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- ARCHITECTURAL Drawing Course
- Perspective Drawing Eguide
- Perspective Hand Drawing
- Sketching for Architecture.pdf
- Perspective Made Easy
- Perspective Drawing Handbook-JosephDAmelio
- Jay Doblin - Perspective a New System for Designers
- Perspective+
- Industrial Design
- Drawing.for.Interior.design.2nd.edition
- basic_sketching
- Chapter 1_Perspective Drawing
- Sketching
- Basic Rendering
- Sketching the Basics 2011
- Design Sketching
- Architectural Drawing
- Perspective Drawing
- Pencil Drawing Lessons
- PERSPECTIVE DRAWINGS

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All rights reserved. No part of this work covered by the copyright hereon may be reproduced or used in any form or by any means - graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, or information storage and retrieval systems - without written permission of the author.

PREF ACE

Perspective is the most common method of depicting three dimensional forms realistically. Perspective is found in all types of printed matter. It is used widely in the professional areas: Architecture, Interior Design, Industrial Design, Commercial Art, Graphic & Environmental Design. In all instances drawings depicting ideas or real objects are communicated to a wide variety of viewers. Perspective has been with us for a long time. 15th Century painters used aerial perspective by incorporating a gradual change of intensity of colors and light. Adding overlap and a single vanishing point gave the illusion of objects gradually getting smaller as they went farther away. Two and three point perspective brought about new possibilities as it became necessary to show what objects and buildings would look like before they were manufactured or constructed. Designers then began to find better ways to develop their perspectives that would use less construction - resulting in faster solutions. Also, new tools such as ellipse guides and perspective grids have been introduced to help quicken this process. There have been several good textbooks which have each made a contribution to help us understand these processes. Unfortunately, they are now out of print. I have taught perspective for many years and have not found a comprehensive textbook. I solved this by writing a supplement in syllabus form. The syllabus eventually grew until it replaced the text. Students often encouraged me to put these notes in book form. I thank them for their encouragement, and to them, I dedicate this book.

My greatest challenge was to make the subject matter appealing to people with different interests and needs. Therefore, I have tried to make the examples very basic, so that they will relate to whatever your area of interest might be. I have also struggled with how technical it needs to be. What looks simple to some might seem to complex to others. So, I have kept the complexity to a minimum. It may not always be necessary to understand the underlying structure of some methods, if you are able to apply it. If you feel burdened by them, skip those sections and concentrate on the short-cuts. The structure is there though, for reference and background. The short-cuts will work without deeper understanding. It is like using a computer without knowing what actually makes it work. Those who know the inner workings can do much more with it, but the computer will work for the novice, if the right buttons are pushed. And, in the beginning, a computer can be pretty scary too. Personally, I think perspective is the greatest thing since ice cream. If you are skeptical of your ability to learn perspective, just remember, it is like reading and writing. Perspective is a learned skill. Once you have practiced and put it to use, you will be using perspective as easily as other skills you now have. The intent of this text is to give a comprehensive look at most of the approaches used today including shadow, reflections, rotations & surface development - hopefully, a useful text that teaches methods that will give you accurate and fast solutions. Lets get to it . . . .

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1 / INTRODUCTION

MULTI-VIEW DRAWINGS SINGLE-VIEW DRAWINGS PERSPECTIVE RELATIONSHIPS 1 & 2 POINT PERSPECTIVE EYE LEVEL (HORIZON) CONE OF VISION PERSPECTIVE USES USING ORTHOGRAPHIC VIEWS PLAN/ELEVATION METHOD WORKING BELOW HORIZON WORKING ABOVE HORIZON CONTROLLING VANISHING PTS. PLAN/ELEVATION IN USE LIMITATIONS & RELATIONSHIPS 2 POINT MEASURING SYSTEM HOW TO USE MEAS. SYSTEM SHORT CUTS MEAS. POINTS BY PREDICTION YARDSTICK PERSPECTIVE SELECTIONS APPLICATIONS OF HML CUBE CONSTRUCTION SYSTEM EXTENDED MEAS. INSIDE BASE LINES ELEVATION USING DIAGONALS HORIZONTAL FLAPS VERTICAL FLAPS MEAS. OUTSIDE BASE LINES MEAS. INSIDE BASE LINES LAYOUT TABLET MEASURES FREEHAND SKETCH MOLDED FORMS ORTHOGRAPHIC VIEWS 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 6 7 8 9 10 2 3 4 5 6 7 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

CONVENTIONAL METHOD DEFINITIONS AND DISTORTION THREE SHORT CUTS 1 POINT FLOOR GRID METHOD SHORT CUT USING ELEVATION COMBINATION 1 & 2 POINT LARGE SCALE DRAWINGS SMALL OBJECT SKETCHES 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 3 4 5 6 8 9 10

CIRCLES IN PERSPECTIVE ELLIPSES DEFINED 8 POINT METHOD 12 POIINT METHOD USING ELLIPSE GUIDES ELLIPSE ALINEMENTS ELLIPSE ANGLE MEASUREMENT ELLIPSE SIZE MEASUREMENT ELLIPSE GALORE 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 2 2 3 4 5 7 8 12 13

SQUARE TO CUBE MULTIPLICATION OF VIEWS DIVIDING LINES & RECTANGLES ENLARGEMENT AND REDUCTION VERTICAL SURFACE MULT. HORIZONTAL SURFACE MULT. REDUCTION OR ENLARGEMENT 2 POINT INTERIOR GRID DEVELOPMENT/HORIZ. PLANE DIAGONAL VANISHING POINT 2 POINT GRID - VERTICAL MEAS. 1 POINT GRID - VERTICAL MEAS. PERSPECTIVE TRACING GRIDS 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 2 4 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

CYLINDERS FROM BOXES VERTICAL CYLINDER W/GUIDES CYLINDER CONSTRUCTIONS CYLINDER ROTATION CAMERA CONSTRUCTION CAMERA ILLUSTRATION SPHERE CONSTRUCTIONS SPHERE STUDIES SPHERE TO SCALE SPHERE SHORT CUT 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

CHAPTER 9 / SHADOWS

LIGHT LOCATION 4 SHADOW TYPES PLOTTING BASICS PARALLEL METHOD VERTICAL PLANE HORIZONTAL PLANE BOX FORMS / EXTERIOR BOX FORMS / INTERIOR FLAGPOLE RULE MULTIPLE BOX SOLUTIONS WALL VARIATIONS 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 1 1 2 2 4 4 4 5 5 6 7

GRID CONSTRUCTION INTERIOR/ARCH APPLICATION PRODUCT APPLICATION 6 - 2 6 - 6 6 - 7

CHAPTER 9 (CONTINUED)

SHADOW SAVVY DOORWAYS & WINDOWS BOX WITH FLAPS PYRAMID CONSTRUCTION STANDING CYLINDERS HORIZONTAL CYLINDERS CYLINDER INSIDE SHADOW SPHERE SHADOW SHORT CUT SPHERE SHADOW SPHERE SHADOW ON WALL BOX FORM ON CONE CAST SHADOWS ON FORMS FLOATING FORMS CONVERGING LIGHT SHADOW POSITIVE LIGHT SHADOW NEGATIVE LIGHT SHADOW 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 7 8 9 9 10 13 15 16 17 18 19 20 22 24 27 30

CHAPTER 10 / REFLECTIONS

FORMS INTO VERTICAL MIRROR REFLECTIONS INTO WALL REFLECTIONS OF FORMS CONVEX MIRROR HORIZONTAL CYLINDER SPHERE REFLECTIONS HIGHLIGHT & REFLECTIONS 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 2 3 4 7 10 11 12

CHAPTER 12

3 POINT PERSPECTIVE CONVENTIONAL CONSTRUCTION TRIANGULAR METHOD 3 POINT EFFECT 12 - 2 12 - 3 12 - 4

CUBE AROUND HORIZ. AXIS MULT. OF ROTATING CUBE MEASURING METHOD 90 ROTATION 1 POINT DRAWN ROTATED ROTATION OF CUBES 11 11 11 11 11 11 2 3 4 6 8 9

INTRODUCTION TO PERSPECTIVE

GETTING STARTED

In order to define perspective it is necessary to be aware of several different types of drawings that give visual information about objects such as size, scale, and details. We need to take a quick look at 2 types that are the most common. . . the Multi-View and the Single-View.

PLAN V IEW

TOP

VIEW

ATION

SIDE

FRONT

ELEVA

MULTI-VIEW DRAWINGS Multi-views show what an object looks like from several different directions at the same time. Objects are visually described in three dimensions (width, depth and height) by orthographic projection. Orthographic drawings give us true length visuals of the object by using several views arranged around a front elevation. All lines parallel to the edge of the object are shown in true length. This means that the actual dimension of the object is used either at full scale (actual size) or a scale representation of the size. These views are called projections because each view is projected from one of the other views. A good understanding of orthographic projections will help you understand the relationships of various surfaces.

PLAN OBLIQUE 90 degree corners sides true length or fraction and parallel

ELEVATION OBLIQUE (DIMETRIC) 2 angles equal, sides are true length and parallel

ISOMETRIC all angles equal all sides in true length and parallel

AXONOMETRIC VIEWS SINGLE-VIEW DRAWINGS Axonometric drawings also show all dimensions in true length, but use a single view showing three surfaces. Different sides are shown in direct relation to each other and are seen as parallels at different angles to the horizontal. Each type of drawing takes a different approach in communicating what the object looks like, but are all basically the same each emphasizing a different aspect of the object. Axons give a mental picture of what the object might look like, but will play visual tricks on you. Each veiw appears to get larger as it gets farther away. To get a more realistic looking drawing, a distortion called foreshortening is used. This is the basis of perspective drawing. Examples of different ways that perspective gives us more realistic and "believable" drawings and a fuller definition of perspective will follow . . . . .

1 - 3

PERSPECTIVE DEFINED PERSPECTIVE is a system of drawing by which an object of three dimensions is represented on a flat (two-dimensional) surface to appear real by means of distorting the drawing in a controllable manner. Perspective is derived from a relationship of OBSERVER, PICTURE PLANE, OBJECT and HORIZON at INFINITY.

LINE DRAWING

ACTUAL OBJECT

HORIZON LINE EYE LEVEL @ INFINITY

PICTURE PLANE

GROUND PLANE

CE

NT

ER

OF

I VIS

ON

OBSERVER

PERSPECTIVE RELATIONSHIPS The PICTURE PLANE is a transparent surface through which the OBSERVER sees the OBJECT. The OBJECT touches the PICTURE PLANE at the CENTER OF VISION. This is the only edge that will be seen in (true length). The PICTURE PLANE can be thought of as representing the piece of paper on which you are drawing. As the OBSERVER looks at different corners or details, the position of the corresponding point on the PICTURE PLANE is in 1 a straight line from the detail to the OBSERVER'S eye. This point on the PICTURE PLANE is the (forshortened) position on the drawing. The HORIZON is the elevation of the eye (earth's horizon at infinity) and is represented by a horizontal line. This means that the HORIZON is at the farthest visual distance possible from the OBSERVER and is seen as a horizontal line on the drawing either below, at or above the OBJECT. 4

OBJECT

OBJECT

PICTURE PLANE

PICTURE PLANE

CENTER OF VISION

CENTER OF VISION

OBSERVER

OBSERVER

TOP VIEW

TOP VIEW

VANISHING POINT

ONE-POINT VIEW

TWO-POINT VIEW

ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE RELATIONSHIP The One-Point view is what the OBSERVER sees when the object touches the picture plane along one side. This produces a view of the side perpendicular to the observer and appears to have depth in one direction only. This results in a single VANISHING POINT on the HORIZON LINE at INFINITY. INFINITY is the farthest distance possible from the object. 1 -

TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE RELATIONSHIP The Two-Point view above is what the OBSERVER sees when the object touches the picture plane at one corner. This produces a view that is turned from the observer and appears to have depth in two directions, to the left and to the right. This will result in two VANISHING POINTS on the HORIZON LINE. Locations of VANISHING POINTS & HORIZON LINES will be discussed in CHAPTER 2. 5

EYE LEVEL (HORIZON LINE) The EYE LEVEL is the same as the HORIZON LINE. All eye levels are the same if every viewer is relatively the same height as the OBSERVER. This is true whether you are standing on the ground plane . . or several stories above the ground. The HORIZON LINE is used in all perspective drawings to place the object relative to the OBSERVER'S eye level. The object location can be above, below or at the eye level. 1 - 6

60

60

VP

CV

VP

CV

PICTURE PLANE

* CUBE WITHIN CONE IS NOT DISTORTED - *LEADING CORNER IS GREATER THAN 90

TOO

MIN

IMU

OBSERVERS

CLO SE

DIS

TA NC

CUBE WITHIN * FIELD APPEARS SLIGHLTY DISTORTED (STRETCHED). *LEADING CORNER APPROACHES 90

PICTURE PLANE

ELEVATION VIEW

CONE OF VISION The CONE OF VISION is a cone shape with its single apex at the OBSERVER'S eye and the circular base on the PICTURE PLANE. This cone can be thought of as your visual perception as you look at an object 90 degrees to your line of sight. The correct distance the OBSERVER should be from the OBJECT is determined by this CONE. The CONE gives a way to establish a distance , i.e. the observer can be too close and too far away. The object should be well within this 60 degree cone circle. In practice distortions are corrected by (1) increasing the distance between the Vanishing Points or (2) reducing the scale (size) of the drawing. They both have the effect of increasing the OBJECT to OBSERVER distance. 1 - 7

CV

60 CONE OF VISION

30

30

90 FIELD OF VISION

PLAN VIEW

PERSPECTIVE . . . . . . . . . . . . .

AT EYE LEVEL

OPHEIM

89

LEFT

CENTER

RIGHT

PERSPECTIVE . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2H

Try this!

. . . enables us to draw a wide variety of forms at different scales to represent objects of any shape and size. Look through magazines and newspapers for pictures of buildings, cars and products that have strong 3-dimensional qualities. Now find their vanishing point(s) and horizon line(s) by drawing lines on these pictures which extend outward to points of intersection. Also find an example of the eye level of a person in a photo that is level with the distant horizon.

1 - 9

PLAN/ELEVATION METHOD - 1-POINT PLAN/ELEVATION METHOD - 2-POINT VIEWS ABOVE EYE LEVEL

PERSPECTIVE FROM ORTHOGRAPHIC VIEWS The Plan/Elevation method uses a plan and elevation view to represent height, width, depth & details of the object. This method is most useful when there are existing plan and elevation drawings available. That is often the case in Architectural or Interior Design applications, but not usually available in the early stages of the design process i.e. ideation stage. Often ideas must be presented in perspective before any refinement is possible. However, this method does 2 serve to give us a good example of the relationship of the observer, picture plane, object and horizon. Even though you may not use this method in everyday practice, it is important to understand its basic theory. It will help you grasp the many other variations. The Plan/Elevation Method can be applied to both 1-Point & 2-Point Perspective Drawings. 1

2H

LIMITATIONS Unfortunately, there are certain limitations to this method. 1. Too time consuming. Time must be taken to construct the plan and elevation views unless they already exist. Multiple projections are needed to find any one dimension. 2. Drawing must be done on a very large drawing surface as the location of the vanishing points are dictated, thus robbing us of any practical control of the distance between them. 3. Vanishing Points locations are often at an unusual distance apart, causing them to be off the drawing or work surface. 4. Space is needed above and beside the drawing to give room for the plan and elevation views which makes the perspective view small when compared to sheet size.

Try this!

BASIC FORM Using the Plan/Elevation Method, construct a drawing of a cube measuring 6" on a side, the base being 12" below the eye level. (Cubes have the same height, width and depth). INTERIOR Draw a floor plan and elevation of a room measuring 25" x 12' deep and 8' high including a window or door on each wall to your specifications and furniture using box forms. Construct a 2 point Plan Elevation perspective drawing of this room favoring the longest wall. Use a scale that will allow room for all drawings. Portions of near walls may be removed to allow vision into the room. ARCHITECTURAL Construct a perspective of a house measuring 40' x 20'. Exterior walls are 10' high with a center apex at 15' on the short side. Use plan and elevation views to establish the system. Place doors and windows anywhere you wish in these views and project them into the perspective drawing.

The following exercises can be done in 1 or 2-point perspective or both. Show variations by using different horizon lines, so that the objects will appear to be above or below the horizon.

IMPORT ANT RELATIONSHIPS OF ELEMENTS PRODUCT Draw a plan and elevation of a toaster, based on a box. Show We can, however, learn from the Plan/Elevation method certain this in a perspective drawing using Plan/Elevation method. relationships and locations that are true, whatever method of Measurements can be taken off an existing toaster. Otherwise perspective is used: design one of your own. 1. Vanishing points always are on the horizon line (elevation of your eye, called eye level). GRAPHIC 2. This line is always horizontal for objects resting on or Take any letter in the alphabet that has all straight lines. Do parallel to the earth's surface. a plan and elevation of the letter form. Make sure that the 3. All Vertical lines of the form are vertical in the drawing. proportions are as they should be for the type face that is se4. All Horizontal lines of the form go to vanishing points and lected. Construct the letter using the Plan/Elevation method. are not measured directly, but are foreshortened. 2 - 10

STEPS

PLAN VIEW PLAN VIEW

PICTURE PLANE (PP)

PP

ELEVATION VIEW

GL* SIGHT POINT (SP) (OBSERVER)

ELEVATION VIEW

1.

Establish a Picture Plane (PP) using a horizontal line. Leave space above the PP for a Plan View. 2. Draw a Plan View of the object and place it with one side touching the PP. 3. Draw a horizontal Ground Line (GL*). 4. Draw an Elevation View of the object and place it on the Ground Line directly beneath the Plan View.

5. Establish the Horizon Line or Eye Level (HL) by drawing a horizontal line at a measured vertical distance above the ground line. This Horizon will determine the eye level. 6. Position the Observer (SP) by drawing a vertical line from the horizon where you wish. It is best to be closer to one side than the other. Establish the single Vanishing Point where this vertical line intersects the HL.

PLAN/ELEVATION METHOD FOR ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE This method is derived by positioning a Plan View over the Elevation View. Elevations in depth are projected from the Elevation View to a single Vanishing Point. Depth measurements are determined by the foreshortened projections from various details on the Plan View to a Sight Point which represents the position and distance the Observer is from the Plan View. Try this exercise using illustrated steps 1-10 in the examples following. 2 * The Ground Line can be placed anywhere you want. It works best near the bottom edge of the paper, leaving room for the view above. This line is not always on the ground as its name suggests. It can be above the ground and is used to define the bottom edge of the object.

-2

STEPS

PLAN VIEW

PLAN VIEW PP

PP

VP

HL VP HL

GL

ELEVATION VIEW

SP

Though shown here, it is not necessary to draw this SP lines below the Picture Plain.

7. Establish the Sight Point (SP) near the bottom on a vertical line from VP. This shows the distance from the Object to the Observer in Plan View. 8. Find all (foreshortened) depth measurements by taking a line of sight from the Sight Point to all corners or details in the Plan View. Also project lines from all corners of the Elevation View to the Single Vanishing Point. FINISHED VIEW 9. Drop vertical lines from all sight lines where they cross the Picture Plane. This will give the locations for all lines in depth. 10. Complete the drawing by connecting all found points of intersection, where the vertical lines cross the lines to the Vanishing Point. The view will appear open, transparent, or solid depending on what lines are visible. 2 -3

GL

STEPS

PLAN VIEW

*

TRUE LENGTH (T)

ELEVATION VIEW

GL

1. Establish a Picture Plane (PP) near top of sheet. 2. Draw or attach a Plan View with one corner touching. 3. Draw a vertical True Length (TL) line through touch point. 4. Near sheet bottom, draw a horizontal Ground Line (GL). Draw an Elevation View placed on the GL to one side. PLAN/ELEVATION FOR 2-POINT PERSPECTIVE The Elevation View in this case is not used as part of the drawing, so must be placed far enough to the side to not overlap the perspective view.

5. Establish the Eye Level or Horizon Line (HL) by drawing a horizontal line at a measured vertical distance above the GL. 6. Establish the Sight Point (SP) by placing a point near the bottom of the sheet on the TL.

* Here we see that the distance between the Vanishing Points and their location depends on the angle the Plan View makes with the Picture Plane. This angle is determined by how much you wish to see of that side, i.e. the smaller the angle - the more prominent that side will be & the less prominent the adjoining side will be.

2 -4

STEPS

Though shown here, it is not necessary to draw this SP lines below the Picture Plain.

PP

HL

VPR

GL SP

GL SP .

7. Draw two lines from the SP to the PP that are parallel to the sides of the Plan View. 8. Draw two vertical lines where the parallels hit the PP. 9. Establish Vanishing Point Left (VPL) and Vanishing Point Right (VPR) at the intersection of the verticals and the HL.

10. Establish all vertical dimensions by projecting from the elevation to the TL and back into the drawing using lines to the VP's. 11. Find depth dimensions by taking a line from SP to Plan View details, dropping a vertical line where it crosses the PP.

Elevations of all points on the Object must be projected from the Elevation View to the TL and back to one of the Vanishing Points. The detail is on this elevation line at the location where the vertical from the Sight Point crosses the Picture Plane.

2 -5

PLAN VIEW

Make the side that is most important the lesser angle to the PP. Horizon will determine whether you are looking under, at, or above the object. Think of it as moving the eye up and down and the object remaining stationary.

HORIZON LINE (HL) (EYE LEVEL)

VPL

VPR

ELEVATION VIEW

Elevation & Plan views should include hidden lines or details not seen so that the view shows every detail.

VIEW BELOW HORIZON LINE The Plan/Elevation Method for 2-Point Perspective is derived by For a better understanding, do this exercise using the 11 positioning overlapping plan and elevation views. Two Vanishing steps on the preceding page. Points are used. Elevations are projected from the elevation view. Depth measurements are determined by the foreshortened projections from various details on the plan view. 2 - 6

PLAN VIEW

PP TL

GL ELEVATION VIEW

HL VPL VPR

VIEW ABOVE HORIZON LINE Now draw the same object with a horizon line that is below the object and ground line.

2 - 7

PLAN VIEW 60

TL

30

VPL

HL

VPR

NOTE: A 30/60 triangle was used here, but any combination of angles adding up to 90 is OK.

90 SP

VP DISTANCE

CONTROLLING VANISHING POINT DISTANCE The Vanishing Points are often too close or too far apart located at the outer edge of your sheet and will be the as they are dependent on the location of the Sight Point distance between Vanishing Points. Draw a vertical True and the angle that the Elevation View makes with the Length line through the Sight Point to locate the touch Picture Plane. One way to avoid this is to work backwards point of the Elevation View. Draw the Elevation View parfrom the Vanishing Point distance you want to use. Above allel to the lines to Sight Point. You have now controlled is an example of how the locations can be controlled. the width between Vanishing points. Start out with the Picture Plane and find the Sight Point by using angles which total 90 degrees. These angles are Continue as usual. 2 - 8

PLAN/ELEVATION IN FULL SWING Below is a drawing of a small Condo Unit. Note that some of the dimensions in the plan view have to be extended to the edge of the roof line to find the distance the walls are set in from the roof edge.

PLAN

PP TL

SP

2 - 9

2H

LIMITATIONS Unfortunately, there are certain limitations to this method. 1. Too time consuming. Time must be taken to construct the plan and elevation views unless they already exist. Multiple projections are needed to find any one dimension. 2. Drawing must be done on a very large drawing surface as the location of the vanishing points are dictated, thus robbing us of any practical control of the distance between them. 3. Vanishing Points locations are often at an unusual distance apart, causing them to be off the drawing or work surface. 4. Space is needed above and beside the drawing to give room for the plan and elevation views which makes the perspective view small when compared to sheet size.

Try this!

BASIC FORM Using the Plan/Elevation Method, construct a drawing of a cube measuring 6" on a side, the base being 12" below the eye level. (Cubes have the same height, width and depth). INTERIOR Draw a floor plan and elevation of a room measuring 25" x 12' deep and 8' high including a window or door on each wall to your specifications and furniture using box forms. Construct a 2 point Plan Elevation perspective drawing of this room favoring the longest wall. Use a scale that will allow room for all drawings. Portions of near walls may be removed to allow vision into the room. ARCHITECTURAL Construct a perspective of a house measuring 40' x 20'. Exterior walls are 10' high with a center apex at 15' on the short side. Use plan and elevation views to establish the system. Place doors and windows anywhere you wish in these views and project them into the perspective drawing.

The following exercises can be done in 1 or 2-point perspective or both. Show variations by using different horizon lines, so that the objects will appear to be above or below the horizon.

IMPORT ANT RELATIONSHIPS OF ELEMENTS PRODUCT Draw a plan and elevation of a toaster, based on a box. Show We can, however, learn from the Plan/Elevation method certain this in a perspective drawing using Plan/Elevation method. relationships and locations that are true, whatever method of Measurements can be taken off an existing toaster. Otherwise perspective is used: design one of your own. 1. Vanishing points always are on the horizon line (elevation of your eye, called eye level). GRAPHIC 2. This line is always horizontal for objects resting on or Take any letter in the alphabet that has all straight lines. Do parallel to the earth's surface. a plan and elevation of the letter form. Make sure that the 3. All Vertical lines of the form are vertical in the drawing. proportions are as they should be for the type face that is se4. All Horizontal lines of the form go to vanishing points and lected. Construct the letter using the Plan/Elevation method. are not measured directly, but are foreshortened. 2 - 10

TWO-POINT MEASURING SYSTEM MEASURING SHORT CUTS PREDICTED MEASURING POINTS CUBE CONSTRUCTION DIFFERENT HML POSITIONS SELECTION OF SYSTEMS MEASURING INSIDE & OUTSIDE BASE LINES DEPTH ELEVATIONS INCLINED PLANES

SCALE

6

7

NEW METHODS

10

Plan-Elevation Perspective gives us these three relationships which are also true for all other perspective methods: 1. The horizon line is a horizontal line and determines the eye level. 2. Vanishing points are always on the horizon line. 3. The true length line is a vertical line that can be used for measurement on the sheet of paper and is located anywhere between the Vanishing Points.

TL VPL HL VPR

3 - 1

VPL

MPR

MPL

HL

VPR

VML

1. Establish Horizon Line, VML (TL)* where you want and both Vanishing Points at a good distance apart. *TL is changed to the (VML) Vertical Measuring Line. 2. Draw half circle with center as radius through VP'S. 3. Place the VML anywhere you wish between the VP's. Find point "P" where the VML intersects the half circle.

4. Using VP'S as pivots, make an arc with distance VP to point P as radius from both Vanishing Points. 5, Measuring Points (MPL & MPR) are found where these arcs intersect the HL If a compass isn't large enough, measure the distance VP-"P" (dashed line) and transfer this to the same distance along HL to find the MPs.

2 POINT PERSPECTIVE MEASURING SYSTEM This measuring system will eliminate the use of plan and elevation views. This means any object can be drawn from its known dimensions and makes spontaneous change possible. See the steps above. Note: The Measuring Point locations are dependent on the VML location and change with each different location of the VML. MP labels are on opposite sides than the VP's., i.e. MPR on the left and MPL on the right.

3 - 2

MPR VPL

VML

MPL HL VPR

36L 0

EYE LEVEL: 48" DIMENSIONS: 36"x78"x30" HIGH IMPORTANT: Never use Point "P" as the leading corner of a box. The HML is determined by Eye Level and must be well above Point "P".

HOW TO USE THE MEASURING SYSTEM The True Length Line is now used as a Vertical Measuring Line (VML). A Horizontal Measuring Line (HML) is also used to find foreshortened depth measurements. The HML is a horizontal line which give measurements to the left and right of the VML. Measurements are taken from locations on the HML to Measuring Points. The depth is found where each line to the Measuring Point crosses the Base Line (see circled points). Heights are projected from the VML to the VP's along the Base 3 Line plane, All other measurements inside the Base Lines are found by projecting back to both Vanishing Points. Note: The dashed lines from the HML to the MP's may appear to cross several lines, but actually only cross the BL plane at the first line on the "ground" surface. This will always be the first line the measurement crosses. 3

SHORT CUT

VP

HL

VP

If a circle is bisected by a horizontal line forming two VP's which are connected to any point on the perimeter of a circle, a 90 corner is formed. Therefore, any method that produces a 90 corner from the VP's will work as well. Following are examples of 3 different ways to find MP's using angles rather than a circle. These examples incorporate the use of 45 & 30/60 angles drawn from VP's creating intersecting lines which form 90 corners. This point would be on a circle had it been drawn. The distance of Point P from the Vanishing Points is then taken to the Horizon Line as always.

EQUAL 1/2

30 - 60

EQUAL 1/2 EQ. 1/4 EQ. 1/8 EQ. 1/8 MPR VPL

EQ. 1/4 MPL

HL

VPR

60

30

VML

90

P

All 90 corners

BA

45 - 45

EQUAL 1/2

EQUAL 1/3 EQUAL 1/3 EQUAL 1/3 HL

30 - 60

MPR MPL VPR

45

EQUAL 1/2

VPL

45

VPL

HL 30

EQUAL 1/2 EQUAL 1/4 EQUAL 1/4 EQ. 1/8 EQ. 1/8 MPR MPL VPR

60

VML

VML

90

90

P

BA

3 - 4

BA

The VML and MP's are found the same way as in the circle method. Beyond getting rid of the circle we also find that the MP locations are predictable in these circumstances. NOTE: Since locations are in known positions for these systems - CIRCLES AND ANGLES ARE NO LONGER NECESSARY.

MPR VML 1/8 1/4 MPL

VPL

1/8

1/2

VPR

2-POINT LEFT

VML 1/8

MPL

1/8

VPR

2-POINT RIGHT

VPL

1/3 1/2

MPR

MPL 1/2

1/3

VP

2-POINT CENTER

2H

MEASURING POINTS FOUND BY PREDICTION The idea is to predict the location along a HL of these three variations to measuring point. This will save the time it takes to draw circles or arcs to find these MP's. Above are samples of how this might look Establish the VP's as far apart as practical and divide the HL into these relationships by division. 3 -5

Try this!

VPL 0

MPR LEFT 6

12

MPR CENTER

MPL/R

18

MPL RIGHT 24

30

VPR 36

VML-CENTER

2-POINT LEFT

2-POINT CENTER

"YARDSTICK" PERSPECTIVE Try the use of a yardstick to measure distances. This gives 36" between Vanishing Points and is easily divided to find halves and thirds to find MP's & VML's. Simply tape the yardstick to the top of the drafting board or table. Push pins can also be at MP and VP locations to act as stops for the straight edge. This eliminates looking every time to see if the line goes to these points. 3 - 6

VML-RIGHT

2-POINT RIGHT

VML-LEFT

VML

MPL CENTER

HML TL

2 POINT CENTER I POINT CHAPTER 4 2 POINT RIGHT

P

MEASURING SYSTEM

BL

I POINT CHAPTER 4

VPL

HL

I POINT CHAPTER 4

MEASURING SYSTEM

2 POINT LEFT

AB

AB

2 POINT CENTER

AB

2 POINT RIGHT

AB

SELECTION OF MEASURING SYSTEMS Each system or method will give a different location of the object from the viewer. This varying vantage point is a choice to make for each drawing. Coupled with many choices in eye level, these many variations become possible. Above is an example of the locations for different Measuring Systems. APPLICATIONS OF DIFFERENT HML LOCATIONS Draw a box that is 1 x 3 x 2 high that is above eye level. Working above the HL will give a view that "floats" above the eye level. Here the solution is the same for three locations of the HML, on top and bottom of form and on the surface. Note that the BL changes for each view. The BL is always the first line that the measurement from HML crosses. 3 - 7

VPL MPR BL TL

AB

AB

AB

BL

A A

VPR

VPR

C

C

C

I POINT CHAPTER 4

TL

VPL

HL MPL BL HML

VPR

NOTE: THESE MP'S WERE FIRST FOUND BY USING A POINT "P" ON A CIRCLE.

VPL

MPR VML

MPL

HL

VPR

BL

BL

CONSTRUCTION OF CUBES USING THE MEASURING SYSTEM Above diagram shows the use of two side views (see shaded squares) of a cube to demonstrate which dimensions are used along the vertical and horizontal measuring lines. It is not necessary to draw these views when their dimensions are known. Note that the height dimension is on the VML with its base at the HML. The depth dimensions are on the HML and are to the left and right of the VML. It is important to remember that the projection from the measured 3 distance along the HML to either MP stops at the first base line that it comes to. Any dimension then must go to either vanishing point to get into the view In practice, it is not necessary to draw the line to the MP beyond the BL. Example shown at 10 & 15 right. The line to MP stops at the BL and then goes to VPL. This eliminates unnecessary lines and clutter. 8

VML

VPL

MPR HL

MPL

VPR

BL

BL

2-POINT MEASURING SYSTEM EXTENDED Here is a more extensive use of the measuring points to construct a drawing of a small house. This shape requires several different measurements to develop the form. The best approach is to develop the drawing on the ground plane and then work vertically to develop the vertical planes and details. Elevations or plans were not needed. Each dimension of the house was measured along the HML or VML respectively. Depth dimensions are projected to the measuring points stopping at the base lines and then vertically for heights and to VP's for depths. Height dimensions are all taken from the VML and projected into the drawing using both Vanishing Points.

3 - 9

BL

BL

5 3 2 5 3 LEFT 0 2 RIGHT 3

HML

MEASURING INSIDE THE BASE LINES (VISUAL SHIFT) It is sometimes necessary to draw the view set back from Notice how the second box appears to be shifted to the either or both base lines. Nothing really changes. The vacant left This shift can also go far enough right to be very space is measured first and the box dimensions are added near center. to it. This moving of an object left or right of the TL line results in a visual shift of the object. The more practical application of this method is to leave room for possible additions to the surface such as overhanging roof lines, protruding knobs on products or lenses on cameras. 3 - 10

VML

C E A

G

MPL

VPL

MPR

VP1 VP2

HL

VPR

H

BL BL F

HML

ELEVATION MEASUREMENTS USING DIAGONALS Usually the elevations are found by taking elevations from the VML to each VP taking the vertical distance to the surface first and then along that surface to the needed position. Sometimes it is more expedient to take the measurement directly to that position. Line AB shows how the measurement can be taken diagonally to the HL along the ground from the VML ground point through Point B which locates a VP1 on the HL Then a line is drawn back to 3 the needed height on the VML. A vertical between points A and B gives the right height for that point. Height CD is transferred to EF & GH using the same method. See vertical C - D transferred E - F & G - H. Any known vertical dimension can be transferred to another vertical in the same manner. ALL LINES REPRESENT THE SAME HEIGHT IN PERSPECTIVE. 11

Since the flap angles cannot be measured directly, a side elevation view is needed for each flap to give the X & Y dimensions of the flap edge. See the side elevation below which shows the measured flap at the wanted angle and the resulting X & Y dimensions.

VML

MPR VPL HL

MPL

138

BL BL

X ELEVATION VIEW

HML

FLAPS HINGED ALONG HORIZONTAL EDGES All Vanishing Points are located along a vertical at VPL and VPR. Lines parallel to sides still go to the same VP's. Find this VP by taking one flap edge out to a point above or below the VP's on the HL and then back to the opposite corner to 3 find the next edge. Going to the wrong side for the VP is a common mistake. When this happens the flap will not appear to be get larger as it comes toward you or smaller as it goes away. When they look wrong, vanish to the opposite side. 12

VML

VPL

MPR HL VP1

VP5

VPR

BL

BL

147 z

X PLAN VIEW

HML

FLAPS HINGED ALONG VERTICAL EDGES For vertical flaps all Vanishing Points are located along the Horizon Line. The VP is found using a ground line in the flap direction to the HL. This is then taken back to the top edge of the hinge constructing a flap using a 3 vertical line at outer edge. Flap measurement uses the X & Z measurements of a flap in plan view which may be drawn to scale on a separate sheet. This is the most accurate way to find flaps at any angle. 13

VP-UP VP-UP

LEVEL

DOWN

VP-TURN VPL

LEVEL

HL

UP

HL

VPR VP-DOWN

VP-DOWN

LEVEL

UP

DOWN

STOP

LEVEL

VP-DOWN

LEVEL

DOWN

LEVEL

ROAD CONSTRUCTION USING MULTIPLE VANISHING POINTS The same technique used for boxes with flaps also works for surface development such as roads or uneven terrain. Measurements can be tricky, but as long as you stick to measuring locations and their heights, you can find the slope of any road Notice that all level roads vanish at the horizon line and all down and uphill roads vanish above or below the horizon line. Once details and terrain features are added, it can be quite convincing. 3 - 14

VPL

MPR

VML

MPL HL

VPR

BL Original box within the Base Line. BL Add-on section is "outside" the original Base Line.

3R CONE OF VISION

+3

MEASURING OUTSIDE OF BASE LINE It is sometimes necessary to measure forward of the BL. This should be avoided, but can be done if the leading corner remains within a reasonable Cone of Vision. This often is necessary when additions are made or details are extended forward after the initial surface is established. ADD 3 UNITS TO THE FRONT: 1. Extend Left BL forward of O. 2. Measure 3 along HML to the right. This is a measure to the right of 0, but it is still a Left measurement. 3. Draw a line from the MPL through 3R crossing the ex tended BL to find +3 forward. Take this measurement to the VPR and project other details forward to that line. 3 - 15

MPR VPL HL

VML

4

BL

BL

7 2

HML

1. Pick a point X where you want the front corner. 2. Draw lines from MPR & MPL through X to the HML to find O's location. 3. Place a VML anywhere along the HML.

4. Measure heights by taking the VML base through X to the HL at VPX and back to the height on VML. The height of the box is where it crosses the vertical from point X. 5. Now measure to new BL's as usual for depths by using the HML measurements to the MP's starting with each corresponding O point.

MEASURING INSIDE OF BASE LINE You may also want to use the measuring system directly to a view inside the Base Lines. This method can be used to shift a view to the left or right and back into the view where you want without changing the Measuring Points or the Measuring Lines. Follow the 5 steps above.

3 - 16

A MEASURING SYSTEM USING A LAYOUT TABLET When you are sketching or laying out a line drawing for a new drawing or rendering, it is a good idea to work on a sketch pad or layout tablet. You can quickly set up a system by folding the page a couple of times to divide the sheet into MP halves, quarters and eighths. Verticals can be drawn by using a triangle or a small T-square. You might try using your thumbs along the bottom edge of the tablet when using a triangle.

VPL HL MPR VPR

1. Open sketch pad and establish Horizon Line & Vanishing Points. Find MPR @ centerline.

VML MPR

VPL

HL

2. Find VML by folding top sheet to centerline, crease @ top & fold back..

VML MPR

VPL

HL

4 steps to the right show how this is done. This automatically gives you enough distance between VP's to give a 60 Cone of Vision.

VML MPR MPL VPR

VPL

HL

HML

FREEHAND SKETCH USING TABLET & VP'S Good sketches can be drawn first with straight line to VP's and then traced on a clean sheet with straight edges or freehanded as shown below Box forms can be easily drawn below, above and at the Eye Level.

In this case the boxes were drawn randomly overlapping them with eyeball measurements. As long as VP's are used, the perspective holds its own. It is interesting to see how the different boxes will appear to be in front or behind depending on which lines are used in the final view. Several variations to the same drawing can be shown this way. Now, all you have to do is add details. Heavy outlining gives impact to objects and shows which surfaces are open when looking through box openings. 3 - 18

VPL

HL

VPR

N7705

1

7 3 8 9 2 10 4 5

HML

10

MEASURING SYSTEM - CONTOUR DRAWING This is a simplified version of a boat hull that has all curved views on each station plane in the perspective view. These can surfaces. Two elevations are used along HML to help measure be measured point for point or a grid can be used for plotting each section. Station Plains (10 here) are selected either at key the section onto each plane. The object is then found by conlocations or equally spaced. These are used to draw section necting the common section points horizontally. Add details. 3 - 19

Do These

This layout shows orthographic views of different objects. Use these forms to practice the short cut Measuring System. After selecting which system you want to use, develop the objects using a light construction line and then heavy-up the object lines to make them stand out. Do at least one for each system, i.e. 2-Pt. Right or 2-Pt. Left, 2-Pt. Center & 2-Pt. Measuring System.

TOP

TOP

FRONT END

2

FRONT END

TOP

TOP

TOP

FRONT

END

TOP

TOP

TOP

END

FRONT

END

8 3 - 20

ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE OF BOX FORMS - MEASURING SYSTEM METHODS FOR ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE CONVENTIONAL METHOD TO FIND MP ONE-POINT THEORY & PRACTICE SEVERAL SHORT CUT METHODS

4 - 1

SMALL OBJECT SKETCHES There is a fib advantage to use One-Point for sketches of objects that have most detail on the front face. This allows you to draw in full size or scale and measure everything in true length. A great deal of depth is still possible. Another advantage is that circles are still circles and can be easily

VP HL

represented. In later chapters we will cover the circle as it turns from our line of sight and becomes elliptical. The drawing below was constructed using a modular application of a cube that was multiplied to double the proportion. Details were measured in true length on the front surface.

MP

TAPE

RECORD/PLAY

REW/REV

FF/CUE

STOP/EJECT

PAUSE

TRY THESE EXERCISES: 1. Before creating your finest drawing ever, become familiar and at least 1 piece turned at 45. Find its VPs on the with the 3 different ways to find the MP. Then try to draw HL. Hint: It is always best to draw a plan view of your several different sized boxes on the same floor plan. Make room first. some large and small. They can represent rooms or objects 3. Draw a cube and multiply to a large structure. Make like furniture. details for product applications similar to the drawing 2. Develop a Floor Grid of any size. Place several vertical above. planes representing walls that are perpendicular to your 4. Construct or trace a large letter facing you. Take all line of sight and at 90 to you. Give 6 inch thickness to edges to a VP. Pick a letter depth and measure remaining these walls. Place several pieces of furniture on the grid depth details. 4 - 10

ELEVATION VIEW

MP

VP

HL

PP

A

1

B 60

This distance represents how far the Observer is from the Picture Plane in Plan View.

3 (1.732)

30

VP

What you get is a room that appears to be square, i.e. as deep as it is wide.

CONVENTIONAL METHOD TO FIND MP One-Point Perspective also uses a Measuring Point to find depth measurements. A MP is found by taking the longest diagonal from the VP and rotating this distance to the HL to find point D. This is taken down to point B. A 30/60 degree triangle is drawn using corner ABC. The distance of VP to point C on the triangle is rotated to the HL to find the MP. As you can see from this construction, the MP is approx. twice the distance from the VP (1.732 + BD) as the length of the longest diagonal. This technique involves strenuous construction and uses a large area of space below the view which is usually unavailable on a small sheet. SHORT CUT methods follow . . . . . . . 4 - 2

DEFINITIONS & DISTORTION n One-Point Perspective the near surface of the object touches the picture plane. This creates a single vanishing point and all other lines are either horizontal or vertical. Unlike Two-Point Perspective where the Vanishing Points are distant from the view, this Vanishing Point is now inside the view or its proximity. A Measuring Point is also used, much like Two-Point Perspective. DEFINITION: The Measuring Point is a point along the HORIZON LINE that is the same distance from the VP as the OBSERVER is from the PICTURE PLANE and is then an arbitrary chosen distance. This distance must be far enough to give a 60 Cone of Vision. Without this quideline, distortions will appear at the outer edges of the view. Drawing shows how squares distort as they pass beyond the circle.

ALL SQUARES WITHIN CONE CIRCLE APPEAR TO BE VISUALLY CORRECT.

VP

HL

MP

There are 3 short cut ways to find a Measuring Point They are as follows . . . . . . .

4 - 3

THREE SHORT CUTS TO FIND MEASURING POINT DIAGONAL METHOD 1. Draw HML in size and scale needed. 2. Establish HL and extend to right or left side. 3. MP is found by taking the longest diagonal (VP-O) up to HL and doubling that distance to find MP. SQUARE DEPTH METHOD 1. Draw HML in size and scale needed. 2. Establish HL and extend to right or left. 3. Move a horizontal line up and down until it appears to represent a square lying on a horizontal surface. Draw a diagonal to find MP. This moves the observer forward and back until it looks visually correct and gives a way to vary the depth.

HL VP

MP

15

HML

VP

HL

Looks deep

MP

HML

3.

CONE OF VISION METHOD 1. Pick a MP at a random distance from the VP. 2. Draw a circle with a radius 60% of the MP-VP distance to represent a 60 Cone of Vision. 3. Draw the HML anywhere within this circle. The object will not be distorted.

VP

-V MP 6 x 0. R= HL

MP

HML

4 - 4

ONE-POINT FLOOR GRID METHOD 1. Find the VP, HL & MP by using one of the methods just discussed. Be careful at this stage because the looks of the entire drawing will be effected by this depth and the location of the VP. 2. Draw a line to MP from the most distant point on the grid (12 here). This will cross the VP line from O to give 12 deep. 3. Begin to grid the square by drawing depth lines using the equal measurements along the HML to the VP. 4. Finish the grid by drawing horizontals where these depth lines cross the diagonal to MP at dots.

VP

HL

MP

12

HML

VP

HL

MP

12

12

HML

NOTE: It is not necessary to grid the square if these measurements are not needed.

VML

5. Increase the depth to 17, 24 or any additional depth by using diagonals wherever the measurement is needed. 6. Also add vertical planes where they are needed using VMLs along the HML.

12

VP

48

HL

36

MP

24

17

12

4 - 5

HML

VML

Following steps show how elevation and details can be used to develop a floor grid.

6'-4" HL

VML

HML

1. Construct an elevation with Horizon Line at desired height (6 feet and 4 inches here)

VP

HL

MP

HML

VML

VP

HL

2. Establish a Vanishing Point (VP) off center and connect ground lines to front two corners. 3. Establish MP at twice the distance of long diagonal (VP-A) this will give a short cut solution for a 60 Cone of Vision and will not be distorted. If the room is made wider, a new MP should be found. 4. Connect all other corners to VP. 5. Construct a grid by connecting measurements along HML to the VP and drawing horizontal depth lines through their 15 foot back wall. 6. Construct back at 15 feet deep using verticals at corners. 7. Project fireplace, stairs and table using grid and measured heights along each wall from the elevation MP view.

HML

NOTE: Only 1 MP is shown here, but there are always 2 MPs. 1 to the left and 1 to the right, each the same distance from the VP. Either or both MPs can be used for depth measurements. 4 - 6 .

Different types of views can be developed by using the VP and HL at various positions.

VML

6'-4" HL

HML

VP

6'-4" HL

COMBINATION ONE AND TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Objects are positioned using the grid for plan view and measured vertically using the front elevation plane (VML). Two MPs equidistant from the VP are used as VPs for a box rotated 45. For other degrees of rotation each corner of the object is located on the perspective grid first and then lines are drawn through the respective corners to locate their VPs.

PLAN VIEW

ELEVATION VIEW

VML

VML

VML

TO MPR

VP

5' HL

TO MPL

TO MPR

4 - 8

LARGE SCALE DESIGN DRAWINGS This drawing is projected from elevation views and uses a floor grid. This semidetailed view of a shopping mall shows how a 1-point view might be used to develop a design solution. Depths and elevations are changed at random until the ultimate solution is found. Eye level here is at 10 feet.

THE

BAY COMPANY

10' HL

Roger's Fabrics

OPE Music

PRO GOLF

TROYS PETS

MERV'S CIGARS

To MP

4 - 9

MODULAR PERSPECTIVE

SQUARE TO CUBE METHOD MULTIPLICATION & DIVISION OF FORMS VERTICAL SURFACE MULTIPLICATION HORIZONTAL SURFACE MULTIPLICATION REDUCTION & ENLARGEMENT

MODULAR PERSPECTIVE This process allows you to draw as you think using modular forms or building blocks much like an erector set. A single block is multiplied to gargantuan proportions, if necessary, or can be divided down into minuscule increments.

5 - 1

SQUARE TO CUBE PERSPECTIVE METHOD Up to this point we have used dimensions given to us either by plan and elevation views, written dimensions or measurements from actual objects. Many times it is necessary to construct a drawing of an object that does no yet exist and whose dimensions are not yet known. In this case it is a good idea to construct forms from building blocks called cubes. These are the same dimension in height, width and depth. If the proper number of cubes can be placed together in the right numbers, any proportion in height, width and depth can be constructed. The following steps show how a cube can be constructed in 2 Point Perspective from its square elevation. This elevation can be placed in the right scale and the correct distance from the HL for desired eye level. To avoid distortion it works best if the front corner of the cube is near the center between the VPL and VPR or placed within a 60 cone circle. The system works by assuming that the Horizontal Diagonal HD is a true horizontal. This is only true at the center of VP's, and is not always the case in other methods. The 2-Point Center, Left or Right Method discussed in Chapter 3 can be used also to construct a cube if measuring points are used. Measuring Points defeat the purpose of Multiplication or Division since measurements of any size can be made directly. Note that this method works for a cube only. VPL HL VPR

HD STEPS FOLLOW

5 - 2

VPL

HL

VPR

VPL

HL

VPR

60 Cone of Vision

1. Construct HL with both VP's as wide apart as practical 4. Find front corner of cube by projecting lines from for your paper size and work surface. Use a 60 Cone VP's through the 4 corners of the Horizontal Diagonal of Vision Circle at center. Plane. 2. Place side elevation square of needed scale within the 5. Draw a vertical at the found front corner. Cone of Vision and near center of the VP's and at desired distance below eye level.

VPL

HL

VPR

VPL

HL

VPR

HD

3. Find Horizontal Diagonal (HD) by taking the vertical diagonal of the square to the horizontal base line. This gives the Horizontal Diagonal Plane in true length. Note: This works at this location because the Horizontal Diagonal is a horizontal line at center of VP's only. 5 -

6. Take outside corners to both VP's. 7. Finish the cube by taking a vertical through the found back corners. 8. Now the cube can be multiplied to other sizes. . 3

MULTIPLICATION OF ORTHOGRAPHIC AND PERSPECTIVE VIEWS Once the cube is developed, it can be used as a building block to construct more complex forms of different proportions. In orthographic views the divisions are made by using diagonals to find the center of each surface and then lines parallel to the sides will divide the surface in half. The same method works in perspective.

VPL

HL

VPR

HD

DIAGONALS

HALVES

MULTIPLY

MULTIPLY

MULTIPLY AGAIN

5 - 4

A Rectangle ABCD is divided in half, then into thirds (three equal divisions). B

FULL AND HALF DIAGONALS CROSS TO FIND THIRDS MULTIPLICATION/DIVISION IN ORTHOGRAPHIC AND PERSPECTIVE VIEWS

C 5 - 5

Any Angle Join 7th to A Draw parallels 7 equal units B B B B B Example above shows how to divide a line AB into seven equal spaces using parallels.

7 divisions

B B If a rectangle is divided vertically into equal spaces, a diagonal will divide those spaces horizontally,

VPL HL

VP5

VPR

VERTICAL DIVISIONS This concept can be applied to a staircase construction. The height is divided into the number of equal steps needed and the diagonals do the rest for you.

5 - 6

HORIZONTAL DIVISIONS Divisions along foreshortened horizontal lines are similar except they are not equal. The divisions are taken on a horizontal & fan from found VP on the HL by taking 5 through 5 to VP5 & back to each division.

RP RP

Radiate lines from a chosen Radiate lines from a chosen of form. Pick an enlargement of form. Pick an enlargement to original view. to original view.

RP

RP

RP RP

VERTICAL SURFACE MULTIPLICATION OF A 3 X 4 X 2 HIGH OBJECT. The cube is used as a building block for the larger object. Once the cube is divided by diagonals to find its center, it can then be multiplied into any proportion wanted. This can be accomplished in different ways depending on which multiplication is done first. What makes this method so great, is the option of changing the size quickly, without having to start all over again.

VPL

VPR HL

1. The cube side is divided by crossing diagonals. A line through midpoint is taken to VPL and used to multiply the cube to the left two times using half diagonals making the width 3 deep. 2. Cube is multiplied in height by taking the half diagonal to the extended front vertical line of the original cube. Be careful about using exact points, as noticeable error can occur. Check the doubled height, by using a ruler or similar device.

HD

3. The cube can be multiplied to 4 one cube at a time or by using full diagonals of the doubled height.

5 - 8

HORIZONTAL SURFACE MULTIPLICATION OF A CUBE TO A 3 X 4 X 2 HIGH OBJECT. The horizontal plane can be multiplied also by using horizontal diagonals as first constructed on the original cube. This is the best approach if the object covers a large horizontal surface. An overall grid can be constructed in this manner and will be discussed in the following section

VPL

HL

VPR

HD HD

1. Draw additional Horizontal Diagonals through the far edge of each found square. 2. In this method the height of the doubled cube is found taking the full diagonal (dashed line) from the second horizontal square. MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION IN PERSPECTIVE 5 - 9

HD

HD

REDUCTION OR ENLARGEMENT OF RECTANGLES If you draw a box shape and decide later to enlarge by some unknown scale. You can enlarge each side in proportion by drawing a diagonal from a common corner (Z) across each side. Pick the new size anywhere along this diagonal (X) and draw a new line from VPL through it and extend to the other VPR as well. The second diagonal will give you the depth of the second side at Y.

VPL

X Y

DIAGONAL ENLARGEMENT

HL

VPR

The common corner picked will remain stationary. This means that if you want the top to remain the same distance below HL, pick the top corner instead of the bottom.

VPL

HL

VPR

X Y

5 - 10

2 POINT INTERIOR GRID This grid was developed from a large square using the Square To Cube Method. Once the back two walls are developed and divided equally in the back corner, the wall heights are projected outwards and diagonals give the vertical divisions. Develop the grid on the walls first and then the floor. This grid has a good application for an interior showing a corner of a room. The figure adds scale with eye level at 5'.

ORIGINAL SQUARE

5' HL

5 - 11

DEVELOPMENT OF HORIZONTAL PLANE The horizontal plane can be developed in several ways from the Square to Cube Method. Once the cube is developed, there is a square in 2-Point Perspective on the horizontal plane. This square can be multiplied as in previous exercise by using the HD of many multiplied squares.

VPL

HL

VPR

5 - 12

DIAGONAL VANISHING POINT If the depth diagonal of each of these squares is also projected to the horizon line, we find that they will all converge at the same point which is exactly midway between the VP's. This point is called the Diagonal Vanishing Point (DVP). What appears here is a horizontal plane that is divided into squares using 2 different methods. One method is to use Following are two grid variations for 1-point perspective & the Left and Right Vanishing Points, and the second method 2-point perspective that is derived from this process. uses the Diagonal Vanishing Point.

VPL

HL

DVP

VPR

5 - 13

TWO-POINT GRID USING VERTICAL MEASURING POSITIONS If the lines to the DVP are removed, we are left with a 2-Point Perspective Grid. Each multiplication represents a square in 2-point perspective. The vertical measurements are taken along the VML which is the vertical multiples of the original square used to set up the grid. Other VML's can be found by using a ground line to the HL and back to different heights.

This Grid could be used to make many different drawings with objects placed in many different locations. This makes it possible to use any corner as the leading corner of a view or a detail within a larger drawing. Figure below shows the development completed.

VML1

2 VML2

VPL

VML3

HL

VPR

ORIGINAL SQUARE

TWO-POINT GRID

5 - 14

ONE-POINT GRID USING VERTICAL MEASURING POSITIONS Now the process are removed and This gives a grid Perspective. Each at any depth in by measuring or can be reversed. All lines to the VP's those to the DVP and horizontal remain. that's slightly smaller, and is in 1 Point VML is the same dimension as the base the grid. Multiply that distance vertically 45 construction shown. Figure below shows the 1 Point Perspective Grid with a stack of smaller squares using the height the same dimension as its base at that depth in the drawing. Any diagonal (D-VPR) to either VP will give more grid horizontals where needed.

45

45

ONE-POINT GRID

5 - 15

Different grids have interior or exterior orientations. These are examples of tracing grids that were developed for small consumer product drawings and large interior layouts. There are many "ready-made" grids available. They can be very helpful, but in many cases are not very accurate and allow for over distortion. It is much better to develop your own trace grids that meet your specific needs. Any of the Measuring Systems will work in both 1 and 2 Point Systems.

5 - 16

DRAWING FIGURES INTO YOUR PERSPECTIVES Many times figures are needed in drawings to give warmth, show how something functions, and give scale. Figure drawing scares many people needlessly. You might begin by tracing figures from pictures in newspaper and magazine ads. Learn to simplify features and show relaxed stances. Once you have a style that works, try these steps for more originality. Each step is traced from the other. 1. Establish eye level. 2. Block in main body parts and line in arm and leg positions, keeping good proportion. 3. Outline main head, arm and body features. 4. Tighten details, using simplified face and hands. This might take several steps. 5. Add accessories to meet the requirements of the drawing and increase interest. 6. Figures can easily be changed, so keep your originals on file. Enlarge or reduce using photo copies.

1.

2.

3.

4a.

4b.

5.

1.

2.

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CONSTRUCTION OF A MEASURING PLANE GRID Measuring Plane Perspective is much like any two-point system except it is based on the use of a very large Field of Vision Circle. The view is moved to the outermost VP (either side) and allowed to distort slightly beyond the Field. The resulting system looks very similar to a OnePoint Perspective except that all horizontal lines are not parallel and go to a distant VP. This is appealing because the resulting view is more realistic as long as the distortion is kept under control and not over done. One-Point Perspective is often thought of as being rather static and uninteresting and not the way we ordinarily see things.

VPR VPL

STEP 1

8

STEP 2

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HL

HL

45

Draw a Horizon Line (5' here) and near one margin measure above and below in even increments making the height 8' (10' is OK). On the other margin make the same measurements in slightly smaller increments. They should be about 1/8" less per 1". Connect each measurement line across to its corresponding measurement on the other side.

Draw a line 45 from the vertical at the lower corner. Connect a vertical where this angle reaches the top line. This will give the first vertical measuring square representing 8' x 8'.

6 - 2

STEP 3

STEP 4

VP

HL

HL

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Multiply the first 8' x 8' using half diagonals through the 4' Now draw diagonals for each square and place verticals where height. Take these multiples out as far as your scale allows. the diagonals cross the horizontals. Pick a VP near the center of the first square. This is now a completed Vertical MeasurThree is considered to be best. Make smaller if necessary. ing Plane.

STEP 5

DVP

VP

HL

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16

Establish a Diagonal Vanishing Point (DVP) on the HL at the left border. This is a chosen point representing the distance of the observer from the picture plane as in many other systems. 6 -

This means that moving the DVP to the left is the same as backing away from the view. This makes the floor appear shallower. Moving to the right makes the floor appear deeper. 3

STEP 6

8

STEP 7

8 VP

DVP

VP

DVP

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Draw lines from DVP through 0, 8, 16 & 24. Connect crossing points from +8 and +16. You now have outlines of 8' x 8' squares on the horizontal plane. STEP 9

8

8

STEP 8

DVP

VP

DVP

VP

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Draw all depth lines through all points on the ground plane forward from the VP. This gives the width lines of the grid and begins the wall on the right hand side (also a vertical measuring plane). 6

Using the DVP crossing points with the depth lines, draw the horizontal lines of the grid. Portions here were left out to show how each line is referenced. They can be drawn to the full width as well as all verticals drawn to full height. - 4

LAST STEP This shows the entire grid completed. This would be a lot of work for just one drawing. The idea is to do a solid job, even in ink, and use it over and over again as an underlay for drawings. It can be flopped to make the near "wall" on the left side. Actually, these are not walls, but measuring planes. It is possible to measure behind the Vertical Measuring Plane by counting where the DVP crosses each depth line just like the 1-Point Perspective floor grid.

8

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PVD

J.J.ATTORNEY J.J.ATTORNEY

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INTERIOR & ARCHITECTURAL APPLICATION - LARGE SCALE FORMS The grid was flopped and used as an underlay for this interior study. Each grid square represented 1'-0". Notice that the walls do not necessarily fall at the vertical measuring plane and can be in front or in back of this plane. 6 - 6

J.J.ATTORNEY J.J.ATTORNEY

PRODUCT APPLICATION - SMALL SCALE FORMS In this case the grid square represented 1" increments. There is much distortion as the form gets closer to the right measuring wall. If this is a problem, move farther inward. This will give less distortion to the right hand side.

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CIRCLES IN PERSPECTIVE CIRCLES/ 8-PT. & 12-PT. METHOD CIRCLES CONSTRUCTED W/ ELLIPSE GUIDES ELLIPSE ANGLE MEASUREMENTS

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CIRCLES IN PERSPECTIVE Circles are usually thought of as being perfectly round. This would mean that they are constructed with a consistent radius of a specific size about a center point. Actually we seldom see a circle this way. The only time would be when the circle is at eye level and perpendicular to our line of sight. Our perception of a circle, then, is not a true circle at all, but an ellipse that varies considerably from a perfect circle to an ellipse that is so tight that it becomes a straight line. This can happen on the horizontal and vertical plane as well as any other plane at any angle.

HORIZONTAL PLANE

VERTICAL PLANE ELLIPSE CONSTRUCTION One of the most important skills in perspective drawing is the ability to construct circles (ellipses) in perspective. The circle is so commonplace when you are working with drilled holes in surfaces, circular knobs protruding from a surface, radius edges, rounded corners, cylinders of various types, cones and circular lines on spheres.

ELLIPSES DEFINED The definition of an ellipse is more mathematical than it is perceptual. What we need for our purposes is the relationship of the Minor Axis (diameter of the smaller circle) and the Major Axis (diameter of the larger circle). Every ellipse has a Major and Minor Axis. It is their variations that give the ellipse its perceptual difference. The above construction is very reliable for constructing large ellipses on an orthographic plane. Other methods are necessary to find ellipses in perspective. 7 - 2

ELLIPSES IN PERSPECTIVE USING 8-POINT METHOD It is possible to project information from a circle onto a perspective plane. First make a square that joins a vertical side of the perspective square. Construct a true circle within the square and draw its diagonals. Then project the lines where the circle crosses the diagonals into the perspective view. This will give 4 points around the circle in addition to the 4 midpoints of the square. This is done on a vertical plane first and then projected to a horizontal plane if needed. STEPS: A cube composed of 3 squares in perspective. The problem is to place a full circle on each surface. The projections can be taken to the next side using VPR (not shown) and repeated.

A square and circle are attached to the vertical side. Horizontals through the diagonal/circle intersections are projected onto perspective surface from the VPL (not shown).

Projections can be taken to the top horizontal surface in the same manner. Construction square and circle can now be removed.

ELLIPSES IN PERSPECTIVE USING 12-POINT METHOD Since ellipses are representing circles, it is first necessary to construct a square that is the same size as the diameter of the circle. This can be accomplished on an orthographic view as well as a view in perspective.

The same constructions can be done in perspective. Use your VP's and diagonals to divide into 16 squares. The rest is just the same. The 12 points connected will give an ellipse that represents a circle within the perspective square on both horizontal and vertical planes.

1 12 11 2 3

10 4

8 7 6

Orthographic construction is as follows: Divide the square into 16 smaller squares following the constructions above. Then draw the diagonals of the outside sets of four squares. Draw circle through points found at the crossing of the first grid line from each corner.

IMPORTANT Always make certain that you are drawing a square in perspective. If it is rectangular, you will be constructing an ellipse in perspective - not a circle. 7 - 4

CIRCLE CONSTRUCTION WITH ELLIPSE GUIDES You don't have to construct very many circles using 8-point The ellipse guide has a series of elliptical holes stamped into a and 12-point to realize that it takes a great deal of time. plastic sheet with a MAJOR and MINOR AXIS marks dividing That explains the reason that constructions of this type are the ellipse into 4 equal quadrants. EQUAL done infrequently. Their best application is for circles that are large. For smaller circles it is more convenient to use ellipse guides. If done correctly, this method is quite accurate and becomes very easy with a certain amount of practice. Ellipse guides are available individually and in sets of 4 or more depending on how many ellipse angles you want. Below is a set of 4 with ellipse angles of 15, 30, 45 and 60 degrees. Each angle has a series of different ellipse sizes. Combination ellipse guides have all 4 angles on one guide. MINOR AXIS

II

MAJOR AXIS

III

IV

The more Ellipse Angles you have to work with the better. Complete sets include every 5 increments from 15 to 60, This ellipse varies from a perspective ellipse, because the 4 & 10 with 65 thru 85. Trace templates are available. quadrants are not the same in perspective. Below is a circle construction on a horizontal plane using 1 point perspective. 15 degree The MAJOR AXIS is not half way between the top and bot30 degree tom edge of the circle. The MINOR AXIS is still dividing the ellipse in half vertically. Therefore it is important to use the 45 degree MINOR AXIS in ellipse alignment. The MAJOR AXIS cannot be used because it isn't 60 degree where it should be on NOT EQUAL the ellipse guide. MINOR AXIS

MAJOR AXIS

7 - 5

CIRCLE CONSTRUCTIONS USING ELLIPSE GUIDES Constructing a circle on a flat plan with an ellipse guide involves three choices: 1. ELLIPSE ALIGNMENT (minor axis to opposite VP or vertical). 2. ELLIPSE ANGLE (fullness or tightness). 3. ELLIPSE SIZE (perspective box measurement). ELLIPSE ALIGNMENT ON FLAT PLANES. The rules for ellipse alignment can be quite simple. Shown below is the 8-point circle construction. If you overlay the drawing with an ellipse guide of the correct size and angle, you can determine the major and minor axis of the ellipse used. When the actual minor and major axis of each ellipse is drawn, you will discover several relationships of the ellipse to the surface it is resting on. The MAJOR and 1. . . . lie on the 2. . . . relate to 3. . . . cross at MINOR AXIS do not . . . . . diagonals of the square. the corners of any side. the center of the square. If the MINOR cover that it perpendicular be a vertical AXIS is extended to the horizon line, we disgoes to the vanishing point of the side that is to it. On the top the MINOR AXIS is found to line.

The MINOR AXIS . . . . . . 1. . . . goes through the center of the square. 2. . . . extends to the opposite Vanishing Point or is vertical. 3. . . . is always perpendicular to the surface is rests on.

VP2

ELLIPSE ALINEMENTS Almost everyone has the ability to perceive what objects should look like when they see a drawing. They can't be fooled. Circles must look like circles lying on whatever plane they are on. The ellipses below were constructed using correct alinement and angles. They show the use of minor axis alignments perpendicular to the surface they are resting on. Ellipses on the inclined plane use HL2. This inclined horizon line is found by connecting VP2 and VPL.

2 HL

VPL

HL

VP1

VPR

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VERTICAL PLANE ELLIPSE RELATIONSHIPS When in a search for a way to measure ellipse angles, one must look for clues from what is known. We have used our best judgement up to this point as to alignment and angle. From these observations we can see that all the ellipses are the same vertically and change gradually as they move horizontally across the plane. Therefore, the only thing they have in common is a vertical line running through the ellipse center. This vertical line must somehow give us a measured ellipse angle. Since the HL crossing will only give the same angle anywhere within the circle, the only other crossing point is at the Field of Vision edge. Once this is taken to VPL (for circles on planes facing left) we discover that the angle the vertical centerline makes VPL with the line to VPL is the same as the ellipse angle on the ellipse guide. This is true for surfaces facing right as well. Their angles use the VPR.

60

20

FIELD OF VISION

15 Ellipses 30 Ellipses 45 Ellipses 60 Ellipses

15

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45 60

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45 HL 60 VPR

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7 - 8

13

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Here we see that the four commonly used ellipse angles make their corresponding angles on each protractor.

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ELLIPSE ANGLE MEASUREMENT-VERTICAL PLANES The ellipse angle of any circle on a vertical plane is found by taking a vertical centerline () to the edge of a Field of Vision Circle (with VP's as diameter) then to the same vanishing point that the surface goes to. The angle formed with that vertical is the ellipse angle of the circle anywhere along the vertical line. Now, align the ellipse using minor axis to opposite VP. *Use a protractor to measure the angles between the vertical line and the line to VP. E = Ellipse Guide

15E

45E 45E

*30

*47 *38

45E

Field of Vision

40E

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*47 *45

MEASURING ELLIPSE ANGLES

HORIZONTAL PLANE ELLIPSE RELATIONSHIPS A search for a way to measure ellipses on horizontal planes leads us to the only point that is common to all the ellipses that are the same distance below HL. This is a horizontal line at center. If this point is taken to either VP, it will give the angle of the ellipse. This works for any location within the Field of Vision. This diagram shows 3 different angles and how they were found. It also points out a very interesting fact about any angles over 45. It appears to suggest that when looking horizontally, we cannot see angles that are greater and stay within the Field of Vision. To get larger we must look downward or rotate the surface.

VPL

0

FIELD OF VISION

30 Ellipse

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ELLIPSE ANGLE MEASUREMENT-HORIZONTAL PLANES The ellipse angle of any circle on a horizontal plane is found by first drawing the square and finding its center. Take the horizontal centerline to the vertical of the circle, then to either VP. The angle that this line makes with the HL is the ellipse angle used within the square. Fit by size the square and then rotate to a vertical minor axis alignment to correct distortion. Squares below HL were drawn using the DVP. But, any 1 or 2 Point VPL Measuring System will work to find squares. *Measure angles with protractor. E = Ellipse Guide

*15

Field of Vision (not needed here).

If size is not important, you can also do it without the square. 30E *30

15E

15E *15

DVP

*30

VPR

*15

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*35

15E

30E

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7 - 11

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ELLIPSE SIZE MEASUREMENT The ellipse size can be measured by drawing a box at the circle location by using any of the measuring systems. This box will give the height and depth of the circle. One would think that all you would have to do is put an ellipse inside this box and that would be it. The problem is that each box requires a certain angle to fit it exactly. This angle might be 32 degrees or 53 degrees. You are limited to the size and scope of the set of ellipse guides you are using. Fitting each perspective square thus becomes impossible in many cases. Since the ellipse is also a perfect ellipse and not a perspective ellipse, the fit is not exact because the ellipse on the guide is heavier or fuller on the back half. To make matters seem worse, the fore-shortening of the square many times makes the ellipse look turned into the surface or flat vertically. This often occurs on plotted ellipses. One alternative in placing an ellipse on a surface in a certain location and size is to forget about the square that surrounds it and rely only on the vertical axis in the correct location and measurement. The correct ellipse angle will take care of the circle being as wide as it is high. VML

TO VPR

TO VPR

TO MP

So, the square gives a hint, but does not give exact angle needed. Ellipse guide circles rarely touch the square in the correct locations - that is the center of each side. Hold the height at center and allow the ellipse to go outside the square if necessary so that it will visually appear to lie on the surface.

Find the height locations along the VML and then find the center vertical axis using MP. Construct the perspective circle using the ellipse size and alignment that best fits the requirements making sure that the minor axis goes to VP. Visually pick or measure the ellipse angle. If it looks indented or turned into the surface, try a fuller (wider) ellipse. If it appears to be turned outward, try a tighter (thinner) ellipse. 7 - 12

ELLIPSE GALORE All the ellipses on this side are wrongly chosen and aligned. Each problem is noted. All the ellipses on this side are correctly chosen and aligned.

OK

Right ellipse - Wrong VP. Wrong ellipse angle and alignment. Appears to float.

OK

OK

Wrong ellipse angle and correct alignment looks indented into surface.

7 - 13

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STANDING CYLINDER CONSTRUCTION USING SQUARE BOXES Cylinders are no more than circles extended through a third dimension. The illusion that is necessary to convey a cylinder is very similar to circles on flat planes. Any circle can be taken through this third dimension by using vanishing points or verticals, just like rectilinear forms. Cylinders are seen in almost any position relative to the viewer. They can be above, at or below eye level, and turned in any of 360 degrees.

Full circle within a square

1 and 2-point perspective can also be used to construct cylinders lying on a horizontal plane. Once the boxes of square cross-section are drawn in the location needed and to scale, the ellipses or circles at each end are drawn within the box and then connected with tangent lines.

Notice below that the same cylinder can be constructed by using either 1 or 2-point perspective. Either method works equally well. Each square horizontal plane gives an easy alignment of the ellipses using ellipse guides. If the ellipse is slightly too full, allow the ellipse to extend beyond the back line at top and bottom always keeping the minor axis vertical.

VP1 VPL VPL

HL

HL

VP VPL

HL Minor Axis to VP

HL

This time the Minor Axis goes to the opposite Vanishing Point. Use full circles in 1-point perspective where the cylinder is pointed toward the viewer. This extreme foreshortening can give very exciting views, but should be close to the VP to avoid over distortion. 8 - 2

We learn from the box constructions that both top and In the same manner it is possible to construct ellipses on bottom ellipses share the same minor axis. We also can see a horizontal plane using the minor axis to VP. that both ellipses have the same major axis measurement VPR and that the ellipse gets tighter as it nears the horizon line. Using a center vertical axis line makes it possible to construct a convincing cylinder without boxes. In this case VPR measurements are eyeballed.

VPR

If you need measurements to give the right proportions, use a rectangle representing the height and diameter.

Diameter

VPR

Height

fuller and smaller ellipse at far end larger and tighter ellipse at near end

This method is an exception to the rule, because it uses the major axis. The minor axis is still on a vertical line though the center. Both methods require a fuller ellipse at the bottom end. The distance below eye level determines the fullness of both ellipses. You can always use Chapter 6 Ellipse Angle Measurement if you need to be exact. 8 - 3

CYLINDER CONSTRUCTIONS Drawings of the cylinders below used "eyeball" as a basis for constructions with ellipse guides. Note the various positions of the cylinders and their ellipse angles. Measured ellipse angles and boxes can also be used. As cylinders go above the eye level, the ellipse angles need the same distance above the HL as they do below. For standing cylinders be careful not to work too close to the HL as very tight ellipses are needed. Even the 15 ellipse needs some distance below the HL.

HL

VP

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30 15 45

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HL VPR

EL L

ES 185 E TIR X ON ST IP

ALL 45 ELLIPSES

The tire stack was created with a single ellipse angle of 45. The sizes get smaller along the tread line to give foreshortening to the depth. The drawing construction was done using a minor axis to a distant VP. The VP will give the correct tilt for any distance below HL. The same drawing was repeated with a 90 rotation for th e horizontal tire. The overlap gives the illusion that one is above the other. It is hard to perceive these as the same drawing. 8 - 5

OPHEIM

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CONSTRUCTION OF CAMERA DRAWING The Measuring System is used to first "block-in" the main parts. A super way to do this is by using elevation views along the bottom edge of the HML. This makes measurements easy. If you don't have these views or you don't want to take time to draw them, you can take the measurements from an actual camera. Lens cap is all 45.

USE MP'S

A progression of ellipse angles from 45, 50 & 55 in different sizes are used to draw the lens portion. Minor axis goes to VPR or is vertical.

VML HML CAMERA AND LENS FACE

LENS DEPTH CASE DEPTH

8 - 6

CAMERA ILLUSTRATION COMPLETED It is always important to finish off all details as exact as possible. Then you can add other objects to create interest and scale. Overlap forms and develop a strong composition by making the negative areas into interesting shapes. Draw all the inner detail lines using a medium line weight and then trace around the outside edge with a heavier line.

.7

.5

U OLYMP

8 - 7

OL YM

S PU

TEM -SYS OM

0.4

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OLY MPU

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ON

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MPR

MPL

HL

VPR

APPLICATION DRAWING

APPLICATION DRAWING Details are now added to make Details hub now added spokes and are or pinwheel. to make spokes and hub or pinwheel.

HML

Construct the circle ellipse Construct the circle ellipse using any method. Draw the using any method. Draw elevation of the circle with the elevation of the circle any number divisions wanted. with any number divisions Project theseProject HML and to the these to wanted. to the HML and to MP,on the MP, then vertically then circles face on find location vertically to the circles points to find location points face on circles front half. Each point is taken through on circles front half. center to locate points taken on the Each point is back half. center to locate through points on the back half.

8 - 8

ELEVATION

16

VML

15 14

16

15

CONSTRUCTION OF SPIRAL STAIRCASE STEPS: 1. Construct a Plan View showing how many steps there are in one revolution. This can vary depending on height requirements. 2. With the use of 1-Point Perspective, transfer the Plan View onto the horizontal plane and number stations for each step. 3. Add a VML to one side for each step riser. 4. Project lines to the MP to find the riser height at the center of the cylinder. 5. Taking one step at a time. Trace the heights to their respective positions above the plan view. Add center cylinder support and trace their respective heights for each step. 6. Draw in each step from measurements found. Use a heavier outline to separate visually from constructions. It can get very busy. Diagram at left shows 8 of the 16 steps finished. Complete the drawing by adding those that are missing.

PLAN VIEW

14

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VP1

MP

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5 4 7 6 8 9 10 11

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PICTURE PLANE

8 - 9

CONSTRUCTION OF STANDING CONTOURED CYLINDERS STEPS: 1. Construct an elevation view of the cylinder and place to one side. 2. Choose Station Points (here numbered from 1 - 10) at key locations where the form changes abruptly and also along soft curves. 3. The different Station Points are projected horizontally to the Picture Plane, then to their square depth using 1-Point Perspective methods. The measuring point is not shown here. 4. Draw diagonal lines on each square. 5. Construct a Plan View below the Picture Plane composed of half circles which correspond to the same radii as each Station Point is from center in the elevation. 6. Take each Station Point on the Plan View vertically up the Picture Plane to the Station Point level and then in depth to the Vanishing Point. 7. Draw an ellipse that crosses where that depth line crosses the diagonal on that plane. 8. Finish by drawing a curve that touches all of these found ellipses. Try doing this with several variations of cross section.

VP1

HL

4 5 6 7

4 5

6 7

9 10 3 8 42

10 1

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PICTURE PLANE

10

PLAN VIEW

8 - 10

VP1

HL

DIVISION

4 5 6 7

4 5

6 7

STEPS: 1. Beginning with a constructed cylinder using a Plan View. Add lines on Plan View that will divide the cylinder into any number of divisions. They can be equal angles or varied. 2. Project lines from each Station Point vertically to the Picture Plane and continue vertically to the Station Level. 3. Continue on that plane to the VP1. 4. This line will cross the ellipse on that plane in two places. This is where that division line will cross that ellipse. 5. Draw a smooth curved line through all found points. 6. Continue for each division. Only one division is shown here for clarity. Try adding several more and plotting their locations on the cylinder.

9 10 3 8 42

10 1

6 7

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10

TOP VIEW

8 - 11

CONSTRUCTIONS OF SPHERES Spheres are nothing more than circles until they are given detailing to give them the third dimension. They can be shaded or textured. When you are using only line work, there must be details added to give the 3D effect. The easiest of these is a line dividing the sphere in half. This could be called an equator, terminator or horizon line depending on Smaller circles are placed onto the sphere surface by powhich context you are referring. sitioning the minor axis through center of circle and moving the ellipse outward until it looks to be in the correct location. These can represent many things, but in this case a portion of the sphere has been removed leaving a circular flat plane. The tight ellipses, 15 thru 45 usually touch the circle unless they are very small. The 60 will be just inside the circle unless it is very large. Then of course the Circle (90) is at center. Other angles can be used between these locations.

0

Begin by drawing an ellipse of any ellipse angle with its minor and major axis through the center and with the major axis the same length as the circle's diameter. This can be placed at any desired slant or angle from the horizon. Various effects can then be created depending on which line you make visible. They can be seen as line around the form or a line cut through the center. Next, try to use two such ellipses in the same way. Here the sphere may appear to have slices taken out and portion of the outer sphere are taken away. The angle between each ellipse can be measured directly. Example being, if you want the angle between the two ellipses to be 45, you can measure 45 between their minor or major axis lines. 8 - 12

15

30

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SPHERE STUDIES

to VP

Constructions on this page all use ellipse angles aligned to the center of the circle. Most of the ellipse choices are made by visual trial and error (eyeball). PRACTICE is the key. Work on a few products or forms of your own and visually choose and

align each ellipse. All objects were drawn using only 4 ellipse angle templates plus a circle template. Using more angles will make it possible to place circles in about any location which should make them even more convincing..

15E

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8 - 13

DRAWING A SPHERE TO SCALE Follow these easy steps to construct a sphere using a cube which measures the same as the sphere's diameter.

1.

2.

Find the center of one side where the diagonals of that side cross.

3.

Using lines to both VP's, construct a vertical plane at the cubes center.

4.

In the same manner construct a second vertical and a horizontal plane at cubes center.

5.

Draw a circle on each plane using ellipse guides. Draw a vertical line at the cubes center to find touch point (T).

6.

Draw a circle about the cubes center that runs tangent to the three ellipses. This is the sphere to scale.

8 - 14

SPHERE SHORT CUT Obviously the construction using a cube to find the true size of a sphere is not something you would want to do on a daily basis. The short cut employs our visual findings from the cube construc tion. Using the diagonals from the cube construction we can find the true center line of the sphere and the point where this line touches the surface. This is the point where the sphere touches the surface. This center line is always slightly smaller than the final circle encompassing the sphere. The idea is to first find the center line of the sphere to scale and in the right location and then draw a circle slightly larger. This gives a fast and fairly accurate solution. Any error would not be readily noticed and hard to prove wrong.

HL

VML

Measured vertical line can be transferred to any other location and then the circle is drawn slightly larger with the line as its center. See page 3-11 8 - 15

SHADOW DETAILS Shadows are important additions to drawings that help give the illusion that objects are resting on a surface. It is a good way to establish a strong contrast around forms, set moods and to separate the forms from their background. LIGHT LOCATION & SOURCE It is always best to have a single light source. Think of the light as being a single point at a certain direction and height above the object. Shadows that are cast to either side or behind an object usually reflect a good choice of light position. This shadow will not dominate. The most advantageous location for the light source is one that is behind the viewer (in front of the object), is fairly high and is over the left or right shoulder. This location will give relatively short shadows behind and to the right or left side of the form. There are 4 different types of light used in shadow plotting. Light source choices depend on the subject matter, distance and direction. 4 SHADOW TYPES COMMONLY USED: PARALLEL - Fictitious distant light source producing shadows in any direction using parallel light rays. CONVERGING - Artificial near light source producing shadows in any direction using converging light rays. POSITIVE LIGHT - Sun light source producing realistic shadows in front of forms using converging light rays. NEGATIVE LIGHT - Sun light source producing realistic shadows behind forms using converging light rays. 9 - 1

SHADOW BASICS SHADOWS ON BLOCKS, CYLINDERS & SPHERES PARALLEL SHADOWS CONVERGING SHADOWS NEGATIVE & POSITIVE LIGHT SHADOWS

LIGHT ANGLE (LA) Chosen angle indicates the ELEVATION light as it comes from the light source.

of the

LA

LA LA

A

LA

E

VP

LA

D

LA

LA

GA

GROUND ANGLE (GA) Chosen angle indicates the DIRECTION the light is coming from.

GA GA GA

Shadow is located where the LA & GA cross

LA GA

LA

GA

GA

GA

SHADOW PLOTTING BASICS The shadow location of a point in mid-air (airplane) can be found if the distance above the surface is known. A vertical line from the point to the surface beneath will give that height. A line, called the LIGHT ANGLE (LA) through that point is used to show the light ELEVATION. A second line, called GROUND ANGLE (GA through the ground point beneath is used to show the light DIRECTION. A post (A-B) casts a shadow in the direction of the ground angle. When plotting this shadow, the LA passes through a point on the top (A) and the GA passes through the base of the post (B) and continues to the light angle intersection (C). The shadow is connected back to the base of the post (B-C). 9 -

PARALLEL METHOD OF PLOTTING SHADOWS If a series of fence posts, all the same height and in a line to VP, the shadow of each post can be plotted in the same manner as the first one. Each light angle is parallel to the others and the ground angles are all parallel as well. The shadow of the rail (D-E) added to the top goes to the same VP as the rail itself. This means that the shadow of any horizontal edge will go to the same VP as the horizontal line defining that edge, i.e. the cast shadow is actually parallel to the surface edge that is casting the shadow. It is represented as a line to the same vanishing point in perspective. 2

SHADOWS OF VERTICAL PLANES If a solid vertical wall casts a shadow behind and to one side, the shadow is found by using 2 sets of LA's & GA's. Once this is done, several observations become apparent that can be used to create rules which always apply. SHADOW RULES: 1. VERTICAL LINE RULE All vertical edges cast shadows in the Ground Angle direction. See A-B. 2. HORIZONTAL LINE RULE All horizontal edges cast shadows that are parallel to them and go to the same VP. See C-D. 3. ANGLED LINE RULE Shadows of angled edges are plotted by finding the shadow of both end points using GA's & LA's. See E-F.

SHORT CUT The shadow will go in the Ground Angle direction until it reaches the Light Angle and then will go to the same vanishing point as the top edge. Not having to find the location of the shadow of the far corner by using the SHADOW RULES will save time without the loss of accuracy. These same rules can be used on all solid box forms.

LA

E

Hot Stuff

D C

LA

LA

GA

Arrows go to VPR

GA

GA

A 9 - 3

LA LA GA GA LA GA This method used 4 LA's and 4 GA's LA

PARALLEL SHADOWS OF BOX FORMS / EXTERIOR First, determine a light source. Decide what surfaces will get direct light and which side of the box should get the most light. There are many possible combinations of light and ground angles. Choose one of the corners and place a point on the ground where you want the shadow of that corner to be. This gives you complete freedom of choice. Now, working in reverse connect the point to the top and bottom of the corner line. This gives you the light angle and ground angle used to find that point. Find the shadow of the other corners by using parallel light and ground angles to the original ones. Shorten the time by using the SHADOW RULES whenever possible.

LA

LA GA LA LA This method used 3 LA's and 1 GA. The shadow lines are projected to VP's.

Minimal use of GA's and LA's to develop shadow using VP's to find shadow parallel to edges.

LA

GA

POINT GA GA

LA LA

LA

LA

VP

HL

GA

RA N CI G TY E

GA

GA

9 - 4

LA

FLAGPOLE RULE If a shadow is interrupted by a vertical plane, such as a wall, it will go to the wall along the ground line and then go vertically until it reaches the light angle. At this point is the location of the shadow of the pole tip on the wall.

LA

GA

GA

This rule can be applied to the partition inside the box below. The shadow goes to the partition and upwards until it reaches the light angle, then horizontally from vanishing point to the next wall and then (not seen) up to the diagonal corner. VP HL HL

PARALLEL SHADOWS OF BOX FORMS / INTERIOR The shadow into the box interior is found in much the same manner as the shadow outside. Interior shadows differ from exterior shadows as they pass over both horizontal and vertical surfaces. The exterior shadow of the box has shadows on horizontal surfaces only. The shadow of the nearest corner is found to be inside the box. This corner shadow will connect to the front exterior shadow and will have a ground angle into the box at the same angle as the exterior ground angle. There is only one corner shadow inside the box. The shadow must now connect from the interior shadow corner to the wall, in the direction of the exterior corner shadow, and then angled up the wall to the opposite diagonal corner from which it started. This angled line on the wall is not always seen. It depends on which surface is visible. 9 - 5

LA

GA

3 2 1 3 2 4 4

MULTIPLE SHADOW SOLUTIONS FROM ONE All shadows shown here PLOTTED CONSTRUCTION. are taken from this single

construction.

CONSTRUCTION

SHADED

3 2 1

3 2 1

3 2 1

3 2 1

SOLID BOX

TOP REMOVED

3 2 1

3

4

2 1

3 2 1

3 2 1

3

2

4

3

4

1

FRONT REMOVED

3 SIDES REMOVED

3 2 1

3

3 2 1

3

3 2 1

3 2 1

3

4

1

3 SIDES REMOVED

1

FRONT & BACK ONLY

TOP ONLY

3 SIDES ONLY

9 - 6

WALL VARIATIONS Shadows of horizontal lines cast angled shadows down wall.

LA

LA

C A

B

GA

GA

Flagpole Rule in action

LIGHT ANGLES ARE NEVER SHADOWS. It is tempting to use LA as a shadow line down a wall, but it is impossible for a light beam to be a shadow.

LA

GA

9 - 7

SHADOW SAVVY An awareness of which edges on a form cast the shadow will always help determine which step or rule to follow. Shadow plotting always involves the use of a light angle through a point in the air and a ground angle through a point directly beneath it. A certain amount of connecting of points must be done to complete any shadow. As the shadow solutions become more complex it is necessary to develop a more sophisticated shadow logic to complete the solution. This may mean simplifying more complex forms to something that you understand and work back, one step at a time, until the final shadow is found. It may also require that vertical planes might need to be added or extended temporarily and then removed (AB). If there is doubt about a solution, check it by using a point along an edge at (C) and plot the shadow of that point. If it is found on the line in question it will prove it correct, or show where it should be.

SHADOW PLOTS OF DOORWAYS AND WINDOWS Below are two ways to plot the same shadow of a door or window top (header) and the side upright (jamb). Version 1 is probably the easiest and is done by placing a solid wall or door on the inside wall thickness and find the flagpole shadow of the jamb and header on the door at B and then project that to VP. Where this line crosses the walls at C, an angled line CD is drawn to the front corner.

D

LA

VERSION 1 VP

HL

B

VP

A

GA

LA VP

HL

VP

VERSION 2 This solution uses the crossing shadow pattern on the ground of the back jamb and the leading header. A light angle AB is drawn to the edge of the jamb showing where the angle shadow must go. Then a shadow line is drawn to the front corner. 9 - 8

GA

BOX WITH FLAPS CONSTRUCTION & SHADOW All flaps are drawn to VP1. The flap shadows are found by putting the GA through a point on the surface below the flap corner. This is always the case for anything floating off the surface. The shadow of the corner is found inside the box also and is projected to the upper right back corner for inside shadow.

VP1

LA

VPL

HL

GA

LA

GA

Since a pyramid doesn't have vertical walls, you use the center point beneath the apex for GA. This gives you the shadow of the apex on the surface. Connect this point to all corners. Shade all surfaces within visual shadow. 9 - 9

PARALLEL SHADOWS OF STANDING CYLINDERS Shadows of curved forms can be more complex, but follow the same principles as box forms. The top is a circle on the horizontal plane and casts a shadow that is also a circle on the horizontal plane. Since there are no corners, several points around the top perimeter are used to plot the shadow. Each point is connected to a point directly beneath by a vertical line. Use parallel Light Angles through each point on the top and parallel Ground Angles through each point around the base. The shadow passes through were each set of lines cross. Use a French Curve or ellipse template to connect the points in as smooth an ellipse as possible. Connect this shadow using ground angles, to the base of the cylinder to give the inclusive shadow of the sides. The core shadow is a vertical line located where this side shadow line runs tangent to the base ellipse. SHORT CUT The shadow of the top is elliptical and relates to the ellipse that defines the bottom of the cylinder. The ellipse might be slightly tighter, but for short shadows which are

2 1

10 9 7

half hidden behind the form, it is possible to use the same ellipse that was used to draw the bottom of the cylinder. The alignment of the ellipse is with the minor axis in the vertical direction. If the minor axis is turned along the ground angle line, it will distort the ground surface. The position of the ellipse can be determined by single points at the top and bottom center of the cylinder. GA's & LA's can be drawn through these points to find the center of the ellipse. Then it's just a matter of shifting the ellipse guide to the position and using a vertical minor axis through that found point, draw the shadow ellipse. This ellipse is then connected to the bottom ellipse by Ground Angle to give the shadow of the sides. Sometimes it is helpful to put additional light angles at the outside edges. If the shadow gets longer due to low light angle, the ellipse angle used must gradually decrease (get tighter) as the ellipse gets closer to the horizon line. This can be done visually in the same way circles are positioned on horizontal planes.

LA

LA

LA

6

CORE SHADOW

4 5

6 10 9 8 7

4 5

1

10

6 7 9 8

GA

GA

GA

ALTERNATE METHOD

CONSTRUCTION

FAST METHOD 9 - 10

PARALLEL SHADOWS OF CYLINDRICAL OBJECTS For shapes with various diameters casting short shadows, use a Light Angle through the centers of each ellipse and a single Ground Angle through the base ellipse.. Then use the same diameters in the shadow ellipses, making them all the same LA ellipse angle with minor axis vertical.

30 30 30 30

LA

GA

2"D 2"D

LA

LA

1"D

GA

a b

Take GA back from ground shadow (a) to inside wall edge (b). Go vertical to (c). Connect a-c with a slightly curved line.

For longer shadows, ellipse angles Keep all Minor Axis gradually decrease (tightenvertical. Ellipsesdei.e. minor axis gradually tighten as they approach HL creases) as are the same diameter but they approach the HL, but are thecasting them. as the circle same diameter (major axis stays the same) as the circle casting them.

GA

9 - 11

LA CORE SHADOWS

Flagpole Rule at work.

GA

LA

TANGENT PT.

DRIP LINE

Shadow on inner cylinder from overhang is plotted using several "flag poles" around edge and finding each shadow point on the cylinder wall. Then connect points with a smooth curve.

GA

- 12

PARALLEL EXTERIOR SHADOW OF HORIZONTAL CYLINDERS If a BASE LINE (BL) is drawn from the vanishing point, which was used to establish the end plane of the cylinder, through the touch point of the cylinder end, it can be used to find points beneath any point on the end ellipse. Add vertical lines across the form. Draw LA's & GA's through these points to construct the shadow. The shadow can go in front or behind the form depending on the ground angle direction. Note that there are two light angle lines for each ground angle. Connect the points found by the intersections of the light and ground angles with a curve or ellipse guide. This construction shows several aspects of this type of shadow. The shadow is a tight ellipse that touches both LA's & passes through the touch point "T", and doesn't cross the base line.

LA

BL

GA

GOD WE TRUS IN T

LA

LIBERTY

1992 D

GA

BL

SHORT CUT Since we know that the shadow is an ellipse and that it passes through known points, a point at the center of the cylinder can be added to show how far in front or back the shadow is cast. Find this point A above the touch point (T) with a vertical line. A light angle through A and a GA through T will show at B how far the shadow is cast behind or in front of the cylinder. The shadow goes through B, touches both LA's and goes through T and cannot cross over the BL. This locates 4 points for the shadow ellipse. Repeat at the far end if necessary. This offers a fairly fast and accurate method of shadow plotting.

A LA BL

LA A

B BL T GA

9 - 14

KALEIDOSCOPE

GA

PARALLEL INSIDE SHADOW OF HORIZONTAL CYLINDER The shadow on the inside is much more complicated as there seems to be an optical illusion as the convex surface casts it's shadow on a concave surface resulting in an almost straight line. It might be a good idea to look at a cylinder under different light conditions to get a visual idea of what the shadow looks like.

B

LA

The inside shadow can be plotted from the exterior shadow on the surface beneath the cylinder. Begin with the point above the touch point. The Light Angle and Ground Angle from this point will give a point P on the surface. From the far vanishing point construct a line to the base line B. From point B draw a Light Angle to the edge of the cylinder C. From C draw a line back to the vanishing point to where it crosses the Light Angle at L. Point L is the shadow of point P inside the cylinder. Repeat this using 2 additional points along the top edge. This will give you enough points to see how straight the line is, how far it is from the front edge and which direction it will slightly curve. Shading will diffuse the shadow at the top and bottom edges, but the shape is similar to a "pancake" laying against the curved concave surface of the cylinder.

T GA BL

9 - 15

SPHERE SHADOW CONSTRUCTION A sphere shadow is constructed using a CORE SHADOW (terminator of light). This core line is an ellipse about the center of the sphere and is perpendicular to the LA.. If points around the core are used with their corresponding points on the ground (drip line) in the same fashion as on the cylinder, the shadow can be plotted. Once plotted it can be seen that the shadow is an ellipse that touches the light

CORE SHADOW (Terminator)

LA

angles from each outer edge and is slightly tipped upward as it goes behind the sphere or downward when it goes in front. The shadow is also seen under the form and would be going around the touch point (T) of the sphere. This touch point is near the bottom on a vertical line through the center of the sphere. Shadows that don't look right are usually constructed using poorly chosen terminators and drip lines.

CORE SHADOW (Terminator)

TOP VIEW

T

GA

LA

TOP VIEW

GA

9 - 16

SHORT CUT METHOD & STEPS The BAD NEWS is that there is no proven method to find the core shadow or terminator. Any plotted shadow will be no better than your best guess as to the core ellipse angle. It is always found arbitrarily. Even if there was, it would probably be too time consuming and complicated to warrant every day use. The GOOD NEWS is that we don't need a method to be convincing. We are free to pick our own ellipse angles and determine the shadow using known points and observations found by plotting with a sample sphere. The short cut version of a sphere shadow plot depends on a core ellipse of your choice (usually 30 or 45) which is perpendicular to the LA. The shadow ellipse angle (like a cylinder shadow) is determined by how far the shadow is below the eye level. The shadow ellipse touches both LA's, is slightly tilted into the form for light in front and out from the form for light from behind. Avoid too much tilt or it will look like it's rolling down hill. COMMON VARIATIONS:

LA

LA

1 2

LA

LA

LA

LA

CHOOSE SHADOW ELLIPSE AND POSITION TOUCHING BOTH LA's AND MINOR AXIS VERTICAL.

LA

LA

LA

LA

MOVE UP AND DOWN UNTIL THE SPHERE LOOKS NEITHER FLOATING OR INDENTED AND TILT INTO OR OUT OF FORM A FEW DEGREES

9 - 17

Core

LA's

When spheres float above a surface, the shadow plot uses the center point and Drip Line of the form on the ground and plotted using the GA's and LA's similar to before. The shadow on both the vertical and horizontal surfaces is an ellipse.

LA's

LA

GA

For any floating object you must know where the ground is. This is the only way to be able to use a GA.

GA's

DRIP LINE

Here the shadow is found on both surfaces and connected together by the LA's giving the location of the portion of the top shadow that overhangs the edge.

GA

9 - 18

SHADOW SOLUTION OF A BOX FORM ONTOFORM ONTO SHADOW SOLUTION OF A BOX A CONE

A CONE.

The shadows of the box and cone are first found on the ground. Several lines are added on the face of the cone adjacent to the box and their shadow determined by connecting them to the apex shadow point of the cone. LA's are then used to transfer the points where the two shadows cross to the surface of the cone on each of the lines added on the cone face.

9 - 19

CAST SHADOWS ONTO OTHER FORMS Many times the shadows are cast onto other forms. There are thousands of possible shadows. Here are just a few possibilities. They all use the "flagpole" process of finding a shadow of a point on a wall. Slanted surfaces require additional plotting to find the shadow direction up the plane. Use the diagonal vertical plane ABC of the pyramid to find the direction of movement up the slanted surface. As the GA hits this plane and goes vertical to the outer edge of the pyramid and returns to where it strikes the bottom, the direction up the side is found. LA shows where the point is located.

LA LA LA

A GA GA

Find the pyramid apex on ground first and then run a vertical at the wall and transfer to the LA. 9 - 20

GA Always find the shadow on the ground first. This helps determine which corners need to be found on the object.

MORE CAST SHADOWS ON FORMS For cylinders use a series of flagpoles around near edge and plot each point. The result is an elliptical shadow.

Take a GA to A the vertical plane of the inclined surface. Point B above connected to C gives the direction of the shadow. The LA shows how far up the incline the shadow is. B

LA

LA LA LA

GA

GA All shadows should be found on the ground first and then plotted onto a surface. Here the flagpole shows the back corner location. Just angle up the wall to that point and then to VPL.

9 - 21

SHADOWS OF FLOATING FORMS The shadow of a box "floating" above a surface can be found by using single GA's through the "Drip Line" corners with LA's pairs through points above. Otherwise the same rules apply.

LA

THIS END UP

LA

VROOM..... VROOM

LA

GA

LA LA

LA

LA LA

LA

LA

LA LA LA

GA

DRIP LINE GA

LA GA GA

GA

LA's LA GA GA

DRIP LINE

GA GA LA

B A

DRIP LINE

GA

When a bench is supported by a block, the shadow may strike this block as well. Start by finding the shadow on the ground and then find the shadow on the block by extending the end wall to the outside of the bench and use line AB to define the shadow if the pedestal were to be flush with the side. Once this is found the pedestal shadow angle is used to the edge of the block and then taken to VP along the side. A fourth GA is used to connect the shadow at the far end of the block. 9

Finding the shadow of a toy truck is not much different than the bench except the cylindrical wheels add curved forms under the truck. Refer to the cylinder end shadow plots or the standing penny to help do this.

- 22

MORE SHADOWS OF FLOATING FORMS The "floating" form below uses the same principle as the box for the ground shadow. The interior shadow cast by the underside of the front corner onto the inside surface is found by using a LA at the corner and by projecting the GA on the ground back to that plane surface and vertically up to the horizontal surface to show the path of the "GA" on that plane. GA's are only on the ground. The other horizontal planes must have a different angle. Another way is to take the GA to the HL and draw back to the wanted corner. This construction is developed from two separate drawings, one drawn using one VP the other using two VP's. It is important when doing this that both objects use the same Horizon Line. The first step is to find the Drip Line of the top box. This is found by using one of the points where both boxes cross. AB is such a line. Use VP lines through B and verticals at the corners to complete the Drip Line. Then use pairs of LA's and GA's to complete the shadow plot.

Not a GA

LA

LA

LA

Not a GA

GA

LA

VPL

GA

LA

VPL

LA GA DRIP LINE

A

VPR

LA LA GA

VPR VP1

VPL

GA

B

DRIP LINE GA

VPR

GA

9 - 23

CONVERGING LIGHT SHADOW A converging light shadow is used for existing light conditions most often within a room. Many variations of light sources are possible and each casts its own type of light. This means that the LAVP location is important to the overall effect.

LAVP

LAVP

GAVP

Converging Light shadows are cast by a light source that is close to the object. The shadow is spread out wider than the object and can be in any direction from the light. All Light Angles go to the LAVP and Ground Angles go to the GAVP. LA's are chosen points and GA's are directly beneath on the same surface as the shadow.

GAVP

9 - 24

CONVERGING LIGHT SHADOW OF INTERIOR SURFACES & FORMS When the light is within a room, it is best to think of the light as the center location of several light sources or possibly the point where light bounces off the ceiling from a table lamp below. Whatever the case, pick a point that will give a believable shadow from the light source being used. Any light source will have Convergence Points (CP) located at the same height and perpendicular to the LAVP at each of the four walls and the floor. The CP on the floor in this case is called the GAVP. CP's are used to find the angle of shadow down walls and partitions. Once set up, the shadow plot is easier.

CP

LAVP

CP(bookcase end)

CP

CP(back wall)

VP

CP (shelf)

GAVP

When shadows are cast by a known light source within a room, use converging light and ground angles. The light angles all go to the light source and the ground angles go to a point 9 -

on the ground beneath the light source or from the Convergence Point (CP). Lines from CP's are used just like Ground Angles on floors. 25

CP

CP

CP

LAVP

CP

VP HL

GAVP

CP CP LAVP

CP

VP

HL

GAVP

9 - 26

POSITIVE LIGHT SHADOW STEPS Shadows cast in front of forms can be done in all methods. Positive light method, however, gives a more realistic version as the shadow gets larger as it gets closer. This is not the case with Parallel Shadow plot.

1. Draw the form using any method. One Point Perspective was used here. 2. Pick a corner and decide where you want the shadow of that corner to be. 3. Place a dot at that location. 4. From the dot draw a line through the point below the corner and extend to the HL. This is the location of all the ground angles GAVP. 5. Draw a vertical line from the GAVP. 6. Draw a line from the dot through the chosen corner to where it intersects the vertical from GAVP. This is the LAVP where all LA's go to. This is the actual light source as in converging method except it represents a very distant light at the horizon such as sunlight. 7. Draw GA's and LA's through top and bottom corners to complete shadow.

LAVP

LAVP

VP

HL

VP

HL

GAVP

VP

HL

GAVP

9 - 27

Crackers

Crackers

Crackers

LAVP

POSITIVE LIGHT SHADOW INTO A ROOM Here we get into some really interesting shadow possibilities. Light streams into the room from what is obviously the sun. This offers a back light to objects along with a very striking shadow effect. Details outside around the outside are not necessary to the shadow plot and are not usually shown.

LA

LA

LA

GAVP

VP

GA GA

GA

9 - 28

POSITIVE LIGHT SHADOW INTO A ROOM Light streams into the room. This time, however, the GAVP is at the VP. The effect is a more direct light direction. The LA can be a shadow line in this position only. Even though in reality this is impossible, the effect is believable, i.e. to have LA a shadow line on a wall the light must be in some other location than in line with the wall.

LAVP

LA

LA

VP

GAVP

GA

GA

9 - 29

NEGATIVE LIGHT SHADOW STEPS Shadows of large forms need to be foreshortened to look right. This does not occur in the Parallel Method. Negative light shadow will give this illusion and the effect of sunlight casting a shadow behind the form.

VP HL

VP

1. Draw the form using any method, 2. Pick a single corner and decide where you want the shadow of that corner to be. 3. Place a dot at that location.

The LAVP is the opposite point from the actual light source. If you move this point, the light will move in the opposite direction. For example if the LAVP is lowered, it would have the effect of raising the light source. 9. Complete the shadow plot using the LAVP and GAVP much the same way as in Converging Light Shadow.

VP

HL

GAVP

VP

4. From the top corner draw a LA through that point. 5. Also draw a GA through the point from the corner beneath and extend to the HL. 6. This intersection is the Ground Angle

HL

GAVP

VP

HL

GAVP

VP

7. Draw a vertical line from the GAVP to where it crosses the LA. 8. This is the Light Angles Vanishing Point (LAVP) for the object.

LAVP

LAVP

9 - 30

NEGATIVE LIGHT SHADOW APPLICATION This method looks best when we can see the entire shadow under a form and loses its effect when our view is blocked. Once you get used to the idea that the LAVP is below the GAVP it becomes fairly easy. Negative Light Shadow can be used on any form. It does seem to give the most realistic shadow effect.

Ground shadow crossing points (at dots) can be transferred by LA to find the shadow cast on the form.

LA

HL

GAVP

Ground shadow crossing points (at dots) can be transferred by LA to find the shadow cast on the form.

GA

LAVP

9 - 31

NEGATIVE LIGHT SHADOWS FROM WINDOW WALL The GAVP is placed at the far right. This gives a rather sideways shadow effect across the floor and onto the wall. Works well to show exterior light coming into a room and illuminating certain details. The outlines and mullions need not show.

VP

GAVP

LAVP

9 - 32

WINDOW WALL NEGATIVE LIGHT SHADOWS INTO ROOM The GAVP is placed at on the wall and floor that a LA cannot be however, and can give the Vanishing Point. This gives a shadow and is again the exception to the rule a shadow. The effect is quite believable, an interior a terrific light effect.

VP

GAVP

LAVP

9 - 33

DESIGN

NGISED

VERTICAL & HORIZONTAL MIRRORS CONCAVE MIRRORS CONVEX MIRRORS

10 - 1

REFLECTION OF BOX FORMS INTO VERTICAL SURFACES Mirror image reflections are based on multiplications in perspective. When the object is touching the mirror or two mirrors are touching in a 90 degree corner, the reflections are found by taking a line from the top leading corner through the mid-point of the side that is touching the floor. This gives the multiplied depth of the second box or mirror at the floor, thus producing the foreshortened mirror image. Notice that when the object is parallel to the mirror, its reflection is in the same direction and shares the same vanishing points. There is no change of angle or direction. Below we have the same solution except two lines are used through a mid-point at the mirror. These give the location of the object reflection and also the reflection of the space between the object and the mirror.

VP

MID-POINT

MID-POINT

VP

MID-POINT @ MIRROR

VP

ALTERNATE SOLUTION Here is another way to find the same solution. There is not much advantage, but you might prefer using points outside the drawing. 10 - 2

METRO

TRUST

VP

MIDPOINT

ATM

MTA

HL

MID-POINTS

Mid-points again are used to find the reflections into a corner and along a partially mirrored wall. Shadows on the ground and objects reflect as well, but are not cast onto the mirror itself. Reflections overpower the cast shadow. 10 - 3

Any form can be multiplied into a reflecting surface using diagonals. In this case the horizontal surface of the plate is used. Sizes are found using VP's. Usually values and line weight is lighter in the reflection.

ALTERNATE METHOD: Use vertical Centerline to find distance to mirror and double.

10 - 4

VP1

HL

PARFUM

EQ.

EQ. EQ.

EQ.

EQUAL

EQUAL

EQ.

The construction uses distances that are doubled vertically on each object. Any point on a vertical line can be doubled using the point of ground contact.

10 - 5

Equal

Water Level

Equal vertical divisions are used here as well, but in the water reflection, the water level under the form is used instead of ground level. This is the distance to the mirror plane.

Equal

Equal

Water Level

Equal Equal

10 - 6

Equal

REFLECTION ON CURVED CONVEX MIRROR Any ground line that is taken from the center of the circle (mirror plane) to the HL and brought back to a point above will define the height of the reflection for any depth. This will give the corner points of a card placed in front of a convex mirror. As you would expect, the card appears larger in the mirror. Boxes and other forms require additional circular rings through all corner points. Find their positions using mid-points as discussed in 10-2..

HL

10 - 7

CONVEX MIRROR REFLECTION THEORY Following are two observations made using a standing cylinder as a convex mirror. HEIGHT is found observing a round circular disk. It reflects elliptically onto the surface where the edge of the disk passes behind the cylinder. This means that the reflection height of any ground point of an object can be found using a circle around the center of the cylinder and its reflection around the cylinder. DIRECTION is found observing

Find the squares reflection using circles through square side centers and corners. If off center, use a circle through each corner and use a line to cylinders center.

TOP VIEW

TOP VIEW

a series of circles and lines radiating out from center. Each straight line appears to curve slightly at first and then dramatically up the side of the cylinder.

TOP VIEW

Card reflection is found using circles through corners and lines from cylinders center to each card corner. Reflections appear to be pinched together and stretched vertically.

TOP VIEW

10 - 8

Standing card is similar to horizontal card except the second circle is drawn above the other. This gives the height location for the top edge of the card. Top and bottom curves around cylinder following the surface.

TOP VIEW

TOP VIEW

Follow the same techniques as the box except use only one point on the top..

TOP VIEW

The box uses both the horizontal and standing card techniques.

TOP VIEW

The pencil shows how circles around center gives different height locations on the cylinder. Ends up as an exaggerated curve upwards as it gets farther away.

10 - 9

HORIZONTAL CYLINDER REFLECTION Below is a rather simplified version of refections of a pole into a cylinder. Reflections of other forms can be found by taking lines from corners or centerlines perpendicular to the cylinders surface i.e. to the opposite VP. Draw ellipses around the cylinder at these points. Lines from details are then drawn to the centers of the corresponding ellipses to find the location and size of the reflection.

HORIZON LINE

REFLECTION OF HORIZON

ORTHOGRAPHIC VIEW

Several relationships are used here. They are based on the relationship of a Horizon to the cylinders surface. The horizon reflection is found to run around the center of the cylinder and can be traced around the form by using vertical lines at the edges of the ellipse at both ends. The horizon is located where this vertical is tangent to the ellipse. See points A, B & C. All reflections of objects on the ground plane relate to the horizon line on the form and are found near it.

REFLECTION OF POLE

PERPENDICULAR TO CYLINDER

10 - 10

REFLECTIONS INTO SPHERES Below is a simplified version of pole and ball refections into a sphere. The drawing on the following page shows shaded reflections on the basic forms. These have been somewhat simplified as well, but are intended to show locations of reflections and their different directions on each type of surface. The reflections can be seen as working perpendicular to or into all surfaces. Reflections should give a "see in" effect and appear to be into the surface and not on it.

HORIZON LINE

ORTHOGRAPHIC VIEW

Several predictable reflection locations can be found in and around the horizon line. This is the reflection of the earths horizon at infinity. The ellipse angle used is dependent on how far below the eye level the sphere is. The reflection of the viewer is always at dead center. The size of this shape and also how detailed it needs to be is dependent on the distance the viewer is from the sphere. This is somewhat arbitrary. You can make it any size you want. It is best to keep this somewhat non-descript and anyone viewing this drawing must imagine their own image in the reflection. So, keep it simple. Everything else is found by taking lines to the center of the sphere.

BALL REFLECTION

SHADOW REFLECTION

10 - 11

OPHEIM

'92

10 - 12

VERTICAL & HORIZONTAL ROTATIONS 45 ROTATION 90 ROTATION

A B BA B A BA BA

C

C

11 - 1

A

This rotation is based on sound principles although the final view leaves a little to be desired. The cube has some distortion, but when multiplied into other proportions, it looks OK.

SIDE VIEW

More Stuff

1. Construct a cube using any method. 2. Find and extend diagonal lines to their respective vanishing points located above and below the VPL. 3. Construct a circle on that side.

VPL

R

VPR

4. Draw tangent lines to the circle to where they cross - forming the rotated side. 5. Pick points A & R where both cubes cross the same point. 6. Complete by drawing lines through R

11 - 2

MULTIPLICATION OF A ROTATED CUBE The multiplication is the same as one which is on the vertical plane. This allows for any proportion to be found. Here the cube was multiplied to a 3 wide x 2 high x 1 deep box. The letter was first constructed in orthographic (usually found that way in type books) and enlarged using a grid similar to the multiplied box. You can use as many grid lines as you want. Find the shape on the front side and then again on the back edges. A back grid can be used or, as in this case, projections are made from key points on the front to the back using the box edge.

VPL

VPR

11 - 3

MEASURING METHOD FOR ROTATED FORMS IN ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE We're going to get a little heavy here with some rather fancy layouts for measuring a rotated form. This looks a bit complicated, but given a chance it will prove to be a great way to lay out a system on paper that can be reused as often as you want. Do these steps: 1. Draw a HL and pick a CV where you want to see the object from. 2. Pick a SP at your distance from CV and also pick an angle of incline for the object and draw that line to a point above CV to find the Rotation VP. 3. Draw a line 90 from this line to a point below the CV to find the Heights VP. 4. With Heights VP as center draw an arc from SP to a horizontal position at Heights MP. 5. Find the Rotation MP by using the Rotation VP as center and drawing an arc from SP to a horizontal position. 6. Draw an HML at desired eye level. 7. Following the diagram, measure the length, width and height of the object. Continue the drawing as usual adding details, etc..

ROTATION VP ROTATION MP

CV

HL 90 90

SP

HML

LENGTH WIDTH

HEIGHT

HEIGHTS VP

HEIGHTS MP

11 - 4

MEASURING METHOD FOR ROTATED FORMS IN TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE Here again it is pretty much the same bailiwick. This time there are of course two vanishing points involved which means more plotting, but not much harder than in One-point. Do these steps: 1. Draw a HL with both VPL and VPR. 2. Establish a Standard Measuring System of any type discussed in Chapter 3. The Measuring System Circle was used here, but predictions of MP locations will work just as well. 3. From MPL draw a line at the desired rotation angle to a point above VPL. This is the Rotation Vanishing Point. 4. Using that point as a center, draw an arc up to a point horizontal to the Rotation VP from the MPL. This is the Rotation MP. 5. With a line 90 from the chosen rotation angle at MPL draw a line to a point below VPL to find the Heights VP. 6. Using that line as a radius find a point horizontal from Heights VP to reach Heights MP. 7. Following the diagram, measure the length, width and height of the object. Continue the drawing as usual adding details, etc..

ANY ROTATION ANGLE

ROTATION VP

ROTATION MP

VPL

HL

MPR

MPL

VPR

90 90

HML

DEPTH

WIDTH & HEIGHT

HEIGHTS VP

HEIGHTS MP

11 - 5

VPL VPL

HL

HL

VPR

90 90

First construct a shape on its side by using any of the conventional methods. Then rotate . . . Systems usually demand our perception of objects to be tied to this horizontal line of sight concept. One way to break away from this monotonous point of view is to take a standard construction and rotate it through a 90 degree rotation. The result is quite a surprise. We are given a view of a form that appears to be rotated into our horizontal line of sight - giving us a look into the top surface. This is very useful when seeing into the top of the form is important, The rotation can be used with any subject matter or object. You can see how different this box looks after it is rotated. Once the construction lines are erased, it is very difficult to tell now the object was drawn. 11 - 6

VPL VPL

HL HL

As details are added the drawing becomes more believable and gives an interesting interpretation of an area that defines space. One can imagine moving about within that space. The difference here is taking out a ceiling instead of taking out a leading wall. Actually there is not much difference in concept when looked at from that point of view.

11 - 7

1 POINT VIEW DRAWN IN A ROTATED POSITION Objects that are drawn in an unexpected way can attract more attention and make interesting drawings out of uninteresting subject matter. This was accomplished by drawing the interior as it would appear with the ceiling removed and the point of view from above looking straight down from a point directly above the Vanishing Point 1. This is not difficult as the only difference is the trading of dimensions. All height dimensions become depth and the length or width is drawn as the height. The view can be changed dramatically by moving the VP1. It can even be outside the view giving a look at one of the outside walls making it similar to the 2-point version on the previous page. Once drawn, you can rotate this drawing in any direction and it will communicate. This is not true of any other drawing. This can be an advantage in layout as the drawing can be used vertically or horizontally.

VP1

11 - 8

ROTATION OF CUBES ON HORIZONTAL VERTICAL AXIS ROTATION OF CUBES ON HORIZONTAL &&VERTICAL AXIS HL

A

B

A

B

A

A

B

A

B

B

A

B

A

B

A

Above Measuring System drawings show views that are drawn in different locations between the VP's. They are all parallel to each other as they share the same Vanishing Points. In the second row we see the same blocks, but they have been moved to different positions. This means they no longer share the same Vanishing Points but do share the same Horizon. They appear to have been rotated along a vertical axis. The third row shows the same blocks with a slight horizontal rotation. They are traced in this position giving an impression of floating blocks with tilted horizons.

B

A

A

B

A

B

B

A

11 - 9

AFT

THREE-POINT PERSPECTIVE

CIRCLE METHOD RANDOM CHOICE METHOD CORRECTION METHOD PROS & CONS

AFT

12 - 1

OPHEIM

'92

THREE-POINT PERSPECTIVE CONVENTIONAL CONSTRUCTION This variation of the measuring system uses an HML at the top corner of the view at point-X. Lines are taken from both Vanishing Points through X to locate Y & Z on the Field of Vision Circle. Lines through Y & Z from their respective Vanishing Points intersect at VP3. Measure the same as usual and use VP3 instead of verticals. This gives the illusion of seeing a slight foreshortening in the vertical direction as we see them.

VPL

VPL

MPR

MPL

CV

VPR

HML

Y

VML

MPR

MPL

CV

VPR

HML

Y

VML

VP3

There is a problem of overdoing this phenomenon. The third vanishing point is actually at the center of the earth. This would take a very large sheet of paper. The only time we could see it is when we are looking downward at a steep angle. It is therefore much better to get the VP3 as far away from the view as possible. 12 - 2

TRIANGULAR METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION Using a triangle is a more arbitrary method to find VP3, but will usually give less distortion in the vertical direction as the conventional method often does - especially when the view is large within the circle. Here all three VP's are chosen as 3 points of a triangle. VP3 is located as far away as possible (depending on how large your work surface is and length of straight edges) and on a vertical line from the Center of Vision. This can be anywhere between the VPL The CV (Center of Vision) and VPR. It is usually best to have the CV is at Mid-point here. It somewhere center of the view. can be moved left or right.

VP1 MID-POINT C.V.

VP1 C.V. VP2

VP2

VP3

TO VP3

12 - 3

THREE-POINT EFFECT FROM CONSTRUCTION This method works well for any object. The idea is to draw it as usual and work with the base to make it smaller. The diagonal on the box, if drawn from opposite corners will make the bottom smaller and also slightly foreshortened. Just draw the diagonals and pick a point just inside the edge. Draw that around using the VP's. The Cylinder is done the same way using a smaller ellipse size on the bottom. This method allows for more control than the others and the best part - it doesn't need the third VP. Just be careful not to overdo the effect. Remember that VP3 is at the center of the earth.

BOX CONSTRUCTION

CYLINDER CONSTRUCTION

12 - 4

A ANGLED WALLS - ONE POINT AXONOMETRIC DRAWINGS B BANK FRONT REFLECTIONS BASE LINES BASE LINES BENCH SHADOW BOWLING BALL BOX FLOATING SHADOW BOX FORM ROTATION BOX REFLECTIONS BOX SHADOW ONTO WALL BOX WITH FLAPS SHADOWS C CAR SHADOW CIRCLE CONSTRUCTION USING ELLIPSE GUIDES CIRCLE DIVISION CIRCLES IN PERSPECTIVE CONE CONE OF VISION CONE OF VISION METHOD - ONE POINT CONTOUR DRAWING CONVERGENCE POINT DEFINED CONVERGING LIGHT SHADOW CONVERGING SHADOW DEFINED CONVEX MIRROR REFECTIONS THEORY CONVEX MIRROR REFLECTIONS CORE DRIP LINE CORE SHADOW CUBE CONSTRUCTION - TWO POINT CUBE ROTATION CYLINDER CONSTRUCTION EXAMPLES CYLINDER CONSTRUCTION CYLINDER CONSTRUCTION - CAMERA CYLINDER CONSTRUCTION - CONTOURED CYLINDER DIVISION

4 1 10 3 3 9 8 9 11 10 9 9 9 7 8 7 1 1 4 3 9 9 9 10 10 9 9 5 11 8 8 8 8 8

8 3 3 9 15-16 22-23 13 22-23 6-7 2 21 9 22-23 5-6 8 2 3 7 4 18 25-26 24-26 1 8-9 7 16 16 2 2 4 2 6-7 10 11

CYLINDER REFLECTIONS OF OBJECTS CYLINDER ROTATION CYLINDER SHADOWS CYLINDERS - CONSTRUCTION WITH GUIDES D DEFINITION OF PERSPECTIVE DIAGONAL METHOD - ONE POINT DIAGONAL MULTIPLICATION DIAGONAL VANISHING POINT DIRECTION OF SHADOW DISTORTION DIVIDING SHAPES DRIP LINE E ELEVATION MEASUREMENTS ELEVATION OBLIQUE DRAWINGS ELEVATION OF LIGHT ELEVATION VIEW ELLIPSE ALIGNMENT ELLIPSE ALIGNMENT RIGHT & WRONG ELLIPSE ANGLE LOCATIONS ON SPHERE ELLIPSE ANGLE MEASUREMENT ELLIPSE CONSTRUCTION ELLIPSE DEFINED ELLIPSE GUIDES ELLIPSE RELATIONSHIP - VERTICAL PLANE ELLIPSE RELATIONSHIP - HORIZONTAL PLANE ELLIPSE SIZE MEASUREMENT ELLIPSE TEMPLATES ELLIPSES IN PERSPECTIVE - 12 PT. METHOD ELLIPSES IN PERSPECTIVE - 8 PT. METHOD ENLARGEMENT OF VIEWS EYE LEVEL EYE LEVEL EYE LEVEL

10 8 9 8 1 4 5 5 9 1 5 9 3 1 9 2 7 7 8 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 5 1 1 5

F FIELD OF VISION FIGURE DRAWING TECHNIQUE FLAGPOLE RULE FLAGPOLE RULE AT WORK FLAGPOLE RULE IN ACTION FLAPS - HORIZONTAL HINGE FLAPS - VERTICAL HINGE FLASHLIGHT FLOOR GRID METHOD FORESHORTENING 1 5 9 9 9 3 3 8 4 1 7, 9 17 5 7 20-21 11 12 13 5 2 14 13 4 2 24 27 30-33 3-44 12 2 9 4-5 4-6 6 7 11 2, 4 10 5 1

G GRID - ONE POINT WITH VERTICAL MEASURING 5 GRID - TWO POINT WITH VERTICAL MEASURING 5 GROUND ANGLE 9 GROUND ANGLE DEFINED 9 GROUND ANGLE VANISHING POINT 9 GROUND ANGLE VANISHING POINT 9 GROUND ANGLE VANISHING POINT 9 GROUND LINE 2 H HIGHLIGHTS OF BASIC FORMS HORIZON HORIZON HORIZON LINE HORIZON LINE HORIZONTAL DIVISIONS HORIZONTAL MEASURING LINE LOCATIONS HORIZONTAL PLANE DEVELOPMENT I INFINITY INTERIOR GRID - TWO POINT INTRODUCTION ISOMETRIC DRAWINGS 1 5 1 1 10 1 1 1 2 5 3 5

L LARGE SCALE DESIGN DRAWINGS LAYOUT TABLET LETTER FORM ROTATION LIGHT ANGLE LIGHT ANGLE - NEVER SHADOWS LIGHT ANGLE DEFINED LIGHT ANGLE VANISHING POINT LIGHT ANGLE VANISHING POINT LIGHT ANGLE VANISHING POINT LIGHT LOCATION & SOURSE LIGHT SOURCE DETERMINATION M MAJOR AXIS MEASURING - INSIDE BASE LINES MEASURING - OUTSIDE BASE LINES MEASURING INSIDE BASE LINES MEASURING PLANE ARCHITECTURAL INTERIOR MEASURING PLANE GRID MEASURING PLANE GRID MEASURING PLANE PERSPECTIVE DEFINED MEASURING PLANE PERSPECTIVE STEPS MEASURING PLANE PRODUCT APPLICATION MEASURING POINT - CONVENTIONAL METHOD MEASURING POINT - ONE POINT MEASURING POINTS - PREDICTION MEASURING SYSTEM - CONST. OF CUBES MEASURING SYSTEM - EXTENDED MEASURING SYSTEM - HOW TO USE MEASURING SYSTEM - LAYOUT TABLET MEASURING SYSTEM - MOLDED FORMS MEASURING SYSTEM - ONE POINT METHOD MEASURING SYSTEM - ROTATED FORMS MEASURING SYSTEM - SELECTION MEASURING SYSTEM - SHORT CUT MEASURING SYSTEM - TWO POINT MEASURING SYSTEM - TWO POINT STEPS

4 3 11 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 7 3 3 3 6 6 6 6 6 6 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 11 3 3 3 3

MINOR AXIS MINOR AXIS ALIGNMENT MIRROR REFLECTIONS MODULAR PERSPECTIVE MULTI-VIEW DRAWINGS MULTIPLICATION OF CUBES MULTIPLICATION OF HORIZONTAL SURFACES MULTIPLICATION OF ROTATED CUBE MULTIPLICATION OF VERTICAL SURFACES N NEGATIVE LIGHT SHADOW DEFINED NEGATIVE LIGHT SHADOW FROM WINDOW O OBJECT OBJECT OBJECT OBJECT OBJECT OBSERVER OBSERVER ONE & TWO POINT PERSPECTIVE COMBINATION ONE POINT PERSPECTIVE ONE POINT PERSPECTIVE - DEFINITION ONE POINT PERSPECTIVE - DISTORTION ONE POINT PERSPECTIVE - FLOOR GRID ONE POINT PERSPECTIVE - MEASURING POINT ONE POINT PERSPECTIVE - OFFICE INTERIOR ONE POINT PERSPECTIVE - SHORT CUTS ONE POINT PERSPECTIVE - SHORT CUTS ONE POINT PERSPTECTIVE - LARGE SCALE ONE POINT PERSPTECTIVE - SMALL OBJECTS ONE POINT RELATIONSHIP ORTHOGRAPHIC DRAWINGS ORTHOGRAPHIC VIEW MULTIPLIED ORTHOGRAPHIC VIEWS ORTHOGRAPHIC VIEWS

7 8 10 5 1 5 5 11 5 9 9 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 1 5 2 3

P PARALLEL METHOD PARALLEL SHADOW DEFINED PERIPHERAL VISION LINE PERSPECTIVE DEFINED PERSPECTIVE VIEWS MULTIPLIED PICTURE PLANE PICTURE PLANE PICTURE PLANE PICTURE PLANE PICTURE PLANE PICTURE PLANE PINWHEEL CONSTRUCTION PLAN OBLIQUE DRAWINGS PLAN VIEW PLAN VIEW PLAN VIEW PLAN/ELEVATION LIMITATIONS PLAN/ELEVATION METHOD PLAN/ELEVATION METHOD TWO POINT PLAN/ELEVATION METHOD/ONE POINT POSITIVE LIGHT SHADOW DEFINED POSITIVE LIGHT SHADOW INTO ROOM POSITIVE LIGHT SHADOW STEPS PROJECTIONS PROTRACTOR MEASUREMENTS PROTRACTOR MEASUREMENTS PYRAMID SHADOW Q QUADRANTS R RADIATION POINT RECTANGLE ENLARGEMENT & REDUCTION REDUCTION OF VIEWS REFLECTION OF BOX FORMS REFLECTIONS IN BANK FRONT REFLECTIONS INTO SPHERES

9 9 1 1 5 1 1 1 2 2 2 8 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 9 9 9 1 7 7 9 7 5 5 5 10 10 10

R REFLECTIONS OF FORMS INTO MIRRORS REFLECTIONS OF OBJECTS INTO POOL REFLECTIONS ON BASIC FORM SURFACES REFLECTIONS ON CURVED CONVEX MIRROR REFLECTIONS ON HORIZONTAL CYLINDER ROAD CONSTRUCTION ROTATED VIEW OF ROOM ROTATION ROTATION OF BOX FORMS - 90 ROTATION OF CUBE - HORIZONTAL AXIS ROTATION OF CUBE MULTIPLIED ROTATION OF CUBES ON HORIZONTAL AXIS ROTATION OF CUBES ON VERTICAL AXIS ROTATION OF LETTER FORM ROTATIONS TILTED S SCALE SHADOW SHADOW SHADOW SHADOW SHADOW SHADOW SHADOW SHADOW SHADOW SHADOW SHADOW SHADOW SHADOW SHADOW SHADOW SHADOW SHADOW SHADOW SHADOW SHADOW SHADOW ANGLED LINE RULE BOX FORM ONTO CONE SHAPE BOX FORM ONTO PYRAMID BOX ONTO WALL BOX WITH FLAPS CONVERGING LIGHT CYLINDRICAL OBJECTS CYLINDRICAL OBJECTS EIGHT BALL OVER EDGE FLAG POLE RULE FLOATING FORMS FLOATING SPHERE HORIZONTAL CYLINDERS HORIZONTAL LINE RULE INCLINED PLANE ONTO CYLINDER INSIDE HORIZONTAL CYLINDER MATCH ONTO INCLINED PLANE NEGATIVE LIGHT SHADOW NEGATIVE LIGHT OF TABLE NEGATIVE LIGHT STEPS PARALLEL SHORT CUT

10 10 10 10 10 3 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 1 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9

SHADOW - POSITIVE LIGHT INTO ROOM SHADOW - POSITIVE LIGHT STEPS SHADOW - PYRAMID SHADOW - PYRAMID ONTO WALL SHADOW - SPHERE CONSTRUCTION SHADOW - SPHERE ON WALL & FLOOR SHADOW - SPHERE SHORT CUT SHADOW - STANDING CYLINDERS SHADOW - VERTICAL LINE RULE SHADOW - WALL OF EDGE OF PLATFORM SHADOW - WALL VARIATIONS SHADOW OF BIX FORMS -EXTERIOR SHADOW OF BOX FORMS - INTERIOR SHADOW OF HORIZONTAL PLANES SHADOW OF VERTICAL PLANES SHADOW PLOTS - DOORWAYS & WINDOWS SHADOW PLOTTING BASICS SHADOW SOLUTIONS - MULTIPLE OF BOX SHADOW TYPES SHADOWS SHADOWS OF VERTICAL PLANES SPHERE STUDIES SIGHT POINT SIGHT POINT SINGLE VIEW DRAWINGS SMALL OBJECT SKETCHES - ONE POINT SPHERE CONSTRUCTIONS SPHERE DRAWN TO SCALE SPHERE DRAWN TO SCALE - SHORT CUT SPHERE REFLECTIONS SPHERE SHADOW ON WALL & FLOOR SPHERE SHADOW SHORT CUT SPHERE SHADOW WHEN FLOATING SPHERE SHADOWS SPHERE TOUCH POINT SPIRAL STAIRCASE SQUARE DEPTH METHOD - ONE POINT SQUARE TO CUBE METHOD

9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 8 2 2 1 4 8 8 8 10 9 9 9 9 9 8 4 5

28-29 27 9 20 16 18 17 10 3 20 7 5 4 4 4 8 2 6 1 1-33 3 11 9 5 3 9 12 14 15 11 18 17 18 16 16 9 4 11

SQUARE TO CUBE PERSPECTIVE - STEPS SQUARE TO CUBE PERSPECTIVE METHODS T TENNIS BALL CONSTRUCTION TERMINATOR THREE-POINT EFFECT FROM CONSTRUCTION THREE-POINT PERSPECTIVE THREE-POINT PERSPECTIVE CONVENTIONAL THREE-POINT - TRIANGULAR METHOD TOUCH POINT OF SPHERE TRACE TEMPLATES TRACING GRIDS TRIANGULAR METHOD TRIMETRIC DRAWINGS TRUE LENGTH TRUE LENGTH LINE TWO POINT RELATIONSHI TWO-POINT CENTER CONSTRUCTION TWO-POINT LEFT CONSTRUCTION TWO-POINT RIGHT CONSTRUCTION V VANISHING POINT VANISHING POINT VANISHING POINT LOCATION CONTROL VANISHING POINT, SINGLE VANISHING POINTS VERTICAL DIVISIONS VIEW ABOVE HORIZON VIEW BELOW HORIZON VISUAL SHIFT W WAGON WHEEL CONSTRUCTION Y YARDSTICK PERSPECTIVE

5 5 8 9 12 12 12 12 9 7 5 12 1 1 2 1 3 3 3 1 2 2 2 2 5 2 2 3 8 3

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