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periex

27/7/2006

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periex

27/7/2006

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... / / 2.2.1 / 2.2.1.:




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75% 25% .

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1.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10
12
15

2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.1 % w/w . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.2 % w/v . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.3 %v/v . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.10-2.11
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3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4

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4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

54
56


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60

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E 1

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1.1.

1. :

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. ()
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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

2. :
. ......................................................................................................................................
. ......................................................................................................................................
. ......................................................................................................................................
3. :

.

, (). , .
:
;
;
;..
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4. .
:

kef1

13/7/2006

04:08

5. .
:
()

( )

..
..
..

1.
2.
3.

6. . ( ,
), ( C ),
, ( , ) .
5
.

.
1. ......................................................................................................................................
2. ......................................................................................................................................
3. ......................................................................................................................................
4. ......................................................................................................................................
5. ......................................................................................................................................
: .
. , . , 1992.

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10

1.2.

1.
:
. , ,
.
. .
. .
. .
.
. .
2. :
39 C
357 C. , ..............................
39 C .............................. 357
C . 39
357 C
3. :

10

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11


4.
:

(C)
( 1 atm)

218

117

113

801

(C)
25 C
183
78
100
445
1413

i. , 25 C 50 C, ;
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
ii. 25 C , ;
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5.
:

6. ,
, , .
.
. .
;
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11

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12

1
7. , , . ,
, .

. 30 7 .
. :

.
3 min;
......................................................................................................................................
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. ;
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, ,
.
, ,
. :
(min)
C

0
20

40

1
60

1
80

2
100

4
100

6
100

. ( )
.
. 3 min;
......................................................................................................................................
.
.
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12

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13

1.3.

1. , , , , , , , g/cm3.

2.
;
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
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..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
3. / (http://www.amnh.org/exhibitions/diamonds/) :
. ;
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......................................................................................................................................
. ;
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......................................................................................................................................

13

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14

1
4. :
. : ............................................................................................
. : ....................................................................
. : ..................................................................................................
. : ..........................................................
. : ....................................................

m
V
m = V
=

V=

:
(, , ),

. .

5. 5 cm3 13,5 g.
;
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
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..........................................................................................................................................
6. 13,6 g/cm3. 200 cm3 ;
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7. :
. ......................................................................................................................
. ......................................................................................................................
. ................................................................................................................
. ..............................................................................................................
. ..................................................................................................................

14

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15

E 2

15

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2.1.

1. , .
..........................................................................................................................................
2. ,
, 180 L () .
, , :
70
40
35
15
12
5
3
.
. , 2 ( ).

.
;
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3. :










L *
150
300
600
22.000
1.000
250
2.500
8.500
380.000

*
. :

, .

.
;
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. ;
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4. :

. "
",
,
, "
, 85
...
, 4-9-1997
, ( ),
;
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2
. 5.
.

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6.

180 L
2. .
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2.2.
2.2.1 2.2.2


1. , .


.

_ _ _ _ _ _ : ....................................................................................................
2. .
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:

3. .
, , . - (.. ). :

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2
.
(.. ),
.
.
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4.
. ;
; :
http://www.epa.gov/glnpo/glindicators/water/oxygenb.html
http://www.waterontheweb.org/under/streamecology/gases.html

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2.3.
2.3.1. % w/w


1. : 15% w/w;
..........................................................................................................................................
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2. 200 g 10%
w/w, :
. 20 g 200 g , . 10 g 190 g , . 20 g
180 g ;
3. .
. .
100 g

3,2 g

3,3 g

4,7 g

4,8 g

3,5 g

0g

120 mg

124 mg

4.
225 g.
,
,
.

100 g

451 kcal
75 g
8,5 g
13 g

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2
5.
. % w/w
, 1.000 kg 10 g ;
..........................................................................................................................................
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6. 40% w/w.
. 25 g ;
. % w/w 25 g ,
200 g;
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7. 100 g 5% w/w.
, 50 g
. % w/w ;
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2.3.2. % w/v


1. 20% w/v
. 330 mL
;
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22

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2. : 250 mL. : ( ), 4% w/v. 100 mL
. :
. g
;
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. % w/v
;
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3. 100 mL 40% w/v
400 mL.
% w/w ;
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4. 4% w/v.
(150 mL) ,
300 mL. % w/v ;
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5. (250 mL) 5 . 5 g , 23

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2
% w/v ; (
.)
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2.3.3. % v/v


1. 20 L 15,8 L . % v/v
;
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2. , 12% vol, (120 mL).
(330 mL)
5% vol. ;
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3. 20% v/v 80% v/v . L
L ;
:
0,5 L,
15 .
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24

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4. 400 L .
12% vol.
,
500 L. % v/v
.
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5. .
:
,
,
.
.
.
. % v/v ,
( ).
.
.

()


(% v/v)

(mL)


(mL)

6. .

.
.
.
( ).
. .
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25

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2
. .
, 2.10
.
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. ;
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2.4.

1. :

1975,

(UNEP),

.

(Med Po), . . , 17 18
, ,
. ,
, , , ,
, , ,
, , , ,
,
, ,
.
1985.



.....


(, , ),

,

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......
,

(, ) .

8
: , ,
, , ,
.

. ( )
;
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.
;
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2.5.

1. ,

-.


.

, , ,
, ,
, ,
,

..........................................................................................................................................
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..........................................................................................................................................
2.
, , :

, , ,
;
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..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
3. : )
) .
.

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28

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4. . . , .
:

. , ;
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. ;
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2.6.

1. 135 g ,
;
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
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..........................................................................................................................................
2.
:
3
=

2

(g) (g) , 500 ;


..........................................................................................................................................
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3. 70% w/w .
80 kg,
;
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
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..........................................................................................................................................
4. :

.. (C)

-252

1.413

2.970

100

-85

445

357

.. (C)

-259

801

1.060

-115

113

-39

2,17

19,3

0,.0010045

2,1

13,6

(g/mL) 0,000083

30

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i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
vii.
viii.
ix.

: ) )
..
: ) )
.
: ) ) ..

: ) ) .
: ) ) ..
: ) , ) )
.
: )
) .
: )
) .
.

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5. :

31

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2
6. :

1 .

Hofmann, .

32

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2.7.

1.
. ;
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
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2. , ,
. .
, .
.
.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
3. ,
, .
30,9 g
. ,

19,9 g. ( g)
;
..........................................................................................................................................
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4. 2,4 g , 4 g .
.
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2.8.

1.
.
. ..,
.
.
.
.
. .

............................................................
............................................................
............................................................
............................................................
............................................................
............................................................

2. :


() ().
. 2 .
. 3 .
. .
. .
. .
3. ,
, .
:

34

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:
.
;
......................................................................................................................................
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. ;
......................................................................................................................................
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. .
.
;
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......................................................................................................................................

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2.9.

1. ;
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
2. : . ;
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
3. :

12

24

14

+2

-3

4. () ();
.
. .
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. .
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. .
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36

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. .
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. .
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. .
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5. ion. ;
, .
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2.10. 2.11.


1. ,
, . ,

: 1 , - .
:
35

17 Cl ............... ...................
...... , ............. ......... .
2. ,
1.

: , .

.....................

.......................

......................

3. () ():
.
. ....................

38

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39


.
. ....................
. ,
. ....................
. Ca2+O2-
. ....................
4. (2) (2)
2.
: )
) .
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................

5.
Sir Anthony HOPKINS.
;
..........................................................................................................................................
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..........................................................................................................................................

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40

kef3

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41

E 3

41

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42

3.1.

1. () ():
. . ....................
.
. ....................
. , ,
. ....................
. . ....................
2. 1
2, ,
.

. ;
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
3.
.
.
:
()
.
20,3% v/v, 19,4% v/v.
.
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..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
4. . ,
,

42

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43


( 80%),
(10%), .
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43

kef3

27/7/2006

03:03

44

3.2.

1. , , , ;
. 22 + 2 2H2O
. CH4 + 2O2 CO2 + 2H2O
. S + 2 SO2
2. :
22 + 2 ...
CH4 + 2O2 .. +
S + O2 ...
2Mg + O2 ...
4Fe + 3O2 ...
3. .
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4.
.
. 2Mg + O2 2MgO
, .
. CH4 + 2O2 CO2 + 2H2O
, .
5. :
. C + O2 CO2
C

44

O2

CO2

kef3

27/7/2006

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45

. S + O2 SO2
S

O2

SO2

O2

22

. 22 + 2 22
22

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45

kef3

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03:03

46

3.3.

1. ,
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46

kef3

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47


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47

kef3

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48

3.4.

1. .
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.
: -

48

kef3

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49

. (SSO2); (Y .)
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.)
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49

kef3

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50

. ()
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50

kef4

13/7/2006

04:16

51

E 4

51

kef4

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04:16

52

4.1.

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52

kef4

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53


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53

kef4

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04:16

54

4.2.

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54

kef4

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55


(, , )
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55

kef4

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04:16

56

Fila ergasias

26/7/2006

10:29

57

57

Fila ergasias

26/7/2006

10:29

58

1 :
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58

Fila ergasias

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10:29

59

1 :
2:
:

1.
:


m1 (g)


V (mL)



m2 (g)


m=m2-m1 (g)


=m/V (g/mL)

2.
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V (cm3)


V=V-V


m (g)


=m/V

3. .
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59

Fila ergasias

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10:29

60

2 :
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60

Fila ergasias

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10:29

61

2 :
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1. .

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
2. , , , , ,
:

61

Fila ergasias

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10:29

62

3 :
1:
(% w/w)
2:
(% w/v)
3:
(% w/v)
:

1. :
250 mL 4% w/v,
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62

Fila ergasias

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10:29

63

4 :
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63

Fila ergasias

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10:29

64

5 :

:
1. :
C

2. :
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....................
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C. 78 C,
;
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64

Fila ergasias

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10:29

65

6 :
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65

Fila ergasias

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10:29

66

7 :

:
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66

Fila ergasias

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67

8 :

:
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67

Fila ergasias

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68

9 :

1. .
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68

Fila ergasias

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10:29

69

Fila ergasias

26/7/2006

10:29

70

,

. ,
.

7
1129 15/21 1946 ( 1946, 108, ).

, (copyright), .