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TRAINING SESSIONS ON CONSTRUCTION, PLANNING & DESIGN OF EHV TRANSMISSION LINES BY S. M.

TAKALKAR
PROPRIETOR
POWER CONSULTANTS & AGENCIES
A / 198 VISHVAMITRY TOWNSHIP, OPP: - GUJARAT TRACTORS, VADODARA - 390 011 Phone: 0265 - 2356291, Mobile: 9879599402/9925233951 Email: smtakalkar@yahoo.com

TATA POWER COMPANY LTD KALIAN

TECHNICAL SESSION – I
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CONSTRUCTION OF EHV TRANSMISSION LINES
1.0 Introduction
1.1 Construction of EHV Transmission line is a very specific and specialized job. It involves lot of precision and accuracy. The transmission line is standing for many years in the open terrain and faces vagaries of nature. The construction practice should therefore ensure that the parameters, on which the design of transmission line is made, are not exceeded. 1.2 The construction mainly includes the following activities. • Survey & Alignment • Foundation Work • Erection of Super Structure • Stringing of Shield wire & Conductor • Testing & Commissioning 1.3 Each of above activity can be further divided into sub‐activities. All the erection activities are based on the design inputs as well as site situation. For example, the type of tower and foundation to be adopted will depend upon the profile & site situation, where as the span/deviation angle limitations will be based on the design factors of the tower. This part deals with the general specifications for construction of EHV lines.

2.0 Survey & Alignment
2.1 Whenever EHV transmission line is to be constructed between two subs‐stations, the ideal route length will be the direct topographical distance between the two stations. However, this will not be possible as number of obstructions in the form of villages, town important civil establishments, big ponds, rivers etc. will prevent the straight run of the line. The obstruction will result into line deviations. It will therefore be necessary to carry out survey by various means. The survey will establish the following: • The topography of the route of the line. • The important deviation points of the line. • The approximate quantity of Towers and extension. • First hand information regarding the soil strata along the route, leading to approximate estimation of foundation work quantities. • The obstructions which may result into line deviations. • Major River, Railway, Road and Power line crossings and type of structures for the same. • Information regarding availability of inputs for foundation work (cement, aggregates steel and water). • Right of way problems which are likely along the route. • Cost of transportation of material to various locations. • Tentative time frame for completing the work. 2.2 It is also usual to make trial pits or carry out soil investigation along the proposed route of the transmission line at certain fixed interval or at the points where abrupt change in soil strata is suspected. This exercise results in to the approximate estimation of the foundation types and
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excavation/concrete volumes and the re‐enforcement for the foundation work. The various stages of survey works are described in details as under. 2.3 Reconnaissance and Route Alignment Survey 2.3.1 A provisional route of transmission line is initially plotted on survey maps (topo sheets) and a reconnaissance/ walkover survey is carried out. This is essential to fix up angle tower positions tentatively, since many of the physical features on the ground may not be clearly available in the survey map due to developments that might have taken place subsequent to the preparation of the maps by department of survey of India. The topo sheets are obtained from the office of The Survey of India Deharadoon by indicating the Longitude & the Lattitude of the proposed route of the transmission line. In most of the cases more than one Topo sheets are required to cover the route of the line.
SCHEMATIC ROUTE ALIGNMENT SURVEY

ROUTE MAP
82°10' 82°15' 82°20' 82°25' 82°30' 82°35'

T-05

T-05

BAGDEWA BLOCK
AR IN G

DILWADIH BLOCK

400KV D/C KASAIPALLI TO BHARARI TRANSMISSION LINE

COA L BE

INDIA(N.T.S.)

N

N

RC

T-05

22°25'

EA AR

JAMMU & KASHMIR
HIM PR AC AD HA ES L H PUNJAB A UTTARANCHAL AN RY HA DELHI

C

22°25'

T-05

l Road Meta
CART TRACK

CAR T TRA

NEPA

RC C

DAM
8/2 8/1 8/0 7/2 7/1 7/0 6A/0 5/0 4A/0 3/0 2/3 9/0 9/1
CK

T-05

GUJARAT

MADHYA

PRADES

Nagrahi Batra Lahrapara

METAL ROAD

9/2 10/3 16/0 16/1 17/0 11/0 15/0 14/1 14/0 13/0 11/1 12/0 10/2 10/0 10/1
EX IS NG TI 40 0 KV TO

CAR T TRA

CO AL

W

ER

NE LI

6/0

BE

AR

CHAPI WATER SCHEME

EX

DUMARKACHHAR BLOCK
24/1 24/2 25/0 PROPOSED COAL EXTENSION AREA 25/1 25/2 24/3

23/0 23/1 23/2 23/3 23/4 23/5 24/0

22/4 22/2 22/3 22/0 22/1 21/5 21/4 21/3 21/2 20/4
ROAD
ck

17/1 19/0 19/1 19/2 20/0 18/3 18/2 18/1 18/0

18/6

18/5

18/4

PROPOSED 400 kV SWITCH YARD
LEGEND :DESCRIPTION
AR BE ING AR EA

START POINT

BANKI BLOCK

SRI LANKA INDIAN OCEAN

20/2

L 053

21/1 21/0

20/3
Car t Tra

20/1

TAM

IS

SYMBOL

ILN

IN G

AR EA

DAM

TI

NG

ADU

40

0

KV

C D/

NE 4/0 LI

2/2

2/1 2/0 1/0 GANTRY

SINGHALI BLOCK

MAH

ARA

RA SHT

ANDHRA PRADESH

CH HA TIS GAR H

Dhadhipara

CKBD 2 x 30 MW EXISTING POWER PLANT

RAJASTHAN

UTTAR PRADESH

L
BIHAR

BHUTAN

HAL NACSH ARUADE PR ASSAM NAGALAND
MANIPUR

CK

MEGHALAYA BANGLADESH

H

AND RKH WEST JHA BENGAL

MIZORAM

ORISSA

Proposed route with AP
Roads metalled/Asphalted road

SEA IAN ARAB

AKA NAT KAR

BAY OF BENGAL

LA KERA

DESCRIPTION
River Pond Forest Development Temple, Mosque Hutment Tree Wells lined, unlined

SYMBOL

CO

AL

SITE FOR DIPKA COLONY

Roads unmetalled Cart-track

COAL BEARIN G AREA

SARAIPALI BLOCK
PROP CO OS EXTE AL ED NS AREA ION
31/0 30/5 30/4 30/3 30/2

25/3 26/0 27/0 27/1 27/2 28/0

NO

N

CO

Railways broad gauge

AL

Railways other gauge

ZO

Canal

NE

AR

Stream

32/0 33/0
22°20'

30/1 30/0

22°20'

30/6

29/0 29/2 29/1 29/4 29/3

28/1 28/2 28/3 28/4

EA

Contours with heights Power/Telephone line Scrub Boundary state

200

Borewells Reserved/Protected forest Heights triangulated Heights point Bench-mark Post office Police station Coal Bearing Area
PO PS R.F. / PF 200 200

KARTALI BLOCK

33/1 33/2 33/3

TREE PLANT

PROPOSED 2x50 MW RATIJA 132 kV POWER STATION SWITCH YARD

Boundary district Boundary tahsil Towns or Villages

GEVRA
NARAIBODH

34/0 34/1 34/2 34/3 34/4 34/5 34/6 34/7 34/8 35/0 35/1 36/0 36/1 36/2 37/0 37/1 37/2 37/3 38/1 38/0

PROPOSED ROUTE OF SION LINE TRANSMIS

400kV

EAST OF KARTALI AREA BETWEEN KARTALI & DIPKA NUNBERA RATIJA
COA L BEA RING

Industries Coal Zone Alotment Area

DIPKA

PONRI

BHILAI
AREA

COAL BEARIN G AREA

TOTAL LENGTH STATEMENT
Sr. No.
1

DESCRIPTION
PROPOSED 400kV D/C TRANSMISSION LINE FROM KASAIPALI TO BHARARI

ROUTE

Length (Km.)
54.867

40/0 40/1 40/2 40/3 40/4 40/5 40/6 40/8 40/9 40/10 40/11 42/0 42/1 42/2 43/0 41/3 41/2 41/1 41/0
22°15'

39/4 39/3 39/2

39/1 39/0

38/3

38/2

22°15'

40/7

NO

DATE

REVISIONS

BY

CHKD

APPD PROJ.ENGR

44/2 46/0 45/2 45/1 45/0

44/1

44/0 43/3

43/2

43/1

Project:

Title:

SUB POOLING STATION

PROPOSED BHARARI

END POINT

RECONNAISSANCE SURVEY OF 400 kV D/C
SURVEYED & PREPARED BY-

POWER CONSULTANTS & AGENCIES, VADODARA
198, VISHWAMITRI TOWN SHIP, OPP. GUJARAT TRACTORS, VADODARA-390 011 www.powerconsultant.info

SCALE

DRAWING NO.

REV.

1 : 50000
82°10' 82°15' 82°20' 82°25' 82°30' 82°35'

PCA/AC/KBPL/400kV/RECCAY/RM-01

0E

2.3.2 The reconnaissance survey helps in collecting the first hand information regarding various important field data required for transmission line works. The reconnaissance survey is carried out
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by using GPS (Geographical Positioning System). The general points to be kept in view while establishing the preliminary route at the time of reconnaissance survey are as under. a) The route should be as short and as straight as possible. b) Where ever possible, attempt should be made to lay the line near to or along roadway. Alternatively, the line should be approachable to the extent possible. c) The number of angle towers should minimum and within these, the number of heavier angle towers shall be as less as possible. d) Cost of securing and clearing right of way (ROW), making access roads and time required for these works should be minimum. e) Corridor through which line is taken, should be free from Encumbrances such as non‐Agricultural land, notified area, Defense establishment, oil & gas establishment, acquired mining areas etc. f) Care is also required to be taken that the line route avoids any big planned development in the region such as, Airport, State Industrial Estate, Mega Power Projects etc. If this is not done, shifting of the line may be required later or objection to the construction may occur. g) Crossing with permanent objects, such as Railway lines and roads should be made preferably at right angles. h) In case of hilly terrain, it is necessary to conduct detailed survey and locate the tower positions suitable to the topography. Detailed survey is recommended for such terrain. i) The reconnaissance survey will also establish if we can avoid the following: • Marshy areas, low lying lands, river beds, earth slip zones etc. involving risk to stability of foundation & the tower. • Areas subjected to floods, gushing – culverts during rainy seasons, tanks, ponds, lakes, snow blizzards. • Inaccessible areas where approach roads are not possible. • Areas which will create problems of right of way and way leave. • Route involving abrupt changes in levels, too many long spans, river or power line crossings or near parallelism to telecommunication lines. • Thick forest or areas involving heavy compensatory payments for the ROW. j) The reconnaissance survey is useful for collecting the first hand information about various important field data required for transmission line construction, which are as under: • Major power line crossing details (66 KV and above) • Railway crossing details. • Major river crossing details. • Source of construction materials, viz., metal, sand water etc. along the line. • Important rail heads for the purpose of receipt of materials. • Important villages or Railway stations along the route for the purpose of selection of labor camps. • Nature of soil strata likely to be encountered along the route and the terrain. • Availability of skilled, semiskilled and un‐skilled labor, their present rate on daily basis or on contract basis. • Names of the major towns for the purpose of selection of site offices. • Likely local support or hindrance from various section of population along the route of the line.

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5 Plotting of Profiles 2. 2. 2. The horizontal and vertical distances are computed with the help of readings of the stadia wires taken on the staff held at the reading point. commonly referred to as “route profile” or “survey chart” is prepared in the drawing office. offset distances etc. ground levels and the angles between the two reference points.3 Field Observation Recording and Calculations 2.3. survey chains/measuring tapes etc. deflection angles. 2. Theodolite can also serve the purpose.4. It saves lot of time and the observations are highly accurate. If the length of line is very short. route alignment survey shall be carried out with the help of Theodolite and/or Total Station. By plotting of profiles on graphed tracing papers of mm x mm size. important objects coming within the right of way and show the landmark points/objects along the route with their distance from the alignment of line. These readings are stored in the memory of Total Station (TS). The scale normally preferred is 1:200mm‐vertical. 2. 2.For fixing the final alignment and angle points on the ground as per the reconnaissance survey.2 The use of Total Station facilitates quick measurement of distance.4. preferably at an interval of 20 metres. The Total Station is located at fixed point and there after the prism mounted in a stand is moved along the route of the line. 1:2000mm‐horizontal.2 As stated in 2. In this method.4 Detailed Survey 2.1 The main objective of carrying out detailed survey is to prepare longitudinal and cross section profiles on the approved route alignment and to prepare the route plan showing details of deviation angles. 2. The data is there after transferred to the computer. Work of detailed survey is normally done in two stages: 1. The accuracy of the work will depend upon the quality and cost of the equipment. These charts are prepared and plotted on 1mm/5mm/1cm square paper of formed drawing sheets of graphed tracing paper. level differences. The surveyor and his team will move on an approved route and take ground levels in the field book at an interval of 20 to 30 meters.5.5. This method needs skilled surveyors having good understanding of the use of Theodolite and basic knowledge of trigonometry. the Total Station is the most modern equipment for surveying. Each reading gives the distance and level difference.4.3. Tachometric method offers a great advantage in hilly regions and such other inaccessible places where chaining is not possible.4.4.4. This equipment is very expensive and needs lot of precautions in handling. The range of operation of Theodolite is much higher than the dumpy level.2 The profile shall include the following: Power Consultants & Agencies Page 5 .2 above.1 The method of taking level readings for preparation of longitudinal and cross section profile can be one of the following • By chain and dumpy level • By tachometric survey with Theodolite • By using Total Station and the prism First method is more useful in plain areas where chaining can be done easily with the help of semiskilled surveyors.1 From the field book entries route plan and longitudinal profile. By actual field observation taking level readings and calculating distances. 2. both traversing and leveling is done by means of a tachometric Theodolite.

important pucca roads & or rivers/canals. conductor creep or snow incidences.6 Tower Spotting 2. • ‘Cold or Uplift Curve’‐Showing sag of conductor at specified minimum temperature and zero wind. railway rail top levels. • Readings should be taken and charts should show. Their replicas on Acrylic sheets are prepared with the itching process. • It is advisable to prepare an independent route profile for Major River crossing section deploying tall special towers or normal towers on piles in the river crossing section. heights of supports/lines being crossed. railway lines. should be marked on the route profile.1 The work of tower spotting is a very precise job as it has an implication on overall cost. The sag template curves are first prepared on tracing paper and the blue print is taken out from the tracing. maximum water/flood levels. After the tower designs are finalized. • Power Consultants & Agencies Page 6 .The longitudinal profiles along the centre‐line of the transmission line route including the bottom conductor catenaries.6. • Angle of line deviation duly marked left (L) or right (R) as the case may be.5 to 3 mm thick. cart tracks etc. The Acrylic sheets are normally 2.7.2 The sag templates have the following curves itched on them.1 Sag template is a very important tool for the surveyor by the help of which Tower spotting can be done. with references to centre‐line level. • The cross‐section profile wherever appreciable difference in level exists. the tower spotting chart or structure limitation charts are prepared..7 Preparation of Sag Template 2. Depending upon the maximum specified permissible temperature of the conductor and zero wind condition the ground clearance is to be maintained by the line. as the river crossing is a special task in the construction process which involves special design. 2. • ‘Hot’ or ‘Maximum Sag Curve’ showing maximum sag of conductor under zero wind and maximum temperature and sag tolerances are also allowed to take care of stringing error. 2. • Route plan giving details of all objects lying within the right of way and just along the boundary of right of way. Application of Sag Template helps to decide optimum tower position on Survey Chart. canals or rivers should be marked as clearly as possible. the tower tensions should be within the specified limits. which ultimately helps in finalizing the quantity of each type of tower and their extensions (3 meter & 6 meter etc).7. with zero wind condition. Similarly under the specified minimum temperature of the conductor surface. levels of roads. canal embankments. 2. • Objects and their distances along the route within the right of way from centre line. In such cases the cross‐section levels shall be taken at each 50/100m intervals. nearby villages. Similarly the drawing of the sag template and its replica is prepared on Acrylic sheet. • Crossing details with any other power or telecommunication lines. roads. • Ground clearance Curve‐Drawn parallel to hot curve and at a distance equal to specified minimum ground clearance. all trees coming within the clearance zone.

8.1 The Sag Template is an important tool for correct spotting of the towers after the detailed survey work is completed.3 In erecting an overhead line all the spans cannot be kept equal to normal design span because of the profile of the ground and proper ground and object clearance considerations. canal embankments etc. roads. Power Consultants & Agencies Page 7 . • The acrylic sag template is applied to the ground profile by moving the same horizontally while always ensuring that the vertical axis is held vertical with reference to graphed lines of the tracing paper below. • Besides normal ground clearance.Tower footing Curve‐For normal tower drawn parallel to hot curve under ground clearance curve and separated by a distance equal to maximum sag at design span. to the same scale as the survey chart for the minimum and maximum sags for the normal span (specified in the tender specifications). 2. the clearances between power conductor and objects like. railway tracks. • 2.7. • The structure positions are marked where the tower footing curve just touches the profile. The ‘Cold and Hot’ Template Curves are plotted as parabola. shall be checked. while the ground clearance curve is just clear and above the profile to the left or right of the centre line up to a distance equal to maximum cross area spread on either side. houses.8 Application of Sag Template for Tower Spotting 2.. trolley wires. The following are the steps to be followed for correct application of sag template. depending on which alternative is most economical. • On inclined spans. • The weight span on either side of a tower can be easily obtained by marking the low points of sags (Null Point) in two adjacent spans and then reading the distance between the two. however the sags in individual spans will vary according to their respective spans. null point may be outside the span. • Extra clearance can be obtained either by reducing the span or providing extension to tower body. A constant tension is calculated which will be uniform throughout the Section (from one tension tower to other tension tower). other power or telecommunication lines.

tower which is designed to take uplift will have to be used. C 2.10 Towers Spotting Data 2. These values may change in the region experiencing snow or Sub‐Zero temperatures. • This is mandatory to afford better stability of the line against Transverse wind forces and to facilitate easy stringing. the cross‐arms of the tower subjected to up lift shall be designed to take the extra upward pull. • In case it becomes mandatory due to route compulsion. • Even if the line does not deviate for a long run. actual uplift will be caused and the conductor would tend to wing clear of the tower upwards. C.This indicates that the total weight of conductor is taken up by the higher tower and the lower tower is being pulled up by a force equal to the weight of conductor between lower support and the null point. vertical and longitudinal directions.2 Based on the sag tension charts. Sag and Tension charts are required to be prepared. • The Template is applied horizontally until the tops of alternate supports coincide with the Cold Curve. For Earth wires the maximum temperature is taken as 53Deg. 2. 3 to 4 km. Normally. minimum and every‐day temperatures are considered as 0 Deg. 2. minimum temperature and every‐day temperature under 100%.C 75 Deg. for the stability of the line it is not desirable to place a tower in such a position where it is always under permanent uplift condition.9 Use of computer for preparing sag template and the tower spotting 2. • If the support is under uplift and has to be extended so as to be above it and in case requisite standard body extension do not suffice for doing this. the following method may be adopted. sections have to be provided after every 12 to 15 tangent towers.10.1 Since each tower is designed to withstand a definite load only. • The intermediate spans shall be as near as possible to the normal design span. • For this purpose a small angle tension tower designed for 15° should only be used. in each of transverse. • In case an individual span becomes too short on account of undulations in ground profiles.9.1 Before taking up the tower design on hand.36%(66%) and 0% wind pressure. the maximum surface temperature of conductor can be taken up to 95Deg. (i. • Should the upward pull of the uphill span becomes greater than downward load of the next adjacent span.e. C and 32Deg. C. The full scale print out of the curves is then used to prepare the Acrylic Sag Template by itching process. • Besides 15° angle tension tower is most economical amongst the standard angle tension towers. These charts indicate the values of sag and tension of conductor and the earth wire at Maximum temperature. the surveyor must know these limitations for the various types of towers Power Consultants & Agencies Page 8 • . in plain terrain in India the maximum. length). the sag template curves can be plotted on the computer through a specific programme. one or more line supports of the Section may be extended by inserting standard body extensions.9. • However. • For any easy check of whether a tower is under uplift or not. If the conductor is required to carry large block of power.

66 422 422 Cold Curve 0° C Cold Curve 0° C Hot Curve 85° C Ground Clearance at 13. wind span.84 T 207.00 207.83 416.67m POWER CONSULTANTS & AGENCIES A / 198 VISHVAMITRY TOWNSHIP. Conductor stringing point at 22.21 Mtr.00 211 +9M +9M +6M +9M +9M +6M +3M +6M +6M +3M Conductor stringing point at 22.26 431.83 Loc.159 46/0 DD+0 Weight Span (Cold) L R 202.info .26 Mtr.156 45/0 DB+3 Weight Span (Cold) L R 213.com Web: www.00 202. These charts also indicate the additional angle of deviation which can be allowed in the tower by limiting the spans.157 45/1 DA+6 Weight Span (Cold) L R 223.21 Mtr. These limits are given in a chart form called ‘Structure Limitation Chart or “Tower Spotting Data” which is prepared by the design department of the utility /contractor. REV. +3M +3M Conductor stringing point at 22. These charts define the limits for permissible ruling span.7 T 206.36 Wind Span L R 211 T 211 422 Loc.46 427. weight span. No.CH:53612.26 Mtr.2 T 214.158 45/2 DA+3 Weight Span (Cold) L R 204.28 419.1 Weight Span (Hot) L R 220.06 T 201.21 Mtr.26 Mtr.82 Weight Span (Hot) L R 212. VADODARA .(0265) 2356291 E-mail: smtakalkar@powerconsultant. Conductor stringing point at 22.CH:54867. No.16 411. GUJARAT TRACTORS. OPP. individual span and the degree of the deviation allowed on each of the standard towers.99 T 000. No. Hot Curve 85° C Ground Clearance at 13.66 T 198.available for use on line so than he can spot an appropriate type of tower structures along the route. TOWER SPOTTING Loc.3 413. 411.02m PROPOSED SUB STATION CROSSING & INTERFERENCE DETAILS AP-45(14°48'23")R AP-46(75°43'41")L CONSULTANT: - Project: Title: CLIENT - AP49 .26 Mtr.21 Mtr.72 Wind Span L R 211 T 000.83 T 211 416. Cold Curve 0° C Ground Clearance at 13. These charts are made for normal towers only. No.83 Loc. so that the design load limits of the tower are not exceeded. smtakalkarpca@gmail. Hot Curve 85° C Ground Clearance Curve Ground Clearance Curve Ground Clearance Curve DATUM 262.01 423.0m CUMULATIVE CHAINAGES(M) REDUCED LEVELS(M) AP48 .48 Wind Span L R 205.16 Wind Span L R 211 T 205.390 011 Ph.72 T 000.41 Weight Span (Hot) L R 205.4 T 219. For all special crossings individual tower checking is essential by the design department.99 Weight Span (Hot) L R 207.powerconsultant. Ground Clearance at 13.info TOWER SPOTTING & SAG CURVE OF 400kV D/C TRANSMISSION LINE SCALE DRAWING NO.(0265) 2343001 Fax. H:-1 : 2000 V:-1 : 200 0A Power Consultants & Agencies Page 9 .

• Whether a river can be crossed using normal tower with/without extensions or by providing special tower or by locating towers in mid stream by providing the pile foundations. Once the angle points are marked. correct angle of deviation and section length are measured and noted on survey charts. If the time span between the detailed survey and the check survey is too long. • To locate and peg mark the tower position on ground.14.1 In order to decide the tower type for a particular location.3 These objects only guide the surveyor in moving as closely on the correct alignment as possible. the angle point is tentatively fixed at the place reached as per deviation angle at starting point and first sectional length and line alignment is carried to the next deviation angle and next section length as per survey chart.13. 2.1 In this operation. Intermediate checks can also be made by measuring offsets from the line to well defined objects are shown in survey charts very accurately (but much reliance cannot be given for correct alignment based on offset distance). This process is continued till an angle point is reached which is fixed in field either by a permanent burjee (pillar) or by means of identification marks given in survey charts. 2. traversing is done from the known fixed angle point (the starting point or any other obligatory point fixed by the purchaser) in the direction of given line deviation and up to a distance equal to the section length between the starting point and the next angle point. the surveyor proceeds to mark all intermediate tower positions on the straight line Power Consultants & Agencies Page 10 .1 Check survey is carried out for the following.1 Once each angle is fixed in field by the help of permanent concrete burjees and exact section length is known. 2. • Whether a hill side extension will be required.2 If the second angle point reached is not marked in field by the detailed survey gang (or the mark is missing). • To reconfirm the work carried out during detailed survey. following information is required from the design department: • Angle of line deviation on tower • Whether it is to be used as section tower or dead end tower • Sum of adjacent spans • Weight span on tower • Whether an immediate lower size of tower can be used in place of the actual angle tower by limiting the span.13.11.2. • To give direction pegs. then closing error is judiciously distributed in all the previous temporary sections and all angle points are finally marked on ground by means of concrete pillars. If the error is within 1% of the total section length it can be ignored and the permanent mark made during detailed survey is taken as correct and necessary correction in the line deviation angle at the starting point is made and noted in the survey chart. 2.13. Once the known angle point is reached.12 Check Survey 2. care is required to keep the proper track of the original profile bench mark and offset distances.13 Checking and Line Alignment 2.11 Preparation of Tower Schedule 2.14 Spotting and Peg Marking of Tower Locations 2. If next angle point is firmly marked in field by means of a permanent peg mark (concrete burjee) then the closing error is noted both in longitudinal and transverse directions. 2. corresponding to the route profiles.12.

Concreting. pegs are set along the centre line of route alignment and perpendicular to it. • Directional pegs are essential for correct alignment of tower centre line along longitudinal and transverse directions.joining the two angle points spaced at distance equal to individual span length as given on survey chart and after the same is duly adjusted for the closing error. • On angle towers these are rotated by an angle equal to half the angle of line deviation and then the perpendiculars are marked. • The more the number of alignment pegs the better it will be for the readings.1 After the survey work is over. • These pegs are also very useful when main tower marking burjees are found missing at a later date (due to mischief of local people or negligence of excavation marking gang or any other reason). They are described in brief as under. The foundation work mainly includes Pit marking. it essential to accurately mark the centre point of the tower. • In order to achieve correct alignment of all the intermediate towers between two angle points. • On suspension tower.0 Foundation Work 3.1 Before the activity of excavation is taken up.2 Directional Peg Marking for Excavation Pit Marking 3. This is described in brief as under.2. Power Consultants & Agencies Page 11 . a number of alignment pegs are driven at the time of exact distance measurement of the section. 3. the activity of foundation is taken on hand. Back filling and Curing. centre point of each leg of the tower and the periphery of pit to be excavated for each leg foundation. Stub setting. Excavation. 3. as instrument errors are less if similar distances are measured in one reading.

3. deformated soil. 3. a trial pit shall be made within the base of the proposed tower width. sides and Power Consultants & Agencies Page 12 .3. This shall be generally 1 x 1 x 3 m size. the design department/ contractor is equipped with the set of foundation design and the excavation plan for standard type of soils / rocks and their combinations.3 Preparation/Study of Excavation Plan Suitable For the Proposed Type of Foundation 3. hard rock. The depth of the excavation at the pit enter shall be measured with reference to the tower center level. clayey soil.1 Trial Pit At the location of the tower. There are many types of tower foundation which are in vogue these days. Any one of the readily available foundation design for the particular type of tower which fits in to the classification of soil/rock should be adopted. Plate type and grill type foundations are not being used these days as their reliability is low.3.1 Pit marketing shall be carried out according to pit marking chart. special type of foundation has to be adopted with the approval of Design department of the purchaser. No margin is necessary in the case of undercut foundations. The design office will furnish the survey gang with an ‘Excavation pit Marking Chart’ or ‘Excavation Plan’ which gives distance of pit centers. Normally. The type foundations can be used for smaller towers.3. They also relate to various types of soil classification such as normal soil. If the strata are too strange. 3. soft rock. The pile type & well type foundations are generally used in river crossing and crossing sections of the line.4. The pit size in the case of open cast foundations shall be determined after allowing a margin of 150mm round.4 Excavation 3. including sub‐ soil water bound strata.3 Decision for type of foundation The EIC or the authorized engineer of the purchaser and the engineer of the contractor shall then decide upon the type of foundation to be adopted for that particular location.3.2 Examination of trial pit The soil strata will be examined by EIC or an expert nominated by him who has expertise in the matter of soil classification. The detailed examination report of the trial pit will be made then. etc.

While excavating. All excavation shall be protected so as to maintain a clean surface. 3. TYPES & SHAPES OF FOUNDATION Power Consultants & Agencies Page 13 . care should be taken that earth is cut vertically/tapered/in steps as per the site requirement to avoid any mishap during the course of excavation and foundation work. corrected and applicable excavation plan in accordance with the soil/rock classification should be obtained by the construction crew members.2 Actual excavation Before commencement of the excavation work. until the footing is placed. Various types of foundations used for tower are shown here under.corners with reference to center point of the tower. The excavation wall shall be vertical and the pit dimensions shall be strictly as per the excavation plan and foundation drawing.4. precaution should be taken by providing shuttering and supports for the safety of the crew members. In case of collapsible soil. These distances are measured and each pit boundary is marked in the field by means of chalk spade or pick axe along the side of the pits.

However.6 Hard Rock Excavation Where rock is encountered. 3. hard conglomerate or other soft or fissured rock which can be quarried or split with crow bars wedges or pickaxes will be classified as fissured rock/soft rock.2 Hard Rock Any rock excavation other than specified under fissured rock/soft rock above.5.3. The excavation shall be carried out strictly as per the excavation plan approved by the owner/customer for the particular type of structure with/without extension and the particular type of Soil Rock. the holes for tower footings shall preferably be drilled. classification of foundation will be according to the type of soil which is predominant in the footing. 3. The decision of the Engineer‐in‐charge shall be final and binding with reference to classification of soil and foundation to be adopted at that particular location. the full volume excavated/blasted shall be filled with the structural concrete.7 Blasting Material The Contractor shall procure requisite blasting material and be responsible for the purpose of the storage and use of this material. made out of timber planks of 30‐35mm Power Consultants & Agencies Page 14 . the stubs may be shortened suitably with the approval of the owner or his authorized representatives. However. if required.5. The adoption of footing depends upon the type of Soil and the tower loadings. while re‐working. If this is not adhered to.5.3. spade and shovel easily.1 Fissured Rock/Soft Rock Lime stone.1 Normal Soil: Soil which can be removed by an ordinary pick axe. All necessary precautions for handling and use of blasting materials shall be taken.2 Wet Soil (Submerged Soil): Where the subsoil water table is encountered within the range of foundation depth or/and where pumping or bailing out of water is required due to presence of surface water will be treated as wet soil/submerged soil. 3. shoring and shuttering.3.5. The foundation to be adopted therefore depends upon the type of soil. Where the soil is of composite nature. there are chances of reduction of reliability of foundation against upward loads. light blasting may be resorted to for loosening the material and hasten the excavation activity. it shall be done with the utmost care to minimize the use of concrete for filling up the blasted area. If inadvertently large quantities are excavated / blasted. 3. this will not in any way entitle the material to be classified as hard rock.3 Rocky Soil (Strata): 3. 3. quantum of tower loading and preference for structural arrangements of footing. However. chiseling are required. Necessary permission/approvals from the concerned Government department may be obtained by the contractor. for which blasting. drilling. but where blasting is to be resorted to as an economy measure. In case where drilling is done. 3.8 Shoring and Shuttering If pits excavated in sandy soil or water bearing strata and particularly black cotton soil where there is every likelihood of pit collapse.5. laterite. the C/C distance between the two pits will be with reference to the junction of reduced chimney and footing.5 Classification of Soil 3.

In areas where sub‐soil water recoupment is heavy and where water cannot be controlled even by use of power driven pumps. After commencing pumping operation the pit can be excavated avoiding risk of collapse of earth. • The Template is centered and leveled by sighting through transit. it is not possible to use the four legged stub setting template for various reasons related to design and construction.thickness or steel frames of adequate strength to suit the requirement. Power Consultants & Agencies Page 15 . The first method is the most commonly used. The size of the mechanical/electrical pump will depend upon the quantum of water required to be handled per hour.10 Setting of Stubs The stubs shall be set correctly in accordance with approved method at the exact location and alignment and precisely at correct levels with the help of stub setting templates and leveling instrument. 3. the alignment and slope are as per the approved misfit and design so as to permit assembling of the superstructure without undue pre‐stress. and are held in their proper position until the concrete is poured and gets hardened. 3. by about 2 to 3 meters. • The individual Leg Template comprises a steel channel or joist having a length more than the size of the pit. There are three methods by which this is generally accomplished: • Use of combined Stub‐setting Template for all the four stubs of the tower including extension portions. • The Stub‐setting Template generally of adjustable type which can suit the standard tower as well as towers with standard extensions of 3 meter & 6 meter height. The second method is adopted for casting the foundation locations having individual leg extensions or locations having broad base of Tower. Sand bedding/stone bedding will be provided in foundation of marshy and wet black cotton foundations which will work as a sub‐grade. • Use of individual Leg Template for each stub. In this system a grid of pipes are laid around the area where the pits are excavated and the system is very effective in pumping water particularly in sandy soils. • The answer to this problem is individual leg stub‐setting template. Stubs shall be set in the Presence of Owner’s representative available at site where required. Dewatering is not necessary in case of bored foundations extending below water table. • The Stub‐setting Template comprises a light rigid square framework which holds the four stubs at the correct alignment and slope in four corners. • A chamfered cleat is welded in centre of the channel/joist to provide the slope to the stub. • In such case. The pumps shall be suitable for handling muddy water. • Use as a Template the lowermost tower section or extension. well point system is used for controlling water.9 Dewatering Dewatering shall be carried out manually or by mechanical means or power driven pumps to facilitate excavation and casting of foundation. where Stub‐setting Template is not available. will be provided. The stubs are set in such a manner that the distance between the Stubs. strain or distortion in any part of the structure. • The anchors or stubs are bolted to this Template one at each corner of the Template.

lower section of the tower or extension is used for setting stub. • This type of Template are very useful for casting the foundations of individual leg extensions in which the foundation pits are staggered and use of either a normal Stub‐setting Template or the first section of the tower is not feasible. • In this method two opposite sides of the lower section of the tower are assembled horizontally on the ground. • Each assembled side is then lifted clear of the ground with a gin pole and is lowered into the four pits excavated at four corners of the tower to their proper size and depth. • Power Consultants & Agencies Page 16 . • One side is held in place with props while the other side is being erected. Dumpy level and a measuring tape. • The other version of individual leg extension is cut corner sections of conventional stub‐setting template. • Then the assembled section is lined up. • Thereafter the form boxes for foundations are built and the concrete is poured. • This is easy to fabricate and deploy at site. made square with line and level after the proper elevation and leveling have been done. • The assembly is lifted in such a manner that stubs are not damaged. In the third method. • The two opposite sides are then laced together with cross members and diagonals. • For heavy towers use of Stub‐setting Template is recommended. • For heavy towers use of this method is not recommended. • The individual Leg Templates are initially set on each pit approximately to the required position with reference to the centre point of the tower and with the help of a Theodolite (or Total Station). leveling etc. jacking. before fixing form boxes and pouring concrete. the bolts are tightened to make the frame as rigid as is reasonably possible. as propping. will be very difficult. and the stubs are bolted to the same with correct slope and alignment.The stub is bolted to the cleat of the Template with holes as required for the slop of the stub is provided.

but in case it is not possible. • The form work for slabs and pyramids shall be made symmetrical about the base of the chimney to ensure interchangeable faces. M 10 or 1:3:6 mix cement concrete may be used. Prepare a wooden measuring box of 35 lit capacity (i. The concrete shall be mixed in the mechanical mixer only. Saline water or sea water should not be used for the concrete work.5:3) M15 (1:2:4 mix) M10 (1:3:6 mix) • Cement 1. in case of difficult terrain hand mixing may be permitted at the discretion of Engineer In charge. For lean concrete.e. For main foundation. The mix quantities according to the measuring box shall be as follows M20 (1:1. Placing and Compacting Of Concrete It is normal practice to use coarse and fine aggregates available along the line route and/of nearest locations to the route so as to have economy and better progress. but in no case the mixing be done for less than two minutes.11 Mixing. and be as constructed as to the rigid during the lacing and compacting of concrete. equal to 1 bag of 50 kg of cement) with inside dimensions of 30 cm. The concrete shall be placed and compacted before setting commences.12 Specification For From Box 3.12.0 4 Boxes 6 Boxes The required quantity of water shall be used for concrete mix. • It shall be of right design. the concrete may be mixed at the nearest convenient place.5 2 Boxes 3 Boxes • Metal 3. and shall be sufficiently tight to prevent loss of liquid from concrete.1 The general requirements of form box are as under: • The form work shall conform to the shape. 3. However. M15 or 1:2:4 mix cement concrete shall be used. Normally mixing shall be done close to the foundation. The properties of concrete and mix proportions shall be as given in IS: 456‐1978. It shall be permissible to proportionate the concrete as follows. Ordinary plain or reinforced cement concrete given in IS: 456‐1978 shall be used in overhead line foundations. lines and dimensions as shown on the approval foundation design drawings. • Window on one face shall be provided for pyramid forms to facilitate concreting in the lower parts which shall be fixed after concrete in the bottom part is placed. Mixing shall be continued until there is uniform distribution of material and the mix is uniform in color and consistency. The water should be free from oil/acid and any other impurities. Mechanical/pneumatic vibrator shall be used for obtaining homogenous concrete work and for better finish as well as avoiding honey combing. sub basis or pads.3.0 1 Bag 1 Bag • Sand 1. • Power Consultants & Agencies Page 17 . x 30cm x 39cm alternatively a cylinder of 34 cm diameter and 39 cm height shall be made ready for the proportioning. The concrete shall be transported from the place of mixing to the place of final deposit as rapidly as practicable by methods which shall prevent the segregation or loss of any ingredient or setting. easily removable without distortions and shall be of steel or suitable materials. • The inner surface coming in contact with concrete shall be smooth and free from projections.

the top surface should be finished smooth with a slight slope towards the outer edge. • The mechanical vibrator shall be employed for compaction of the concrete. both during the placing of the concrete and for 24 hours thereafter. before the foundation pits are backfilled. Following is recommended. 3. if the concrete surface is found to be defective. • After concreting the chimney portion to the required height. this shall be done by the Contractor as per the rates. if the excavated material includes large boulders/stones.13 Back Filling and Removal of Stub Template 3. particularly chippings.12. • If the foundation cast is rocky type.1 Process of bake filling The back filling work is very important for the stability of the foundation.shall be removed from the interior of the forms before the concrete is placed.3 Wet Location • In wet locations.12. if any. • There should be no disturbance to concrete by water during this period.3. manual compaction may be permitted at the discretion of site Engineer. every time. terms and conditions laid down in the contract. the damage shall be repaired with rich cement and sand mortar to the satisfaction of the Owner’s representatives. so that the cement cream works up to the top and no honey‐combing is left in the concrete.2 Clearing and Treatment of Forms • All rubbish. Power Consultants & Agencies Page 18 .13. the boulders shall be broken to a maximum size of 80mm. to drain off any rain water falling on the coping. the site must be kept completely dewatered. before use. • The surface in contact with the concrete shall be wetted and spread with the fine sand or treated with an approved compositions such as black or waste oil etc. • Backfilling shall normally be done with the excavated soil. • The concrete shall be poured in 150mm layers and consolidated well.12. • At such locations where borrowed earth is required for backfilling.4 Removal of From Box After the form work has been removed.. 3. in case of difficult terrain. 3. • However. backfilling with the borrowed earth may not serve the purpose. sawdust and traces of residual concrete.

but without interfering with the foundation concrete even though the earth strip/counterpoise lead remains exposed at the tower end. • The connections in such case shall be made with the existing lattice member holes on the leg just above the chimney top. the stub template may be removed. Each tower shall be earthed after the foundation has been cast. • In no case the tower footing resistance shall exceed 10 ohms. • After the pits have been backfilled to full depth.3 Curing The strength of concrete work depends upon the curing provided to it. the earth strip shall be provided on No.13. • The curing will be done from the top of the pit within the embankment area. • In case the resistance exceeds the specified values. shall be done in accordance with the stipulations made in IS:3043‐1966 and IS:5613 (Part II/Section 2) 1976. towards the outer ends. • No saltish or brackish water shall be utilized for curing. In normal circumstances.13. • The earth shall be deposited in maximum 200mm layers. Pipe type earthing and counterpoise type earthing. Normally. earth strip shall be fixed to the stub during concreting of the chimney and taken out horizontally below the ground level. Following requires to be noted. this would be done as per the instructions of the engineers in change. leveled and wetted and tampered properly before another layer is deposited. 3. 3. • The backfilling and grading shall be carried to an elevation of about 75mm above the finished ground level to drain out water. • The concrete after setting for 24 hours shall be cured by keeping the concrete wet continuously for a period 10 days after lying. the template can be removed even after 50% of backfilling of the soil. 3. Following may be noted.4 Earthing Earthing of tower is very important for the performance of insulators and conductor of the transmission line. • The backfilling materials should be clean and free from organic or other foreign materials. • After backfilling. the tower leg whish has the step bolt. A typical example of pipe type of earthing is given. For this purpose. • The footing resistance of all towers shall be measured by the Contractor in dry weather after the erection of superstructure but before the stringing of earth wire.13. • In case of urgency. multiple pipe earthing or counterpoise earthing shall be adopted in accordance with the following procedure. • However. • Pipe type earthing The installation of the pipe type earthing shall be in accordance with IS: 5613‐ 1985 (part II/section 2). • Care shall be taken that the backfilling is started from the foundation ends of the pits. 50mm high earthen embankment (bandh) will be made along the sides of excavation pits and sufficient water will be poured in the backfilled earth for at least 24 hours. wherever required.1 stub leg as given in the structural drawings. is provided with the earthing strip.2 Material for bake filling The following is required to be noted for the back filling material. Power Consultants & Agencies Page 19 • .In such a case backfilling with chipped stones mixed with the cement slurry would be a better option.

For the convenience of assembling the Power Consultants & Agencies Page 20 . each fitted with a plug for connection to the tower leg at one end.1 The towers shall be erected on the foundations only after 10 days of pouring of concrete or till such time that the concrete has acquired sufficient strength. 4.e. Such type of earthing is provided for hilly terrain locations where earth pit excavation to a depth of about 2. Galvanized steel stranded wire preferably of the same size of the overhead ground wire may be used for this purpose. 10 ohms or less).5 to 3 m is not feasible and the resistivity of the earth is very high. The length of each wire is normally limited to 15 m but may be increased if the resistance requirements are not met (i.• Counter poise type earthing Counterpoise type earthing consists of four lengths of galvanized steel stranded wires. The wires are connected to each of the legs and taken radially away from the tower and embedded horizontally 450mm below ground level. The towers are erected as per the erection drawings furnished by the manufacturers to facilitate erection.0 Erection of Super Structure and Fixing Of Tower Accessories 4.

This process is continued till the complete tower is erected. 220KV and 400KV transmission line towers due to the following advantages: • Tower materials can be supplied to site in knocked down condition which facilitates easier and cheaper transportation. • For assembling the second section of the tower. Power Consultants & Agencies Page 21 . • These two poles are used. • The erection progresses from the bottom upwards. • The gin poles are then shifted to the corner leg members on the top of second section to raise the parts of third section of the tower in position for assembly.tower parts during erection operations. • Cross‐arm members are assembled on the ground and raised up and fixed to the main body of the Cross‐arm members. No member shall be subjected to any undue over stress. during erection. two gin poles are placed one each on the top of diagonally opposite corner legs. • The four main corner leg members of the first section of the tower are first erected and guyed off. Any damage to the steel and injuring of galvanizing shall be avoided while the stringing work is in progress. 132KV. each member is marked in the factory to correspond with a number shown in the erection drawing.2 Method of Erection There are four main methods of erection of steel transmission towers which are described below: • Build‐up method or piecemeal method • Section method • Ground assembly method • Helicopter method 4. are bolted in position. • In this method. • The cross braces of the first section. are raised one by one as a unit and bolted to the already erected corner leg angles. • Sometimes more than one continuous leg sections of each corner leg are bolted together at the ground and erected. • First section of the tower thus built and horizontal struts (belt members) if any. for raising parts of second section. • Gin poles are thus moved up as the tower grows.3 Build up Method This method is most commonly used in this country for the erection of 66KV. • Tower erection activity can be done in any kind of terrain and mostly throughout the year (save difficult time of heavy rain). the tower is erected member by member. 4. • The tower members are kept on ground serially according to erection sequence. • The leg members and bracings of this section are then hoisted and assembled. which are already assembled on the ground. • It does not require any heavy machinery such as cranes etc. • Availability of workmen at reasonable rates. loading and unloading.

In order to maintain speed and efficiency. Power Consultants & Agencies Page 22 . keeping the members in correct position on the ground and assembling the panels on the ground which can be erected as a complete unit. a small assembly party goes ahead of the main erection gang and its purpose is to sort out the tower members. a small boom is rigged on one gin pole is used instead of two gin poles.For heavier towers.

4 Section Method • In the section method. major sections of the tower are assembled on the ground and the same are erected as units. • The gin pole used is approximately 10 m long and is held in place by means of guys by the side of the tower to be erected. • After completing the first section. • The gin pole then has to be properly guyed into position. the lacing on the other two sides is bolted up. • Each assembled side is then lifted clear of the ground with the gin or derrick and is lowered into position on bolts to stubs or anchor bolts. • To raise the second face of this section it is necessary to slide the foot of the gin on the strut of the opposite face of the tower • After the two opposite faces are raised. • One side is held in place with props while the other side is being erected. Power Consultants & Agencies Page 23 . • The first face of the second section is raised. gin pole is set on the top of the first section. • The two opposite sides are then laced together with cross members and diagonals. made square to the line. • The two opposite sides of the section of the tower are assembled on the ground. and the assembled section is lined up. • The last lift raises the top of the towers. • The gin rests on a strut of the tower immediately below the leg joint.4. • Either a mobile crane or a gin pole is used.

6. each covering one leg and the face to his right. • The tightening shall be carried on progressively from the top downwards. • All nuts shall be tightened properly using correct sized spanners.After the tower top is placed and all side lacings have been bolted up. hoisted and supported in position. • In case of step bolts. • Sometimes whole one face of the tower is assembled on the ground. • It may be better to employ four personnel (fitters).6 Tightening Of Nuts & Punching of Threads and Tack Welding of Nuts 4.1 Following are the requirements for tightening of nuts and bolts. this method is not popular because of prohibitive cost of mobile crane. • The tower is assembled along the direction of the line to allow the cross arms to be fitted. 4. • The galvanization of nuts and bolts is lost due to welding. the tower is picked up from the ground with the help of a crane and carried to its location and set on its foundation. • On slopping ground. • This has to be made good by the application of zinc rich paint. • Before tightening. • The opposite face is similarly assembled and hoisted and then the bracing angles connecting these two faces are fitted. • In India. • Power Consultants & Agencies Page 24 . a level piece of ground close to footing is chosen from the tower assembly. all the guyes are thrown off except one which is used to lower the gin pole. 4. spring washer shall be placed under the outer nut. the bolt together with the nut shall be changed outright. and non availability of good approach roads to tower locations. • The threads of bolts shall be projected outside the nuts by one to two threads and shall be punched at three positions on the top inner periphery of the nut and bolt to ensure that the nuts are not loosened in course of time due to the effect of the vibration. • The welding is generally done for lowermost two sections of the tower. • For this method of erection. bolts of proper size and length are inserted and one spring washer is inserted under each nut. • This method is not useful when the towers are large and heavy and the foundations are located in arable land where building and erecting complete towers would cause damage to large areas or in hilly terrain where the assembly of complete tower on sloping ground may not be possible and it may be difficult to get crane into position to raise the complete tower. however elaborate packing of the low side is essential before assembly commences. After the assembly is complete. • To prevent the pilferage of the tower members it is a common practice these days to tack weld the nut with the bolt in threaded portion.5 Ground Assembly Method • The complete tower is assembled in a horizontal position on an even ground. it is ensured that filler washers and plates are placed in relevant gaps between members. care being taken that all bolts at every level are tightened simultaneously. • If during tightening process. a nut is found to be slipping or running over the bolt threads.

7.2 Painting of Joints For galvanized tower in coastal or highly polluted areas. Tolerance limit for vertical shall be one in 360 of the tower height. For a Prototype test. Vertical loads are applied by means of dead weight or through anchors on the test bead. which has to be subjected to testing at the Testing Station. (iii) The arrangements for applying the combination of given loads at a specified rate of increase. 4. fabrication and the assembly require checking. Instruments used for recording the load applied are either Mechanical Spring Gauges or Electrical/Electronic Transducers/Dynamometers. (v) Remote control of loading mechanisms.3 Description of a Tower Testing Station A tower Testing Station shall consist of: (i) A Test Bed to withstand maximum possible compression and uplift loads and shear resulting from the external loads on a prototype tower with the highest voltage and no. the material used shall be made to the same standards. The dials of the respective Dynamometers/Transducers indicate the load in the particular wire. like Mechanic.6. if required with the help of a Multi Sheave Pulley.7. The Transverse loads are applied through pulleys positioned on the Transverse Mast (B). (ii) Permanent Anchors of adequate capacity to take the Transverse. (vi) Remote and precise reading of measuring instruments.7. (iv) Electrical Winches operated by remote control from a Central Control Room used for applying loads at the different points of tower structure. to take mechanical advantage and reduce load on the winch.1 Introduction Transmission line towers are highly indeterminate structures.al Spring Gauges or Electrical/Electronic Transducers/Dynamometers. The structures are mass produced and the quality of materials. Longitudinal Mast(P) is a structure of adequate dimension and height. 4. the joints shall be painted with zinc rich paint on all contact surfaces during the course of erection. as far as possible simultaneously. 4. as those that will apply to all towers during mass production. constructed at a sufficient distance from the tower bed and equipped with all Riging arrangements for applying longitudinal loads.6. height and strength proposed to be tested on a test bed.3 Checking the Verticality of Erected Towers The finally erected tower shall be truly vertical and no straining is permitted to bring it in alignment. Power Consultants & Agencies Page 25 .2 Testing Requirements This full scale testing of tower is generally termed as Prototype Test and for conducting Prototype tests.4.7 Tower Testing and Protomodel 4.ofr circuits. a tower testing station is required where it is possible to measure the applied loads and deflections and observe the behavior of the tower on application of the external design loads. 4. It is desirable that the Designers and Users both are convinced that the tower can stand and most critical loads for which it is designed and are therefore subjected to full scale prototype test. In the analysis of design of these structures and their detailing a number of theoretical assumptions are made. Longitudinal and Vertical Pulls applied to the tower of maximum expected with. Transverse & longitudinal deflection readings are taken by Theodolities on scales fitted at appropriate positions on the tower.

the winches and the dynamometers are operated / controlled.8. The tower is made truly plumb and square.7 Test Procedure The Prototype Tower is erected on the test bed and all the rigging arrangements are completed. natural and shall not be a forced one. Power Consultants & Agencies Page 26 .7. the UTM shall be periodically (once in every six months) calibrated by an external third party. 4.4 Calibration In order to ensure the correctness and reliability of all measuring instruments and in turn the validity of the tests the calibration of all instruments before the test is conducted. Readings on these scales with reference to the plumb line are taken by Theodolite.7.8 Testing of Prototype Tower 4. Fitment of any member shall be easy. Calibration of the load cells is done with the use of UTM. The differences between the two zero readings are the permanent deflections on tower. All its members are checked for freedom from any visible defect. 4. impact of any variance in inclination of rigging wires with respect to the directions accounted for in designs is considered while preparing Rigging Chart.7. Two graduated metallic scales are fixed at Peak and Top Cross arm level on the transverse face. positioned as close as possible to the test tower so that frictional losses do not cause impact on the load cells. All the electrically operated machines and instruments shall be connected to and controlled from the Control Room. The loads on the tower are then reduced to zero or to as low a value as possible.(vii) Arrangement for calibration of the measuring instruments.7. the tower structure is rigged suitably.2 Sequence of Test Loading Cases Sequence of test loading cases shall be pre‐determined.6 Rigging Arrangements And Location of The Load cells To enable application of the external loads in the most representative manner and to simulate tower design conditions. 4. the play between the bolts and the holes throughout the structure. The load cells shall be attached to the tower through the rigging wires. 4. Loads are applied as per these approved rigging charts. Bolt take‐up test is done in the beginning.7. the readings with zero loads taken after the Bolt Slip Test taken are considered as the initial readings. The loads on the tower are held for 1 minute.5 Assembly of Prototype Tower The prototype tower. The deflection reading is once again taken for this Zero loading. 4.7.7. 4. Under this test all the transverse and vertical loads are increased simultaneously as far as possible to 50% of the ultimate normal condition (Reliability Condition) loads. From Control Room. The Bolts should be tightened simultaneously on all four faces.8.1 Bolt‐Slip Test In order to eliminate as far as possible. fabricated as per structural drawings approved by the Purchaser shall be assembled and erected on a fixed base. The Tower is examined carefully to see that all the bolts and nuts are tightened properly. Transverse deflection readings are taken for NO LOAD and LOADED conditions. The choice of the test sequence shall largely depend upon simplification of the operations necessary for carrying out the test programme. Control room shall have the facility to have the complete view of transverse and longitudinal testing arrangements of the test tower. For subsequent test purposes.

(i) Wind load from top at peak and respective cross‐arm points upto bottom cross‐arm will be simulated suitably at ground‐wire. Middle cross‐arm and Bottom cross‐arm levels. • The tower which has been tested shall not be part of supply and is not to be used online. shall be gradually brought down to zero. Test 3: Destruction Test: If no Destruction Test is required by the Purchaser the loads on tower after 100% under Test‐2 above. or as mutually agreed between the Purchaser and the Supplier. Throughout the process of loading under all tests. At each step the loads are maintained for one minute and the deflections are noted. At peak and respective cross‐arm points.4. however. If desired by the Purchaser. Design & Testing Station Authority. after the final waiting period. • During the process of tower test. The waiting period of one minute shall be maintained at each step. ca be discontinued beyond a certain limit on mutual agreement between the Purchaser. the design will be reviewed and tower will be reinforced. which will require all the tests to be repeated. The tower is required to withstand these loads without showing any failure. in continuation to test 2. All loads are then increased to 100%. The reinforced tower will be put to test again and subjected to balance tests. At all stages of loading it shall be ensured that the transverse and vertical loads are not less than the values for corresponding step of the longitudinal load. • Application of Loads on Test‐Tower As considered in design: Transverse longitudinal and vertical loads. Power Consultants & Agencies Page 27 .7. The point of failure is detected from the sudden drop of load indication in the instrument dials in the Control Room. Test 2: (Normal Condition) Reliability Condition: These loads are applied as far as possible simultaneously at all points in steps of 50‐75‐90 & 95%. • Test tower shall be provided with unbraced portion of stub equivalent to distance of chimney top to the point of connection of bracing with leg. when a number of tests have been completed satisfactorily and a failure occurs as a subsequent test. Whenever such deformation is observed the loads shall be brought down and remedial measures shall be taken. unless the failure is of major nature. It is pointed out here that the tendency of bowing in bracings shall not be considered as a sign of failure even though it is during the final waiting period. the tower shall be closely observed for any visual sign of deformation. Under this condition (all conditions involving longitudinal loads in addition to the transverse and vertical loads) all the transverse and vertical loads are first increased to about 100%. After every test the loads are brought down and deflection readings are taken for no load condition.8 Special Requirements • The test tower shall be black or galvanized tower as desired by Purchaser.7. Top Cross‐arm. The waiting period at the final 100% loading stage shall be 2 minutes. 4.8. towe3r is observed for 2 minutes and deflections are noted. Longitudinal loads are then increased in steps of 50%‐75%‐90%‐95% of the ultimate loads. the transverse loads only are increased in steps of 5% till the failure occurs. At this final 100% loading stage. if required.3 Details of Tests Test 1: (Broken wire Condition) Security and Safety Conditions as well as Anti‐cascade conditions. The Destruction test.

4. TABLE ‐1 Size & Normal Over Current operating Name of Unit Sr.7.2 3299 0. 66. A detailed report incorporating test data and the results of complete tests along with photographs of the tower shall be prepared by the test‐ authority.1 The standard type of conductor if used has also an advantage that the current carrying capacity.(ii) Wind loads on tower below bottom cross‐arm will be simulated to act at bottom cross‐arm point and test will be carried out accordingly.10 9177 0.No. 220kV ‐ACSR “Zebra” Conductor 4. loading limit and impedances are also standardized and well defined.86 13316 1.53 7/3. In India. (iii) For tower with extension.9 Acceptance of Test Results Test is considered as passed. They are based on the allowable voltage regulation on EHV/UHV lines. it is a standard practice to use following conductors for different voltages. capacity at Alu. Steel kV Kg/Mtr. 132kV ‐ACSR “Panther” conductor 3.1 Conductors: The different types of conductors are used on the transmission line.10 Presentation of Test Results 5. depending upon the voltage class and amount of current to be handled. UTS all carrying stranding voltage weight No Conductor Kg.72 7/1.18 735 2.0 Conductor & Conductor Accessories 5. The insulation is provided in accordance with the voltage.394 Dog 2 ACSR 66/132 30/3.57 300 1. 400kV ‐ACSR Twin Bundle “Moose “Conductor. 66kV ‐ACSR “Dog” conductor 2. 4. Thus there is an easy access for a system analyzing engineer for evaluation and assessment of power flow and optimum line loading.2.18 7/3. in quadruplicate. the conductor size shall be worked out on the basis of maximum system current.7.02 Moose For special industrial connections at EHV.2 Insulators: 5. if tower is able to withstand the specified ultimate loads (100% step) with no visible sign of deformation for the specified waiting period.0 480 2. 75ºC (Amp) No/mm No/mm 1 ACSR 33/66 6/4.62 Zebra 4 ACSR 220/400 54/3. Line Voltage Power Transfer capability per 3‐phase Circuit (MW) 50kM 100kM 200kM 300kM Page 28 Power Consultants & Agencies . cm. 1. dia. 5.0 7/3. Thus the current loading limit and power transfer capability of various transmission lines are given in Table‐2.18 16250 2. wind load on extension will be simulated on Top of Extension. voltage.976 Panther 3 ACSR 220 54/3.53 800 3. Sr.

With this in view. Operating lines at high thermal limits is not advisable due to two reasons.g. ii) Sag may increase bringing down the statutory clearance below the conductor to non acceptable level. i) Line losses increase with increase in temperature. The thermal loading limits of the conductor are increasing day by day. Of‐late it has been customary to consider 75ºC as a maximum surface temperature of the conductor. 5.6 20 67 250 5.3 Choice of Insulators: The glazed disc type porcelain insulators have been a standard material in use for last 50 years in this country. it may become mandatory to use higher size of conductor e.5 30 100 375 3. system having 33kv line voltage with two loads of 10 and 30MW at end of 4 to 5kM long feeder may require “Zebra” conductor to be strung on it.2 In case of transmission line having a concentrated load and low voltage. the conductors used in the substation buses are one size up in diameter or in bundle configuration.2. Thus the 220kV side bus of 400kV substations may have quadruple “Moose” conductor and 66kV bus of 220kV substation may have a Twin “Zebra” or Twin “Moose” conductor (Bus). Similarly a lightly loaded 132kV lines can also be strung with ACSR “Dog” conductor. Since with reduction in voltage the current to be carried becomes very high and use of lower size of conductor may be hazardous. of disc unit in optimum width at about 13.5kV per disc up to Power Consultants & Agencies Page 29 . The insulator string consist of No.1 2 3 4 66kV 132kV 220kV 400kV 22 120 400 1500 11 60 200 750 5.

1 Mid span Joint – It is used to provide joint in the conductor. 5. The steel tube is compressed (crimped) against the two ends of Steel which are exposed by peeling of the Aluminum Strands for half the length of steel tube strands of ACSR & the Aluminum strands.3. For AAAC or AAC conductor only Aluminum tube is used which is also crimped after steel tube is crimped after sliding over the crimped steel tube. 5.of Electro insulator each Line insulators Insulator Sr.3 The insulators used on the line are also governed by the basic insulation level selected in power system.2 The design of insulators does not only depend upon the creep age `distances but they have many intricacies such as the type of material used in the insulators. Kg (D x H) Double Double Double mm x mm mm mm Kg No No Kg 1 66kV 1300 1000 150 75 10 5 7000 Suspensio 255 x 146 1280 1140 170 85 12 6 8180 255 x 146 n Tension 2 132kV 1716 1600 240 120 18 9 8180 Suspensio 255 x 146 2190 1790 260 130 20 10 11500 255 x 146 n Tension 3 220kV Suspensio 255 x 146 8180 14 28 130 260 2340 2640 n 255 x 146 11500 15 30 140 280 2850 3200 Tension 4 400kV 4400 4200 550 275 46 23 11500 Suspensio 255 x 146 6200 5900 1280 640 48 24 16500 255 x 146 n Tension 5.1 Other insulator types in vogue these days are a solid core insulator stack and high density polymer insulator. For 400kV class of line the insulator size and creep age distances are higher.3. For AC Conductor.a voltage of 220kV. The anti‐fog type insulators are found most suitable in the polluted atmosphere. ‐mech. and thus No. 5. 5. back flash over etc.4. the joint comprises one small steel tube and the other bigger Aluminum tube. they are yet to be popular in this country because of very high cost.3. capacitance grading.4 Conductor Accessories 5.3. Even though the polymer long rod insulators are simpler and low weight. string String No Voltage insulator disc Strength per string Single Single Single . thermal capability. Table‐3 Length of Weight of Size of No. of insulators to be used are 23 for suspension and 24 for tension tower. Power Consultants & Agencies Page 30 .4 The choice of disc insulators to be used depend upon the terrain & the pollution level through which the transmission line has to pass and thus fog type and antifog type disc insulator are in use for different applications. Hydraulic equipments are used for crimping. The antifog type insulators are in use for different applications. The important parameters for disc insulator string used in various voltage of transmission line are given in Table‐3.

ball ended Aluminum rods of appropriate length. 5.4. The PA rods prevents damage and reduces fatigue on the conductor due to the relative movement of the clamp and the conductor and also helps in reducing the effect of conductor vibration on clamp & the tower cross‐ arm. the sleeve is crimped on the affected part. After sliding both the parts on the conductor. The set is wound on the conductor at suspension tower location and then the entire assembly along with the conductor is clamped in the suspension clamp. The length of both the parts is the same.4.2 Repair Sleeve – It is used when one or two strands of the outer Aluminum strands are broken. The vibration damper comprises a clamp. The dampers can be solenoid type or 4R type. Power Consultants & Agencies Page 31 . a messenger cable. The sleeve is manufactured in two parts longitudinally and circumferentially major part is 70% on diameter and minor part is 30% on diameter. and dead weight. 5.4. The dampers are clamped to the conductor near the cross arm point on both the sides at a distance of 3 to 5Mtr.4 Vibration Dampers –They are used to damp the Aeolian vibrations on the conductor.3 Pre‐formed Armor rods – This is a set of twelve helical right hand.5.

Earth wire Accessories includes the following: 5. It is provided at such a height which affords an angle of shield not more than 30º with Top conductor.5. Rigid spacers are used for twin bundle conductor jumpers. The common size of earth wire used is 7/3. They are made of Aluminum.15 and 7/3.6 Cushioned (Armour grip) spacers‐ They are used as spacers for bundle conductor with amour grip.4.4. two earth wires are used for better protection. 5. two neoprene rubber jaws and two sets of armour rods (each having six rods).7 Earthwire – The earth wire is used for protecting the conductor in the mid span. The earth wire passes through the suspension clamp. They comprise an aluminum rod.1 Suspension Clamp ‐ This is used for suspending the earth wire through the earth wire peak of the transmission tower.7. Power Consultants & Agencies Page 32 . They comprise two arms with clamping device and a spacing yoke having a spring action. In case of 400kV and above.66. 5.4.4.5 Spacer cum Dampers‐ They is used for bundle conductor spacing and for damping the vibrations.

7. One end of this is connected to the suspension/tension clamp of earth wire and the other end is connected to the tower body. The copper bond is made out of stranded copper mesh with two lugs on the ends and is about 500mm long. 5.7.4. Power Consultants & Agencies Page 33 .4.2 Tension Clamp ‐ This is used on tension locations of tower and provided in tension position on both the sides of the tension tower.3 Copper Earth bond‐ This is used for providing direct passage to the lightning surge to the tower.5.

4.4.1 Single Suspension hardware – This is used on suspension locations of the tower line falling in the rural areas and also falling in the agricultural field. 5.7. Suitable hardware is required for securing the insulators to the tower.8 The Insulators are connected in series or in series –parallel to form a single or double string on the tower.7.5 Mid Span Joint ‐ This is used to connect the cut ends of the earth wire. 5.4 Cross bye clips (sister wire clamps) – This is used for providing better continuity to the earth wire. The hardware has a hook on the tower side and socket on the conductor side. They are nothing but a sort of parallel groove clamp.5.4. This is nothing but a steel tube which is crimped on the ends of the earth wire. Power Consultants & Agencies Page 34 .4. They are provided in set of three from either side of the tower. The insulator hardware commonly used is as follows:‐ 5.8.

railway crossing etc. They have D‐shackle. yoke on tower side and yoke.4 Double Tension hardware— This is used on tension tower location having a major road crossing. 5. Power Consultants & Agencies Page 35 . power line crossing. They also have a Suspension clamp on the line side. river crossing. 5.4. They have anchor and a yoke on the tower side and yoke & sockets on line side.4.8.3 Single Tension hardware— This is used on tension tower locations.8.8. dead end clamps on the line side.2 Double Suspension hardware—this is used on suspension tower locations which require a road crossing or a railway crossing & river crossing.4.5. This hardware has a shackle on the line side and a dead end clamp on the line side.

0 Stringing of Conductor and Ground Wire 6.5 Relation of Conductor With Transmission Line Components: 5.5. The transmission tower provides full support to the conductor with two extremities – a) To allow sufficient ground clearance and object clearance to the conductor under maximum temperature & still air. 5. if the conductor is placed within an umbrella of 30º degrees. The variation in wind velocity over tall tower also steps up the vibration level. The earth wire accessories help in supporting the function of earth wire. The stringing activities are most important and time consuming activities in transmission line construction.3 The hardware part of the insulator string is very important for the performance of the conductor.5 The long span of River & Creek Crossing imposes differential stresses due to variation in wind pressure and temperature along the long span.2 The insulators keep the conductor in position on suspension and tension locations & also insulate the conductor from the tower body. the life of conductor and insulator will be reduced. Any deficiency in the tower design will lead to a catastrophe. The conductor will carry this along the line and insulators may get damaged. the conductor will be loaded by lightning and stray discharges.5. This requires much skill and technical know‐how. 6. 5.1 Stringing is the last major item of construction activity.1 The Transmission line components described above has relation with the conductor. Any damage to insulator will cause a short circuit on the conductor and may also lead to the break down. 5. Some salient points are described below‐ The earth wire provided on the tower provides a cover to the conductor against lightning surges. The stinging tools and tackles should be of good quality and in good working condition. experienced fitters and supervisor.5. If earthing system is poor. The stinging crew shall include skilled laborers.5.5. b) Absorb the maximum tension of the conductor under 0ºC temperature with certain percentage of wind pressure. The hardware permits the conductor to swing to some extent and also restrains the conductor from over swing. 5. If earth wire is not provided or is missing.4 The earthing system provides a safe passage to the fault current & lightning /switching surges.5. Any loose end will result into damage to the conductor. Power Consultants & Agencies Page 36 . The length of the catenary is very long & therefore the conductor swing is also very big.

2 The stringing activities are mainly consisting of the following: • Hoisting of insulators • Paying of conductor/ground wire • Rough sagging of conductor • Final sagging of conductor/ground wire • Clipping/clamping of conductor and jumpering. 6.3 Hoisting of Insulators Following may be noted for hoisting of insulators. • The insulators used on transmission lines are 11KV antifog type Disc insulators having capacity as 70KN. 120KN and 160KN. Power Consultants & Agencies Page 37 . 90KN. • All the insulators shall be cleaned and examined for hair cracks or any damage. • The security clips (R pin/W pin) should be properly placed before hoisting. • The strings are then hoisted and fixed to the tower cross‐arm along with hardware and Arial rollers. • The insulator strings shall be assembled on ground.6. • The suspension insulator strings shall be used on all suspension locations (tangent towers) and tension insulator strings on all tension locations (angle towers having15/30/60deg Deviation and Dead end towers).

• In case of railway/road crossing spans.5 Rough Sagging of Conductor • On completion of conductor paying work between two tension locations (i. • All the compression joints shall be carefully made and a record of initial and final lengths of the joints signed by the contractor’s and purchaser’s representative should be maintained.4 Paying out of Conductor/Ground wire Following may be noted for paying of conductor. • Extra sag of 150mm should be allowed at all important tension locations of railway crossing / major road crossing/ river crossing spans. • The ground wire is pulled manually or by tractor along the line. • Before commencing of string works. • During the rough sagging. • The mid span joints and tension hardware are compressed by using hydraulic compression machine. • No joints of conductor shall be allowed within 30m from suspension/tension hardware . fencing and other obstructions which are likely to cause damage to the conductor. 6.e. check for sag should also be made at intervals corresponding to the ambient temperature shown by the thermometer placed at site. • Thus the tension on the wire will minimum. • The conductor drums should be handled carefully at site to avoid any damage to the outer aluminum layer. • The conductor and ground wire shall be made to sag correctly as per the approved stringing charts. • Sufficient number of aluminum snatch blocks shall be used for paying out of conductor. • Dynamometers shall be used in tensioning of conductors. the areal rollers are fitted to the towers along with suspension strings. • The ground wire drums should be opened and laid carefully in such a way to avoid cracks/damages. • Prior to taking up of conductor paying activity. Power Consultants & Agencies Page 38 .6. is line section). • Precautions should be taken to avoid conductor rubbing on the ground by providing adequate number of ground rollers. The ground wire running blocks are hoisted on the towers prior to taking up this operation. • Additional rollers shall be provided for crossing thorny hedges. the conductor will be lifted above the ground by about 3 meters. 6. • It should be ensured that no joint in ground wire is within 30m from the suspension/tension clamp. • All conductors shall be stressed to their maximum working tension at the time of stringing according to the sag tension charts. • Normally ground wire drums are mounted on turntable near tension location. copies of sag tension charts (supplied by the design department) showing initial and final sag should be made available at site to EIC.6 Final Sagging of Conductor/Ground wire Following may be noted for final sagging of conductor / ground wire. no joints shall be permitted. the conductors of all the phases shall be anchored near the tension location. Further not more then one joint in a span of each conductor shall be permitted.

• The suspension clamps of the suspension hardware should be fixed (bolted) at the centre of the preformed armour rods. • The sag. pullers. tensioner. before clipping work is taken on hand. if the section is having more than eight spans.It should be ensured that the conductor/ ground wire after being pulled shall not be kept on stringing sheaves for more than 72 hours before being pulled to the specified sag. • This will ensures equal sags of each sub‐conductor in a span and sub‐span. Following required for clipping / clamping: • Conductor shall be clamped within 24 hours of final sagging. • Care should be taken to see that all the strands of the rods are fixed on the surface of the conductor without any void. removal of aerial sheaves. • During the time when conductor/ground wire is on the stringing sheave (before final sagging) it shall be ensured no damage of conductor/ground wire occurs due to wind. payout. Power Consultants & Agencies Page 39 • . • During final sagging of conductor. • At all the suspension locations. 6. • The check should be provided at intermediate span also.7 Clipping/Clamping of Conductor and Jumpering The clipping/clamping work includes fixing of suspension hard wares. • This method is applicable where it is desired to keep the conductor off the ground to minimize surface damaged or in areas where frequent crossings are encountered. • The stringing of bundle conductor (two or more conductor) shall be carried out by using tension stringing equipment. the conductors are kept under tension during the stringing process to keep conductor clear of the ground and obstacles which may cause conductor surface damage as well as clear of the energized circuits. the sag at intermediate spans should be verified with the help of sag board provided at suitable distances (as per the approved stringing chart and the corresponding site temperature) on the tower body of intermediate locations. the preformed armour rods shall be wrapped keeping the centre of the preformed armour rods at the centre point of the stringing sheaves. before clamping. • The conductor shall be pulled up to desired sag (final sag) and left in aerial stringing sheaves for at least one hour. rough sag and final tensioning of all the sub‐conductors of the bundle under equal physical tension. splicing cart and pulling vehicle. After which the sag shall be rechecked and adjusted if required. • The vibration dampers should be fitted on tension locations at an appropriate distance from the tension hardware (specified by the design department) during the rough/ final sagging of conductors. • The equipments involved in this method are reel stands. reel winder. • One more important reason to use the tension stringing equipment for stringing of bundle conductor is to release. should be checked in the first and last span of the section having eight spans. pilot line winder. • Using this method. vibrations. vehicles or any other reasons. etc. • The vibration dampers on suspension locations shall be fitted at an appropriate distance on either side of the suspension hardware as specified. providing of preformed armour rods.

Sometimes the tower is spotted on the ravines or river banks and one or more of the four tower legs are subjected to soil erosion. • The clearance with the tower body. 6. • Vibration dampers are also provided on the earth wire to damp the Aeolian vibrations. • Sister wires and clamps are provided on each tower making an additional loop on the top of the earth wire point which also ensures better conductivity & continuity. after providing jumpers. over tightening should be avoided.The jumpering work of conductor includes cutting of proper length of jumper providing of jumper cones on both the ends of jumper. • After final tensioning of the earth wire. shall be checked as per the approved tower drawing. fixing of the jumper to the tension hardware on either side of the tension location etc. • The approved stringing charts are used for stringing of earth wire. • The ground wire jumpers are also prepared using appropriate length of ground wire having compressed jumper cones on either side. Power Consultants & Agencies Page 40 • .8 Fixing of Tower Accessories After the stringing work is done it is necessary to fix the tower accessories such as phase plate.9 Protection of Towers • In the hilly terrain. • The tightening of bolts/nuts should be proper. also known as sister wire clamps. Number plate. • This earth bond gives direct path to the lightning discharges traveling on the earth wire to the mother earth through towers and safe guards the conductors. Circuit identification plate. Danger plate. • The vibration dampers for ground wires shall be provided at appropriate distance on either side of the location as specified. 6. on either side of the locations. • The earth wire suspension and tension clamps are connected to the main tower body using braided copper earth band. • The prepared jumpers shall be then fitted to the tension clamps on either side of the tension locations. • The earth wire stringing is normally done before the stringing of conductor. the suspension clamps are provided on the suspension locations and compression type dead end clamps are provided on the tension locations. Anti climbing devices etc as per their respective position shown on the structural drawings. • This happens because of gushing water from upstream. • Jumpering work is done on the earth wire tension tower. • The rough sagging and final sagging is done exactly as per the procedure described for conductor. Care should be taken to compress the jumper cones with hydraulic compressor machine so as to have firm grip with the conductor. • In both the above cases it is usual to provide retaining wall and or revetment. • The bolts and nuts of cross by clips should be properly tightened. The clamps are required to be properly tightened to ensure proper connectivity and trouble free service. the foundations of the tower are susceptible to the damage due to the erosion of soil covering it. • An additional ground wire piece called sister wire is fitted on the newly strung ground wire at the top of all the locations using 2 to 3 numbers of cross by clips.

This barrier has to be sufficiently strong and made out of girders and channels. tackles. man power and other infra structure required in the construction of EHV transmission lines. tackles. The details given here under give a broad view of the tools. • Expert surveyor assisted by helpers and suitable vehicles to carry instruments is the basic need. tackles. The activities are labor oriented and besides there are restrictions on the use of automatic machineries due to the constraint of cost and the constraint of movements in the rural and in‐accessible tower and line locations. man power etc.2 Infrastructure for Survey • This is the first and foremost activity in the transmission construction. Vehicles and Infrastructure Required For the Construction of The EHV Transmission Line 7.• • • Whenever the Transmission line is passing through a corridor having major road on both the sides or the tower line is passing very near to the major road it is necessary to provide a steel barrier around the tower up to height of 3 meters. • This survey work is different from the survey work required to be done for civil establishments. The barriers have to be well founded to take the impact of the dashing vehicles. are given here after. The erection activities are spread over a long period and are mostly carried out in the rural areas and therefore appropriate infrastructure is required. equipments and vehicles required for the construction of EHV line of various voltage classes such as 66 KV. The transmission line construction activity generally includes:‐ • Survey and alignment • Foundation work • Erection of super structure • Stringing of shield wire and conductor • Testing and Commissioning Each of the above activity need different types of tools. 7. 220 KV and 400 KV etc.0 Details of Manpower Tools. 7.1 The details of man power tool. Tackles Equipment. equipments. 132 KV. Power Consultants & Agencies Page 41 .

In case soil collapse shoring and shuttering are required. As per requirement Transport required for Survey Gang Jeep with trailers 1 NO 7. The output in hilly terrain may be substantially low.• • • • • • • The surveyor must have the knowledge of preparing profiles and also various methods to carry out the correct survey. The foundation depth may vary from 1m to 5m depending upon the soil/rock and decision regarding the type of foundation has to be adopted. chairs. Tools required for Survey Gang Theodolite(or Total Station) with stand 1 NO Dumpy level with stand 1 NO Ranging rod 5 NO Leveling Staff 2 NO Engineers chain ‐30 m 1 NO Engineers chain ‐20 m 1 NO Steel Tape ‐30 m 1 NO Steel Tape ‐20 m 1 NO Survey umbrella 1 NO Chain pins 30 NO Spades. The surveyor should also have in‐depth knowledge of tower spotting. Average output per month per gang consisting of about 10 crew members will be : (i) Alignment survey 15 km (ii) Detailed Survey 20 km (iii) Check Survey 20 km Wherever topographical survey is to be carried out the output will be less and will depend on the quantum of work and terrain. knives and exes for clearing the bushes and trees As per requirement Tents.3 Foundation activity • This activity has to be carried out from location to location spread over a distance which is sometimes as large as 400 meters. The infra structure required for this activity is as below. Sometimes. dewatering has to be resorted to. In case sub soil water is encountered during excavations. petromax etc. water drums camping cots. Excavation has to be carried out in various types of soils and rocks. buckets. in hilly locations we may have to blast the rock. Average output per gang consisting of about 85 people per month will be: Excavation 60 m³ Soft rock 150 m³ soft rock Output of hard rock will depend on situation 400 ‐500 m³ Normal soil +180 m³ normal soil Page 42 Power Consultants & Agencies . tables. The infra structure required for carrying out survey work is listed below. • The excavation plan will change accordingly.

Stub‐setting & Concreting Tools and Plants required for Excavation. Stub‐setting and Concreting Gang Stub‐setting Templates Stub‐setting Jacks Form boxes/Chimneys Mixture Machine ‐Diesel engine driven Mixture Machine ‐ Hand driven Needle vibrator Dewatering pump Air compressor for drilling holes in rock High carbon drilling rods for drilling holes in rock Exploder Water tanker trailor Theodolite with stand Ranging rod Dumpy level with stand (or Total Station with Prism) Leveling staff Survey umbrella Concrete cube mould (for testing the concrete) Wooden shuttering & poles Mixing Sheets Measuring Box Metal screen (for course aggregate) ‐ 40 mm mesh Metal screen (for course aggregate) ‐ 20 mm mesh Metal screen (for course aggregate) ‐ 12.75 mm mesh Empty barrel (200 liters capacity) Steel/Aluminum/Wooden ladder (3.5 mm mesh Sand screen ‐ 4.5m length) 30 m metallic tape 30 m steel tape Engineers’ spirit level Steel piano wire/thread Crow bar Pick axe Spade Shovel Gamelas Buckets Iron rammer (4.5 Kg) Power Consultants & Agencies 60 – 70 m³ As per requirement ‐do‐ ‐do‐ 1 NO 2 NO 1 NO 2 NO 1 NO As per requirement 1 NO 1 NO 1 NO 3 NO 1 NO 1 NO 1 NO 6 NO As per requirement 12 NO 6 NO 1 NO 1 NO 1 NO 1 NO 6 NO 5 NO 1 NO 1 NO 2 NO 50 m 20 NO 12 NO 25 NO 8 NO 30 NO 12 NO 5 NO Page 43 .

5 Stringing Stringing work is almost the last activity. tommy bars requirement Tents. cement. camping Cots. plumb bob (0. buckets. chairs. Transport required for Stub‐setting & Concreting Gang Truck (For transportation of metal and sand from Source.Masonry trowel Manila rope ‐ 38 mm dia. Slings (16 mm dia & 1 m As per length). camping cots. buckets. water drums. While stringing operations are on. Truck 1 / 2 NO 2.4 Tower Erection • Tower erection requires lot of precision. reinforcement steel and Other materials from site stores) Tractor with trailer Motor cycle 6 NO 150 m 30 m 2 NO 2 NO As per requirement As per requirement As per requirement 1 NO 1 NO 1 NO 7.5 – 9 m length 2 NO Polypropylene rope ‐ 25 mm dia 700 m Polypropylene rope ‐ 19 mm dia 1000 m Single sheave pulley ‐ closed type 8 NO Single sheave pulley ‐ Open type 4 NO Crow bars (25 mm dia & 1. save commissioning.5 m length Blasting materials. tables. Manila rope ‐ 12 mm dia. Tables and chairs petromax etc. spanners (both ring and flat) etc. Tents. This is really a very precise and hazardous activity. The infrastructure required for this activity is given under • Average output per gang considering of about 50 crew members per month will be ‐ 80 M. water drums. Tractor with trailer 1 NO 3. binding wire Hammer. Hook (12 mm dia). Hooks (12 mm dia) ‘D’ shackle. Poking rod (16 mm dia) ‐ 3 m length Poking rod (16 mm dia) ‐ 1. Tommy bar. load balance and rigging arrangement has to be full – proof. Besides the material has to be lifted from the ground level to various heights. Hammers.T.45 Kg). • Tools required for Tower Erection Gang Ginpole / Derric Pole ‐ 75/100 mm dia & 8. As per petromax etc requirement Transport required for Tower Erection Gang 1. in the overall construction activities in the EHV transmission lines. While erecting it is necessary that equilibrium is maintained and damage to the tower material and accidents are avoided. Motor Cycle 1 NO 7.The man power deployed has to be proportional to the actual physical tension Power Consultants & Agencies Page 44 .8 m length) 16 NO Spanners (both ring and flat). depending upon the type of tower.

• • • required to be given to the earth wires and conductors. The infrastructure required for stringing operations is given under Average output per gang consisting of about 200 persons per month with Tension Stringing – Machine stringing method.0 x 8 mm) with 15 Nos.5 m x 1. Excess man power may result into over tension and less man power may result into improper stringing and accidents. For 400 KV single circuit 15 km For 400 KV double circuit 8 km For +/‐ 500 HVDC multi circuit 5 km Requirement of man power and average output per gang for carrying out various types transmission lines by manual method is furnished here under : Description of line Man power (NO) Average output / month (km) 66 KV single circuit 75 30 66 KV double circuit 75 15 132 KV single circuit 100 30 132 KV double circuit 100 15 220 KV single circuit 125 30 220 KV double circuit 125 15 400 KV single circuit 225 15 400 KV double circuit 225 8 Tools and plants required for stringing Gang for Tension/Manual Stringing TSE sets (Tensioner and Puller of 8/10 T capacity) Running block for conductor Running block for earth wire Head Board Pilot wire each of 800 m length Pilot wire joint Ground roller for Tension/Manual Stringing Wire mesh pulling grip (one end open) of required dia for conductor Wire mesh pulling grip (one end open) of required dia for earth wire Wire mesh pulling grip (double end open) of required dia for earth wire Articulated joint – Heavy duty (20T) Articulated joint – Medium duty (10T) Articulated joint – light duty (5T) Drum mounting jack for conductor drum of 10T capacity Turn table (5T capacity) Anchor plate (1. anchor pins (45 mm dia & 850 mm long) Hydraulic compressor machine 100 T capacity with die sets Traveling ground Dynamometer ‐ 10T 1 SET 100 NO 60 NO 2 NO 10 NO 12 NO 30/100 NO 6 NO 2 NO 4 NO 10 NO 10 NO 5 NO 4 SETS 2 NO 8 NO 12 SETS 4 NO Page 45 Power Consultants & Agencies .

2 NO 4 NO 6 SETS 2 SETS 4 SETS 16 NO 4 SETS 4 NO 50/20 NO 15/10 NO 6 NO 6 NO 4 NO 16 NO 6 NO 6 NO 8 NO 4 NO 2 NO 6 NO 4 NO 1 NO 3 NO 1 NO 2 NO 3 NO 30 NO 10 NO 6 NO 1000 m 150 m 900 m 500 m 500 m 40 NO 125 NO 125 NO 35 NO As per requirement As per requirement Power Consultants & Agencies Page 46 . spanners (both flat and ring). etc. round files. steel and metallic tapes.8 m length) Nail puller Wire rope ‐ 19 mm dia Wire rope ‐ 16 mm dia Wire rope ‐ 14 mm dia Polypropylene rope ‐ 25 mm dia Polypropylene rope ‐ 19 mm dia ‘D’ – Shackle ‐ 190 mm long ‘D’ – Shackle ‐ 150 mm long Bulldog clamp ‐ 100 mm long Bulldog clamp ‐ 100 mm long Hammers. hacksaw frame and blades. Tents. water drums. cutting pliers. slings etc. camping cots. screw drivers. petromax. chair. buckets. scaffolding. flat files. table.Dynamometer ‐ 2 T Pilot wire reel stand Four Sheave pulley with 12 mm dia 300 m length wire rope Four sheave pulley with 9 mm dia 300 m length wire rope Four sheave pulley with 12 m dia 150 m length wire rope Equalizer pulley (10 T) capacity Conductor lifting tackle Winch – motorized/ manual – 10 T capacity Come along clamp for conductor (bolted type / automatic) Come along clamp for earth wire (bolted type / automatic) Tirfor (5 T capacity) Aerial chair (For conductor) Aerial Trolley Turn Buckle ‐ 10T Turn Buckle ‐ 3 T Tension/Sag plate (for tensioning purpose) Sag Board Marking roller Mismatch roller Joint protector Walkie talkie set Theodolite with stand (or Total Station with Prism) Thermometer Survey umbrella Hydraulic wire cutter Binocular Flag (red and green) Crow bar (1.

0 Conclusion 8.6 Transport Required for Stringing Tension Stringing Truck 75 h. Proper construction practice ensures high reliability and long life of the transmission line 8./45 h.7.p.p.p. ********** Power Consultants & Agencies Page 47 .2 The main activities of foundation. tractor 35 h. tower erection & stringing are completely diverse from each other and require different type of skill workers as well as tools tackles and equipment.1 Construction of EHV transmission line is a very precise and skillful job. Tractor and trailors Jeep Motor Cycle 4 NO 2 NO 5 NO 2 NO 1 NO Manual Stringing 4 NO 1 NO 6 NO 2 NO 1 NO 8.