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“ Rapid prototyping ”

Submitted by



Under the guidance of

( H.O.D.)


Presentation at :
Govt. College of Engg., Jalgaon.
Rapid Prototyping


It gives me great pleasure on bringing out

the seminar entitled,

I wish to express my heart bound thanks

to my guide Prof. C.V. Deshmukh (H.O.D.), Prof. D.V.
Shirbhate & Prof. S.K. Patil for their guidance,
encouragement and allowing to succeeding the

Last, not the least...., my cordial thanks to

all those friends and well wishers, who contributed
their bit in the successful completion of my task.


III Year B.E. Prod.

College of Engg. & Tech. ,Akola

Rapid Prototyping


Sr.No. Particular Page No.

1. Introduction

What is Prototyping

Rapid prototyping differs by

2. The principle Advantages 2

3. Need for Prototype 2

4. Development 3

5. Case Study for Rapid Prototyping 3

6. Basic Process 8



3D Plotting

7. Materials for Rapid Prototyping 12

8. Conclusion 13

9. Bibliography 14

Rapid Prototyping

An Introduction to Rapid Prototyping

The ability to rapidly produce accurate, tangible models of

products designed on a computer aided design system.

Rapid prototyping is a technology of producing a, 3

dimensional visual prototype or model direct from a CAD file. Rapid

prototyping is based on CAD  computer aided design.

What is Rapid Prototyping?

The term "rapid prototyping" is a relatively new expression

for the generation of three-dimensional models manufactured without the need

for machining or tooling.

Production of models by machining has a number of limitations:-

1. Material removed during forming is difficult to reclaim.

2. Machining, in the form of drilling, turning, milling, spark erosion etc., is

limited by the shapes it can produce.

3. In the event of design change conventional tooling such as patterns, core

boxes, dies, jigs etc., become expensive to alter and, in many cases, may

require complete re-manufacture.

Rapid prototyping differs by:-

Adding material layer by layer until the desired shape is

achieved, immediately reducing or avoiding the loss of material. Cutting out

Rapid Prototyping

the conventional draftsperson, patternmaker and in some situations even the

moulder, the system goes a long way towards reducing time taken and cost

and improving accuracy.

The principle advantages of using this technology are: -

1. Speed at which the solid model is generated.

2. The complexity of the model does not form any limitations to its production.

3. The early use of these models was to assist the designer in determining fit

and form. It also provided the sales team with a 3 dimensional object to

show to a prospective customer, this being far better than the traditional

orthographic drawing which many people find difficult to interpret.

4. Concept modeling

5. Aesthetic

6. To make an impossible object.

The Need for a Prototype

It is very difficult, and in many instances impossible, to

produce an article that will serve the purpose of use without making

modifications to the original shape or general design. There are many

examples of design failure that have been the cause of serious injury and

costly litigation.

Rapid Prototyping concentrates the mind on getting the product

Right First Time

Rapid Prototyping

Other uses for RP models are:-

 Discussion piece.

 Design and fit.

 Assembly capabilities.

 Suitability of mechanical properties.

 Manufacturing process capabilities (forging, casting, pressing, fabrication



The first rapid prototyping system was developed on to the

US model in 1988 and gave the Engg. the opportunity to produce 3

dimensional object from computer aided design (CAD) data.

The development of this technology has reach into many of traditional fields.

The Case for Rapid Prototyping

The prime concern of any management is to maintain and,

where possible, improve profitability. We are all aware that profits accrue when

income from sales exceed total cost and that profits can be increased by

improved sales or reduction in costs, or both.

Many technologies have been developed which have been

successful in reducing the labour content, which, in most cases is the major


Rapid Prototyping

Rapid prototyping is only some ten years old and is

already proving to be a very cost-effective way of producing models/patterns.

There are over 500 SLA machines installed world wide (approximately 20 in

the UK) to famous companies such as :-

Ford, General Motors, Rover, Rolls Royce, IBM, Boeing, BAe.

These companies have recognised the power of this

technology to boost their profits and competitiveness. Whilst most companies

are, understandably, reluctant to reveal the extent to which the technology

contributes to their profitability, BAe. claims that one of its systems paid for

itself within 5 months. Rover, who bought the largest system available, is

already considering the purchase of other system.

Of the 500 systems sold world-wide, about 15% are being

used by RP bureaux, operating on a sub-contract basis. In the UK this number

is significantly higher at 50%.

All the companies are exploiting the power of RP to increase their profits as

discussed below.

Increasing Sales by:-

* Producing visual models for market research, publicity, packaging etc.,

* Getting to market sooner.

* Generating customer goodwill through improved quality.

* Expanding the product range.

* Reducing the cost and fear of failure.

* Visual Models

Rapid Prototyping

Consumer product manufacturers find value in having

tangible models of their proposed products to show to customers.

IBM used SLA to produce operating display units of its

ThinkPad tablet computer for the annual COMDEX show.

Key Tronics, who manufacture computer keyboards, create

physical parts for customer approval.

Logitech, the worlds largest manufacturer of pointing

devices, was asked, by a "blue chip computer company" to quote on a unique

two-button mouse; in less than two weeks from the initial request Logitech’s

team returned with a functional SLA prototype. The customer’s reaction was

one of ‘disbelief '. Part quality was so superior that the computer giant

awarded the contract on the spot. It is thought that this single order paid for

the SLA system.

Coca-Cola used RP to design the nostalgic (coke bottle) curves into a

contemporary 20 ounce plastic Coke bottle.

Getting to Market Sooner

The phrase "Time to Market" is first thought to have been

used in a classic 1983 article by McKinsey & Co on product development that


"Six months of delay can reduce a product’s life cycle profits by 33%".

The author of that article has since written: "The first product to market has a

100% share of that market in the beginning. The earlier a product appears, the

Rapid Prototyping

better are its prospects for obtaining and retaining a large share of the

market… For each month cut from a product’s development cycle a month can

be added to its sales life, representing an extra month of revenue and profit…

It gains more customer loyalty due to the cost of switching to another

product… A third benefit is higher profit margins. If a new product appears

before there is competition, the company will enjoy more pricing freedom,

making higher profit margins…"

DePuy, the surgical implant manufacturers, state: The

major goals are decreasing the time to develop a product, while allowing

manufacturing to launch the product quickly, resulting in a larger return on

investment… The return from launching a single product several months early

pays for the entire technology investment."

Generating Customer Goodwill through Improved Quality

The end result has been less re-design, improved products

and most importantly, greater customer satisfaction. This has lead to many

companies in the USA producing a RP model with every quote.

Expanding Product Range

Today’s market place is characterised by more frequent

introductions of more product variants each having a life cycle than the

previous one. In addition, lead-times demanded are shorter than ever before.

Rapid Prototyping

Clearly, RP makes a positive contribution here, by compressing development

times, thus making it possible to respond to the demands of the niche markets

and to introduce new products more frequently.

Reducing the Cost and Fear of Failure

It takes a very confident person to allocate / sanction large

amounts of money and resources on tooling for a product that might not make

it on the market. This will inevitably make people cautious and restrict their

design flair to those tried and tested shapes and systems. Where a relatively

cheap model can be produced quickly it reduces the fear that traditional

methods attract allowing the designer to be more adventurous.

Rapid Prototyping

Rapid Prototyping, the basic process

RP machines process CAD data by slicing the computer

model into layers, each layer being typically 0.1 - 0.25mm thick. The machine

then uses this data to construct the model layer by layer, each layer being

bonded to the previous until a solid object is formed. Due to this laminated

method of construction a stepped surface is developed on curved faces, the

removal of which is essential if maximum advantage of the process is to be


The models are built in a build envelope or tank, and so do

not have mould cavity walls or patterns to rest on during construction. As a

result a support structure is also built along with the model itself. Once the

model is complete, and the remaining powder or liquid in the build tank is

expunged, and the support structure must be removed. This is similar to the

removal of risers and channels in traditional casting processes. Most models

can then be subjected to post production methods (e.g. sanding).

The lamination and the support structure is designed by

the software used to drive the process. This translates a conventional 3D CAD

drawing into the STL format used by the Rapid Prototyping machines (see


Rapid Prototyping


There are three major types of Rapid Prototyping. They are

1. Photopolymer (Stereolithography),

2. Laminated object modeling,

3. 3D Plotting.

As Rapid Prototyping technology develops, the number of methods which can

be used to produce prototypes increase, these are some of them.

1. Rapid Prototyping - Fused Deposition Manufacture


Materials used include:-


Medical ABS

Investment casting wax

Elastomers similar to low and high density



A thermo-polymer is extruded from a travelling head having

a single, fine nozzle. The head travels in the X axis while the table or platform

travels in the Y axis and descends at predetermined increments in the Z axis.

On leaving the nozzle the thermo- polymer adheres and hardens to the

previous layer.

Rapid Prototyping

2. Rapid Prototyping - Laminated Object Manufacturing


LOM was developed by Michael Feygin of Helysis.

As the name implies the process laminates thin sheets of

film (paper or plastic), the laser has only to cut/scan the periphery of each

layer and not the whole surface as in SLA.

The build material (paper with a thermo-setting resin glue

on its under side) is stretched from a supply roller across an anvil or platform

to a take- up roller on the other side. A heated roller passes over the paper

bonding it to the platform or previous layer. A laser, focused to penetrate

through one thickness of paper cuts the profile of that layer. The excess paper

around and inside the model is etched into small squares to facilitate its

removal. Meanwhile, this surplus material provides support for the developing

model during the build process. The process of gluing and cutting continuous

layer by layer until the model is complete.

To reduce the build time, double or even triple layers are

cut at one time which increases the size of the steps on curved surfaces and

the post processing necessary to smooth those surfaces.

Applications of LOM objects:

LOM objects are durable, multilayered structures which can be machined,

sanded, polished, coated and painted.

Used as precise patterns for secondary tooling processes such as rubber

moulding, sand casting and direct investment casting.

Rapid Prototyping

Used for limited testing.

Used as visual models.

NASA have used the LOM to produce 12 ‘Hot’ gas manifold for the shuttle

main engine.

3. SLA Process. ( Stereolithography )

SLA system builds shapes using light to selectively solidify liquid photocurable


Principle :

Laser SLA crates acrylic or epoxy parts directly from a vat

of liquid photocurable polymer by selectively solidifying the polymer with a

scanning laser beam.

Building -up Technique

1. Building - up parts on an elevator platform.

2. The platform is lowered into the vat by the distance of the layer thickness.

3. Guiding a laser beam using servo-controlled galvanometer mirror and

drawing a cross -sectional layer in the x-y plane to form a solid section.

4. The platform is then lowered into the vat and the next layer is drawn and

adhered to the previous layer.

5. These steps are repeated, layer-by-layer until the complete part is built up.

Rapid Prototyping

Materials for R.P.

There is a clear need to improve the mechanical properties

of the stereolithography resins and plastics currently being used.

Wax -like material that can be used for investment casting of metal parts.

Polystyrene for selective laser sintering.

Polyamide (nylon) is generally used for parts requiring higher strength and/ or


ABS that is, with ductility to test snap fit, flexible hinges and other functional

properties of a design.

Rapid Prototyping


Today’s market is customer market. R & D is the heart of any progressing,

developing industry because R&D can only word of new blood in industry, so

that no obsolance stage will covered in the life of industry.

R & D Engg. developing new shapes, size, design, type of various component

for the establishing machine or product but hurdle is to produce the part

according to design immediately for getting immediate solution to the problem

which they want to rid off.

Now the time has come where, the design egg. Just can imagine the new

design, reproduce on the paper and within the few minute the product will be

ready with this technology ( prototyping) because the time has come where

this technology is capable to give the product manufactured within few minutes

if product details are fed to computer as data.

Rapid Prototyping


1. “ R.P. Systems” Mech. Engg., April. 1991, PP 34-43

2. Jacobs. Paul F. “ R.P. & Manufacturing” , Society of manufacturing Engg.,

Dearborn 1992.

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Plat form

Process Chamber

Fig. Fused deposition

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Scanner Laser sinking



Surface of resin



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Cross hatching by laser

Laminated Object Manufacturing (LOM)