258
onf r*fÓPf zdkvfÓPftqifhqDodkY a&mufatmif OD;aqmifoGm;onf /
Ak'¨0g'½Iaxmifht& usrf;*efpmayudk avhvmjcif;onf xdk;xGif;íodjrifjcif;r[kwf? odkYaomf udk,fwdkif
ur®|mef;bm0em½IrSwfjcif;ESihftwl usrf;*efrsm;udk oif,ljcif;jzihf xkd;xGif;íodjrifEdkifaMumif; em;vnf&onf/
Ak'¨0g'DwdkYonf vufawGUavhusifhtm;xkwfjcif;r&SdbJ edAÁmef\oEÅdokcobm0udk rnfolrQr&Edkif[lonfudk trSef
tjzpf,lqMuonf/ þavhvmcsuf\ &nf½G,fcsufudk NyD;jynfhpkHap&ef ur®|mef;½IrSwfykHenf;vrf;udk avhvm&efvdk
tyfonf/ odkYjzpfí a&SUtcef;wGif vufawGU½IaxmifhrS edAÁmeftaMumif;udk ydkrdkem;vnfEdkif&ef Ak'¨bmomqdkif&m
ur®|mef;½IrSwfjcif;ESihf ,if;\enf;vrf;rsm;udk t"duaqG;aEG;rnf;jzpfonf/

000000

258
BD, 230-231.

87
tcef; 5

0drkwådudk OD;wnfonhf ur®|mef;bm0em


Ak'¨0g'\vGwfajrmufrI (0drkwåd) t,ltq
þtcef;wGif ax&0g'Ak'¨bmomqdkif&m ur®|mef;½IrSwfjcif;ESifh enf;vrf;trsKd;rsKd;udk todynmtqifhtwef;t
vkduf tokH;csvsuf txl;jyKazmfjyrnfjzpfonf/ tcsKdUaom ur®|mef;½Irw S frItawGUtBuKHudk okawoejyKol\
udk,fydkif ur®|mef;½IrSwfrItawGUtBuKHESihf qufEG,fazmfjyrnfjzpfonf/ &nf½G,fcsufrSm Ak'¨0g'qdkif&m ur®|mef;½I
rSwfrIonf pdwfydkif;b0vGwfajrmufrIqDodkY OD;wnfykH? ur®|mef;½IrSwfrItawGUtBuKHonf edAÁmeft"dyÜm,fudk em;
vnfatmifrnfodkY ulnDykHwdkYudk pl;prf;avhvm&efjzpfonf/ Ak'¨"r®\ t"dur@dKifrSm vufawGUod&SdrIonf usrf;
*efavhvmrIESihf todynmESifhqdkifaom ESpfoufrIxuf ydkrdkta&;ygaomtcsufjzpfonf/ NcKHíqdk&aomf avhusifh
tm;xkwfrIr&SdbJ rnfolrQ edAÁmefukd r&Edkif[kjzpfonf/ trSefpifppf ur®|mef;bm0em½IrSwfrIudk xnfhoGif;jcif;
onf þavhvmrI\ &nf½G,fcsufudk NyD;jynfhpkHap&ef r&Sdrjzpfvkdtyfonf/ þtcef;ü atmufyg azmfjycsufrsm;ukd
t"duavhvmrnfjzpfonf/ yxr pdwfydkif;b0vGwfajrmufrIt,ltqESihf ur®|mef;½IrSwfrI\ tajccH&nf½G,fcsuf
udk aqG;aEG;rnf/ 'kwd, ax&0gAk'¨0g't& ur®|mef;½IrSwfrI enf;pepftrsKd;rsKd;udk avhvm rnf/ wwd, yifr
Ak'¨0g'ur®|mef;½IrSwfrI trsKd;tpm;rsm;ESihf 0dyóemynmwdk;wufykHwdkYudkazmfjyrnf/ aemufqkH;taejzihf ur®|mef;
½IrSwfrIonf edAÁmef\oEÅdokcobm0udk em;vnfrIqDodkY aqmif,loGm;ykHwdkYudk avhvmrnfjzpfonf/
Ak'¨0g'DwdkYonf rsm;aomtm;jzihf edAÁmef[lonf rnfodkYt"dyÜm,f&Sdonf[lonfudk em;rvnfaomfvnf;
edAÁmefodkYa&mufvdkaMumif; ajymqdkMuonf/ xdkYjyif ¤if;wdkYtaejzihf ur®|mef;½IrSwfí edAÁmefodkYa&mufEdkifaMumif;
rMumcPazmfjyMuonf/ aorIuif;jcif; trw? 'ku©qkH;jcif;? taESmiftzGJUrS vGwfajrmufjcif;[laom tESpfom&
&Sdonhf edAÁmefonf Ak'¨0g'DwdkY\ tjrifhqkH;yef;wkdifjzpfonf/ edAÁmef[lonf vlwdkif;a&mufEdkifaomt&m jzpfonf[k
Ak'¨0g'DwdkY ,lqMuonf/ odkYwap 'óeenf;jzihf edAÁmef\tESpfom&udk&Sif;jy&ef ¤if;wdkYtzdkY cJ,Of;onf/ odkYwap
'óeqdkif&mazmfjycsufudk Ak'¨0g'Dr[kwfonhf avhusifhtm;xkwfolrsm;u azmfjyavh&SdonfrSm tu,fí edAÁmef
onf vkH;0csKyfNidrf;oGm;jcif;r[kwfcJhaomf edAÁmef[lonf rnfodkYaomvGwfajrmufrIudk qdkvdkoenf;[kjzpfonf/
Ak'¨0g'Dtrsm;pku edAÁmef[lonf y&rw¬opömjzpfNyD; edAÁmefudk r&ao;olrsm;tm; edAÁmef\tESpfom&udk &Sif;jy
&efcufcJaMumif; &Sif;jyvdrfhrnfjzpfonf/ ,if;odkYazmfjycsufrSm edAÁmef[o l nfudk pum;vkH;rsm;? bmompum;rsm;
ESihf BuHpnfawG;awmjcif;rsm;jzihf rodEdkifaMumif;? t&d,myk*¾Kdvfrsm;rSwpfyg; rnfolrQ avmuDtodÓPfjzihf edAÁmef
udk rodjrifEdkifaMumif;jyqdkaom tbd"r®musrf;rsm;ESihftnDjzpfonf/ t&d,myk*¾Kdvfrsm;onf ¤if;wdkY\ 0dyóem
ynmjzihf edAÁmefudkem;vnfEdkifonf/ Ak'0¨ g'DwdkYonf yk*¾KdvftoD;oD;\ 0dyóemynmjzihf&&Sdonfh ur®|mef;½IrSwfrI
\tusKd;w&m;rsm;udk ,kHMunfMuojzihf ¤if;wdkYonf ur®|mef;w&m;udk BudK;pm;tm;xkwfMuonf/ þonfrSm
Ak'¨0g'DwdkY rdrdwdkY\ pdwfydkif;b0vrf;pOfudk csOf;uyfMuykHjzpfonf/ Ak'\
¨ w&m;"r®tay: ,if;odkYaom oabmxm;
aMumifh ¤if;wdkYu 0dyóemur®|mef;onf edAÁmefodkYa&muf&Sd&ef 0ifaygufjzpfaMumif; tcdkiftrm qdkMuonf/
edAÁme"r®ESihfywfoufí 0dyóemynmESihf edAÁmeffwdkYtMum; qufEG,frI&Sdonf/ þ,lqcsufü edAÁmef
odkYr[kwf tocFw"mwf[lonfudk vGwfajrmufrI (0drkwåd) [k jyefqdkEdkifonf/ ur®|mef;½IrSwfykH enf;vrf;rsm;ukd
r*¾if&Spfyg;enf;ESihf owdy|mefav;yg;enf;wdkYESihf qufEG,fEdkifonf/ trSefpifppf Ak'¨a[mMum;awmfrlaom w&m;
awmfudk "r®ESihf avhusifhtm;xkwfrI[k ESpfydkif;cGJjcm;Edkifonf/

"r®\tajccHtkwfjrpfrSm opömav;yg;jzpfNyD; usifhBuHtm;xkwfrI\ tajccHtkwfjrpfrSm r*¾if&Spfyg;jzpf\/


odkYaomf ,if;tajccHESpfrsKd;rSm eD;uyfpGm qufEG,fae\/ taMumif;rl uREkfyfwdkY awGU&onhftwdkif; r*¾if&Spf

88
yg;[lonf av;ckajrmufopömjzpfvsuf r*¾if&Spfyg;\ yxrqkH;tqifhrSm opömav;yg;udk em;vnfjcif;[l
259
aom rSefaomtjrif (or®m'd|d) jzpfaomaMumihfwnf; /

r*¾if&Spfyg;wGif rSefaomtjrifonf vrf;pOf\ yxrqkH;tcsufjzpfNyD; tjcm;vrf;pOfrsm;twGuf vdktyfaom


vrf;ñTefjzpfonf/ rSefaomtjrif\ wlnDaom vkyfaqmifcsufudk udk,f EIwf ESvkH;okH;yg;ü apmihfpnf;rIESihf
pdwfydkif;b0 xl;jcm;aumif;rGefrI EIef;pHjzihf rSefaomudk,fusihfw&m;udk qufpyfxm;onf/ rSefaomowdonf ckepf
ckajrmuf usihfpOfjzpfNyD; ukd,f EIwf pdwfwdkYü cPwdkif;wGif owd&Sdjcif;udk qdkvkdonf/ owd\pGrf;tm;um; 0dyó
emynmjzpfay:ap&efESihf 'ku©rSvGwaf jrmufrIudk &&Sdjcif;jzpfonf/
owdy|mefur®|mef;onf &uf&Snfur®|mef;½IrSwfrIumvtwGif; 0dyóemynmwdk;wufrIudk jzpfay:apEdkif
onf/ 0dyóemÓPfwdk;wuf &ifhusufrIü vGwfajrmufrI (0drkwåd)tqifh trsKd;rsKd;yg0ifonf/ odkY&mwGif ck'´ued
um,f? edAÁme"mwkokwft& t"duvGwfajrmufrItqifh ESpfrsKd;&Sdonf/ ,if;wdkYrSm 1) oOyg'daooedAÁme"mwf
ESihf 2) tEkyg'daooedAÁme"mwfwdkYjzpfonf/ þae&mü oOyg'daooedAÁme"mwf[lonf jyKjyifcH cE¨mig;yg; t
<uif;tusef&Sdaom edAÁme"mwfjzpfNyD; tEkyg'daooedAÁme"mwf[lonf jyKjyifcH cE¨mig;yg; t<uif;tusefr&Sdaom
edAÁme"mwfjzpfonf/
oOyg'daooedAÁmef[lonf wPSm ork',wdkYaMumihfjzpfaom pdwfydkif;qdkif&mysufpD;rIrS vGwfajrmufrIudk qdk
vdkonf/ Oyrmtm;jzifh t0dZÆmESihfwPSmwdkY csKyfNidrf;oGm;aomtcg raysmf½Tifjcif;? pdk;&drfjcif;? ylaqG;jcif;? 0rf;enf;
260
jcif;ESihf tjcm;pdwfydkif;qdkif&m cHpm;&rIuJhodkYaom udavomw&m;rsm;udk z,f&Sm;Edkifonf / oOyg'daooedAÁmef
onf pdwfESihfqufEG,faeonhf vGwfajrmufrIudk wdkuf½kduf&nfñTef;onf/ pdwfonf &m*? wPSm? t0dZÆmuJh
odkYaom udavomwdkYrS vGwfajrmufaomtcg raysmf½TifrI? pdwfzdpD;rIpaom pdwf\tjctaeESihf qufEG,faeonfh
pdwfydkif;b0qif;&J'ku©rS vGwfajrmufoGm;Edkifonf/
tbd"r®mtvdkt& Nidrf;csrf;rIESihf aysmf½TifrIonf pdwftwGif;Nidrf;csrf;rItajctaeESihf qufEG,fonf/ t&d,m
yk*¾Kdvfrsm;tzdkY þb0wGif edAÁmefudkodjrifNyD;aemuf pdwfydkif;b0qif;&J'ku©rS vGwfajrmufrIjzpfonhf oOyg'daoo
edAÁmef[laom Nidrf;csrf;rIESihf aysmf½TifrItxl;udk cHpm;&onf/ r*FvokwfwGif &[EÅmyk*¾Kdvfrsm;onf t0dZÆm wPSm
wdkYrS vGwfajrmufNyD;jzpfí pdk;&drfjcif;? aMumuf½GHUjcif;wdkYrS vkH;0uif;a0;aMumif; rSwfwrf;wifxm;onf/ vmb
(atmifjrifjcif;)? tvmb (qkH;½IH;jcif;)? ,o (ta>ct&Haygrsm;jcif;)? t,o (ta>ct&Hqkwf,kwfjcif;)? edE´m
(uJh&JUjcif;)? yoHom (csD;rGrf;jcif;)? okcH (csrf;omjcif;)? 'ku©H (qif;&Jjcif;) [laom avmu"Hw&m; &Spfyg;aMumihf
¤if;wdkY\pdwfrSm vkH;0wkefvIyfjcif;r&Sd/ ¤if;wdkYrSm aomuuif;ol? tnpftaMu;uif;ol? ab;uif;olrsm; jzpfMu
261
onf / Ak'¨0g'ü ,if;odkYaom pdwfydkif;b0vGwfajrmufrIudk ]oOyg'daoo} ac:Edkifonf/
tEkyg'daooedAÁmefonf &[EÅmyk*¾KdvfwdkY y&dedAÁmefpHNyD;aemuf jzpfay:vmaom edAÁmefjzpfonf/ wpfcsdef
wnf;wGif &[EÅmyk*¾Kdvf[kqdkaom ,if;emrf½kyfjzpfpOfonf vkH;0&yfpJoGm;NyD; ,if;jzpf\ ur®pGrf;tifonf qkH;cef;
wdkifoGm;onf/ ,if;aemuf ¤if;wdkY\ b0oHo&monf jywfpJonf/ ,if;tajctaeudk tEkyg'daooedAÁme
"mwf[kac:onf/ &[EÅmyk*¾KdvfwdkY edAÁmefudk rsufarSmufjyKNyD;aemuf jyKjyifcb H 0twGuf "mwfobm0 t<uif;
tusefr&Sdawmhacs[k em;vnf&onf/ emrf½kyfjzpfpOfobm0 rwnf&Sdawmhaomfvnf; aojcif;rJhobm0ESihf oEÅd
okconfom wnf&Sdonf/ ,if;tajctaeudk rarG;zGm;jcif; (tyÜ#doE¨d)? jzpfay:rvmjcif; (tEkyÜwåd)? rjzpfjcif;
262
(tZw)? jyKjyifcJhrJh (tocFw)[k ac:qdkonf /
Ak'¨0g'½IaxmifhrS pdwfydkif;b0vGwfajrmufrIudk 0drkwåd[kvnf; ac:onf/ þae&mü rnfodkYaom pdwfydkif;b0
vGwfajrmufrIudk Ak'¨0g'DwdkY &nf½G,foenf;/ a½SUwGif azmfjyNyD;onhftwdkif; pdwfydkif;b0vGwfajrmufrIü oOyg'd
aooESihf tEkyg'daoo[k tqifhESpfrsKd;yg&Sdonf/ odkY&mwGif ur®|mef;bm0em½IrSwfonhf enf;pepfonf pdwfydkif;
b0vGwfajrmufrI\ t"dyÜm,fudk vufawGUem;vnf&ef ulnDonf/ xdkYjyif pdwfydkif;vGwfajrmufrIwGif vGwf
259
Bhikkhu Bodhi, The Buddha and His Dhamma: Two Lectures on Buddhism (Kandy, Sri Lanka, Buddhist Publication Society, 1999), 23.
260
Ibid, 9.
261
Kh-N, 319.
262
Bhikkhu Bodhi, The Buddha and his Dhamma: Two Lectures on Buddhism (Kandy, Sri Lanka, Buddhist Publication Society, 1999), 23.

89
ajrmufrIt&om (0drkwåd&o) vu©Pm&Sdonf/ trSefpifppf "r®udk odem;vnfrIü tm½kHig;jzihf jrnf;prf;Edkifaom
t&omr&Sdacs/ odkYwap "r®onf wifpm;íqkdjcif;jzifh "r®&ot&nftaoG; odkYr[kwf pdwfydkif;b0vGwfajrmufrI
t&om&Sdonf/ t*Fkwå&edum,f? y[mem'okwfwGif þtcsufudk atmufygtwkdif; rdefYqdkonf –

ao,sxmyd y[mem' r[morka'´g {u&aom? {0ar0H acg r[mem' t,H "r®0dea,m {u&aom
0drkwåd&aom/ ,rÜd y[mem' t,H "r®0dea,m {u&aom 0drkwåd&aom/ t,H y[mem' £ro®ð "r®
263
0dea, qa|m tpä&da,m tblawm "ar®m/ ,H 'doGm 'doGm bdu©L £roð "r®0dea, tbd&rEÅd /
y[mem'? Oyrmaomfum; r[mork'´&monf wpfckwnf;aom t&om&SdouJhodkY xdktwl þ"r®0de,
onf 0drkwåd&o[laom wpfckwnf;aom t&om&Sd\/ y[mem'? ,if;onf þ"r®0de,ü ajcmufckajrmuf
aom tHhMozG,f rjzpfzl;NrJxl;uJaom t&nftcsif;jzpf\/ ,if;t&nftcsif;udk odíodí &[ef;wdkYonf
264
þomemawmfü aysmfarGUMuukef\ /

txufygazmfjycsufü pdwfydkif;b0vGwaf jrmufrI[lonf tjccHtm;jzihf b0opfarG;zGm;jcif;? tdkrif;jcif;? emr


usef;jzpfjcif;? aojcif;? pdk;&drfjcif;? ylaqG;jcif;ESihf tvkH;pkHaom udk,fqif;&Jjcif; pdwfqif;&Jjcif;[laom 'ku©tpkt
a0;udk jzpfay:apwwfaom t0dZÆmESifh wPSmrSvGwfajrmufjcif;jzpfonf/ tu,fí avmuDaysmf½TifrIrsm;udk wyf
ESpfoufjcif;wPSm? b0wpfzefjzpfjcif;udk pGJvef;rIOyg'gefESihf aeYpOfb0vIyf&Sm;rIrsm;udk rodjcif;t0dZÆm r&SdcJhaomf
owå0gwdkYtm; 'ku©r&Sdawmhacs/ Ak'¨0g'ü 'ku©tvkH;pkHjywfpJoGm;jcif;udk em;vnfoabmaygufjcif;tm; edAÁmefudk&&Sd
rItjzpf ,lqonf/ odkYwap Ak'¨0g'D ur®|mef;q&mrsm;tm; edAÁmefudk rnfodkY&&Sdoenf;[k rMumcP ar;Muonf/
,if;ar;cGef;twGuf ur®|mef;q&mwdkY\ ½kd;½dk;&Sif;&Sif;tajzrSm pdwfpifMu,f (pdwå0dok'¨djzpf) &rnf[líyif/ avh
usifhrItwGuf rnfonhfenf;vrf;rsm;udk tokH;jyKygoenf;/ wpfzef ½kd;½kd;&Sif;&Sif;tajzrSm avhusifh&ef t*Fg&Spf&yf
265
ygonhf r*¾if&Spfyg;(t|r*¾*F)udk tokH;cs&rnf[kjzpfonf / odkYjzihf wpfpkHwpfa,mufonf edAÁmefESihfywfouf
onhf tqkH;rJh 'óear;cGef;rsm;udk ar;jref;Edkif&monf/ odkYwap wpfpkHwpfa,mufonf ur®|mef;½IrSwfjcif;rSwpf
qihf edAÁmefodkYOD;wnfonhf "r®t&omudk udk,fwkdifrodrcsif; edAÁmef\tESpfom&udk em;vnfEdkifrnf r[kwfacs/

Ak'¨0g'ur®|mef;½IrSwfrI\ &nf½G,fcsuf
a,bk,stm;jzifh ur®|mef;xkdifjcif;\&nf½G,fcsufrSm tpOftvmaemufcHtrsdK;rsKd; odkYr[kwf bmomw&m; o
abmxm;taxGaxGudk tajccHí &nf½G,fcsuf trsm;tjym;&SdEdkifonf/ tcsKdUtpOftvmtzdkY ur®|mef;onf pdwf
Nidrf;csrf;rIudk wdk;wufap&efjzpfNyD; tcsKdUu pdwfpGrf;&nftm;jzihf ½kyfydkif;qdkif&ma&m*grsm;udk uko&ef? tcsKdUrl pdwf
wefcdk;&&Sd&ef? tcsKdUrl tjcm;wpfpkHwpfckudk &&Sd&efjzpfonf/ tpOftvmwdkYonf tcsif;csif; rwljcm;em;aom
aMumihf ¤if;wdkY\ ur®|mefxkdifjcif; &nf½G,fcsufrSm wpfckESihfwpfck jcm;em;Muonf/
odkY&mwGif Ak'¨0g'ur®|mef;½IrSwfrI\ tjccH&nf½G,fcsufrSm pdwfudkpifMu,fap&efESihf edAÁmefodkYa&muf&efjzpf
266
onf / wpfzef orm"dESihf pdwf\Nidrf;csrf;onhf tajctaeudk wdk;wufap&ef orxenf;jzihf ur®|mef;½IrSwf
MuNyD; 0dyóemur®|mef;udkrl b0wGif&Sdaom ½kyfemrfw&m;wdkY\ tNrJr&Sdjcif;tedpö? qif;&Jjcif;'ku©ESifh igaumifol
aumifrJhrI tewåobm0udk xdk;xGif;íodjrifvm&ef tm;xkwfjcif;jzpfonf/ b0wpfck[lonf cE¨mig;yg; tpk
267
taygif;yifjzpfonf /

263
An-N Vol III, 42-43.
264
Nyanaponika-thera and Bhikkhu Bodhi, 204.
265
"r®puúy0wåeokwftvdkt& r*¾if&Spfyg;rSm or®m'd|d (rSefaomtjrif)? or®mouFyÜ (rSefaomtBuHtpnf)? or®m0gpm (rSefaom p
um;)? or®mur®EÅ (rSefaom tvkyf)? or®mtmZD0 (rSefaomoufarG;0rf;ausmif;)? or®m0g,mr (rSefaomvkHYv)? or®mowd (rSefaom
owd)? or®morm"d (rSefaom wnfMunfrI)wdkYjzpfonf/ Bodhi, The Connected Discourses of the Buddha, 1844.
266
Di-N Vol. III, 131.
267
BD, 36.

90
txl;jyKíazmfjy&aomf ax&0g'Ak'¨0g'DwdkYonf pdwfudkpifMu,fatmifvkyfjcif;jzihf edAÁmefodkYa&muf&ef owd
268
y|mefur®|mef;[kvnf;ac:aom 0dyóemur®|mef;onf r&SdrjzpfvdktyfaMumif; tav;teufqdkMuonf /
pdwfudkpifMu,fatmif jyKvkyfjcif;r&SdbJ edAÁmef[lonf rnfodkYaomt&mjzpfaMumif; em;vnf&ef cufcJonf/ odkY&m
wGif Ak'¨0g'ur®|mef;½IrSwfjcif;ESihf ywfoufí qdkzG,fwpf&yf&Sdonf/ a,m*Donf pdwfpifMu,frItajctaeESihf
edAÁmefudk em;vnfrIwdkYtMum; qufEG,frIudk rnfodkYem;vnfEdkifoenf;/ pdwfudkpifMu,fap&efrSm rdrdudk,fudk
t&Sdudkt&Sdtwdkif; em;vnf&rnfjzpfonf/ Oyrmtm;jzihf pdwf apwoduf ½kyf edAÁmef[laom y&rw¬w&m;wdkY\
jzpfpOfobm0udk t&Sdtwdkif; em;vnf&rnfjzpfonf/ a,m*Dyk*¾Kdvftaejzifh ,if;jzpfpOfwdkYonf trSefwu,f
wnf&SdaMumif;odjrifonf/ Ak'¨0g'onf a,m*Dyk*¾Kdvftm; edAÁmef\obm0udk em;vnfapEdkifaom 0dyóemynm
wdk;wufvmapa&;twGuf pdwfpifMu,frI[kvnf;ac:onfh orm"d\ta&;ygykHudk txl;jyKoifMum;onf/ orm"d
okwåefü þtcsufESihf ywfoufí Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwfu atmufygtwkdif; >rufMum;onf –

orm"ð bdu©a0 bma0x? orm"dawm bdu©a0 bdu©K ,xmblwH yZmemwd/ udÍö ,xmblwH yZmemwd?
½lyó ork',Íö tw¬*FrÍö a0'em, ork',Íö tw¬*FrÍö onm, ork',Íö tw¬*FrÍö ocFg&meH
269
ork',Íö tw¬*FrÍö 0dnmPó ork',Íö tw¬*FrÍö /
&[ef;wdkY? orm"dudk yGm;rsm;Muavmh/ orm"dudk yGm;rsm;jcif;jzihf [kwfwdkif;rSefpGm odjrif\/ rnfodkY [kwf
wkdif;rSefpGm odoenf;[lrl ½kyfw&m;\ jzpfjcif;ysufjcif;udk od\/ a0'em\ jzpfjcif;ysufjcif;udk od\/
onm\ jzpfjcif;ysufjcif;udk od\/ ocFg&w&m;wdkY\ jzpfjcif;ysufjcif;udk od\/ 0dnmPf\ jzpfjcif;
270
ysufjcif;udk od\ /

þygVdawmfü Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf tppftrSef &nf½G,fcoJh nfudk em;vnf&ef owdy|mefav;yg;udk yGm;rsm; vsuf


owdy|mefur®|mef;udk tokH;cs&rnfjzpfonf/ tm;xkwfrItpwGif a,m*Donf ½kyfemrfy&rw¬w&m;rsm;udk
uGJjym;pGm em;vnfvmvdrhfrnf/ emrf[kqdk&mü emrfw&m;\ vkyfaqmifrIESpf&yfjzpfonfh pdwfESihf apwodufwdkYudk
þavhvmrIu todtrSwfjyKvdrfhrnfjzpfonf/ trSefpifppf a,m*Dyk*¾Kdvfrsm;onf y&rw¬w&m;wdkY\ xif&Sm;rI?
,if;wdkY\ xif&Sm;aom udpö (vkyfaqmifcsuf)wdkYudk owdy|mefur®|mef;rSwpfqihf em;vnfEdkifpGrf;&Sdonf/
tbd"r®myd#u yxrqkH;usrf;pm "r®o*FPDygVdawmft& pdwfudk atmufygtwdkif; tkyfpkcGJEdkifonf 1)
ukovpdwå 2) tukovpdwå 3) tAsmuwpdwå (0dygufESifhMud,mpdwf) [k okH;rsKd;cGJjcm;NyD; pkpkaygif; pdwftusOf;
89-yg;&Sdonf/ apwodufwdkYrSm ig;q,fhESpfyg;&Sdonf/ ,if;wdkYrSm 0dwuf? a0'em? onm? apwem? owd?
{u*¾wm? ynm ponfwdkYjzpfonf/ odk&Y mwGif tbd"r®myd#uü y&rw¬w&m;av;yg;udk tkyfpkokH;pkcGJonf/ ygVd
bmomazmfjycsufrSm ]ukovm "r®m? tukovm "r®m? tAsmuwm "r®m} [kjzpfonf/ tbd"r®myd#utvdkt&
ukov"r®[lonf ukodkvfpdwf ESpfq,fhwpfyg;ESihf ,if;ü,SOfonhf apwoduf okH;q,fh&Spfyg;jzpfonf/ tukov
"r®[lonf tukodkvfpdwf q,fhESpfyg;ESihf ,if;ESihf,SOfonfh apwoduf ESpfq,fhckepfyg;wdkYjzpfonf/ tAsmuw
"r®wGif usefy&rw¬w&m;av;yg;wdkY yg0ifonf/ ,if;wdkYrSm 0dygufpdwf okH;q,fhajcmufyg;ESihf apwoduf okH;q,fh
271
okH;yg;? Mud,mpdwf ESpfq,fESihf apwoduf okH;q,fhig;yg;? &kyf ESpfq,fh&Spfyg; ESihf edAÁmefwdkYjzpfonf / odkYwap
a,m*Donf ur®|mef;\ pGrf;&nfjzihf pdwfapwodufwdkY\ udpötm;vkH;udk owdjyKrdvdrhfrnf r[kwfay/ odkY&mwGif
a,m*Donf avmb? a'go? O'´pöuJhodkYaom xif&Sm;onfh pdwf\vkyfaqmifcsuftrsm;pkudk odvdrfhrnfjzpfonf/
qufvufí tm;xkwfoGm;rnfqdkifvQif ur®|mef;bm0emonf pdwfapwodufwdkY\ vkyfaqmifcsufudk ydkrdk
euf½dIif;pGm avhvmrnfjzpfonf/ ,if;ESpfrsKd;teuf pdwfonf t"dutaejzihf vIyf&Sm;NyD; apwodufwdkYu 'kwd,
tcef;u@rS vIyf&Sm;onf/ vufawGYod&SdrIr&SdbJ usrf;pmtodrQjzihf pdwfapwodufwdkY\ obm0jcm;em;csufudk

268
Di-N Vol. III, 230.
269
Sa-N Vol. II, 12.
270
Sa-N-NT 863.
271
Ab, Vol. I, 1-3, 17-144; Ab-S, 2-38, 95-98,113.

91
enf;vnf&ef cJ,Of;onf/ ,if; apwoduf ig;q,hfESpfrsKd;onf obm0tm;jzifh qufoG,rf ItrsKd;rsKd;jzihf rdrd
272
(apwoduf)tcsif;csif;ESihf pdwfwdkYESihf,SOfwGJonf/ apwodufwdkYonf pdwfESihftwljzpfay:NyD; twlcsKyfMuonf /
þazmfjycsufü tu,fí uREkfyfwdkYonf pdwfESifhapwodufwdkY\vkyfaqmifcsufudk cGJjcm;vdkaomf orx
0dyóem[laom enf;pepfrsm;udk tokH;jyKvsuf pwifur®|mef;½IrSwf&rnfjzpfonf/ rdrd\obm0tawGYtBuKHt
wGif; txif&Sm;qkH;tm½kHwpfckjzihf pwiftm;xkwfvQif taumif;qkH;jzpfonf/ ax&0g'Ak'¨0g'DwdkY\ ur®|mef;½I
rSwfrIwGif tokH;rsm;onhf enf;vrf;rSm tmemygeówd (xGufav0ifavudk odaejcif;)ESifh um,*wmowd
(cE¨mudk,fvIyf&Sm;rIrsm; odkYr[kwf 0rf;Akduf\ azmif;jcif;ydefjcif;udk odaejcif;)jzpfonf/ avhusifhtm;xkwfpOf
twGif; ur®|mef;tm½kHudk tjynfht0 odrSwfrItqifhudk &&Sdap&ef a,m*Dyk*¾Kdvfonf ur®|mef;tm½kHudk teD;uyf
½IrSwf&efvdkNyD; ,if;tm½kHtm; BuHpnfjcif;? awG;awmjcif;? cGJjcrf;pdwfjzmjcif; odkYr[kwf arQmfvihfjcif;rjyKbJ tquf
rjywf ½IrSwf&onf/ a,m*Dyk*¾Kdvf\ orm"dpGrf;tm;onf ur®|mef;tm½kHudk teD;pyfqkH;½IrSwfEdkifpGrf;&Sdaom aMumifh
cPwdkif;cPwdkif;ü jzpfay:aeaom pdwyf dkif; ½kyfydkif;taESmihft,Sufrsm;udk ausmfvTm;Edkifonf/ Ak'¨0g'wGif
Nidrf;csrf;NyD; xdk;xGif;odjrifaompdwfrSm orm"d[k xif&Sm;onf/ wnfMunfaompdwfonf pdwf"mwfpifMu,frI
273
(pdwå0dok'¨d)qDodkY qdkufa&mufaponf /
t*Fkwå&edum,ftvdkt& pdwfonf obm0tm;jzihf ta&mifawmufyonf/ qdkvkdonfrSm udavomrsm;
taESmihft,Sufrsm;rS uif;a0;aomtcg pdwfonf awmufyonf odkYr[kwf ta&mifxkwfvTwfonf[k jzpfonf/
,if;odkY pdwfawmufyrItajctaeudk pdwfpifMu,frI (pdwå0dok'¨d) [k ac:onf/ odkY&mwGif pdwfonf wpfcgwpf&Hü
rSdefNyD; npfnL;\/ þtcsufESihfywfoufí ygVdawmfü ,if;odkYjzpf&jcif;\ taMumif;w&m;rsm;udk azmfjyonf/
,if;azmfjycsufonf t*Fkwåedum,f? tpä&moCFw0*fü vmonf –

ybó&rd'H bdu©a0 pdwåH/ wÍö acg tm*EÅKau[d Oyuúdavao[d Oyuúdvd|H/ wH tókwGm ykxkZÆaem
,xmblwH eyÜZmemwd/ wo®m tókw0awm ykxkZÆeó pdwåbm0em ew¬Dwd 0'grd/ ybó&rd'H bdu©a0
pdwåH/ wÍö acg tm*EÅKau[d Oyuúdavao[d 0dyÜrkwåH/ wH okwGm t&d,om0aum ,xmblwH yZmemwd/
274
wo®m ok0awm t&d,om0uó pdwåbm0em tw¬Dwd 0'grd /
&[ef;wdkY? þ (b0if)pdwfonf NydK;NydK;jyufjyuf awmufy\/ xdkpdwfonfyif (tukodkvfaZmcPü) {nfhonf
ozG,fjzpfukefaom npfnL;aMumif; udavomwdkYaMumihf npfnL;&\/ xdk (tjcif;t&m)udk tMum;tjrif
r&Sdaom ykxkZOfyk*¾Kdvfonf [kwfwdkif;rSefpGm rod? xdkYaMumifh tMum;tjrifrJhaom ykxkZOfyk*¾Kdvftm; pdwfudk
yGm;rsm;jcif;r&Sd[k igqdk\/ &[ef;wdkY? þ (b0if)pdwfonf NydK;NydK;jyufjyuf awmufy\/ xdkpdwfonfyif
(ukodkvfaZmcPü) {nfhonf ozG,fjzpfukefaom npfnL;aMumif; udavomwdkYrS uif;vGwf\/ xdk (tjcif;
t&m)udk tMum;tjrif&Sdaom t&d,mom0uonf [kwfwdkif;rSefpGm od\? xdkYaMumifh tMum;tjrif&Sdaom
275
t&d,mo0utm; pdwfudk yGm;rsm;jcif;&Sd\[k igqdk\ /

þenf;jzihf Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwfonf pdwfonf obm0tm;jzifh ta&mifxGufaomfvnf; ,if;odkYta&mifxGuf


jcif;rSm udavomwdkYaMumihf tNrJwrf;r[kwfaMumif; odjrifawmfrlcJhonf/ txufygazmfjycsufü awGY&onhf
twdkif; pdwfydkif;b0wdk;wuf&ef pdwfonf tprSwfjzpfNyD; ur®|mef;enf;udk t"dutokH;jyK&rnfjzpfonf/ onf
omru edAÁmefudk vkdvm;olrsm;\ vGwfajrmufpifMu,faompdwf txGwftxdyfodkY a&mufonhf t"dutcsuf
vnf;jzpfonf/ Ak'¨0g'ygVdawmfrsm;ü aumif;aomt&mtm;vkH;onf pdwfwGifjzpfay:NyD; qdk;aomt&mtm;vkH;
vnf; pdwfüyif jzpfay:onf? aumif;aomt&mrsm;&Sdaeoa½GY aumif;jcif;onf pdwfESihfquf EG,faernfjzpfNyD;
276
raumif;aomt&mrsm;&Sdaeoa½GU raumif;jcif;onf pdwfESihfqufEG,faevdhrfrnf [kazmfjyonf / pdwf\rlv

272
Ibid, 104.
273
Mahasi Sayadaw, The Progress of Insight (Kandy, Sri Lanka: Buddhist Publication Society, 1978), 4-7.
274
An-N Vol. I, 9.
275
Nyanaponkka thera and Bhikkhu Bodhi, Numerical Discourses fo the Buddha, 36.
276
Dhammapada, Kh-N, 13.

92
tajctaeESihf trSefpifppf ½kyfemrfwdkY\obm0tygt0if tppftrSeftm;vkH;udkod&ef pdwfonf udavom
tnpftaMu;tm;vkH;rS pifMu,f&rnfjzpfonf/ pdwfpifMu,fa&;twGuf pdw\ f tzsuft&nftcsif;rsm;ESihf npf
EGrf;aeaom pdwfxm;trSefudk od&rnf[k qdk&ef&Sdonf/ taESmiftzGJUwGif &Sdaeaompdwfudk vGwfajrmufap&ef
wPSm? &m*ESihf t0dZÆmwdkYudk z,f&Sm;ypf&rnf/

tajccH Ak'¨0g'ur®|mef; xkdifenf;rsm;


277
azmfjyNyD;onhftwdkif; tajccHtm;jzihf ur®|mef;xdkifenf; ESpfrsKd;&Sdonf/ 1) orx ESihf 2) 0dyóemwdkYjzpfonf /
ur®|mef;\ pmvdkt"dyÜm,frSm ]tvkyfvkyfonfh ae&m}[kjzpfonf/ rnfonhftvkyfvkyfonhfae&mudk &nfñTef;yg
oenf;/ yGm;rsm;tm;xkwfrIe,fy,fü pdwfydkif;b0wdk;wufrIudk tvdk&Sdol a,m*Dyk*¾Kdvf\pdwfudk &nfñTef;onf/
pdwfonf a,m*Dyk*¾KdvftzdkY w&m;½IrSwfrIaMumihfjzpfaom tusKd;xl;rsm;udk wdk;wufa&;twGuf tvkyfvkyfonhf
ae&mjzpfonf/ odkYwap Ak'¨0g'avhusifhtm;xkwfrIü bm0em[laoma0g[m&udk rMumcPtokH;jyKMuonf/
bm0em[lonf pmtvdk pdwfydkif;qdkif&m yGm;rsm;tm;xkwfrIjzpfonf/ Ak'¨0g'qdkif&m ,lqrItwGif; ur®|mef;[l
aom a0g[m&onf bm0emrSqif;oufvmonf/ bm0emESpfrsKd;&Sdonf/ ,if;wdkYrSm 1) orxbm0emESihf 2)
0dyóembm0emwdkYjzpfonf/ ,if;onf ur®|meESpfrsKd;[lonfESihf twlwlyifjzpfonf/ ,if;ESpfrsKd;teuf 0dyó
emur®|mef;onfom Ak'¨0g'ur®|mef;xkdifenf; twdtusjzpfonf/ tjcm;ur®|mef;xkdifenf;rsm;udk Ak'¨0g'r[kwf
onhf ur®|mef;*dkPf;rsm;üvnf; awGU&onf/ tjcm;ur®|mef;xkdifenf;[l&mü orxur®|mef;udk &nfñTef;jcif;jzpf
278
onf/ orxur®|mef;ü pkpkaygif; trsKd;tpm;av;q,f&Sdonf /
orxur®|mef;[l&mü orx[lonf pdwf\wnfNidrfrI? pdwf\taESmihft,Sufrsm;udk z,fcGmjcif;[kt"dyÜm,f
&Sdonf/ orm"dESihf orx[laom a0g[m&onf t"dyÜm,fwlonf/ enf;ynmt& orm"d[laomyk'fudk Ak'¨0g'
usrf;*efwdkYü {u*¾wm[k t"dyÜm,fziG fhqdkonf/ ,if;onf trsm;qkH; psmeur®|mef;ü awGU&onf/ tqifhjrifhpGm
wdk;wufNyD;aom ,if;orm"dü ormywf&SpfrsKd;&Sdonf/ ½lypsmefav;yg;ESihf t½lypsmefav;yg; wdkYjzpfonf/
0dyóem[laoma0g[m&udk xdk;xGif;íodjrifrIynm[k bmomjyefMuonf/ enf;ynmt& ,if; a0g[m&udk
ygVdbmomjzihf ]tedpöm'd0aoe 0d0d"muma&e yówDwd 0dyóem/ tedpömEkyóem'dum bm0em ynm/
(tedpöpaom tjcif;t&mtrsKd;rsKd;jzihf ½IjrifwwfaomaMumihf 0dyóemrnf\/ tedpöponfjzihf ½Ijrifwwfaom
279
bm0emynmudk qdkvdk\/)} 0dyóemur®|mef;onf tedpö 'ku© tewå[laom vu©Pma&;okH;yg;ESihf wdkuf ½kduf
ywfoufaom obm0w&m;wdkYudk wdkuf½kduf½IrSwfí csOf;uyfjcif;jzpfonf/ tbd"r®mtvdkt& xkd;xGif;íod
jrifjcif;onf apwoduf ig;q,hfESpfyg;üyg0ifaom ynmapwoduf\ udpöjzpfonf/ ,if;\ta&;tBuD;qkH;udpö
rSm obm0rSefudkodjcif;qDodkY pdwfudk vrf;ñTefay;onf/
orxur®|mef;ESifh 0dyóemur®|mef;wdkY\ xl;jcm;csufum; tb,fenf;/ ygVdusrf;*efwdkYü orxur®|mef;
tm; t"dyÜm,fzGifhqdkcsufrSm þodkYjzpfonf ]umrpäE´m'a,m ypöeDu"ar® oarwd 0demaowDwd oraxm? orm
"daówH emrH/ umrpäE´paom qefYusifbufw&m;wdkYudk ysufpD;apwwfaomaMumihf orxrnf\/ ,if;onf
orm"d\ trnfjzpfonf}/ þae&mü orx[lonf ur®|mef;½IrSwfí&&Sdonhf orm"dudk &nfñTef;onf/ umrt
vdkqE´rsm;? raumif;pdwfxm;rsm;? 0dpdudpämpaom eD0Pw&m;rsm;uJhodkYaom pdwf\oGifjyifykHpHrsKd;pkHwdkYonf avh
usifhtm;xkwfaepOftwGif; Nidrf;at;oGm;Muonf/ þazmfjycsufü orxonf orm"d\ y&d,m,fwlyk'fjzpf
onf/ 0dyóem\ t"dyÜm,fzGifhrSm ]tedpöm'd0aoe 0d0da"[d tmuma&[d "ar® yóEÅDwd 0dyóem? ynm,
aówH emrH/ tedpöponf\tpGrf;jzihf txl;xl;aom tjcif;t&mtm;jzihf w&m;wdkYudk ½IwwfaomaMumihf
0dyóem rnf\/ ,if;onf ynm\trnfwnf;}[k jzpfonf/ odkYjzihf tbd"r®mtvdkt& 0dyóemÓPf[lonf
280
ynmtaejzihf jzpfay:vmaom xdk;xGif;odjrifrI\ vkyfaqmifcsufjzpfonf /

277
Ab-S, 146.
278
Ibid, 329.
279
Ab-T, 267.
280
Pat-A, Vol. I, 116.

93
orm"dwdk;wufa&;twGuf tajccHur®|mef;enf;wpfckrSm xGufav0ifavudk ½IrSwfrIjzpfonf/ ,if;enf;ü
xGufav0ifavonf owd\tm½kHjzpfonf/ tm;xkwfpOftwGif; a,m*Donf xGufav0ifavxdonhf txif&Sm;
qkH;ae&m EIwfcrf;txufem;rSmjzpfap? ESmodDzsm;0ef;usifrSmjzpfap xGufav0ifavudk ½IrSwfae&onf/ ,if;
enf;jzihf xGufav0ifavudk *½kpdkufaeojzihf a,m*Donf rdrd\orm"dudk wdk;wufatmif aqmif½GufEdkifonf/
ueOD;wGif a,m*Donf ur®|mef;tm½kHü wnfMunfrIr&EkdifcJhaomf xGufav0ifavudk a&wGuf&ef 0dok'¨dr*fusrf;
u tMuHjyKonf/ a&wGufonhfenf;onf a,m*Dyk*¾Kdvftm; oufaomihfoufomjzihf orm"dudk wdk;wuf aponf/
,if;enf;udk ygVdbmjzihf *Peme,[kac:onf/ a,m*Donf 0ifav xGufav wpf? 0ifav xGufav ESpf -
ponfjzihf a&wGufí ,if;enf;udk tokH;jyKEdkifonf/ 0dok'¨dr*fusrf;ü t&Sifr[mAk'¨aCmorax&fu atmufyg
twdkif; &Sif;vif;csufjyKonf –

þae&mü ur®|mef;tm;xkwfp trsKd;aumif;om;onf þur®|mef;tm½kHudka&wGufí ESvkH;oGif; ½IrSwf


oifh\/ ,if;odkYa&wGuf&mü ig;BudrfatmufravsmhapbJ q,fckxufrydkapbJ tMum;ü rusKd;ysufapbJ
a&wGuf&rnf/ ig;Budrfatmuf,kwfía&wGufaomf NcHusOf;üodkavSmifxm;aom EGm;tkyfuJhodkY pdwfonf
usOf;ajrmif;ojzihf wkefvIyf\/ q,fBudrfxufvGefí a&wGufaomf ¤if;\pdwfonf (xGufav 0ifavudk
ausmfvGefí)a&wGuf&maemufodkY vdkufoGm;\/ a&wGufpOf &yfem;rIjyKaomf ig\ur®|mef;onf NyD;qkH;NyD
281
avm rNyD;qkH;ao;bl;vm;[k awG;awmí ysHUvGifh\/ odkYjzpfí ,if;tjypfudk a&Sif&Sm;NyD; a&wGuf&rnf /

tmemygeur®|mef;jzihf psmefw&m;udk &&Sdjcif;


ygVdbmomtm;jzihf psme ouúwbmomtm;jzihf "smeonf orm"d\ydkrdkeuf½Idif;aom tqihfjzpfonhf ]pdwftm½kH
epfjrKyfjcif; (absorption)}twGuf tokH;jyKaom ur®|mef;a0g[m&jzpfonf/ psme[laoma0g[m&onf tyÜem
orm"d[laom a0g[m&ESihf y&d,m,fwljzpfonf/ ur®|mef;avhusifhpOftwGif; o'¨g? ynm? 0D&d,? orm"dESihf
282
owd[laom £a`E´ig;yg;nDñGwfrI&&Sdjcif;jzihf orm"dwdk;wufatmifvkyf&onf / ,if;aemuf a,m*Dyk*¾Kdvf\
orm"dtqifhonf Oyrmpm&orm"dtqihfudk vGefNyD; tyÜemorm"dtqihfodkY qdkufa&mufonf/ 0dok'¨dr*fü psmef
jzpfpOftwGif; ay:vmaom orm"dESpfrsKd;&Sdonf/ trSefpifppf a,m*Donf ur®|mef;enf;rsm;pGmudk tokH;jyKvsuf
psmefrsm;udk &&SdEdkifonf/ atmufygazmfjycsufrsm;u Ak'¨0g'psmeur®|mef;\ vrf;ñTefcsuftcsKdUudk azmfjyonf/
azmfjycsufrSm atmufygtwdkif;jzpfonf –

orm"Dwd Oypm&tyÜem0aoe 'k0da"m/ 'k0d"aum|mao qEéH tEkówd|memeH r&Pówd,m Oyorm


Ekówd,m tm[ma& y#dulvonm, pwk"mwk00w¬meómwd £aroH 0aoe v'¨pdawåu*¾wm? ,m
p tyÜemorm"DeH ykAÁbma* {u*¾wm? t,H Oypm&orm"d/ yXró psmeó y&dur®H yXró psmeó
teEÅ &ypöa,e ypöa,mwdtm'd0peawm ye ,m y&dur®meEÅ&m {u*¾wm? t,H tyÜemorm"Dwd {0H
283
OypmyÜem 0aoe 'k0da"m /
orm"donf Oypm&orm"dESihf tyÜemorm"d[k ESpfrsKd;&Sd\/ ,if;ESpfrsKd;teuf tEkówdajcmufyg;rS r&P-
ówd OyormEkówd? tm[ma& y#dulvonm pwk"mwk00w¬mefwdkY\tpGrf;jzihf &tyfaom pdwf\
wnfMunfrI? tyÜemorm"d\ a&SUtzdkYü&&Sdtyfaom orm"dwdkYudk Oypm&orm"d[kac:\/ yXrpsmef\
y&duHonf yXrpsmeftm; teEÅ&owådjzifh aus;Zl;jyK\[k a[mawmfrlaomaMumihf y&duH\ tjcm;rJhüjzpf
284
aom pdwf\wnfrIudk tyÜemorm"d[kac:\/ ,if;odkY Oypm&ESihf tyÜem[k orm"dESpfrsKd;&Sd\ /

281
Vi-M-TS, 271.
282
Di-N-A, Vol. II, 377.
283
Vi-M, Vol. I, 82.
284
Vi-M-TS, 86.

94
,if;enf;jzihf a,m*Donf psmefudk&oGm;aomtcg y#dbm*edrdwf (tvm;wloGifjyif)udk &yfpJjcif;r&SdbJodEdkif
onf/ edrdwfonf 1) y&dur®edrdwf (a&S;OD;oGifjyif) 2) O*¾[edrdwf (oif,lqJoGifjyif) ESihf 3) y#dbm*edrdwf
(tvm;wloGifjyif) [kokH;rsKd;&SdaMumif; tbd"r®w¬o*F[usrf;üazmfjyonf/

edrdawåok ye y&dur®edrdwåH O*¾[edrdwåÍö oAÁw¬myd ,xm&[H y&d,ma,e vAÇaEÅ0/ y#dbm*edrdwåH ye


uodPmokbaum|motmemygaeaoG0 vAÇwd/ ww¬yd y#dbm*edrdwårm&AÇ Oypm&orm"d tyÜem
285
orm"d p y0wåwd /
edrdwfokH;yg;wGif y&dur®edrdwfESihf O*¾[edrdwfwdkYudk ur®|mef;tm½kHtm;vkH;ü xdkufonftm;avsmfpGm &tyf
onfomjzpf\/ y#dbm*edrdwfudkrl uodkPf;? tokb? aum|mo? tmemygewdkYüom &tyf\/ xdk
(edrdwfokH;rsKd;)ü y#dbm*edrdwfudk tm½kHjyKí Oypm&orm"dESihf tyÜemorm"dwdkYjzpf\/ ur®|mef;tm;xkwfcg
pyk*¾Kdvfonf ajr0dkif; (yx0Dr@v) edrdwfponfudk odoGm;aomtcg ,if;edrdwfudk y&dur®edrdwf[kac:NyD;
286
,if;ur®|mef;udk y&dur®bm0em[kac:\ /

zm;atmufq&mawmf\tvdkt& psmeftcdkuwGif a,m*Donf &yfpJjcif;r&SdbJ y&dur®edrdwfodkY a&mufoGm;


287
onf/ ],if;onf em&Daygif;rsm;pGmMumonfxd wpfnvkH; wpfaeYvkH; qufvufíwnf&SdEdkifonf} / a,m*D\
pdwfonf y&dur®edrdwfü pOfqufrjywfwnfaeaomtcg wpfcsdefwGif psmeft*Fgig;yg;udk odjrifoGm;onf/ psmef
t*Fg ig;yg;rSm 0dwuf? 0dpm&? yDwd? okc? {u*¾wmwdkYjzpfonf/ qufvufítm;xkwfoGm;jcif;jzihf aemufqkH;wGif
,if; ig;rsKd;vkH;udk wpfNydKifeuf odpGrf;Edkifrnfonf/ psmefw&m;tm;xkwfolonf atmufygtwkdif; psmeft*Fgrsm;udk
tao;pdwf odpGrf;oGm;vdrfhrnfjzpfonf –
1) 0dwuf - pdwfudk y#dbm*edrdwfodkY aqmif,lNyD; ,if;ü pdwfudkxm;onf
2) 0dpm& - pdwfudk y#dbm*edrdwfü xdef;odrf;xm;onf
3) yDwd - y#dbm*edrdwfudk ESpfoufaeonf
4) okc - y#dbm*edrdwfudk od&Sdjcif;jzihf epf0ifaeonhf okca0'emudk cHpm;aeonf
288
5) {u*¾wm - y#dbm*edrdwftm½kHwpfckü pdwfwnfMunfaeonf
psmeur®|mef;ü psmef\tpdwftydkif;rsm;udk psme*F[kac:onf/ odkY&mwGif ,if;psmef\tpdwftydkif;rsm;udk wpf
ckwnf;taejzihf ,laomtcg psmef[kac:onf/ psmeftqifh &Spfqihf&Sdonf/ tu,fí a,m*Donf psmefw&m;udk
tm;xkwfcgpjzpfbdrl MumjrihfpGm psmefudk 0ifpm;&aomfvnf; psmefüvdr®muRrf;usifonftxd psmeft*Fgrsm;udk y,f
cGm&ef BudK;pm;jcif;ü tcsdefrsm;pGm tokH;rjyK&ay/ 0dok'¨dr*ftvdkt& yXrpsmefü uRrf;usifvdr®mrIudk tpjyKvsuf
enf;ig;rsKd;jzihf psmefüuRrf;usifonf/ psmefüvdktyfaom uRrf;usifrI (0oDabmf) ig;rsKd;&Sdonf/ ,if;wdkYrSm –
1) tm0ZÆe0oD (tm½kHpl;pdkufrIü uRrf;usifjcif;) – psmefw&m;rSxNyD;aemuf psmeft*Fgrsm;udk tvsiftjref
odEdkifaom pGrf;&nf
2) ormyZÆe0oD (0ifpm;rIü uRrf;usifjcif;) – psmef0ifpm;vdkaomtcg 0ifpm;Edkifaom pGrf;&nf
3) t"d|me0oD (qkH;jzwfjcif;ü uRrf;usifjcif;) – psmeformywfü rdrd0ifpm;vdkonfhtcsdefxd aexdkifEdkifaom
pGrf;&nf
4) 0k|me0oD (psmefrSxjcif;ü uRrf;usifjcif;) – t"d|mefxm;onhftcsdef odkYr[kwf xvdkonhftcsdefü psmefrS
xEdkifaom pGrf;&nfESihf
5) ypöa0u©Pm0oD (qifjcifrIü uRrf;usifjcif;) – psmefw&m;udk xyfrH0ifpm;&ef psmeft*Fgrsm;udk tvsift
289
jrefodEdkifaom pGrf;&nfwdkYjzpfonf /

285
Ab, 152. Ac-Ab, 340.
286
Ac-Ab, 340.
287
Pa-Auk Sayadaw. Mindfulness of Breathing and Four Elements Meditation (Malayasia: W.A.V. E. Publication, 2002), 13.
288
Ibid, 13.
289
Vi-M, 149-150.

95
t*Fkwå&edum,f? yAÁaw,s*g0Dokwfü Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwfu yXrpsmefü vdr®muRrf;usifrIr&SdbJ 'kwd,psmefudk
0ifpm;&ef BudK;pm;rl yXrpsmefudkvnf;r& 'kwd,psmefudkvnf; rydkifaMumif; &Sif;jyawmfrlonf/ tusKd;qufum;
psmefESpfrsKd;vkH;udk qkH;½IH;rnfjzpfonf/ odkYjzpfí a,m*Dyk*¾Kdvfonf txufpsmefrsm;udk r0ifpm;rD azmfjyyg 0oD
abmfig;rsKd;udk ydkifqdkif&rnfjzpfonf/ a,m*Donf xGufav0ifavudk owdjzihf½IrSwfrIrSwpfqifh pwkw¬psmefukd &
&SdNyD;aomtcg 0oDabmfig;rsKd;vkH;udk yGm;rsm;NyD;jzpfonf/ ,if;psmeur®|mef;tqifhwGif a,m*Dyk*¾Kdvf\ orm"d
onf r*fÓPf zdkvfÓPfudk &&Sda&;twGuf 0dyóemur®|mef;qDodkY ul;ajymif;Edkifavmufatmif euf½Idif;wnfNidrf
290
oGm;NyDjzpfonf/ r*fÓPf zdkvfÓPftqifhwGif a,m*Dyk*¾Kdvfonf edAÁmef\Nidrf;csrf;jrihfjrwfrIudk odEdkifonf /
odkY&mwGif a,m*Dyk*¾Kdvfonf xdktqifhü 0dyóemur®|mef;udk tm;rxkwfvdkcJhaomf ½lypsmef t½lypsmef[laom
txufpsmefrsm;udk yGm;rsm;&ef orxur®|mef;udk qufvufítm;xkwfEdkifonf/

0dyóemur®|mef;jzihf ÓPftjrifudk&Sdjcif;
txufwGif azmfjyNyD;onhftwkdif; ,medu[kvnf;ac:onhf tajccHur®|mef;xkdifenf; ESpfrsKd;&Sdonf/ ,if;wdkYrSm
orx,medu (orxudk ,mOftaejzihf,o l l)ESihf 0dyóem,medu (0dyóemudk ,mOftaejzihf,lol) wdkYjzpf
onf/ orxpsmeftqihfudkr&bJ 0dyóemoufoufudk tm;xkwfolrsm;tm; oku©0dyóem,medu odkYr[kwf
291
ok'¨0dyóem,medu(0dyóemur®|mef;oufoufudk tm;xkwfol)[k ac:onf / orx,meduenf;udk oif
Mum;olrsm;onf ¤if;wdkY\oifMum;csufrsm;udk atmufygt|uxmazmfjycsufudk tajccHMuonf/ ,if;azmfjy
csufrSm azmfjyygtwdkif;jzpfonf –

wmed 0g ye psmemed ormyZÆdwGm 0k|m, psmeor®,kwåH pdwåH c,awm 0,awm or®Zmeawm 0dyó-
292
emu©aP vu©Py#da0a"e OyÜZÆwd cPdupdawåu*¾wm /
tpOftwkdif; ,if;psmefrsm;udk 0ifpm;NyD;aemuf ,if;psmefwdkYrSxvsuf psmefESihf,SOfaompdwftm; jzpfjcif;
ysufjcif;udk 0dyóemynmjzihfod\/ ,if;aemuf 0dyóem½IrSwfcdkufwGif tckduftwhHjzpfaom pdwf\wnf
293
MunfrIonf (tedpö 'ku© tewå)[laom vu©Pma&;okH;yg;udk xdk;xGif;íodjrifrI jzpfay:vm\ /

odkY&mwGif oku©0dyóu,meduenf;udk oifMum;vdkolrsm;onf ¤if;wdkY\oifMum;rIudk #DumñTefMum;csufudk


tajccHMuonf/ ,if;ñTefMum;csufrSm atmufygtwdkif;jzpfonf –

cPdupd awå u*¾wmwd cPrwå|dwdaum orm"d/ aomyd [d tm&r®aP ed&EÅ&H {umuma&e y0wå-
294
rmaem y#dyau©e tebdblawm tyÜdawm 0d, pdwåH edpövH Xaywd /
cPduorm"d[lonf cPwdkif;cPwdkif; ur®|mef;tm½kHü wnfaeaom orm"dwnf;/ ,if;orm"donf
ur®|mef;tm½kHü cPwdkif;rjywfrvyf wpfckwnf;aom tjcif;t&mjzifhjzpfvsuf (umrpäE´ Asmyg'paom)
295
eD0&w&m;wdkY\ vTrf;rdkjcif;rcH&bJ wkyfzGJUxm;ouJhodkY pdwfudk rwkefrvIyf wnfaeap\ /

0dyóemur®|mef;tm;xkwfjcif;jzihf r*fÓPfzdkvfÓPfudk odjrifonf/ ax&0g'Ak'¨0g'ü 0dyóemur®|mef;


jzihf r*fÓPfzdkvf ÓPfxl;udk jynfhpkHpGm&&SdNyD;ol trsKd;om;trsKd;orD;ukd t&d,myk*¾Kdvf[kqdkonf/ rsufarSmufacwf
jrefrmEkdifiHrS Ak'¨0g'DwdkYonf orxpsmefudk ryGm;rsm;bJ rsm;aomtm;jzihf 0dyóemudk tm;xkwfMuonf/ odkY&m
wGif tcsKdUa,m*Drsm;rSm 0dyóemodkYrul;ajymif;rD psmefudkyGm;rsm;jcif;jzihf ¤if;wdkY\ tm;xkwfrIudk pwifMuonf/

290
Ab-B-T, 664.
291
BD, 204-205.
292
Vi-M, Vol. I, 281.
293
Vi-M-Tran, 282.
294
Vi-M-T, 342.
295
t*FvdyfbmomjyefrSm usrf;jyKyk*¾Kdvf\ vuf&mjzpfonf/
96
jrefrmur®|mef;q&mtrsm;pkonf cPduorm"dtm; ½IrSwfpOfcPwdkif;ü pdwf\taESmifht,Sufrsm;udk z,f
&Sm;NyD; eD0&Pw&m;[kac:aom wm;qDydwfyifwwfonhf w&m;rsm;udk cGmxkwfjcif;udpö&SdaMumif; azmjfyMuonf/
eD0&Pw&m;wdkYudk pdwfxJrScPtm;jzihf z,f&Sm;Edkifaom ,if;pdwf\tajctaersKd;onf 0dyóemÓPfESihf r*f
ÓPf zdkvfÓPfwdkYudkvnf; &&SdapEkdifonf/ odkYwap jrefrmEdkifiHrS xif&Sm;ausmfMum;onhf zm;atmufq&mawmf
url ¤if;\oifMum;csufrsm;udk psmeur®|mef;yGm;rsm;rIjzihf pwifrIukd ydkESpfoufonf/
,if;azmfjycsufü orm"d\udpöonf pdwfudkpifMu,fap&ef pdwfxJrS eD0&Pw&m;wdkYudk avQmhypfjcif;jzpf
onf/ eD0&Pw&m;rsm;ü a,m*D\pdwfudk aemufusKapNyD; todÓPfudk uef;apaom w&m;ig;rsKd;yg0ifonf/
,if;eD0&Pw&m;ig;rsKd;rSm 1) umrpäE´eD0&P(umr*kPftvdkqE´) 2) Asmyg'eD0&P (a'go) 3) xderd'¨eD0&P
(xkHxkdif; ikdufrsOf;jcif;) 4) O'¨pöukuúKpöeD0&P (pdwfysHUvGifhjcif;ESihf aemifwylyefjzpfjcif;) 5) 0dpdudpämeD0&P(rqkH;
296
jzwfEdkifjcif;)wdkYjzpfonf / orx (psme)ur®|mef;usifhMuHolrsm;u eD0&Pw&m;rsm;xif&Sm;&Sdaerl a,m*Donf
Oypm&orm"dESihf tyÜemorm"dtqihfodkY ra&mufEdkif[k qdkonf/ 0dyóemur®|mef;usihfMuHolrsm;u eD0&Pw
&m;rsm; xif&Sm;&Sdaerl a,m*Donf trSefw&m;rsm;udk &Sif;vif;pGmrodjrifEdkif[k qdkonf/ ,if;trSefw&m;rsm;ü
tedpö(tNrJr&Sdjcif;) 'ku©(qif;&Jjcif;) ESihf tewå (½kyftpk emrftpkw&m;rsm;\ ig olwpfyg; r[kwfjcif;)[laom
297
vu©Pma&;okH;yg;ESihf qufEG,faeonhf ½kyfemrfw&m;rsm;yg0ifonf /
Ak'¨0g'usihfpOfü 0dyóemur®|mef;onf owdy|mefav;yg;ESihfvnf; qufEG,fonf/ owdy|mefur®|mef;udk
298
avhusifhtm;xkwfoltm; 0dyóemur®|mef;tm;xkwfol[kvnf; qdk&onf / owdy|mefur®|mef;yGm;rsm;tm;
xkwfolonf tusKd;ckepfyg;udk &&Sdonf/ ,if;wdkYrSm 1) owå0gwdkY\ pifMu,fjcif; (owåmeH 0dok'd̈,m) 2) ESihf 3)
aomuESihf y&da'0wdkYudk ausmfvTm;&ef (aomuy&da'0geH orwduúrm,) 4) ESihf 5) ukd,fqif;&Jjcif;ESihf pdwf
qif;&Jjcif;wdkYudk y,fazsmuf&ef ('ku©a'greómeH tw¬*Frm,) 6) vrf;pOfrSefudk &&S&d ef (Ó,ó t"d*rm,) 7)
edAÁmefudk xdk;xGif;odjrif&ef (edAÁmeó opädud&d,m,) wdkYjzpfonf/ aomuy&da'0wdkYudk y,f&Sm;&efESihf udk,f
qif;&Jjcif; pdwfqif;&Jjcif;wdkYudk y,f&Sm;&efwdkYrSm rnfrQESpfoufzG,faumif;rnf[lonfudk qifjcifMunfhaomtcg
azmfjyygtusKd;w&m;rsm;onf vGwfajrmufrIedAÁmefudk &SmazGMuola,m*DolawmfwdkYtm; tvGefyif tm;wufap
onf/ r[mowdy|meokwfü Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwfu atmufygtwkdif; a[mMum;awmfrlonf –

{um,aem t,H bdu©a0 ra*¾g owåmeH 0dok'¨d,m aomuy&da'0geH orwduúrm, 'ku©a'greómeH


299
tw¬*Frm, Ó,ót"d*rm, edAÁmeó opädud&d,m, ,'d'H pwåma&m owdy|mem /
&[ef;wdkY? þvrf;onf owå0gwdkYpifMu,f&ef pdk;&drfylyefjcif; ikda<ujcif;wdkYudk vGefajrmuf&ef ukd,fqif&J
pdwfqif;&JwdkYcsKyfNidrf;&ef t&d,r*fudk&&Sd&ef edAÁmefudk rsufarSmufjyK&ef wpfaMumif;wnf;aom vrf;jzpf\/
300
,if;onhfvrf;um; þowdy|mefav;yg;wdkYyifwnf; /

Ak'¨0g'pmaywdkYü 0dyóemynm[laompum;vkH;onf ur®|mef;avhusifhtm;xkwfrIESihfywfofí rMucP


awGU&onf/ odkYjzpfí 0dyóemynm[lonf tb,fenf;[k ar;Edkif&monf/ 0dyóemynm[lonf tvdkt
avsmufjzpfay:vmaomtod odkYr[kwf tedpö 'ku© tewåtrSefw&m;udk em;vnfpGrf;&Sdaom tawGUtBuKHjzpf
onf/ Ak'¨0g'½Iaxmifht&aomf 0dyóemynmonf BuHpnfawG;awm avhvmqnf;yl;í em;vnf½kHrQjzihf &&Sdonfh
t&mr[kwf? a,m*Dyk*¾Kdvf\ ½kyfemrfjzpfpOfudk ½IrSwfapmifhMunfhrIESihf wdkuf½kdufywfoufaom em;vnfrIwpfrsKd;jzpf
onf/ 0dyóemynmjzihf ½kyfemrfjzpfpOfudk a&S;OD;pGmapmifhMunfhjcif;onf a,m*Dyk*¾Kdvftm; edAÁmefodkY a&mufapEdkif
301
onf / azmjfyygtqdkjyKazmfjycsufü Ak'¨0g'DwdkYonf edAÁmefudkod&SdrIonf ur®|mef;½IrSwfrIüyg0ifojzihf pmayod

296
Di-N Vol. I, 67-68.
297
BD, 230.
298
Di-N-A Vol II, 348-349.
299
Di-N- Vol II, 231.
300
Di-N-NT, 335.
301
BD, 230-231.

97
t&awG;MuH½kHjzihf edAÁmef\obm0udk em;vnf&ef rjzpfEdkif[laomtcsufudk axmufjyMuonf/ edAÁmefudk oabm
aygufjcif;[lonf r*fÓPfzdkvfÓPfudk xdk;xGif;íodjcif;udk &nfñTef;onf/ ,if;jzpfpOfonf aAm"dÓPfudk &&SdrI
wGif&Sdaom avmukwå&mynmjzihf NyD;ajrmufEdkifonf/ edAÁmefudkod&SdrIonf ½SmazGawGU&Sdjcif;udpö&Sdonf/ edAÁmef\
tESpfom&tppftrSefonf oEÅdokcudk&&SdrIjzihf ay:vmonf/ xdktcsdefü a,m*Donf ½kyfemrfjzpfpOftm;vkH; vkH;0
jywfpJrIudk odjrifNyD; oEÅdokcjzpfwnfvmonfudk od&Sdonf/
ur®|mef;½IrSwfyGm;rsm;jcif;r&Sdolrsm;tzdkY edAÁmef\obm0trSefudk em;vnf&ef rjzpfEdkifacs/ oDtdk&D½Iaxmihfudk
tajccHvsuf edAÁmef[laom a0g[m&onf trSefyif rIef0g;0g;jzpfNyD; em;vnf&efcufcJaMumif; jiif;qdkMuonf/
odkYjzpfí a&mbwf t,fvf qvmwm (Robert L. Slater) uJhodkYaom ur®|mef;rxkdifoltcsKdUu edAÁmefudk jcm;em;
pGm t"dyÜm,faumuf,lMuonf - ]edAÁmef[laom a0g[m&udk ,kHMunfrIbmompum;u ydkifqdkif\/ tokH;jyKonhf
jzpfEdkifajcrJha0g[m&rsm;rSm ydkrdktxift&Sm;jzpfzG,f&Sdaom qufEG,fa0g[m&cGJjcrf;pdwfjzmrI oGifjyiftjzpf ,if;
302
,kHMunfrI [kwfrSefaMumif;qdkjcif;wpf&yfrQomjzpfonf / odkY&mwGif Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwfu todÓPfjzihf MuHpnf
awG;awmjcif;rQjzihf edAÁmef\tESpfom&udk em;vnf&efrjzpfEdkifaMumif; Budrfzefrsm;pGma[mMum;cJhonf/ edAÁmeftm;
t&[wår*fÓPf zdkvfÓPfudk&rSom odjrifem;vnfEkdifonf/
Ak'¨0g'onf vufawGUa&mpmawGUyg ,if;\ pepfwuscsOf;uyfrIudk azmfjyonf/ atmufygtqihfrSm
0dyóemynmtwGuf a&S;OD;tqifhjzpfonf/ tu,fí wpfpkHwpfa,mufonf þb0wGif 0dyóemynmudk
trSefwu,fwdk;wufvdkvQif ur®|mef;avhusihftm;xkwfpOftwGif avmuDtMuHtpnf tjyKtrlrsm;udk pGefYvTwf&
rnfjzpfonf/ ,if;avhusihfrIonf udk,fusifhoDvpifMu,frI (oDv0dok'¨d) twGufjzpfojzihf a&S;OD;pGm ig;yg;
303 304
oDv udkjzpfap odkYr[kwf &Spfyg;oDvudkjzpfap apmifhxdef;&efvdkonf / aemufxyftydk pnf;rsOf;rsm;rSm a,m
*Dwpfa,mufonf ur®|mef;avhusihftm;xkwfaepOftwGif; tjcm;a,m*Drsm;ESihf tvnfvmolrsm;tm; pum;
rajym&acs/ ,if;odkYaom Ak'¨0g'DwdkY\ tjyKtrIudk ]jrihfjrwfaom EIwfqdwfrI (wkPSdbm0)[kac:onf/ Ak'¨0g'Drsm;
tzdkY tjcm;aom yPmrtjyKtrIrsm; &SdMuao;onf/ ,if;wdkYrSm ur®|mef;avhusifhrIrwdkifrDwGif tu,fí t&d
,myk*¾Kdvfrsm;ESihf q&mt&Sifrsm;tm; jypfrSm;cJhaomf cGifhvTwf&efawmif;yefrIrsKd; jzpfonf/ xdkYjyif pwk&m&u©bm0
em (pdwfydkif;wdk;wufa&; tumtuG,fav;rsKd;) udkvnf; yGm;rsm;&onf/ ,if;wdkYrSm 1) Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf\ *kPf
awmfrsm;udk atmufaryjcif; (Ak'¨gEkówdbm0em) 2) arwåmyGm;rsm;jcif; (arwåmbm0em) 3) tokbur®|mef;
305
yGm;rsm;jcif; (tokbbm0em) ESihf 4) aojcif;w&m;udk qifjcifjcif; (r&Pówd)wdkYjzpfonf /
r[mpnfq&mawmf\tvdkt& 0dyóemur®|mef;udk oihfwifhavsmufywfaomenf;jzihf pwiftm;xkwf&ef
oifhaomifhoufom&Sdaom £&d,mykxfjzihf xdkifur®|mef;udk pwifoihfonf/ a,m*Donf avmuDa&;&m tawG;
tBuHtm;vkH;udk pGefYvTwfNyD; ypöyÜefrsufarSmuftcdkuftwHhüaevsuf 0rf;Akduf\vIyf&Sm;rI azmif;jcif;ydefjcif; odkYr
[kwf xGufav0ifav (tmemyge) paomur®|meftm½kHü pdwfudk wnfatmifBudK;pm;&onf/ aeY&uftwefMum
NyD;aemuf owdjzihf½IrSwfrIrSwpfqifh 0rf;Akduf\ azmifjcif;ydefjcif;udk xif&Sm;pGm odjrifvmvdrfhrnfjzpfonf/ 0rf;
Adkuf\vIyf&Sm;rIwdkif;udk pdwfjzihfodrSwfaejcif;onf emrf½kyfwdkY\jzpfpOf qdkvdkonfrSm tm;xkwfpOftwGif; a,m*D
\pdwfpGrf;&nf jrifhrm;a&twGuf ur®|mef;tm½kHudk udk,fpdwfwdkYjzihfcHpm;od&SdrIudk em;vnfaponf/ 0dyóem
ur®|mef;udk NyD;jynfhpkHpGm tm;xkwfNyD;aomtcg a,m*Donf yom'½kyfajcmufyg;ü ½kyfemrfwdkY pOfqufrjywfjzpf
ay:vmrIudk odpGrf;Ekdifonf/ owdy|mefur®|mef;½IrSwfrI wdk;wufvmaomtcg emrf½kyfwdkY\obm0rSef? okcESihf
'ku©a0'em? avmb a'go arm[tygt0if ukodkvftukodkvfapodufrsm;udk cGJjcm;odjrifonf/ ,if;odkYjzihf

302
Pa-Ni, 82.
303
Ak'¨0g'DolawmfpifwdkY apmihfxdef;onhf ig;yg;oDvrSm 1) olYtouf rowfjcif; 2) rckd;jcif; 3) olYtdrf&mrjypfrSm;jcif; 4) rvdrfnm
jcif; 5) t&ufaopmrl;,Zfaq;0g; rokH;pGJjcif;wdkYjzpfonf/ Mahasi Sayadaw, The Prpgress of Insight. 34.
304
OykofoDv[kvnf;ac:onhf &Spfyg;oDvrSm 1) olYtouf rowfjcif; 2) rckd;jcif; 3) arxkefrSa&SmifMuOfjcif; 4) rvdrfnmjcif; 5)
t&ufaopmrl;,Zfaq;0g;rokH;pGJjcif; 6) aevGJnpmrpm;jcif; 7u) ujcif; oDqdkjcif; *DwESihf jyyGJrsm; rMunfh½Ijcif; 7c) tarT;eHUom
tqifwefqmrsm;rokH;jcif; 8) ZdrfcHtdyf&mae&m rokH;jcif;wdkYjzpfonf/ azmfjyyg&Spfyg;oDvudk Ak'¨0g'DolawmfpifwdkY vjynfhaeYrsm;ESihf
tjcm;aeY&ufBuD;rsm;ü apmifhokH;Muonf/ Ibid, 34.
305
Mahasi Sayadaw, Practical Insight Meditation: Basic and Progressive Stages (Kandy, Sri LankaaL Buddhist Publication Society: 1991), 6-7.

98
a,m*Donf vlom;wdkY\ raumif;rItvkH;pkHESihf 'ku©\&if;jrpfjzpfaom tvdk&r®uf? a'go? rodrdkufrJjcif;rS pdwfudk
306
vGwfajrmufap&ef[laom 0dyóemur®|mef;tm;xkwfrI\ &nf½G,fcsufudk oabmaygufrnfjzpfonf /
azmfjyNyD;onhftwdkif; a,m*Donf avhusifhtm;xkwfrI tpdwftydkif;wdkif;ü orm"dokH;rsKd;udk tokH;jyKonf/
Oyrmtm;jzihf 1) Oypm&orm"d (teD;tem;üjzpfaom orm"d)onf orxur®|mef;twGif;jzpfNyD; psmefpdwf
rjzpfrD ay:vmaom orm"dwpfrsKd;jzpfonf/ odkY&mwGif 2) tyÜemorm"d (epfjrKyform"d odkYr[kwf jynfhpkHaomo
rm"d) onf psmef0ifpm;cdkufwGif wnf&Sdaom orm"dwpfrsKd;jzpfonf/ 0dyóemur®|mef;tm;xkwfolrsm;onf t"d
utm;jzihf cPduorm"d (tcdkuftwhHorm"d)udk 0dyóemtwGuf tokH;jyKMuonf/ cPduorm"denf;onf
avmb a'gom arm[wdkYudk cPwdkif; ausmfvTm;jcif;jzihf pdwfpifMu,frIodkYoGm;onfh ajcwpfvSrf;,ljcif;jzpfonf/
307
,if;odkYaom ur®|mef;enf;udk edAÁmefudkxdk;xGif;odjrifrIudk &&Sd&eftokH;jyKonf /
0dyóemur®|mef;tm;xkwfrIü 0dyóemynmwdk;wufrIESihfywfoufí Ak'¨0g'qdkif&mtzGifhusrf;rsm;ü azmfjy
aom uGJjym;jcm;em;onhf ,lqcsuftcsKdU&Sdonf/ 0dok'¨dr*fusrf;ü t|uxmq&mrsm;u 0dyóemynmwdk;wufrI
udk emr½lyy&dapä'ÓPf (½kyfemrfudk cGJjcm;odonhfÓPf)? ypö,y&d*¾[ÓPf (taMumif;tusKd;udkodaomÓPf)ESihf
or®oeÓPf (qifjcifokH;oyfonfhÓPf)ponfjzihf pwifaMumif;azmfjyNyD; tbd"r®w¬o*Fusrf;ürl t|uxmq
308
&mu or®oeÓPfjzihf pwifaMumif; jyqdkonf /
r[mpnfq&mawmftvdkt& þb0ü edAÁmefudkrsufarSmufjyKvdkolonf rdrd\usifhMuHtm;xkwfrIudk "r®
puúyÜ0wåeokwf? r[mowdy|meokwfESihf tjcm;okwåeftcsKdUü Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf a[mMum;awmfrlaom r*¾if&Spfyg;
udk tajccHoihfonf/ ,if;usifhpOfü yg0ifonhf w&m;&Spfyg;rSm 1) rSefaom tjrif 2) rSefaom tBuH 3) rSefaom
pum; 4) rSefaom tvkyf 5) rSefaom oufarG;0rf;ausmif; 6) rSefaom vkHUvtm;xkwfrI 7) rSefaom owd ESihf
8) rSefaom orm"dwdkYjzpfonf/ ,if;&SpfrsKd;onf 'ku©Nidrf;csKyfjcif; edAÁmefudk em;vnfjcif;odkY a&muf&Sdapaom vrf;
pOfjzpfonf/
0dok'¨dr*fusrf;ü 0dyóemÓPfwdk;wufykHtpOfudk azmfjyxm;onf/ ,if;jzpfpOfrSm þodkYjzpfonf – 1) emr
½lyy&dapä'ÓP (½kyfemrfudk cGJjcm;odonhfÓPf) 2) ypö,y&d*¾[ÓP (taMumif;tusKd;udk odaomÓPf) 3)
or®eÓP (qifjcifokH;oyfonhfÓPf) 4) O',AÁ,ÓP (ocFg&w&m;wdkY\ jzpfysufudkodaomÓPf) 5)
b*FÓP (ocFg&w&m;wdkY\ ysufjcif;udkodaomÓPf) 6) b,ÓP (ocF&w&m;wdkYudk aMumufzG,ftjzpfod
aomÓPf) 7) tm'De0ÓP (aMumufzG,fw&m;udk tEÅ&m,ftjzpfodaomÓPf) 8) edAÁdE´ÓP (ocFg&w&m;
wdkYdudk NiD;aiGUaomÓPf) 9) rkÍödwkurswmÓP (vGwfajrmufrIudk vdkvm;onfhÓPf) 10) y#docFgÓP (yGm;
rsm;tm;xkwfrIudk qifjcifonhfÓPf) 11) ocFg½kayu©mÓP (ocFgw&m;wdkYudk Oayu©mtjzpf½IonhfÓPf) 12)
tEkavmrÓP (vdkufavsmnDaxGtjzpf½IonfhÓPf) 13) 0k|me*grdeD0dyóemÓP (xajrmufjcif;odkY oGm;
aomÓPf) 14) a*gMwblÓP (&ifhusufonhfÓPf) 15) r*¾ÓP (r*fÓPf) 16) zvÓP (zdkvfÓPf) wdkY
309
jzpfonf /
þ0dyóemynmwdk;wufrIazmfjycsuffü r[mpnfq&mawmfu pdwfydkif;jzpfpOfESihf r*fÓPfrSwpfqihf edAÁmef
udk oabmaygufoGm;ykHudk ñTefjycJhonf/ q&mawmf\ azmfjycsufrSm atmuftwdkif;jzpfonf –

0dok'¨dr*ftvdkt& 0k|me*grdeD0yd óemynmonf 0dyóemynm\ txGwftxdyfjzpfNyD; ,if;onf ocFg


½kayu©mÓPf? rkÍödwkurswmÓPfESifh y#docFgÓPf[laom ÓPfpOfokH;ckESihf nDrQonf/ ocFg&w&m;wdkYudk
qifjcifokH;oyfjcif;rS edAÁmefudktm½kHjyKaom avmukwå&mr*fodkY x(jzpfay:)jcif;aMumifh 0k|me*grdeD0dyó
emÓPf[k ac:onf/ qdkvdkonfrSm xdktcsdefü edAÁmefonf wdkuf½dkuftm½kHw&m;jzpfvmNyD; pdwfxJwGif
310
pdwful;pOf;pm;jcif; vkH;0r&Sdawmhacs /

306
U Pandita Sayadaw, On the Path to Fredom (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Buddhist Wisdom Center, 1995), 152.
307
Ibid, 152.
308
Ab-S, 157.
309
Vi-M Vol. II, 222-311.
310
Mahasi Sayadaw, The Progress of Insight, 38-39.

99
,if;0dyóemÓPfpOfrsm;onf txGwftxdyfodkY a&muf&SdoGm;aom 0dyóemur®|mef;enf; vkH;0 jzpfaomf
vnf; wdk;wufrItwGuf txl;jyKjcif;rSm 0dyóemÓPfpifMu,fjcif;ü a,m*Dyk*¾Kdvf\ oGifjyifuGJjym;rI&Sdonhf wdk;
wufaom r*ftqihfay:wGif jzpfonf/ avhusifhtm;xkwfrIwGif ukd,fwdkifryg0ifzl;olonf 0dyóemynm\ xl;
jcm;eufeJrI tqifhrsm;udk em;vnfEdkifrnfr[kwfacs/ trSefpifppf azmfjyNyD;tawGUtBuKHrsm;udk udk,fwdkifvufawGU
ur®|mef;tm;xkwfrIjzihf azmjfyjcif;jzpfonf/ odkYjzpfí 0dyóemynmESihfywfoufí awG;ac:ajrmfjrifrIonf þ
t"dyÜm,ftm; rsm;pGm &Sif;vif;rIay;Edkifr[kwfacs/ 0dyóemynmudk 'óe½IaxmihfrS awG;ac:pOf;pm;jcif;rSm
aumif;aomfrSefaomfvnf; 0dyóemÓPfudk udk,fwdkifwkduf½dkuf odEdkifa&;twGuf vufawGUtm;xkwf&ef BudK;yrf;
jcif;onfom taumif;qkH;enf;vrf;jzpfonf/ avhusihftm;xkwfjcif;onf Ak'¨0g'yef;wdkif edAÁmefodkYa&mufjcif;
odkYr[kwf edAÁmefudk &jcif;twGuf wpfckwnf;aom enf;vrf;jzpfonf/

0dyóemur®|mef;ü 0dok'¨dckepfyg;
ax&0g'ur®|mef;½IrSwfenf;wGif 0dyóemynmudk yGm;rsm;jcif;ESihf 0dok'¨dudk yGm;rsm;jcif;wdkYrSm avhusifhtm;xkwf
&mü wpfcsdefwnf; csOf;uyf&ef,lqMuonf/ enf;vrf;wpfckwnf;udk tokH;jyKjcif;jzpfaomfvnf; tjcm;a0g[m&
wpfrsKd;jzihf tokH;jyKjcif;jzpfonf/ ,if;ESpfrsKd;rSm vufawGUwdk;wufrIvrf;pOfü tcsif;csif;qufoG,faeonf/ þ
tcsufü 0dok'¨dckepfrsKd;udk wdk;wufatmifvkyf&ef a,m*Donf a&S;OD;pGm oDv0dok'¨dudk yGm;rsm;&onf/ xdkYaMumihf
a,m*Dyk*¾Kdvfonf &Spfyg;oDvudkjzpfap ig;yg;oDvudkjzpfap apmihfokH;&rnfjzpfaMumif; wdkuf½kdufñTefMum;jcif;jzpf
onf/ wpfcsdefwnf;wGif a,m*Donf ½IrSwfykHav;rsKd;yg0ifonfh owdy|mefav;yg;tpOfodkY vdkuf&rnfjzpfonf/
,if;wdkYrSm 1) cE¨mudk,fudk cE¨mudk,ftaejzihf ½IrSwfjcif; (um,mEkyóem) 2) a0'emudk a0'emtaejzihf ½I
rSwfjcif; (a0'emEkyóem) 3) pdwfudkpdwftaejzihf ½IrSwfjcif; (pdwåmEkyóem) ESihf 4) "r®tm½kHudk "r®tm½kH
311
taejzihf ½IrSwfjcif; ("r®mEkyóem) wdkYjzpfonf / tusKd;quftaejzihf a,m*Donf eD0&Pw&m;ig;yg;udk
z,f&Sm;vsuf pdwå0dok'¨dudk &&Sdrnfjzpfonf/
odkY&mwGif &[ef;awmfrsm;tzdkY oDvpifMu,fjcif;twGuf av;rsKd;&Sdonf/ ,if;wdkYrSm 1) 0denf;awmfESihftnD
ukd,fEIwftjyKtrlqdk;rsm;udk apmihfxdef;onhf oDv (ygwdarmu©oH0&oDv) 2) £a`E´wdkYudk apmihfpnf;onhf oDv
(£`Ed´,oH0&oDv) 3) oufarG;0rf;ausmif;pifMu,fonfh oDv (tmZD0yg&dok'¨doDv) ESifh 4) ypönf;av;yg;okH;pGJrI
312
ESihfywfoufaom oDv (ypö,oEédódwoDv)wkdYjzpfonf / ,if;oDvav;rsKd;udk txl;ojzifh &[ef;awmfrsm;ESihf
ywfoufí azmfjyNyD; ,if;udk pwkyg&dok'¨doDv[kac:onf/
,if;azmfjycsufü tjyKtrltrsK;drsKd;ESihf ywfoufaom &[ef;odu©myk'f ESpf&mhESpfq,fckepf (227) ckyg&Sdonf/
,if;odu©myk'frsm;udk Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf ynwfawmfrlcJhjcif;jzpfonf/ £`E´d,oH0&oDvudk wdk;jrifhap&ef &[ef;awmf
onf pu©K aomw Cme Zd0Sg um,[laom £a`E´wdkYü xdawGUvmonhf tm½kHrsm;udk owdjzihf od&rnfjzpfonf/
,if;odkYjzifh &[ef;awmfonf pdwfudkpifMu,fapvsuf £`E´d,oH0&oDvudk jznhfqnf;Edkifonf/ &[ef;awmfrsm;\
oufarG;0rf;ausmif;pifMu,frIonf 0denf;ESihftnD &[eff;wpfyg;taejzifh b0twGufvdktyfcsufrsm;udk &&Sd&mü
oifhwihfawmfaom tjcif;t&mESihfqdkifonf/ (qGrf;? ouFef;? ausmif;? aq;[laom) ypönf;av;yg; okH;pGJrIESihf
qdkifaomoDvrSm &[ef;wdkYtzdkY avsmufywfaom½nf½G,fcsufudk qifjcifNyD;aemufrS okH;pGJ&efjzpfonf/ Oyrmaomf
]igonf þypönf;av;yg;udk y&d,wåd y#dywåd y#da0"[laom omoemhwm0efrsm;udk aqmif½Guf&mü pdwfydkif;
313
ESihf½kyfydkif; usef;rma&;twGuf okHpGJygrnf} [kjzpfonf / &[ef;awmfrsm;onf omoemhwm0efrsm;udk xrf;aqmif
&mü owdjzihfaqmif½GufMu&onf/ tusKd;taejzihf &[ef;onf eD0&Pw&m; ig;yg;udk z,fcGmvsuf pdwå0dok'd̈udk
&EdkifpGrf;&Sdonf/
0dok'¨dvrf;pOfwdk;wuf&mü yxrpifMu,frIESpfrsKd;onf qufvufwdk;wufatmif yGm;rsm;&mwGif tvGefta&;
ygonf/ ,if;ESpfrsKd;udk wdk;wufatmifrvkyfbJ pifMu,frIwdk;wufjcif; jzpfEdkifykHr&acs/ pifMu,frIwwd,tqifh

311
Di-N Vol. II, 231.
312
Ab-Ac, 347.
313
Ibid, 348.

100
rSm 'd|d0dok'¨d(t,ltqpifMu,frI)jzpfonf/ a,m*Donf 'd|d0dok'd̈tqifhodkY a&mufaomtcg rdrd\t,lrSm; tm;
vkH;udk ausmfvTm;vsuf pdwfapwodufwdkY\ y&rw¬obm0udk em;vnfEdkifonf/ 'd|d0dok'¨dudkr&rD a,m*Dtrsm;
pkonf rdrdcE¨mudk,ftwGif;ü twåvdyfjymaumifonf igolwpfyg;taejzihf xm0&wnf&Sd[kxifrSwfMuonf/ 'd|d
0dok'¨dudk &&SdNyD;aomtcg a,m*Donf cE¨mig;yg;taygif;ü ½kyfESihfemrfom&Sd\[k odjrifEdkifaomynmudk wdk;wuf
atmif tm;xkwfEdkifonf/ ,if;tppftrSefw&m;udk odjcif;ü þae&mwGif obm0o½kyfoP²mefudk ½kyfemrf
taejzihf½I&mü a,m*Drsm;onf [dE´Lt,ltq twåref (r[m0dnmOfaumif)ESihf ywfoufaom twåESihf twåt
,ltqudk jiif;qdkonf/ þtcsufü Ak'¨0g'tzdkY twårJh½IjrifrIonf rSefaomtjrifjzpfNyD; pifMu,frItwGuf tvGef
vdktyfaom tpdwftydkif;jzpfonf/ trSefpifppf pdwå0do'k ¨donf pdwf\taESmihft,Surf sm;ESihf tnpftaMu;rsm;
udk ausmfvTm;jcif;[laom orm"d\udpö (vkyfaqmifrI)ESihf wlnDonf/ odkYjzpfí pdwå0dok'¨d odkYr[kwf orm"donf
tvkH;pkHpifMu,frIwdk;wufa&;udk &&Sdjcif;twGuf r&Sdrjzpfvkdtyfonf/ azmjfyNyD;onhftwdkif; orm"dokwåefü Ak'¨&Sif
awmfjrwfu ]orm"ð bdu©a0 bma0x? orm[dawm bdu©a0 bdu©L ,xmblwH yZmeEÅd (&[ef;wdkY? orm"dudk
yGm;rsm;Muavmh? pdwfwnfbdrl &[ef;wdkYonf t&Sdudkt&Sdtwdkif;odjrifMu\)} [ka[mawmfrlonf/ Ak'¨0g'ur®|mef;
½IrSwfjcif;ü azmufjyefpGm½Ijrifjcif; (0dyv’mo)wdkY\ vTrf;rdk;rcH&bJ t&Sdudkt&Sdtwkdif; rlvblwtwdkif; odjrifjcif;
314
tm; ,xmblwÓPf (obm0twkdif;odjrifonhfÓPf)[k ac:onf / tqihfjrifh0dok'¨dwdkY wdk;wufykHtpDtpOf
udk 0dok'¨dr*fü þodkYazmfjyonf 1) oDv0dok'¨d (oDvpifMu,fjcif;) 2) pdwå0dok'¨d (pdwfpifMu,fjcif;) 3) 'd|d0dok'¨d
(t,lpifMu,fjcif;) 4) ucFg0dw&P0dok'¨d (oHo,udkausmfvTm;ípifMu,fjcif;) 5) r*¾gr*¾ÓP'óe0dok'¨d
(r*f[kwfonfr[kwfonfESihfywfoufí ÓPftjrifpifMu,fjcif;) 6) y#dy'gÓP'óe0dok'¨d (vrf;pOfÓPf
315
tjrif pifMu,fjcif;) ESifh 7) ÓP'ó0dok'¨d (ÓPftjrifpifMu,fjcif;) wdkYjzpfonf / 0dyóemur®|mef;ü
0dok'¨dckepfqifh&Sdaomfvnf; ,if;wdkYonf aemufqkH;ü oDv orm"d ynm [laomtrnfemokH;rsKd;üyif tusKH;0if
Muonf/ ,if;ykHrSefur®|mef;xdkifenf;udk odjrifjcif;ü Ak'¨0g'DwdkYonf ,if;ur®|mef;xdkifenf;onf edAÁmefodkYa&muf
aMumif; enf;vrf;jzpfaMumif; qdkMuonf/ ]vG,f&Sif;tbd"r®w¬o*F[ (A Comprehensive Manual of Abhidhamma)
usrf;udk wnf;jzwfol Ak'¨0g'DygVdynm&Sif bdu©KaAm"dt&Sifjrwfu þodkYaxmufjyonf ],if;0dok'¨dckepfyg;udk
vkdufemusihfokH;ol\ taxmuftyHh toD;oD;jzpfvsuf tpOftwdkif;&&Sdonf/ yxrqkH;0dok'¨donf oDvudk
udk,fpm;jyKNyD; 'kwd,0dok'¨donf orm"dudk aemufqkH;ig;ckonf ynmudk ukd,fpm;jyKonf/ yxr0dok'¨dajcmufrsKd;
316
onf avmuDjzpfNyD; aemufqkH;0dok'¨donf avmukwå&mr*fjzpfonf /

314
Sa-N Vol. II, 12.
315
Vi-M, Vol. II, 222-311.
316
Ab-Ac, 345-346.

101
Z,m; 5

0dok'¨dckepfyg;ESihf ÓPfpOfq,fhajcmufcsuf

0dok'¨d ÓPfpOf

1) oDv0dok'¨d tm;rxkwfrD a&S;OD;pGm ig;yg; odkYr[kwf &Spfyg;oDvapmifxdef;jcif;


2) pdwå0dok'¨d Oypm&orm"d tyÜemorm"d cPduorm"d
3) 'd|d0dok'¨d 1) emr½lyy&dapä'ÓPf
4) ucFg0dw&0dok'¨d 2) ypö,y&d*¾[ÓP
5) r*¾gr*¾ÓP'óe0dok'¨d 3) or®eÓP
6) y#dy'gÓP'óe0dok'¨d 4) O',AÁ,ÓP
4) O',AÁ,ÓP
5) b*FÓP
6) b,ÓP
7) tm'De0ÓP
8) edAÁdE´ÓP
9) rkÍödwkurswmÓP
10) y#docFgÓP
11) ocFg½kayu©mÓP
12) tEkavmrÓP
13) 0k|me*grdeD0dyóemÓP
14) a*gMwblÓP
7) ÓP'ó0dok'¨d 15) r*¾ÓP
16) zvÓP

rSwfcsuf/ / 0dok'¨dckepfyg;ESihf ÓPfpOfq,fhajcmufcsufazmfjyrIonf r[mpnfq&mawmfa&;om;awmfrlaom


The Progress of Insight usrf;pmudk tajccHonf/ Z,m;yg yxrqkH; 0dok'¨dESpfyg;rSm 0dyóemÓPf&ifhoef&ef
317
tajccH avhusifhrIjzpfonf /

r*fÓPfzdkvfÓPfrsm;tygt0if 0dok'¨dESihfÓPfpOfwdkY pepfwus wdk;wufrIudkMunfhvsuf ur®|mef;q&mwdkY


onf jrwfAk'¨a[mMum;onfudk tajccHonhf udk,fydkift"dyÜm,fzGifhqdkcsufrsm;jzihf ,if;ur®|mef;enf;udk tokH;jyKMu
onf/ jrefrmEdkifiHrS r[mur®|memp&d,jzpfawmfrlaom r[mpnfq&mawmfonf edAÁmefudo k djrifEdkif&ef 0dyóem
ynmtqifhrsm;udk wdk;wufatmif cPduorm"djzihf vkHavmufaMumif; azmfjyawmfrlonf/ jrefrmEdkifiHrSyif xif
&Sm;ausmfMum;onfh tjcm;ur®|mef;enf;jyjzpfawmfrlaom zm;atmufq&mawmfurl a,m*Dwpfa,mufonf Oy
pm&orm"d tyÜemorm"dwdkYESihftwl orxpsmefudk a&S;OD;pGmtm;xkwfNyD;aemuf edAÁmefudkodjrif&ef 0dyóemynm
318
udk yGm;rsm;&rnf[k txl;jyKa[mMum;onf /

317
Mahasi Sayadaw, he Progress of Insight, 1-26.
318
Pa-Auk Sayadaw, 82.

102
aemufqkH; edAÁmefudkodjrifjcif;
edAÁmefudk odjrifjcif;ESihfywfoufí Ak'¨0g'DwdkYonf usihfBuHtm;xkwfrItajccHjzihf edAÁmefudk&&Sdonhft,ltqudk
axmufcHonhf jzpfEdkifajc&Sd wdkuf½kduf oabmwlnrD Itrsm;tjym;udk wnfaqmufMuonf/ odkYwap ¤if;wdkY
okH;EIef;onfh tmoa0gw&m;ukefqkH;jcif; (tmo0u©,)? y#doaE¨rJh (tZmw)ESihf aojcif;rJh (trw)uJhodkYaom
txl;jyKa0g[m&wdkYrSm rjynfhpkHao;bJ&Sdonf/ odkYjzpfí Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwfonf or®m'd|d (rSefaomtjrif)[lonfukd
tav;ay;rdefYMum;awmfrljcif;jzpfonf/ or®m'd|donf r*¾ifvrf;pOfü ta&;BuD;aom ae&mü&Sdonf/ rSefaomt
jrifonf t&Sdudkt&Sdtwkdif;odjrifaom 0dyóemÓPfESihf qufEG,fonf/ odkYr[kwfrl a,m*D\pdwfonf 0dyv’m
oav;yg;odkY oufqif;oGm;Ekdifonf/ onm\azmufjyefjcif;? pdwf\azmufjyefjcif;? t,l\azmufjyefjcif;wdkY
aMumifh ,if;azmufjyefrIav;yg;onf a,m*D\pdwfxJü xif&Sm;jzpfay:vmonf/ ,if;w&m;av;yg;vkH;onf a,m
*D\ ur®|mef;tusifhwdk;wufrIudk wm;qD;EdkifpGrf;&Sdonf/ ,if;0dyv’mow&m; av;yg;wdkYrSm 1) tedpö tNrJr&SdrIudk
edpö tNrJ[k xifrSwfonf 2) 'ku©udk okc[kxifrSwfonf 3) tewåudk twå[kxifrSwfonf 4) tokbudk ok
319
b[kxifrSwfonf - wdkYjzpfonf / ,if;azmufjyefrIav;rsKd;onf tppftrSefy&rw¬w&m;ü tjrifrSefr&Sdaom
aMumihf wpfpkHwpfa,muf\pdwfü ay:vm&jcif;jzpfonf/ tcsKdUu oDtdk&Drsm; tawG;tjrifrsm;udk em;vnfjcif;udk
rSefaomtjrif odkYr[kwf NyD;jynfhpkHaom em;vnfr[ I kxifrSwfMuaomfvnf; ,if;onf rrSefacs/ tjynfhtpkH
oabmaygufjcif;onf rnfonhftawG;tac:ykHpH odkYr[kwf pnfrsOf;Oya'wGifrS tajcrcHbJ wpfpkHwpfa,muf\
udk,fwdkifavhusifhtm;xkwfrIaMumihf &&Sdonhf todw&m;tay:wGifom tajccHonf/ odkYjzpfí rSefaomtjrif
(or®m'd|d)twGuf avhusifhtm;xkwfrI r&SdrjzpfvdktyfNyD; NyD;jynfhpkHpGm em;vnfrI[lonf Ak'¨0g'ü aAm"dÓPfudk
320
wdkuf½dkuf ½nf½G,fonf / NyD;jynfhpkHpGm xdk;xGif;odjrifrI ,lqcsufESifhywfoufí awmifykvk urÇmat;q&mawmf
u atmufygtwdkif; rdefYMum;awmfonf –

½kyfemrfudkodaom todynmokH;rsKd;&Sd\/ ,if;wdkYrSm 1) okwr,ÓP (Mu;emoif,ljzihf&&Sdaom tod


ynm) 2) pdEÅmr,ÓP (BuHpnfawG;awmí &&Sdaom todynm) 3) bm0emr,ÓP (0dyóemw&m;
yGm;rsm;í&&Sdaom todynm) wdkYjzpf\/ ,if;okH;rsKd;teuf okwr, pdEÅmr,ÓPfwkdYjzihf emrf½kyfudkodjcif;
rSm rjynfhpkH odkYr[kwf xdwfvefYzG,faumif;\/ bm0emr,ÓPfjzifh ½kyfemrfwdkYudkodjcif;onfom NyD;jynfh
321
pkHpGm em;vnfoabmaygufjcif;rnf\ /

r*¾if&Spfyg;½Iaxmifht&aomf a&S;OD;oabmaygufjcif;[lonf or®m'd|dudk &nfñTef;onf/ Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf


onf or®m'd|dta&;ygykHudk txl;jyKa[mMum;awmfrlcJhonf/ yXr'g½ku©aE¨myrokwåefü þtcsufudk atmufyg
azmfjycsufwGif **Fgjrpfa&tvsOfü arsmygoGm;aom opfwkH;BuD;Oyrmjzihf >ruf[cJhonf/ Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf a[m
awmfrlcJhonfrSm azmfjyygtwdkif;jzpfonf –

&[ef;wdkY? tu,fí opfwkH;onf þrSmzufurf;odkY ra&mufcJhygvQif xdkrSmzufurf;odkY ra&mufcJhygvQif


tv,fü repfjrKyfcJhygvQif Munfukef;ü rwifcJhygvQif vlwdkYrq,f,lcJhygvQif ewfwdkYrq,f,lcJhygvQif
0Jrpkyf ,lcJhygvQif twGif;ü raqG;rykyfcJhygvQif xdkopfwkH;onf orkj'modkYñGwfonf orkj'modkY udkif;onf
orkj'modkY ½Idif;onf jzpfvdrfhrnf/ tb,ftaMumif;aMumihfenf;/ **Fgjrpfa&t,Ofonf orkj'modkYñGwfonf
orkj'modkY udkif;onf orkj'modkY ½Idif;onf jzpfaomaMumihfwnf;/ &[ef;wdkY? þtwl oifwdkYonfvnf;
þrSmzufurf;odkY ruyfa&mufMuygvQif(twGif;jzpfaomwnf&m tZÑwådum,weajcmufyg;udk &nf½G,f
onf) xdkrSmzufurf;odkY ruyfa&mufMuygvQif(tjyifjzpfaomwnf&m Am[d&m,weajcmufyg;udk &nf½G,f
onf) tv,fü repfjrKyfMuygvQif (ESpfoufpGJrufrI eE´D&m*udk &nf½G,fonf) Munfukef;ü rwifMuyg
319
An-N, Vol. 361.
320
Rina Sircar. The Psycho-Ethical Aspects fo Abhidhamma (New YorkL University Press of America, Inc., 1999), 124-125.
321
Taungpulu Tawy Kaba0Aye Sayadaw. Maha Satipatthana Vipassana: Insight Meditation (Yangon, Myanmare: Department of Religious
Affairs, 1979), 33-34.

103
vQif(ig[laomrmef to®drmeudk &nf½G,fonf) vlwdkYrq,f,lMuygvQif(vltrsm;ESifh aygif;oif;qufqHrIudk
&nf½G,fonf) ewfwdkY rq,f,lMu ygvQif(ewfbkHwdkYü arG;zGm;vdkjcif;udk &nf½G,fonf) 0Jrpkyf,lMuygvQif
(umr*kPfig;yg;udk &nf½G,fonf) twGif;ü raqG;rykyfMuygvQif(udk,fusifhw&m;ysufjcif;udk &nf½G,fonf)
oifwdkYonf edAÁmefodkYñGwfonf edAÁmefodkY udkif;onf edAÁmefodkY ½Idif;onf jzpfvdrfhrnf/ tb,ftaMumif;
aMumihfenf;/ rSefaomtjrifonf edAÁmefodkYñGwfonf edAÁmefodkY udkif;onf edAÁmefodkY ½Idif;onf jzpfaom
322
aMumihfwnf; /

trSefpifppf or®m'd|dESihf or®orm"donf edAÁmefudkxkd;xGif;í odjrif&ef r&Sdrjzpfvdktyfonf/ tajccHtm;jzihf


xdkw&m;ESpfyg;onf a,m*Dyk*¾Kdvf\ 0dyóemÓPfudk &ihfusufaponf/ r[mpnfq&mawmfu þodkYrSwfcsufjyK
íwkHYjyefcJhonf - ]a,m*Dyk*¾Kdvfonf emrf½kyftm½kHü owdjzihfqufvufí ½IrSwfoGm;aomtcg ¤if;\0dyóem
ÓPfonf wjznf;jznf; wdk;wufvmNyD; tppftrSefobm0udk &Sif;vif;pGmazmfjyonf/ a,m*Donf emrf½kyfjzpf
pOf\ jzpfjcif;ysufjcif;udk ydkrdkxif&mS ;pGm odjrifvmonf/ xdkcPü jzpfay:vmNyD; vsifjrefpGm aysmufoGm;aom
tm½kHwkdif;udkodNyD; yxrjzpfay:NyD;aomw&m;onf wpfck? aemufjzpfay:vmaomw&m;onf tjcm;wpfck[k
oabmaygufoGm;onf/ þodkYjzihf a,m*D\rSefaomtjrifonf edAÁmefudkxdk;xGif;odjrifEdkifaom 0dyóemynmudk
323
&&Sd Edkifonf} /
þavhvmcsufü a0zefaqG;aEG;zG,f ar;cGef;wpfck ay:vmonf/ xdkur®|mef;½IrSwfolonf þb0ü edAÁmefudk
&&SdEdkifygoavm/ þü Ak'¨0g'onf azmfjyygar;cGef;twGuf xl;jcm;aom tajzwpf&yfudk ay;onf/ xdkyk*¾Kdvfonf
0dyóemur®|mef;avhusifhtm;xkwfrIü vkHYvBuD;pGm jyK&rnf/ odkYr[kwfrl ,if;usihfBuHrIonf a,m*Dtm; pdwftm;
avsmhapEdkifNyD; txl;ojzifh usihfBuHjcif;ü wdk;wufrrI awGU&bJ&Sdonf/ ur®|mef;tusihfü oHo,ay:vmrnf/ xdkY
aMumihf tm;xkwfol\yg&rD (pdwfydkif;b0NyD;jynfhpkHjcif;) &ihfusufovm; r&ifhusufovm;[lonfudk em;vnf&efvdk
tyfonf/ ,if;tcsufvnf; ta&;ygonf/ xdkYjyif yg&rDtvkHtavmuf&ifhusufonhfwdkif vkHYvtm;xkwfjcif;rjyK
vQifvnf; edAÁmefudk &&SdEkdifrnfr[kwfacs/ odkYjzpfí ur®|mef;udk tm;wufoa&mtm;xkwf&efESihf yg&rDtvkH
tavmuf &ifhoefrI&Sdr&Sdodatmif tm;xkwfrIwpf&yf jyK&rnfjzpfonf/ ,if;aemuf þb0ü aAm"dÓPfudk &Edkif
oavm odkYr[kwf aemufb0wGifavm[lonfudk odEdkifonf/
xdkYjyif ax&0g'usrf;*efwdkYü aAm"dÓPfudk xdk;xGif;íodjrifrItm; udavomwdkYudk z,f&Sm;okwfoifjcif;ESihf
oHo&m'ku©rS vGwfajrmufjcif;tjzpf txl;jyKzGifhqdkonf/ ur®|mef;tm;xkwfjcif;jzihf 0dyóemynmudk r&ao;o
a½GU t0dZÆmtaMumif;cHjzihf obm0"r®wdkYudk rSm;,Gif;pGm odjrifonf/ 0dyóemur®|mef;onf trSefyif a,m*D
yk*¾Kdvftm; 0dyóemynmudk &&Sdonftxd t0dZÆmudk wpfvTmNyD;wpfvTm cGmEdkifpGrf;&Sdonf/ xdktcsdefü a,m*Drsm;
onf y&rw¬obm0udk oabmaygufvsuf edAÁmefodkY 0ifvrf;jzpfonhf aAm"dÓPfudk &&SdoGm;onf/ 'DCedum,f
r[mvdokwåeft& aAm"dÓPftqifh avhqifh&Sdonf/ aAm"dÓPftqifhonf ,if;ÓPfudk &&Sdolt&d,myk*¾Kdvf
toD;oD;ay:wGif tajccHonf/ t&d,myk*¾Kdvfrsm;teuf yxrqkH;tqihf t&d,myk*¾KdvfrSm aomwmyefjzpfonf/
aomwmyefyk*¾Kdvfonf 'd|doHa,mZOf? 0dpdudpämoHa,mOfESihf oDvAÁwy&mrmooHa,mZOfwdkYudk jzwfNyD;jzpf
324
onf / t|uxmusrf;rsm;tvdkt& aomwmyefonf £ómESihf rpä&d,oHa,mZOfESpfyg;udv k nf; jzwfNyD;jzpf
onf/ aomwmyefonf tyg,fbkHwdkYü arG;zGm;apEdkifavmufatmif jyif;jyaom udavomt&Sdeftm;vkH;rS vGwf

322
Sa-N-NT, 1242.
323
Mahasi Sayadaw, Practical Insight Meditation, 34.
324
ygVdusrf;*efwdkYü oHa,mZOfq,fyg;udk enf;ESpfrsKd;jzihfa&wGufonf/ wpfenf;rSmokwåefenf;t&jzpfNyD; aemufwpfenf;rSm tbd
"r®menf;t&jzpfonf/ okwåefenf;t& oHa,mZOfq,fyg;rSm 1) umr&m*oHa,mZOf 2) ½lyg&m*oHa,mZOf 3) t½ly&m* oHa,m
ZOf 4) y#dCoHa,mZOf 5) rmeoHa,mZOf 6) 'd|oHa,mZOf 7) oDvAÁwy&mrmooHa,mZOf 8) 0dpdudpämoHa,mZOf 9)
O'¨pöoHa,mZOf 10) t0dZÆmoHa,mZOfwdkYjzpfonf/ 'kwd, tbd"r®menf;t& oHa,mZOfq,fyg;rSm 1) umr&m*oHa,mZOf 2)
b0&m*oHa,mZOf 3) y#dCoHa,mZOf 4) rmeoHa,mZOf 5) 'd|doHa,mZOf 6) oDvAÁwy&mrmooHa,mZOf 7) 0dpdudpäm
oHa,mZOf 8) £ómoHa,mZOf 9) rpä&d,oHa,mZOf 10) t0dZÆmoHa,mZOf wdkYjzpfonf/ Ab-S, 117-118; Ab-As, 268-269.
104
325
ajrmufNyD;jzpfonf / wpfzef aomwmyefyk*¾Kdvfonf Ak'¨ "r® oHCtm; rwkefrvIyfouf0if,kHMunfNyD; ukd,fusihf
oDvü wdusaomoabmxm;jzihf ig;yg;oDvESihf jynhfpkHonf/ tyg,fav;bkHrS uif;vGwfNyD; vlYjynf ewfjynfwdkYü
326
ckepfBudrfxufydkí y#doaE¨raeawmhacs /
t&d,myk*¾Kdvf 'kwd,tqihfrSm ou'g*grfjzpfonf/ ou'g*grfyk*¾Kdvfonf ¤if;\ avmb a'go arm[wdkY
327
udk avsmhyg;atmifvkyfNyD; umrbkHodkY wpfBudrfom jyefvmawmhrnfjzpfonf /
t&d,myk*¾Kdvf wwd,tqifhrSm tem*grf jzpfonf/ tem*grfyk*¾Kdvfonf umr&m*oHa,mZOfESifh y#dCoH
a,mZOfESpfyg;udk t<uif;rJh y,fvsuf vlYbkHESihf ewfjynfajcmufxyfwdkYü jyefvnfarG;zGm;awmhrnfr[kwfacs/ þt
qifh t&d,myk*¾KdvfESihf pyfvsOf;í 'DCedum,f twGJ 1? r[mvdokwfuJhodkYaom ygVdawmfusrf;*efrsm;ü tem*grf
yk*¾Kdvfonf tqihfedrfhoHa,mZOf (Mo&rÇm*d,)ig;yg;udk y,fpGefYvsuf uG,fvGefonfESihf (ok'¨g0go)jA[®mbkHü arG;
zGm;NyD; xdkbkHü aAm"dÓPfudk &vdrfhrnfjzpfaMumif;azmfjyonf/ þtcsufü Mo&rÇm*d,oHa,mZOf[lonf azmfjy
vwHhaom oHa,mZOfig;yg;udk &nfñTef;onf/ ,if;oHa,mZOfig;yg;\pGrf;&nfum; tyg,fbkH vlYbkHESihf ewfbkH
[laomumrbkHESihf edrfhaomjA[®mhbkHwdkYü owå0gwdkYudk csnfaESmifEdkifpGrf;&Sdonf/ ,if;ig;yg;rSm 1) umr&m*
oHa,mZOf 2) y#dCoHa,mZOf 3) oDvAÁwy&mrmooHa,mZOf 4) 'd|oHa,mZOf 5) 0dpdudpämoHa,mZOfwdkY
jzpfonf/ odkYjzihf tem*grfyk*¾Kdvfonf umrbkHüjyefvnfrarG;zGm;awmhbJ <uif;usefaeao;aom oHa,mZOf ig;yg;
udk ry,f&ao;aomaMumifh O'¨rÇm*d,oHa,mZe[kac:aom txuffjA[®mhbkHü jyefvnfarG;zGm;vdrfhrnfjzpfonf/
,if;O'¨rÇm*d,oHa,mZOfig;yg;rSm 1) ½lyg&m*oHa,mZOf 2) t½ly&m*oHa,mZOf 3) rmeoHa,mZOf 4) O'¨pö
328
oHa,mZOf 5) t0dZÆmoHa,mZOfwdkYjzpfonf /
aemufqkH;tqifhf t&d,myk*¾KdvfrSm &[EÅmyk*¾Kdvfjzpfonf/ &[EÅmyk*¾Kdvfonf pdwftnpftaMu;tm;vkH; csKyf
Nidrf;jcif;jzihf oHa,mZOftm;vkH;? udavomig;vkH;ESihf tmo0tm;vkH;udk vkH;0y,fcGmonf/ &[EÅmyk*¾Kdvfonf ¤if;
\ 0dyóemñPf? r*fÓPf zdkvfÓPfwdkYjzihf xdk;xGif;odjrifoGm;NyDjzpfvsuf okH;q,hfwpfbkHü jyefvnfarG;zGm;awmh
rnfr[kwfacs/ &[EÅmyk*¾Kdvfonf edAmÁ ef\oEÅdokobm0udk &&SdoGm;NyDjzpfonf/ odkYjzihf &[EÅmyk*¾Kdvftm; aAm"d
329
ÓPfudk tjynfhtpkH &&SdNyD;ol[k ac:onf /
þazmfjycsufü oHa,mZOfq,fyg;a&wGufykH ESpfrsKd;&SdaomaMumifh þavhvmcsufü jrifomxifom&Sdap&ef
oHa,mZOfESihfywfoufaom azmfjycsuftwGuf Z,m;wpfckay;xm;onf/ udavomtjym;ESihf oHa,mZOftjym;
wdkYrSm Ak'¨0g'usrf;*efwdkYü tenf;ESihftrsm; wlnDaom tajccH&SdMuaomfvnf; tcgtm;avsmfpGm jcm;em;onhf
tokH;tEIef;rsm;jzihf awGU&aMumif; owdjyKoifhonf/ tcsKdUaom apwodufrsm;rSm tcsKdUtkyfpkrsm;ü jcm;em;pGm
qufEG,fEkdifaomfvnf; ,if;wdkYtm;vkH\ rlv&if;jrpfrSm tukodkvfapwoduf q,fhav;ckxJrSomjzpfMuonf/
Ormtm;jzihf xdeonf rd'¨ ESihf tajccHwlnDNyD; ukukpöonf a'goESihf tajccHwlnDonf/ þenf;jzihf udavom
rsm;ESihf oHa,mZOfrsm;onf tukodkvfapwoduf q,fhav;yg;ESihf rnfodkYqufEG,fonfudk em;vnfoifhonf/
330
atmufygZ,m;rSm tbd"r®w¬o*Fusrf;ESihftnD oHa,mZOfESihfywfoufaom azmfjycsufZ,m;jzpfonf /

325
Ac-Ab, 359.
326
Di-N Vol. I, 148-149; Ac-Ab, 358-362; Ab-B-T, 563-564, 718-723.
327
Ibid, 148-149, 352-362, 563-564.
328
Ibid, 148-149, 352-362, 563-564.
329
Ibid, 148-149, 352-362, 563-564.
330
Ab-S, 117-118, 164-165; Ab-Ac, 358-362.

105
Z,m; 6

r*fÓPfjzihf oHa,mZOfwdkYudk y,fjcif;

okwåefenfoHa,mZOf aom o em & = & em o aom tbd"r®menf;oHa,mZOf


umr&m*oHa,mZOf Ä = Ä umr&m* oHa,mZOf
½lyg&m*oHa,mZOf Ä + Ä b0&m*oHa,mZOf
t½ly&m*oHa,mZOf Ä + Ä £ómoHa,mZOf
y#dCoHa,mZOf Ä = Ä y#dCoHa,mZOf
rmeoHa,mZOf Ä = Ä rmeoHa,mZOf
'd|doHa,mZOf Ä = Ä 'd|oHa,mZOf
oDvAÁwy&mrmooHa,mZOf Ä = Ä oDvAÁwy&mrmooHa,mZOf
0dpdudpämoHa,mZOf Ä = Ä 0dpdudpämoHa,mZOf
O'¨pöoHa,mZOf Ä + Ä rpä&d,oHa,mZOf
t0dZÆmoHa,mZOf Ä = Ä t0dZÆmoHa,mZOf
pkpkaygif; 3 0 2 5 + 3 2 0 5 pkpkaygif;
5
2
0
5

rSwfcsuf/ / aom = aomwmyef/ o = ou'g*grf/ em = tem*grf/ & = &[EÅm/

edAÁmefa&mufaMumif;vrf;pOfazmfjycsufudk jyefquf&aomf r[mpnfq&mawmf\tvdkt& r*fÓPfESihf zdkvf


ÓPfwdkYonf avmukwå&mÓPfjzpfpOftm;jzifh tcsif;csif;qufoG,faeNyD;jzpfonf/ q&mawmfu þodkYqdkonf –

zdkvfÓPfonf aomwmywådr*fpaom avmukwå&mr*fÓPfav;yg;ESihf qufpyfae\/ þazmfjycsufü


aomwmywådr*fÓPfudkom &nf½G,f\/ r*fÓPfonf pdwåu©P wpfcsufrQomMumNyD; ,if;r*fÓPfudk
taMumif;jyKí zdkvfÓPfjzpfay:vm\/ zdkvfÓPfonf tBudrfrsm;pGmjzpfEdkifNyD; zvormywftm;jzihfvnf;
331
(,if;zdkvfÓPfudk) wrifoufouf 0if;pm;Edkif\ /

331
Mahasi Saydaw, Practical Insight Meditation, 39.

106
ynm\vkyfaqmifcsufrSm avmukwå&mr*fÓPf zdkvfÓPfjzihf edAÁmefudktm½kHjyKonftxd toD;oD; xdk;xGif;
íodjrifjcif;jzpfonf/ edAÁmef[lonf aemufqkH;ü ocFg&w&m;tm;vkH;\ jzpfysuftpOfü yg0ifvsuf&Sdaom avmuD
e,f\ wpfzufwGif&Sdaomt&mrSwpfyg; tjcm;r[kwf[k qdk&rnfjzpfonf/ odkY&mwGif edAÁmeftqifhü ,if;jzpfpOf
rsKd;vkH;0&yfpJNyD; oEÅdoktajctaeodkY a&mufoGm;onf/ ,if;jzpfpOfwdkY jywfpJoGm;jcif;jzifh a,m*Donf avmukwå&
"r®ESihf edAÁmef\oEÅdokcudk cHpm;&onf/ odkYjzifh þavhvmrI\ ed*kH;rSm rSefuefpGm vufawGUtm;xkwfjcif;onf
uREkfyfwdkY\ udk,fykdifpdwfykdif;b0 vkyfief;pOfjzpfvsuf ynmaMumihf edAÁmefudkodjrifrI jzpfay:vmvdrhfrnf[k jzpf
onf/ t&Sifem*aoet&Sifjrwfu þtcsufudk atmufygtwdkif; azmfjyonf –

rif;BuD;? Nidrf;csrf;vsuf aysmf½GifzG,faumif;NyD; omvGefjrifhjrwfaom edAÁme"mwfonf&Sdyg\/ rSefuefpGm vuf


awGY tm;xkwfvsuf jrwfAk'¨a[mawmfrltyfaom enf;ESihftnD ocFg&w&m;wdkYudk okH;oyfaom yk*¾Kdvfonf
332
ynmjzihf ,if;edAÁmefukd rsufarSmufjyKyg\ /

ed*kH;rSwfcsufrsm;
edAÁmefudk t"dyÜm,faumuf,lMu&mü þokawoejyKcsufonf jyefvnfñSdEIdif;NyD; tqdkjyKcsuft&a&m awG;ac:rI
t&yg edAÁmef\t"dyÜm,frSefudk em;vnf&ef rvkHavmufaom ,cifynm&Sifrsm;\ t"dyÜm,fzGifhqdkcsufrsm;udk wdk;
`rSifhcJhonf/ taMumif;rSm ¤if;wdkYtokH;jyKonhf bmompum;\ uefYowfcsufaMumihfjzpfonf/ pdwfpifMu,frI
twGuf tvkHtavmuf vufawGUtm;xkwfrIr&Sdaom usrf;jyKyk*¾Kdvfrsm;onf edAÁmef[lonf rnfodkYaom t&m
jzpfaMumif; oabmaygufrEdkifojzihf edAÁmef\t"dyÜm,fudk &Sif;jyEdkifpGrf;&SdykHr&acs/ trSefpifppf edAÁmef[lonfudk
jzpfEdkifajc&Sd azmfjycsufjzihfjzpfap jzpfEdkifajcrJh azmfjycsufjzihfjzpfap rdrdawG;xifrIudk tajccHNyD; azmfjyEdkifonf/
usrf;jyKol\ ,lqcsufrSm edAÁmefudk jzpfEdkifajc&Sd a0g[m&rsm;jzihfom azmfjy&onfr[kwfacs/ rsm;aomtm;jzihf
vkH;0jywfpJjcif;? rjzpfjcif;? jyefvnfrarG;zGm;jcif;[laom jzpfEdkifajcrJha0g[m&rsm;jzihf azmjfyMuaomfvnf; edAÁmef[l
333
onfr&Sd[k qdkvdkonfr[kwfacs / ,if;ed*kH;onf trSefaomf jzpfEdkifacs&Sd azmfjycsufwpf&yfjzpfonf/
odkY&mwGif t"dyÜm,fzGifhqdkolrsm;onf ,if;edAÁmeft"dyÜm,faumuf,lcsuftm; jzpfEdkifajcrJh azmfjycsuftjzpf
½IjrifEdkifNyD; tqkH;pGefaysmf½TifrI? Nidrf;csrf;rI? avmuvGefwnfNidrfrI? aumif;jrwfrIuJhodkYaom azmfjycsufrsm;udk tokH;
jyK odkYr[kwf txl;jyKajymqdkNyD; jzpfEdkifajc&Sda0g[m&rsm;jzpfykH&onfwdkYESihf wkHYjyefEdkifonf/ a&S;ut"dyÜm,fzGifh
qdkolrsm;onf avmuDa0g[m&tm;jzihf odkYr[kwf awG;ac:ajrmfjrifonhfenf;vrf;rsm;jzihf avmuDvGefedAÁmeftqihf
udk ra&mufEdkifaomaMumifhf edAÁmeftm; omvGefxl;uJonhftvif;a&mifESihf AdrmefwpfckuJhodkY Nidrf;csrf;jrihfjrwfonhf
tajctaetjzpf zGifhqdk&efBudK;yrf;cJhMuonf/ odkY&mwGif avmuD½Iaxmifhjzihf edAÁmef\obm0rSefudk em;rvnfEdkif
bJ "r®obm0wGif&Sdaom xl;uJomvGefaomtajctaetjzpf ,lqEdkifonf/ þae&mü "r®[lonf t&d,m
yk*¾KdvfwdkYodtyfaom xl;uJaomtajctaejzihfwnf&Sdonhf "r®"mwf[laom avmukwå&mpdwfudk qdkvdkonf/
edAÁmef[lonf jzpfEdkifajcrJhvnf;r[kwf jzpfEdkifajc&Sdvnf;r[kwf[k qdkEkdifonf/ taMumif;rl "r®\obm0
udk,fu jzpfEdkifajcrJhvnf;r[kwf jzpfEdkifajc&Sdvnf;r[kwfaomaMumihfwnf;/ jzpfEdkifajcrJh jzpfEdkifajc&Sd tjrifonf
avmuDtjrifrQomjzpfonf/ odkYjzpfí ajymqdkqufoG,fjcif; odkYr[kwf 'óeqdkif&mem;vnfrI &nf½G,fcsufwdkY
twGuf avmuDa0g[mjzihf edAÁmefukd azmfjy&efBudK;pm;rl edAÁmef\ tESpfom&rSefodkY a&mufEdkifrnfr[kwfacs/ t
aMumif;rl edAÁmef\ tESpfom&rSefonf avmuDa0g[m&e,fudk ausmfvGefaomaMumifhjzpfonf/ wpfzef edAÁmef\
tESpfom&rSefudk azmfjyEdkifaom wdusonhfpum;vkH; odkYr[kwf bmompum;r&Sdaomfvnf; oifhrSefaom enf;
vrf;jzihf ur®|mef;w&m;½IrSwfjcif;onfom ,if;jyóemudk ajz&Sif;ay;onf/ þavhvmcsufonf trSefpifppf
edAÁmeft,ltqudk bmompum;jzifh ajz&Sif;&ef vkH;0rBudK;pm;acs/ xkdYjyif þavhvmcsufonf ynm&Sifrsm;
t"dyÜm,faumuf,lcsufrsm;udk tajccHonfh edAÁmef[lonf xm0&wnfNrJjcif;avm odkYr[kwf jywfpJjcif;avm [l

332
taw¬om r[m&mZ edAÁme"mwk oEÅm okcg yPDwm? wH or®my#dyaEém ZdemEkod|d,m ocFga& or®oaEÅm ynm,
Q-Mi, 134.
opädua&mwd/ rdvdE´? 309/
333
U Silananda Sayadaw, The Four Foundations of Mindfulness (Boston: Wisdom Publications, 1990), 156.

107
onfudkqkH;jzwf&ef rBudK;pm;acs/ þavhvmcsuf\ tajccH&nf½G,fcsufrSm oDtdk&Dt& edAÁmef[lonf rnfodkYaom
t&mjzpfaMumif; em;vnfEkdifaomenf;vrf;rsm;udk &SmazG&ef? 0dyóemynmESihf vufawGUtajccHjzihf edAÁmefudk
xdk;xGif;odjrifaom r*fÓPfzdkvfÓPfudk &&Sd&efjzpfonf/
txufwGifazmfjyNyD;jzpfonfhtwdkif; ygVdawmfusrf;*efrsm;onf a,m*Dyk*¾Kdvfrsm;tm; pepfwus vufawGU
enf;vrf;rsm;jzihf edAÁmef\t"dyÜm,fudk em;vnfaponf/ ygVdusrf;*efvm enf;vrf;rsm;\ pepfwuscsOf;uyfrI
onf ur®|mef;½IrSwfrI\ aumif;rGefykHudk &Sif;jyaomaMumihf a,m*Dyk*¾Kdvfrsm;onf Ak'¨0g'ur®|mef;½IrSwfenf;\
tajccH&nf½G,fcsufrSm pdwfudkpifMu,fap&efjzpfaMumif; em;vnfvmMuonf/ wpfpkHwpfa,mufonf 1)y&d,wåd
2) y#dywåd 3) y#da0'[laom ygVdusrf;*efvmenf;vrf;rsm;udk tokH;jyKjcif;jzihf edAÁmef\t"dyÜm,fudk udk,fwdkifem;
vnfEdkifonf/ y&d,wådenf;jzihf edAÁmefudkem;vnfjcif;onf tNrJwrf;rjynfhpkHay/ odkYjzpf&um; edAÁmeft"dyÜm,fudk
oifhwifhpGm em;vnf&ef pdwfydkif;qdkif&m xdk;xGif;odjrifrIvrf;pOfudk tm;xkwf&vdrfhrnfjzpfonf/ pdwfydkif;qdkif&m
xdk;xGif;odjrifrIvrf;pOf wdk;wufjcif;jzihf oDtdk&DESihf 'óeqdkif&m ,lqcsufrsm; &Sif;vif;oGm;onf/ þae&mü
pdwfydkif;b0vGwfajrmufrI[lonf eD0&Pw&m;rsm;ESihf t,lrSm;jcif;'d|dwdkYrS vGwfajrmufjcif;udk qdkvdkonf/
þazmfjycsufü oDtdk&Dt&em;vnfrIESihf vufawGYxdk;xGif;odjrifrIwdkY\ jcm;em;csufudk vufawGYtm;xkwf
jcif;jzihfom odEdkifrnfjzpfonf/ oDtdk&Dt&em;vnfrIü trSeftwdkif;rodrI (arm[)? azmufjyefaomtjrif
(0dyv’mo)? pdwf\tnpftaMu; (udavom) ESihf oHa,mZOfwdkYESihf ywfoufonhf ]ig}[laom tjrif&Sdaeonf/
rdrdudk,fudk wG,fwmjcif;? rdrdudk,fudk aysmf½Tifvdkjcif;? ightwGuf wpfpkHwpfa,mufudk rkef;wD;jcif;? ightwGuf wpf
pkHwpfa,mufudk cspfjcif;wdkY &Sdvdrfhrnfjzpfonf/ ]ig}[laom tjrifudk pGefYy,fjcif;r&dSbJ pdwf\pifMu,frIukd &Edkif
rnfr[kwfonfomru edAÁmef\tESpfom&rSefudkvnf; oabmaygufrnfr[kwfacs/ taMumif;rl ,if; ]ig}qdk
aomt&monfyif rm,mvSnfhywfjcif;jzpfNyD; edAÁmefudk odjrifjcif;twGuf ql;ajimihfcvkwfjzpfonf/ Ak'¨\w&m;
a'oemrsm;wGif tewåoDtdk&Donf wpfpkHwpfa,mufxHrS ]ig}[laom tjrifudk z,f&Sm;ypf&ef twdtus azmfjy
NyD;jzpfonf/ pdwfudkpifMu,fapNyD; "r®rSefudkod&Sdem;vnfvdkvQif rdrdxHrS ]ig}udk cGmypfNyD; ]ig}ESihf ywfoufjcif;r&SdbJ
rdrd\obmtawGUtBuKHudk owdxm;rdatmif BudK;yrf;&rnfjzpfonf/ wpfpkHwpfa,muf\ oEÅmefü ]ig}[lonf
r&Sdaomaomtcg pdwfonf oHa,mZOfw&m;rsm;rS vGwfajrmuf&ef tcGifhtvrf;aumif;rsm;&SdoGm;onf/ rdrd\
oEÅmefü trSefwu,fxif&Sm;&Sdaeaom ½kyfESihfemrfw&m;wdkY\ obm0jzpfpOfudk oabmaygufoGm;aomtcg ]ig}
[k,lq&ef taMumif;r&Sdawmhacs/ xdktcsdefü ]ig}qdkaomt&m rdrdoEÅmefü xif&Sm;r&SdawmhaMumif; qdkvdk jcif;jzpf
onf/ tusKd;qufum; ,ciftcgu emusifccH ufrIwdkYudk cHpm;cJhaom ]ig}[laomt&m r&Sdawmhacs/ odkYjzpfbdrl
rnfolonf qif;&J'ku©udk cHpm;oenf; -

'ku©&Sdom&Sd\/ 'ku©udk cHpm;ol r&Sd/ jyKjyifrI&Sd\/ jyKvkyfolum; r&Sd/ csKyfNidrf;rI &Sd\/ csKyfNidrf;oGm;ol r&Sd/ oGm;
&mvrf;&Sd\/ oGm;wwfolum; r&Sd/ Vi.M.Tran. 622.
'ku©ar0 [d? e aumpd 'ku©dawm/
um&aum e? ud&d,m0 0dZÆwd/
tw¬d edAÁKwd? e edAÁKawm ykrm/
r*¾rw¬d? *raum e 0dZÆw/d (0dok'¨d 2? 143/)
]ighudk,f} ]igh[m} [k xif&Sm;aom ]ig}[lonf r&SdbJ ,if;odkY r&Sdonfudk ur®|mef;½IrSwfjcif;jzihf odjrifNyD;jzpf
jcif;aMumihf 'ku©udkcHpm;olr&Sdacs/ tu,fí ]ig}r&Sdaomf 'ku©udkrnfolcHpm;rnfenf;/ ,if;aemuf pdwfydkif;b0
vGwfajrmufrI[kxif&Sm;aom udk,fqif;&JESihf pdwfqif;&JrSvGwfajrmufNyD; Nidrf;csrf;rIudk em;vnfEdkifonf/ xdkYjyif
edAÁmeftm; 'ku©tqkH; oHo&mtqkH;[k ,lqonf/ trSefaomf edAÁmef\ udpöwpf&yfrSm pkwdpdwfrS y#doaE¨pdwfodkY
ul;ajymif;rIudk &yfpJypfjcif;jzpfonf/ ,if;jyefvnfarG;zGm;jcif;onf taMumif;w&m;rsm;ESihf tajctaersm;aMumihf
jzpf&onf/ þazmfjycsufü ]rjyKrjyiftyfaom (tocFw)} uJhodkYaom a0g[m&onf edAÁmefa0g[m&twGuf bm
omjyefwpfckjzpfykH&onf/ odkYjzihf ur®|mef;½IrSwfjcif;onf pdwfapwodufwdkY twlwljzpfNyD; &yfpJykH? "r®udkoabm

108
aygufjcif;jzihf tZÑwåjzpfpOfonf rdrdukd,fudkrdrd zsufqD;oGm;EdkifykHESihf pdwfudkpifMu,fatmifjyKjcif;jzifh tvdk&r®uf
334
ESihf rodrIt0dZÆmwdkY aysmufuG,foGm;ykHwdkYudk odjrif&ef tvGefta&;ygaMumif; ,lq&onf /
cPwdkif; t0dZÆmaMumihfjzpfaom pdwfqif;&JrI odkYr[kwf raysmf½TifrIrS vGwfajrmufaom pdwfpifMu,frI\
aumufjrwfykHukd cHpm;Ekdifaomtcg ¤if;\pdwfonf pifMu,f&efpwifNyD; cPwdkif;cPwdkif; Nidrf;csrf;aysmf½TifrI&Sd
aom pdwfydkif;b0vGwfajrmufrI\ aumif;jrwfykHudk od&SdEdkifvmonf/ Nidrf;csrf;rIESihf aysmf½TifrIonf pdwfxJrS ]ig} udk
z,f&Sm;ypfrI\tusKd;jzpfonf/ a,m*DwdkY\pdwfonf pdwfydkif;b0Nidrf;csrf;om,mrI vTrf;rdk;xm;ojzifh aemuf
qkH;vGwfajrmufrIonf ra0;awmhbJ oEÅdokcedAÁmefonf xdkae&mwGif&Sd\[k arQmfvihfpjyKvmonf/ odkYjzihf Ak'¨0g'D
a,m*DwdkYonf edAÁmefudk&&Sd&ef azmfjyygenf;vrf;rsm;udk vufawGUtokH;csMuNyD; avmuDbmompum;rsm;jzihf
'óeenf;vrf;rQudkom tokH;csjcif; rjyKMuacs/
odkYwap þavhvmcsufonf t|uxmq&mrsm;? Ak'¨0g'DESihf Ak'¨0g'Dr[kwfonhf t"dyÜm,fzGifhqdkolrsm;tm;
aus;Zl;wif&rnfjzpfonf/ txl;ojzihf ur®|mef;½IrSwfrIudk taMumif;jyKí ygVdawmfenf;vrf;rsm;udk pepfwus
azmfjycJhonhf tav;pm;tyfqkH;aom t|uxmq&mBuD; t&Sifr[mAk'¨aCmotm; txl;*kPfjyKazmfjy&rnf
jzpfonf/ 0dok'¨dr*fESihf tjcm;t|uxmusrf;rsm;uJhodkYaom t&Sifjrwf\vuf&mrGefrsm;onf ax&0g'Ak'¨0g'
twGuf acwfopfwpfckudk pwifEdkifonftxd t&Sifjrwf\ Ak'¨0g'todynmESihf vufawGUuRrf;usifrIudk azmfjy
onf/ t&Sifjrwf\usrf;pmrsm;r&SdbJ ax&0g'Ak'¨bmomonf ,aeYwkdif wnf&SdEdkifvdrfhrnfr[kwfacs/ t&Sifjrwf
\ tzGifhusrf;rsm;onf pdwfydkif;b0vGwfajrmufrIESihf aemufqkH;yef;wdkifodkY a&mufonftxdac:aqmifoGm;aom
vrf;ñTefajrykHESihf yrmwlonf/
aqG;aEG;csuf\ t"du&nf½G,fcsufudk tESpfcsKyfyg&ap/ þavhvmcsufonf Ak'¨0g'DESihf Ak'¨0g'Dr[kwfol
ynm&Sifrsm;\ edAÁmeft"dyÜm,faumuf,lykHrsm;udk a0zefqef;ppf&ef BudK;yrf;rIjzpf\/ Ak'0¨ g'Dynm&SifwdkY\ usrf;pm
rsm;rSm pmawGUESihfvufawGUvnf;jzpfEdkifzG,f&Sdaom avhvmod&SdrIrSwpfqifh ygVdawmfusrf;*efrsm;udk tajccHonf
[k ,lqEdkif\/ Ak'¨0g'Dr[kwfolrsm;\ usrf;pmrsm;rSmrl ¤if;wdkY\t,l0g'a&;&m½IjrifrIESihf 'óeqdkif&m csOf;uyf
enf;jzihf edAÁmeftaMumif;udkavhvmí em;vnfrItay:wGif rsm;pGmtajccHEdkifzG,f&Sdonf/ odkYjzpfí azmfjyygyk*¾Kdvf
rsm;\ edAÁmeft"dyÜm,fzGifhqdkrIrsm;ü taumif;jrifESihf tqdk;jrifazmfjycsufrsm; yg0ifywfoufaeonf/ odkYwap
þavhvmcsufonf ,if;Ak'¨0g'DESihf Ak'¨0g'Dr[kwfol ynm&SifwdkY\ edAÁmeft"dyÜm,fzGifhqdkrIrsm;udk rSm;onf[k jzpf
ap rSefonf[kjzpfap azmfjy&efrBudK;yrf;acs/ wpfzefvnf; ygVdusrf;*efrsm;rSm rsm;jym;vSonhfjyif Ak'¨0g'pmay
&if;jrpfrsm; aygrsm;<u,f0vSojzihf þavhvmcsufü ygVdawmf? t|uxm? #Dum usrf;pmtm;vkH; jynfhjynhfpkHpkH
yg0ifEdkifjcif; r&Sdyg/
þavhvmcsufonf Ak'¨0g'avhvmrIü tjcm;aom txufwef;usus okawoejyKrIrsm;udk ulnDrnhfjyif
aemufxyfAk'¨0g'avhvmrI wdk;wufa&;twGuf ygVdawmfenf;vrf;rsm;udk tokH;csonhfenf;jzihf avhvmolrsm;
tm; ulnDvdrfhrnf[k arQmfvihfygonf/ Ak'¨0g'ur®|mef;½IrSwfrIudk pdwf0ifpm;olrsm;twGuf ur®|mef;½IrSwfrI\
tusKd;aus;Zl;rsm;udk azmfjyxm;ojzihf ¤if;wdkYtaejzihf tenf;qkH;awmh tajccHpum;vkH;rsm;jzihf edAÁmef[laom
a0g[m&\ oDtdk&D vufawGYESihf 'óeqdkif&m tawG;tjrifrsm;udk pdwf0ifpm;Edkif&monf/ aemufqkH;taejzihf
usrf;jyKol\ oabmxm;rSm wpfpdwfwpfa'otm;jzihf em;vnfrIonf 'óe½Iaxmifrh S csOf;uyfjcif;jzihf
jzpfEdkifaomfvnf; ur®|mef;w&m; yGm;rsm;tm;xkwfjcif;jzihf udk,fwdkifawGUBuKHod&SdrIr&SdbJ edAÁmef[laoma0g[m&\
t"dyÜm,frSefudk em;vnfvdrhfrnfr[kwf[kjzpfonf/

000000

334
Rune E. A Johansson. The Psychology of Nirvana. (1969. Repring, New Your: Anchor Books Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1970), 100.

109
aemufqufwGJ (u)

pdwf 89 yg;
tukodkvfpdwf 12
avmbrlpdwf 8
1/ avmb[dwf&Sdaom yxrpdwf
2/ avmb[dwf&Sdaom 'kwd,pdwf
3/ avmb[dwf&Sdaom wwd,pdwf
4/ avmb[dwf&Sdaom pwkw¬pdwf
5/ avmb[dwf&Sdaom yÍörpdwf
6/ avmb[dwf&Sdaom q|rpdwf
7/ avmb[dwf&Sdaom owårpdwf
8/ avmb[dwf&Sdaom t|rpdwf
a'gorl pdwf 2
9/ a'go[dwf&Sdaom yxrpdwf
10/ a'go[dwf&Sdaom 'kwd,pdwf
arm[rlpdwf 2
11/ arm[[dwf&Sdaom yxrpdwf
12/ arm[[dwf&Sdaom 'kwd,pdwf

t[dwfpdwf 18
tukov0dygufpdwf 7
13/ pu©K0dnmPfpdwf
14/ aomw 0dnPfpdwf
15/ Cme0dnPfpdwf
16/ Zd0Sg0dnPfpdwf
17/ um,0dnPfpdwf
18/ or®#dpäepdwf
19/ oEÅD&Ppdwf
t[dwfukov0dygufpdwf 8
20/ pu©K0dnmPfpdwf
21/ aomw 0dnPfpdwf
22/ Cme0dnPfpdwf
23/ Zd0Sg0dnPfpdwf
24/ um,0dnPfpdwf
25/ or®#dpäepdwf
26/ aomreóoEÅD&Ppdwf
27/ Oayu©moEÅD&Ppdwf
t[dwfBud,mpdwf 3
28/ yÍö'Gm&m0ZÆepdwf
29/ raem'Gm&m0ZÆepdwf
30/ [odwkyÜg'pdwf

110
umrm0p&aombepd wf 24
r[mukodkvfpdwf 8
31/ r[mukodkvf yxrpdwf
32/ r[mukodkvf 'kwd,pdwf
33/ r[mukodkvf wwd,pdwf
34/ r[mukodkvf pwkw¬pdwf
35/ r[mukodkvf yÍörpdwf
36/ r[mukodkvf q|rpdwf
37/ r[mukodkvf owårpdwf
38/ r[mukodkvf t|rpdwf
r[m0dygufpdwf 8
39/ r[m0dyguf yxrpdwf
40/ r[m0dyguf 'kwd,pdwf
41/ r[m0dyguf wwd,pdwf
42/ r[m0dyguf pwkw¬pdwf
43/ r[m0dyguf yÍörpdwf
44/ r[m0dyguf q|rpdwf
45/ r[m0dyguf owårpdwf
46/ r[m0dyguf t|rpdwf
r[mBud,mpd wf 8
47/ r[mBud,m yxrpdwf
48/ r[mBud,m 'kwd,pdwf
49/ r[mBud,m wwd,pdwf
50/ r[mBud,m pwkw¬pdwf
51/ r[mBud,m yÍörpdwf
52/ r[mBud,m q|rpdwf
53/ r[mBud,m owårpdwf
54/ r[mBud,m t|rpdwf

½lyg0p&pd wf 15
½lyukodkvf 5
55/ ukodkvf yxrpsmef
56/ ukodkvf 'kwd,psmef
57/ ukodkvf wwd,psmef
58/ ukodkvf pwkw¬psmef
59/ ukodkvf yÍörpsmef
½ly0dyguf 5
60/ 0dyguf yxrpsmef
61/ 0dyguf 'kwd,psmef
62/ 0dyguf wwd,psmef
63/ 0dyguf pwkw¬psmef
64/ 0dyguf yÍörpsmef

111
½lyBud,m 5
65/ Bud,m yxrpsmef
66/ Bud,m 'kwd,psmef
67/ Bud,m wwd,psmef
68/ Bud,m pwkw¬psmef
69/ Bud,m yÍörpsmef

t½lypdwf 12
ukodkvfpdwf 4
70/ ukodkvf yxrpsmef
71/ ukodkvf 'kwd,psmef
72/ ukodkvf wwd,psmef
73/ ukodkvf pwkw¬psmef
0dygufpdwf 4
74/ 0dyguf yxrpsmef
75/ 0dyguf 'kwd,psmef
76/ 0dyguf wwd,psmef
77/ 0dyguf pwkw¬psmef
Bud,mpdwf 4
78/ Bud,m yxrpsmef
79/ Bud,m 'kwd,psmef
80/ Bud,m wwd,psmef
81/ Bud,m pwkw¬psmef
avmukwå&mpdwf 8
r*fpdwf 4
82/ aomwmywåd r*fpdwf
83/ ou'g*grd r*fpdwf
84/ tem*grd r*fpdwf
85/ t&wå r*fpdwf
zdkvfpdwf 4
86/ aomwmywåd zdkvfpdwf
87/ ou'g*grd zdkvfpdwf
88/ tem*grd zdkvfpdwf
89/ t&wå zdkvfpdwf

txufygazmfjycsufrSm tbd"r®w¬o*F[usrf; (Ab-S, 2-14)ESihf ,if;\ bdu©KaAm"d t*Fvdyfbmomjyef (Ac-Ab,


376-378)udk &nfñTef;onf/

112
aemufqufwGJ (c)

apwoduf 52
tnormeapwoduf 13
oAÁpdwåom"m&P 7
1/ zó
2/ a0'em
3/ onm
4/ apwem
5/ {u*¾wm
6/ ZD0dw`E´d,
7/ reodum&

yudPÖuapwoduf 6
8/ 0dwuú
9/ 0dpm&
10/ t"darmu©
11/ 0D&d,
12/ yDwd
13/ qE´

tukodkvfapwouf 14
tukovom"m&P 4
14/ arm[
15/ t[d&du
16/ taemwåyÜ
17/ O'´pö
tukodkvfapwoduf 10
18/ avmb
19/ 'd|d
20/ rme
21/ a'go
22/ £óm
23/ rpä&d,
24/ ukukpö
25/ xde
26/ rd'¨
27/ 0dpdudpäm

aombeapwouf 25
aombeom"m&Papwoduf 19
28/ o'¨g
29/ owd
113
30/ [d&D
31/ MowyÜ
32/ tavmb
33/ ta'go
34/ wMwrZÑwåwm
35/ um,yó'¨d
36/ pdwåyó'¨d
37/ um,v[kwm
38/ pdwåv[kwm
39/ um,rk'kwm
40/ pdwårk'kwm
41/ um,ur®nwm
42/ pdwåur®nwm
43/ um,yg*knwm
44/ pdwåyg*knwm
45/ um,kZkuwm
46/ pdwåKZkuwm
0d&wDapwoduf 3
47/ or®m0gpm
48/ or®mur®EÅ
49/ or®tmZD0
tyÜrnm apwoduf 2
50/ u½kPm
51/ rk'dwm
ynd`E´d,apwoduf 1
52/ ynm

txufygazmfjycsufrSm tbd"r®w¬o*F[usrf; (Ab-S, 2-14)ESihf ,if;\ bdu©KaAm"d t*Fvdyfbmomjyef (Ac-Ab,


376-378)udk &nfñTef;onf/

114
ygVdtbd"mefi,f

tbm0 r&Sdjcif; (nothingness)


tbd"r®myd#u tbd"r®myd#uwf (Basket of Philosophy)
t'd|owå rjriftyfaom owå0g (invisible living being)
t"d|me t"d|mefjyKjcif; (resolution)
t"d|me0oD t"d|mefjcif;ü uRif;usifjcif; (mastery in resolving)
tm[m& tpm;tpm (food)
tukovpdwå tukodkvfpdwf (unwholesome-consciousness)
trw raojcif; (deathless)
tEkyg'daooedAÁme cE¨mt<uif;tusefr&SdaomedAÁmef (Biological liberation after cessation of aggregates)
tem'duavmu tprxifaom avmu (endless beginning of ghe world)
tem*grd tem*grfyk*¾Kdvf (Non-returner, noble being at third stage of the Novle Path)
temv, wG,fwmrIr&Sdjcif; (detachment)
tewå igaumifudk,faumifr&Sdjcif; (insubstantiality of phenomena, non-self)
t@Z Oüjzpfaomowå0g (egg-born beings)
tedpö rNrjJ cif; (impermanence)
tedrdwå toGifoP²mefrJh (signless)
tEÅ&uyÜ tMum;umvuyfurÇm (interim aeon)
tyg, csrf;omrJhjcif; (misery, woeful state, devoid of happiness)
tyÜemorm"d tyÜemodkYa&mufaomorm"d (absorption, full concentration)
tyÜPd[dw awmihfwrIuif;jcif; (desireless)
t&[EÅ &[EÅmyk*¾Kdvf (enlightened being, noble being at fouth stage of the Noble Path)
t&[wår*¾zvÓP t&[wår*fÓPf zkdvfÓPf (supramundane wisdom, enlightenment)
t½lyb0 t½lybkHü jzpfaom b0 (existence of the formless)
t½lyblrd t½lybkH (the formless sphere)
tocFw rjyKjyiftyfaom (unconditioned, non-conditioned)
toacsF,suyÜ toacsF,suyf (one incalculable aeon)
taoo0d&m* wPSmt<uif;rJhcsKyfjcif; (complete cessation of craving)
taomu rpdk;&drfjcif; (sorroless )
tokb cE¨mudk\rwihfw,fjcif; (impure, not beautiful)
tok&m tok&mewfwpfrsKd; (demon, titan)
twuúm0p& rBuHpnfEdkifaomt&m (inaccessible to discursive thought)
twå udk,faumif 0dnmOfaumif (self, soul)
t0dZÆm rodjcif; (ignorance)
tmpdPÖur® tavhtusihfjyKtyfaomuH(habitual Kamma)
tmemygeówd xGufav0ifavudk owdjzifh ½IrSwfjcif; (awareness of inhaling and exhaling)
tm&r®P tm½kH (object)
tm0ZÆe0oD qifjcifrIüuRrf;usifjcif; (mastery in adverting)
115
tmo0 tmoa0gow&m; (taint, canker)
tmo0u©, tmoa0gow&m;wdkY\ukefjcif; (cessation of canker or taint)
tmoEéuur® aocgeD;üjyKtyfaomuH (death-proximate kamma)
£óm remvdkjcif; (envy, jealousy)
Oapä''d|d jywfpJ\[laomt,lrSm; (annihilationism)
O'´pö pdwfysHUvGifhjcif; (restlessness)
O*¾[edrdwå O*¾[edrdwf (learning sign)
Oypm&orm"d teD;jzpfaom orm"d (neighborhood concentration)
Oyg'ge pGJvrf;rI (clinging)
Oyg, enf;vrf; (methods)
Oyg,mo jyif;pGmylaqG;jcif; (despair)
OyÜm' jzpfqJcP (arising)
Owk &moDOwk (temperature, weather)
{u*¾wm pdwfwnfMunfjcif; (concentration, one-pointedness of mind)
Moyygwdu Oyygwfy#doaE¨jzihfarG;zGm;ol (accidental, spontaneously born)
umrb0 umrbkHüjzpfjcif; (existence of desire)
umrblrd umrbkH (sphere of desire)
umrpäE´ umr*kPftvdkqE´ (sensuous desire, sensory desire)
ur® apwemjzihfvkyfaqmifrI (action, volitional energy)
ur®edrdwå ur®edrdwf (sign of kamma)
ur®ed,mr ur®xkH;pH (law of kamma)
ur®|me ur®|mef; (meditation, workplace)
ucFg0dw&P0dok'¨d ,kHrSm;oHo,rSpifMu,fjcif;(prrification by overcomign doubt)
uyÜ urÇm (aeon)
u#wåmur® u#wåmuH (reserve kamma)
um,*wmowd udk,fcE¨mü owdjzihf½IrSwfjcif; (awareness of the bodily actions)
udavom pdwf\tnpftaMu; (defilement)
ukukpö rwnfNidrfaompdwf (remorse, worry )
ukov ukodkvf (wholesome)
Bud,pdwå Bud,mpdwf (funtional consciousness)
cE¨m udk,fcE¨m (aggregate, group)
cPduorm"d cPwdkif;jzpfaomwnfMunfrI (momentary concentration)
c, ukefjcif; (deatruction, absoulte extinction)
*rÇD& eufeJaom (profound)
*½kuur® BuD;av;aomuH (weighty kamma)
*wd oGm;a&mufrnfhb0 (going, transmigration)
*wdedrdwå oGm;a&mufrnfhb0t&dyfta&mif (sign of destiny)
p&dw p½kduf (personal nature, temperament)
pdwå pdwf (consciousness)

116
pdwå0dok'¨d pdwfpifMu,fjcif; (purification of mind)
pkwdpdwå pkwdpdwf (death consciousness)
apwem apwem (volition)
apwodu apwoduf (mental factor, mental state)
ZvmAkZ trd0rf;üudef;aom owå0g (womb-born beings)
Z&m tdkjcif; (decay, aing, old age )
Zmwd y#doaE¨aejcif; (birth)
psme psmefw&m; (absorption, highly developed state of concentration)
Xdwd wnfqJcP (presence)
wPSm vdkcsifwyfrufrI (desire)
wdyd#u yd#uwfokH;ykH (Three Baskets)
wd&dpäme wd&dpämef (animals)
wkpä tcsnf;ESD; (emptiness)
xde xdkif;rIdif;jcif; (sloth)
ax&0g' rax&fBuD;wdkY\ t,l (Way of the Elders, Doctrine of the Elders)
'ge vª'gef;jcif; (generosity)
a'0 ewf (heavenly being, god)
a'0avmu ewfavmu (heavenly world)
'd|owå jriftyfowå0g (visible living being)
'd|d0dok'¨d t,lpifMu,fjcif; (purification of view)
a'greó pdwfqif;&Jjcif; (grief, unpleasant mental feeling)
a'go trkef;tw&m; (hate)
a'gop&dw a'gop½kduf (hating temperament)
'k'´o jrifEdkifcJaom (hard to see)
'k*¾wdb0 raumif;aom bkHXme (bad existence, suffering world)
'ku© qif;&Jjcif; (suffering, unpleasant bodily or mentally feeling)
'ku©eda&m"opöm 'ku©csKyfaMumif; trSefw&m; (Truth of Cessation of Suffering)
"r®0daoo w&m;xl; (essence of dhamma)
"kw*F "kwiftusihf (ascetic, austere, shaking of defilements)
emr emrfw&m; (mind)
ae,sw¬ aqmifíodtyfaomteuf (implicit meaning, inferred meaning)
edAÁme edAÁmef (absolute peace, extinction of, cessation fo )
edpö wnfNrJjcif; (permanent, ageless)
ed&, i&J (hell)
eda&m"ormywåd eda&m"ormywf (attainment of cessation)
eDww¬ wdkuf½kduft"dyÜm,f (explicit meaning or derect menaing)
eD0&P ydwfyifwm;qD;wwfaom w&m; (hindrance)
ypöa0u©Pm0oD qifjcifjcif;ü uRrf;usifjcif; (mastery in reviewing)
ypöKy|me ypöKy|mef (manifestation)

117
y'|me eD;aomtaMumif;w&m; (proximate cause)
yÍömeEÅd&d,ur® aoonf\tjcm;rJhü tusKd;ay;aomuH (five heinous actions, or crimes)
yPd[dw qkH;jzwfjcif; (determination)
ynm odjrifjcif; (wisdom)
y&rw¬opöm razmufjyefaomtrSefw&m; (ultimate truth)
yg&rD jynfhpkHjcif; (perfection)
y&da'0 ylaqG;jcif; (lamentation)
y&dur®edrdwå y&dur®edrdwf (preliminary sign)
y&d,wåd oifMum;avhvmrI (theoretical aspects, leaning the doctrine)
y#dpö taMumif;jyKí (dependent on)
y#dpöorkyÜm' taMumif;aMumihfjzpfaomw&m; (Dependent Origination)
y#dC raumif;pdwf (ill will)
y#dywåd tusihf (practical aspects, practice of meditation)
y#doE¨dpdwå y#doaE¨pdwf (rebirth-linking consciousness)
y#da0" xdk;xGif;íodjrifjcif; (spiritual wisdom, realizing its goal)
ykxkZÆe ykxkZOf (worldling, ordinary person)
ayw d åm (hungry ghost)
Nyw
zv tusKd;w&m; (fruition)
zó awGUxdjcif; (contact)
aAm"dowå bk&m;avmif; (Buddha-to-be)
jA[®m jA[®m (mighty God, supreme Soul)
Ak'¨dp&dw ynmp½kduf (intelligent temperament)
Asmyg' raumif;pdwf (ill will)
b*F ysufjcif; (dissolution)
b0 wnf&Sdjcif; (lfige, existence)
bm0em yGm;rsm;tm;xkwfjcif; (mental development)
b0*Fpdwå b0ifpdwf (life-continuum consciousness)
b, ab;? aMumufjcif; (danger, fear)
bdu©K &[ef; (monk)
blrd bkHXme (sphere)
rpä&d, 0efwdkpdwf (avarice)
r*¾ vrf;pOf (path)
r*¾zvÓP r*fÓPf zdkvfÓPf (path and fruition knowledge)
r[muyÜ r[muyf (treat aeon)
r[my&dedAÁme Ak'¨y&dedAÁmefpHjcif; (final Nibbana of the Buddha)
r[m,me ,mOfBuD; (Great Vehicle)
rme axmifvTm;jcif; (conceit)
rEkó vlom; (human beings)
r&P aojcif; (death)

118
rdpäm'd|d t,lrSm; (wrong view)
rd'¨ idkufrsOf;jcif; (torpor)
arm[ rodjcif; (delusion)
arm[p&dw arm[p½kduf (deluded temperament)
rkwåd vGwfajrmufjcif; (liberation)
,medu ,mOf&Sdol (vehicle)
&o vkyaf qmifrI (function, taste)
&m* tvdk&r®uf (lust)
&m*p&dw &m*p½kduf (greedy temperament)
½ly ½kyfw&m; (matter)
½lyb0 ½kyf&Sdb0 (existence of form)
½lyblrd ½kyf&SdbkHXme (sphere of form)
vu©P vu©Pm (chareacter, characteristic)
avmb tvdk&r®uf (greed)
avmukwåpdwå avmukwå&mpdwf (supramundane consciousness, transecndental state)
avmukwå&r*¾pdwå avmukwå&mr*fpdwf (Noble Path consciousness )
0¥ b0oHo&m (round of existence)
a0'em cHpm;rI (feeling, sensation)
a0',dwokc cHpm;rI&Sdcsrf;om (happiness with feeling)
0dpm& tm½kHodkYa&SU½Iwifjcif; (sustained application of mind, discursive thinking)
0dpdudpäm odkYavmodkYavm awG;awmjcif; (doubt, skepticism)
0drkwåd vGwfajrmufrI (liberation)
0de,yd#u 0denf;yd#uwf (Basket of Discipline)
0dnmP pdwf0dnmPf (consciousness)
0dygu tusKd; (effect, result)
0dyv’mo azmufjyefaomtjrif (hallucination, perversion)
0dyóem txl;xl;tjym;jym;½IrSwfjcif; (insight meditation)
0dyóemynm 0dyóemtm;xkwfí&&Sdaom todÓPf (insight wisdom)
0D&d, vkHYvtm;xkwfrI (effort)
0dok'¨dr*¾ pifMu,faomvrf;pOf (path of purification)
0dwuú MuHpnfawG;awmjcif; (thought, initial application of mind)
0dwuúp&dw 0dwufp½kduf (speculative temperament)
0Dxd jzpfpOf (process)
0k|me0oD ormywfrSxjcif;ü uRrf;usifjcif; (mastery in emerging)
oOyg'daooedAÁme cE¨mt<uif;tusef&SdedAÁmef (psychological liberation from defilement)
obm0 wnfNrJaom oabmw&m; (intrinsic nature)
opö trSefw&m; (truth)
o'¨g ,kHMunfrI (faith)
o'¨gp&dw o'¨gp½kduf (faithful temperament)

119
ou'g*grd ou'g&*grfyk*¾Kdvf (Once-returner, noble person at second stage of Noble Path six wense basses)
oVm,we tm,weajcmufyg; (six sense bases)
orm"d wnfMunfrI (concentration)
ormyZÆe0oD 0ifpm;rIüuRrf;usifjcif; (mastery in attaining)
orx orxur®|mef; (trnquility meditation)
or®mtmZD0 rSefaomtoufarG;rI (Right Livelihood)
or®m'd|d rSefaomtjrif (Right View)
or®mur®EÅ rSefaomtvkyf (Right Action)
or®mrom"d rSefaom wnfMunfrI (Right Concentration)
or®mouFyÜ rSefaomtMuH (Right Intention, Right Thought)
or®mowd rSefaom owd (Right Mindfulness)
or®m0gpm rSefaompum; (Right Speech)
or®m0g,mr rSefaomtm;xkwfrI (Right Effort)
or®Kwdopöm aeYpOfb0trSefw&m; (conventional truth)
oHom& b0Budrfzefjzpf&jcif; (the cycle of birth and death ro endless cycle of existences)
oHao'Z pGwfpdkae&mwGif arG;zGm;jcif; (moisture-born beings)
ork', wG,faESmifjcif; (desire)
orkyÜm' jzpfay:vmjcif; (arising, origination)
oHa,mZe oHa,mZOf (fetter)
ocFg& emrfcE¨mrsm; (menatal formation)
ocFw jyKjyifcHoabmw&m; (conditioned, compounded)
onm rSwfom;jcif; (perception)
oEÅd Nird ;f at;jcif; (peace)
oEÅdokc cHpm;rIrJhcsrf;omrI (happiness without feeling)
oów xm0wnfNrJjcif; (eternal)
oów'd|d xm0wnfNrJjcif;t,lrSm; (eternity view)
owd tzefzefatmufarhjcif; (mindfulness)
owdy|me owdtjccHw&m; (four foundations of mindfulness)
owå owå0g (living being)
oDv udk,fusihfw&m; (morality, virtue)
oDv0dok'¨d udk,fusihfw&m;pifMu,fjcif; (purification of virtue)
oDvAÁwy&mrmo t,lrSm;udk pGJvrf;jcif; (adherence to rules and rituals)
aomu pdk;&drfjcif; (worrow)
aomwmyEé aomwmyefyk*¾Kdvf (Stream-winner, noble person at first stage of the Noble Path)
ok*wdb0 aumif;aomb0 (good existence, happy world)
okc csr;f om (happiness)
oknw qdwfokH;jcif; (void, emptiness)
okwåEÅyd#u okwåEÅyd#uwf (Basket fo Doctrines)
a[wk taMumif;w&m; (root, cause )

120
Bibliography

A. Primary Sources: Texts and Translations


Anguttara-Pali, Anguttara-Nikaya. vols. I, II, III, Rangoon, Bruma: Department of Religious Affairs, 1994.
Anuruddha-ther, Bakkanta. Abhidhammattha-sangaha-Pali. Rangoon, Bruma: Department of Religious
Affairs, 1993.
Apadana Pali, Khuddaka-Nikaya. Vol. II. Rangoon, Bruma: Department of Religious Affairs, 1991.
Asanga. Abhidharmasamuccaya: The Compendiun of the Higher Teaching (Philosophy). Translated by
Sara Boin-Webb from the French translation of Walpola Rahula. 1971. repring, Fremont, California:
Asian Humanities Press, 2001.
Bodhi, Bhikkhu, trans. The Connected Discourses of the Buddha: A New Translation of the Samyutta
Nikaya. Vols. I and II. Boston: Wisdom Publications, 2000.
Buddhaghosa-thera, Baddanta. Khuddakapatha-atthakatha. Rangoon, Bruma: Department of Religious
Affairs, 1958.
____. Silakkhandha-vagga (Sumangalavilasini) atthakatha. Rangoon, Bruma: Department of Religious
Affairs, 1973.
____. Sammohavinodani (Vibhanga) Atthakatha. Rangoon, Bruma: Department of Religious Affairs, 1985.
____. Vinaya Mah-vagga-atthakatha, Vinaya-Pitaka. Rangoon, Bruma: Department of Religious Affairs,
1986.
____. Smratthapakasani (Samyutta) atthakatha. Vols. I, II, III. Rangoon, Bruma: Department of Religious
Affairs, 1987.
____. Dhammapada-atthakatha. Vols. I and II. Rangoon, Bruma: Department of Religious Affairs, 1994.
____. Dhammasangani-atthakatha. Rangoon, Bruma: Department of Religious Affairs, 1992.
____. Mahava-atthakatha, Digha-Nikaya. Rangoon, Bruma: Department of Religious Affairs, 1992.
____. Pancapakarana-atthakatha. Rangoon, Bruma: Department of Religious Affairs, 1992.
____.Visuddhimagga-atthakatha. Vols. I and II. Rangoon, Bruma: Department of Religious Affairs, 1993.
____. Pariva-atthakatha. Vinaya Pitaka. Rangoon, Bruma: Department of Religious Affairs, 1996.
Silakkhandhavagga-Pali, Digha-Nikaya. Rangoon, Bruma: Department of Religious Affairs, 1993.
Mahaniddeasa-Pali, Khuddakanikaya. Rangoon, Bruma: Department of Religious Affairs, 1990.
Culavagga-Pali, Vinayapitaka. Rangoon, Bruma: Department of Religious Affairs, 1995.
Dhammapada, Udana, Itbuttaka, Suttanipata-Pali, Khuddaka-Nikaya. Rangoon, Bruma: Department of
Religious Affairs, 1972.
Dhammapala-thera, Bhaddanta. Paramattha Dipani. Udana & Itivuttaka-atthakatha. Rangoon, Bruma:
Department of Religious Affairs, 1958.
____. Paramattha Dipani Theragatha & Therigatha-atthakatha.Rangoon, Bruma: Department of Religious
Affairs, 1959.
____.Visuddhimagga-mahatika. Vols. I and II. Rangoon, Bruma: Department of Religious Affairs, 1997.
Ehara, N.R.M., Soma Thera, and Kheminda Thera, trans. The Path of Freedom: Vimuttimagga. 1961.
Reprint, Kandy, Sri Lanka:Buddhist Publication Society. 1995.
Greland, John D., trans. The Itivuttaka: The Buddha's Sayings. Kandy, Sri Lanka: Buddhist Publication
Society, 1991.
Itivuttaka Pali, Khuddaka-Nikaya. Rangoon, Bruma: Department of Religious Affairs, 1972.
Kathavatthu-Pali, Abhidhamma-Pitaka. Rangoon, Bruma: Department of Religious Affairs, 1991.
Khandhavgga-Pali, Samyutta-Nikaya. Rangoon, Bruma: Department of Religious Affairs, 1991.
Khuddapatha-Pali, Khuddaka-Nikaya. Rangoon, Bruma: Department of Religious Affairs, 1972.
Law, Bimala Charan, trans. Designation of Human Types: Puggala-pannatti. 1924. reprinted, London: Pali
Text Society, 1969.
Lwin, Tin U. and Oo, Tin U, trns. The Great Chronicle fo Buddhas. Vol. III. Malaysia: A SBVMS Pulication,
1998.
_____. The Great Chronicle fo Buddhas. Vol.I, Part I & Part II. Malaysia: A SBVMS Pulication, 1998.
Mahanama-thera, Baddanta. Saddhammappakasini: Patisambhidamagga-atthakatha. Rangoon, Bruma:
Department of Religious Affairs, 1985.
Mahaniddesa Pali, Khuddaka-Nikaya. Rangoon, Bruma: Department of Religious Affairs, 1991.
Maha-vagga Pali, Digha-Nikaya. Rangoon, Bruma: Department of Religious Affairs, 1993.
Maha-vagga Pali, Vinaya-Pitaka, Khuddaka-Nikaya. Rangoon, Bruma: Department of Religious Affairs,
1972.
121
Maha-vagga SamyuttaPali, Samyutta-Nikaya. Rangoon, Bruma: Department of Religious Affairs, 1991.
Mendis, N. K. G., ed. The Questions of King Milinda: An Abrudgement fo the Minlindapanha. Kandy, Sri
Lanka: Buddhist Publication Society,1993.
Milindapanha Pali, Khuddaka-Nikaya. Rangoon, Bruma: Department of Religious Affairs,1991.
Moggallana-Mahathera. Abhidhanappadipika. Rangoon, Bruma: Department of Religious Affairs,1990.
Mulapannasa-Pali, Majjhima-Nikaya.Rangoon, Bruma: Department of Religious Affairs,1993.
Myint Swe, U. Miilnda and Shin Nagathein. Rangoon, Navarat Press,1990.
Nanabhivamsa, Bhaddanta. Silakkhandhavagga-abhinava-tika. Rangoon, Bruma: Department of Religious
Affairs,1963.
Nanamoli, Bhikkhu. Mindfulness of Breathing: Buddhist Texts from the Pali Canon and Extracts from the
Pali Commentries. Kandy, Sri Landka: Buddhist Publication Society, 1982.
Nanamoli, Bhikkhu. trns. The Path of Purification: Visuddhimagga. 1956. Reprint, Kandy, Sri Landka:
Buddhist Publication Society, 1982.
Nanamoli, Bhikkhu & Bhikkhu Bodhi. The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha: A New translation fo
the Majjhima Nikaya. Boston: Wisdom Pullications. 1995.
Nandiya-thera, U. Nibbanagagga-dipani. Rangoon: Hamsavdi-pitakat Press, 1957.
Narada, Maha Thera, trans. A Mannual aof Abhidhamma. Malaysia: Buddhist Missionary Society, 1979.
Netti Pali, Khuddaka-Nikaya. Rangoon, Bruma: Department of Religious Affairs,1985.
Nidana-vagga Samyutta Pali, Samyutta-Nikaya. Rangoon, Bruma: Department of Religious Affairs,1991.
Nanamoli, Bhikkhu & Bhikkhu Bodhi. The Numerical Discourses of the Buddha: A Anthology of Suttas from
the Anguttara Nikaya. Boston: Wisdom Pullications. 1995.
Pariva-Pali. Vinaya Pitaka. Rangoon, Bruma: Department of Religious Affairs, 1995.
Pathikavagga Pali. Dighanikaya. Rangoon, Bruma: Department of Religious Affairs, 1986.
Pathikavagga-atthakatha. Digha-Nikaya. Rangoon, Bruma: Department of Religious Affairs, 1986.
Patisambhidamagga Pali, Khuddaka-Nikaya. Rangoon, Bruma: Department of Religious Affairs,1981.
Poranacariya-thera, Apada-atthakatha. Rangoon, Bruma: Department of Religious Affairs, 1959.
Puggalapannatti-atthakatha. London> Pali Text Society, 1969.
Sagatha-vagga Samyutta Pali, Samyutta-Nikaya. Rangoon, Bruma: Department of Religious Affairs,1991.
Salayatana-vagga Samyutta Pali, Samyutta-Nikaya. Rangoon, Bruma: Department of Religious
Affairs,1991.
Sayadaw Ariyathea. Visuddhimagga Ayatha. Rangoon: Win Mor Oo Prss, 1995.
Sayadaw, Ashin Janakabhivamsa. Aghidhammattha-Sangaha-basa-tika. Rangoon, Bruma: Department of
Religious Affairs,1979.
____. Kathavatthu-atthakatha-bhathatika. Rangoon, Bruma: Department of Religious Affairs,1987.
____. Abhidhammtthasangaha-nissaya. Rangoon, Bruma: Department of Religious Affairs,1990.
Sayadaw, Ledi. Ledidipani. Vols I & II. Rangoon, Bruma: Department of Religious Affairs,1966.
____. Nibbanadipani. Rangoon, Bruma: Department of Religious Affairs,1975.
Sayadaw, Mahasi. Translationf of Visuddhimagga-atthakatha. Vols. I, II, III & IV. Rangoon: Buddhasasana-
nuggaha Org. Press, 1989.
____. Visuddhimagga-mahatika-nissaya. Vols. III & IV. Rangoon: Buddhasasana-nuggaha Org. Press,
1989.
____. Nibbanapatisamyuttakatha: On the Nature of Nibbana. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Subang Jaya
Buddhist Association, 1992.
____. Discourse on Nibbana. Rangoon: Aung Soe Moe Press, 1993.
____. Vipassana-shu-nee-kyam. Vols. I& II. Tangoon: Buddhasasanamuggaha Org. Press, 1999.
Sayadaw, Mula Gandharone. Nibbanamagga-Dipani. Rangoon, Bruma: Department of Religious
Affairs,1978.
Sayadaw, Shew Kyin. Gambhiragambhira Mahanibbuta-Dipani. Rangoon, Bruma: Department of Religious
Affairs,2000.
Sayadaw, U Silanada. The Four Foundations of Mindfulness. Boston: Wisdom Publications, 1990.
Silakkhandha-vagga Pali, Digha-Nikaya. Rangoon, Bruma: Department of Religious Affairs,1993.
Silakkhandha-vagga-athakatha, Digha-Nikaya. Rangoon, Bruma: Department of Religious Affairs,1975.
Sayadaw Vasetthabhivamsa. New Paritta-Nissaya. Rangoon: Soe Moe Press, 1992.
Sayasaw, Vicittasarabhivamsa. Mahabuddhavam: The Great Chronicle of Buddhas. Vol. I, Parts I & II.
Rangoon, Bruma: Department of Religious Affairs,1984.

122
_____. Mahabuddhavam: The Great Chronicle of Buddhas. Vol. III. Rangoon, Bruma: Department of
Religious Affairs,1985.
_____. Mahabuddhavam: The Great Chronicle of Buddhas. Vol. VI, Parts I. Rangoon, Bruma: Department
of Religious Affairs,1986.
Sayadaw, Visudharama. Paramattha Sarupa Bhedani Kyam, Vol. I. Rangoon, Bruma: Department of
Religious Affairs,1968.
_____. Paramattha Sarupa Bhedani Kyam, Vol. II. Rangoon, Bruma: Department of Religious Affairs,1969.
Subodhalankara-Tika. Rangoon, Bruma: Department of Religious Affairs,1973.
Sumangalasami-thera, Baddanta. Abhidhammatthavibhavini-tika. Rangoon, Bruma: Department of
Religious Affairs,1981.
Suttanipata Pali, Khuddaka-Nikaya. Rangoon, Bruma: Department of Religious Affairs,1990.
Tin, P Maung, trans. The Expositor: Atthasalini-atthakatha. Oxford: Pali Text Society, 1999.
Upasena-thera, Baddanta. Mahaniddesa-atthakatha. Rangoon, Bruma: Department of Religious
Affairs,1959.

_________________________________________

Yu-Lan, Fung. A Short History of Chinese Philosophy. New York: The Free Press, 1976.
Yoshinori, Takeuchi, ed. Buddhist Spirituality; Indiam, Southease Asian, Tibetan, Early Chinese. Vol. I.
New York: Crossroad, 1997.
_____. Buudhist Spirituality: Later China, Korea, Japan, and the Modern World. Vol. II. New York:
Crossroad, 1999.
Xavier, Francis R "Creation in Evolution" Indian Theological Studies. XXXVIII,1 (March 2001): 44-69.

123